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  1. Bay Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminexInformationArkansas: Energy Resources Jump to:Biodiesel LLC

  2. Galveston Bay Biodiesel LP GBB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, searchGalva,

  3. Biodiesel Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends and specifications. It also covers how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance (including in cold weather) and whether there are adverse effects on engines or other systems. Finally, it discusses biodiesel fuel quality and standards, and compares biodiesel emissions to those of diesel fuel.

  4. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  5. Algae Biodiesel: Commercialization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Center conservation and biomonitoring · Algae biodiesel is largest CEHMM project #12;Project Overview: The Missing replace petroleum #12;Project Overview: Local Resources for Algae Biodiesel Project Overview: Local

  6. Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends Quality Assessment of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends The results of a quality survey of B20 fuel in the United States were...

  7. Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lykidis, Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    prospecting for microbial biodiesel production AthanasiosAC02-06NA25396. Abstract Biodiesel is defined as fatty acidfor the competitive production of biodiesel. 1. Introduction

  8. Biodiesel R&D at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.; Alleman, T.; Barnitt, R.; Clark, W.; Hayes, B.; Ireland, J.; Proc, K.; Ratcliff, M.; Thornton, M.; Whitacre, S.; Williams, A.

    2006-02-06

    Discusses NREL's biodiesel research priorities and some current research results, including those concerning biodiesel quality and stability.

  9. Biodiesel_Fuel_Management_Best_Practices_Report.pdf | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf BiodieselFuelManagemen...

  10. Pacific Biodiesel: Renewable and Sustainable

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Pacific Biodiesel topic and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  11. Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel for diesel engines is produced from vegetable oil or animal fat by the chemical process of esterification. This paper presents a brief history of diesel engine technology and an overview of biodiesel, including performance characteristics, economics, and potential demand. The performance and economics of biodiesel are compared with those of petroleum diesel.

  12. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrill Chang; Deanna Carveth

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to ���¢��������grow���¢������� this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  13. Biodiesel Industries Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Barbara, California Zip: 93110 Product: Biodiesel producer and facility developer. References: Biodiesel Industries Inc1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

  14. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet), Vehicle Technologies Program ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program (VTP) Fact sheet providing questions and answers on the use of biodiesel as an alternative vehicle fuel. 47504.pdf More Documents & Publications BiodieselFuelManagemen...

  15. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  16. Biodiesel ASTM Update and Future Technical Needs | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel ASTM Update and Future Technical Needs Biodiesel ASTM Update and Future Technical Needs Latest ASTM fuel specifications on biodiesel blends are summarized as well as...

  17. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO), 19992,Biodiesel production

  18. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO), 19992,Biodiesel

  19. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO), 19992,BiodieselU.S. Inputs to

  20. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO), 19992,BiodieselU.S. Inputs

  1. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO), 19992,BiodieselU.S.

  2. Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Alleman, T. L.; Waynick, J. A.; Westbrook, S. R.; Porter, S.

    2006-04-01

    This is an interim report for a study of biodiesel oxidative stability. It describes characterization and accelerated stability test results for 19 B100 samples and six diesel fuels.

  3. Biodiesel Safety and Best Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    such as waste vegetable oil, yellow grease, animal fats, and virgin vegetable oils. Small-scale biodiesel........................................................................... 1 FuelOptionsfromBiomassOilFeedstocks ......................... 1 UsingCommitment ......................................................... 5 Messiness ......................................................................... 5 Chemical,Waste

  4. Global Biodiesel Market Trends,Global Biodiesel Market Trends, Outlook and OpportunitiesOutlook and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Biodiesel Market Trends,Global Biodiesel Market Trends, Outlook and OpportunitiesPresident, Emerging Markets Online http://www.emerginghttp://www.emerging--markets.commarkets.com Author, Biodiesel 2020: A Global Market SurveyAuthor, Biodiesel 2020: A Global Market Survey Columnist

  5. Biodiesel is Working Hard in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of biodiesel fuel in 6 school districts throughout Kentucky. It contains usage information for each school district, as well as contact information for local Clean Cities Coordinators and Biodiesel suppliers.

  6. Characterization of Biodiesel Oxidation and Oxidation Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-08-01

    Features a literature review of 130 technical references pertaining to fatty oil and fatty ester stability chemistry in biodiesel fuels.

  7. The Biofuel Project: Creating Bio-diesel

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    This activity introduces students to alternative fuels and gives them an opportunity to produce their own biodiesel fuel. The text of the exercise gives students a brief background in the environmental benefits of using biodiesel as a diesel substitute. The lab portion of this exercise demonstrates the basic chemistry involved in making biodiesel from vegetable oils and waste oils.

  8. World Biodiesel Markets The Outlook to 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of oils for biodiesel production and oil meals as animal feed ingredients The study also considers, including the regulatory and trade framework, feedstock supply and price developments, biodiesel production-depth profiles on Europe, the Americas and Asia/Pacific Feedstocks Biodiesel production processes Production

  9. TESC Farmhouse Biodiesel Project Processor Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 TESC Farmhouse Biodiesel Project Processor Manual #12;2 Thank you (in no particular order) to: David Rack, Sam Stout, and Kolby Bray-Hoagland for starting the Evergreen Biodiesel Project; our faculty Sara Keehfuss, Burke Anderson, Brodie Pettit (the Biodiesel Buccaneers) and Andrew York

  10. Biodiesel Engine Testing MECH-457 Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biodiesel Engine Testing MECH-457 Final Report Submitted to Jon Mikkelsen April 11, 2005 Darren at UBC has begun producing biodiesel fuel from waste cooking oils acquired from campus kitchens. Using biodiesel in a four-cylinder, 30 hp Kubota engine (V1305). This engine was chosen because it is used

  11. Attachment B: Jamaica Bay Watershed Protection Plan Update 1. WATER QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Bay. Ongoing NYCDEP continues to limit shipments. NA NA DEP See attached status report. Upgrade will accommodate daily transshipments instead of a few times a week to ensure all Jamaica sludge is treated via excess algae and sea lettuce to reduce nitrogen and produce biodiesel fuels. Design anticipated to begin

  12. Biodegradation of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.; Haws, R.; Wright, B.; Reese, D.; Moeller, G.; Peterson, C.

    1995-12-31

    Biodiesel fuel test substances Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Neat Rape Oil (NR), Say Methyl Ester (SME), Soy Ethyl Ester (SEE), Neat Soy Oil (NS), and proportionate combinations of RME/diesel and REE/diesel were studied to test the biodegradability of the test substances in an aerobic aquatic environment using the EPA 560/6-82-003 Shake Flask Test Method. A concurrent analysis of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel was also performed for comparison with a conventional fuel. The highest rates of percent CO{sub 2} evolution were seen in the esterified fuels, although no significant difference was noted between them. Ranges of percent CO{sub 2} evolution for esterified fuels were from 77% to 91%. The neat rape and neat soy oils exhibited 70% to 78% CO{sub 2} evolution. These rates were all significantly higher than those of the Phillips D-2 reference fuel which evolved from 7% to 26% of the organic carbon to CO{sub 2}. The test substances were examined for BOD{sub 5} and COD values as a relative measure of biodegradability. Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF) was experimentally derived and BOD{sub 5} and COD analyses were carried out with a diluted concentration at or below the WAF. The results of analysis at WAF were then converted to pure substance values. The pure substance BOD{sub 5} and COD values for test substances were then compared to a control substance, Phillips D-2 Reference fuel. No significant difference was noted for COD values between test substances and the control fuel. (p > 0.20). The D-2 control substance was significantly lower than all test substances for BCD, values at p << 0.01. RME was also significantly lower than REE (p < 0.05) and MS (p < 0.01) for BOD{sub 5} value.

  13. Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel in California Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel in California Overview of a...

  14. Effect of Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability, Emission and Performance Effect of Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability, Emission and Performance...

  15. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel This study presents full quantification of...

  16. Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER)...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: Improving Biodiesel and Other Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Biodiesel and Other Fuels' Quality Vehicle Technologies Office: Improving Biodiesel and Other Fuels' Quality For biofuels to succeed in the marketplace, they must be easy...

  18. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced...

  19. A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature Chemistry Title A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature Chemistry Publication Type...

  20. Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructu...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure Fractal dimensions of particle aggregates and...

  1. Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of...

  2. Biodiesel Effects on Diesel Particle Filter Performance: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R.; Ireland, J.

    2006-03-01

    Research results on the performance of biodiesel and biodiesel blends with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a diesel particle filter (DPF).

  3. Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and...

  4. Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison 1 Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and reactant comparison 2 Questions and Hypotheses Question 1 Can we make biodiesel at a lower cost than at a lower cost than buying fuel at a gas station. ii. Alternative hypothesis: Buying fuel at the pump costsBiodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison 1 Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison Burke Anderson

  5. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  6. Survey of the Quality and Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends in the United States in 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Alleman, T. L.; Ratcliffe, M.; Moens, L.; Lawrence, R.

    2005-10-01

    Reports results gathered in 2004 from quality and stability surveys in the United States of biodiesel (B100) and 20% biodiesel (B20) in petroleum diesel.

  7. Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Discusses reasons and physical significance of cool-flame behavior of biodiesel on improving low temperature diesel combustion deer11jacobs.pdf More Documents &...

  8. WSF Biodiesel Demonstration Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington State University; University of Idaho; The Glosten Associates, Inc.; Imperium Renewables, Inc.

    2009-04-30

    In 2004, WSF canceled a biodiesel fuel test because of “product quality issues” that caused the fuel purifiers to clog. The cancelation of this test and the poor results negatively impacted the use of biodiesel in marine application in the Pacific Northwest. In 2006, The U.S. Department of Energy awarded the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency a grant to manage a scientific study investigating appropriate fuel specifications for biodiesel, fuel handling procedures and to conduct a fuel test using biodiesel fuels in WSF operations. The Agency put together a project team comprised of experts in fields of biodiesel research and analysis, biodiesel production, marine engineering and WSF personnel. The team reviewed biodiesel technical papers, reviewed the 2004 fuel test results, designed a fuel test plan and provided technical assistance during the test. The research reviewed the available information on the 2004 fuel test and conducted mock laboratory experiments, but was not able to determine why the fuel filters clogged. The team then conducted a literature review and designed a fuel test plan. The team implemented a controlled introduction of biodiesel fuels to the test vessels while monitoring the environmental conditions on the vessels and checking fuel quality throughout the fuel distribution system. The fuel test was conducted on the same three vessels that participated in the canceled 2004 test using the same ferry routes. Each vessel used biodiesel produced from a different feedstock (i.e. soy, canola and yellow grease). The vessels all ran on ultra low sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel. The percentage of biodiesel was incrementally raised form from 5 to 20 percent. Once the vessels reached the 20 percent level, they continued at this blend ratio for the remainder of the test. Fuel samples were taken from the fuel manufacturer, during fueling operations and at several points onboard each vessel. WSF Engineers monitored the performance of the fuel systems and engines. Each test vessel did experience a microbial growth bloom that produced a build up of material in the fuel purifiers similar to material witnessed in the 2004 fuel test. A biocide was added with each fuel shipment and the problem subsided. In January of 2009, the WSF successfully completed an eleven month biodiesel fuel test using approximately 1,395,000 gallons of biodiesel blended fuels. The project demonstrated that biodiesel can be used successfully in marine vessels and that current ASTM specifications are satisfactory for marine vessels. Microbial growth in biodiesel diesel interface should be monitored. An inspection of the engines showed no signs of being negatively impacted by the test.

  9. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycer

  10. Dieselzymes: development of a stable and methanol tolerant lipase for biodiesel production by directed evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korman, Tyler P; Sahachartsiri, Bobby; Charbonneau, David M; Huang, Grace L; Beauregard, Marc; Bowie, James U

    2013-01-01

    J, Campelo JM, Romero AA: Biodiesel as feasible petrol fueltowards ever greener biodiesel production. Biotechnol Adv 3.T, Bielecki S: Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis - key factors

  11. Optimizing Biodiesel Production of a Cell-Free System by Feedback System Control Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yitong

    2014-01-01

    Ma, F. , Hanna, M.A. , 1999. Biodiesel production: a review.Chisti, Y. , 2007. Biodiesel from microalgae. BiotechnologyDemirbas, A. , 2005. Biodiesel production from vegetable

  12. Biodiesel from microalgae beats Yusuf Chisti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biodiesel from microalgae beats bioethanol Yusuf Chisti School of Engineering, Massey University and bioethanol are the two potential renewable fuels that have attracted the most attention. As demonstrated here, biodiesel and bioethanol produced from agricul- tural crops using existing methods cannot sustainably

  13. Simple Power, LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSilicium de Provence SAS SilproSimmesport,Simple Power, LP Jump

  14. Direct Energy, LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to: navigation,Department ofEnergieSizeDirect EnergyLP Jump to:

  15. MMA GDC Power LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lyon-Lincoln ElectricEarthMJMMA GDC Power LP

  16. Mega Energy, LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation, searchScotlandRecentchangestext JumpEnergy, LP Jump to:

  17. Sabine Cogen LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,EnergyEastCarbon Development |SMC CoSWERA/GettingCogen LP Jump

  18. Spark Energy, LP (Maryland) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeter BatterySolarfin JumpOpenColorado) JumpSoyminasNational CentreLP

  19. Texas Power, LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeter BatterySolarfinMarketMemberITerraPower Jump to:Tetonia,TexasLP Jump

  20. Biomass One LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformationBio-Gas Technologies, LLC JumpBiofameData Book JumpInvestmentLP

  1. Pattern Energy Group LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly Smart GridNorth Carolina:ParamountEnergy Group LP Jump to:

  2. Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption After Energy Assessment Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas...

  3. Lithium in LP 944-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ya. V. Pavlenko; H. R. A. Jones; E. L. Martin; E. Guenther; M. A. Kenworthy; M. R. Zapatero Osorio

    2007-07-14

    We present a new estimate of the lithium abundance in the atmosphere of the brown dwarf LP 944-20. Our analysis is based on a self-consistent analysis of low, intermediate and high resolution optical and near-infrared spectra. We obtain log N(Li) = 3.25 +/-0.25 using fits of our synthetic spectra to the Li I resonance line doublet profiles observed with VLT/UVES and AAT/SPIRAL. This lithium abundance is over two orders of magnitude larger than previous estimates in the literature. In order to obtain good fits of the resonance lines of K I and Rb I and better fits to the TiO molecular absorption around the Li I resonance line, we invoke a semi-empirical model atmosphere with the dusty clouds located above the photosphere. The lithium abundance, however, is not changed by the effects of the dusty clouds. We discuss the implications of our estimate of the lithium abundance in LP 944-20 for the understanding of the properties of this benchmark brown dwarf.

  4. Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rental car customers may be able to breathe a little easier during their next trip to the airport. Alamo Rent A Car, Enterprise Rent-A-Car, and National Car Rental, all brands operated by the subsidiaries of Enterprise Holdings, are converting their airport shuttle buses to run on biodiesel fuel. The move is a good one for the environment, and will ultimately reduce the company’s carbon emissions. “We are saving 420,000 gallons of petroleum diesel,”  says Lee Broughton, director of corporate identity and sustainability for Enterprise Holdings.    

  5. Taua Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren)ModelTalbotts LtdTarlton, Ohio: EnergyTaua Biodiesel Jump

  6. General Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway Edit HistoryGearyAtomics Jump to:Biodiesel

  7. Infinifuel Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8, 13 (Vt.Infinifuel Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search

  8. Maryland Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation, searchScotland Jump to:Marshall Islands:MartinBiodiesel

  9. Northern Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg, Oregon: EnergyNongqishi ElectricElecCompanyNorthern Biodiesel

  10. Soyminas Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeter BatterySolarfin JumpOpenColorado) JumpSoyminas Biodiesel Jump to:

  11. Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

  12. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  13. BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2001-12-01

    Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

  14. Empirical Bayes Linear Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    Empirical Bayes Will Penny Linear Models fMRI analysis Gradient Ascent Online learning Delta Rule Maximum Likelihood Augmented Form ReML Objective Function References Empirical Bayes Will Penny 3rd March 2011 #12;Empirical Bayes Will Penny Linear Models fMRI analysis Gradient Ascent Online learning Delta

  15. Physical properties of bio-diesel & Implications for use of bio-diesel in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Ra, Youngchul [ORNL; Griffin, Jelani K [ORNL; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin

    2008-01-01

    In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both regular diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study. Future studies of diesel combustion sensitivity to both physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are suggested.

  16. Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    range of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane and biohydrogen. Biodiesel production systems using microalgae. Keywords Algae . Carbon sequestration . Biofuel . Biogas . Biohydrogen . Biomethane . Bioreactor. Lipid . Oil . Raceway pond . Triacylglycerides . Review Abbreviations BTL biomass

  17. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. biodiesel vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  18. Impact of Biodiesel on Fuel System Component Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, B.

    2005-09-01

    A study of the effects of biodiesel blends on fuel system components and the physical characteristics of elastomer materials.

  19. Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses reasons and physical significance of cool-flame behavior of biodiesel on improving low temperature diesel combustion

  20. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study presents full quantification of biodiesel's impact on emissions and fuel economy with the inclusion of DPF regeneration events.

  1. Controls and Measurements of KU Engine Test Cells for Biodiesel, SynGas, and Assisted Biodiesel Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cecrle, Eric Daniel

    2011-04-06

    the following: University of Kansas's Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, and a unique Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture. The main...

  2. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Biodiesel Engine Compatibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MECH 456 Biodiesel Engine Compatibility Study Submitted to: Dr 456 Biodiesel Engine Compatibility Study i Executive Summary The objectives of this project were to show the effects of varying U.B.C. biodiesel content in fuel on engine performance, to observe

  3. Biosolids for Biodiesel USDA SBIR 2003-000450

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Biosolids for Biodiesel USDA SBIR 2003-000450 Phase I Final Report Prepared by Emerald Ranches #12;Biosolids for Biodiesel USDA SBIR 2003-000450 Phase I Final Report Background The goal of this Phase I for the production of biodiesel fuel. It is desirable to use biosolids as a fertilizer for canola for two reasons

  4. Reachability Analysis of Stochastic Hybrid Systems: A Biodiesel Production System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Reachability Analysis of Stochastic Hybrid Systems: A Biodiesel Production System Derek Riley problem because it provides a formal framework to analyze complex systems. Biodiesel production is a realistic biochemical process that can be modeled and analyzed using SHS methods. Analysis of a biodiesel

  5. Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering ­ Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator Currently 70 biodiesel boiler system to drive a steam engine generator. This system is to provide electricity the customer needs, a boiler fueled by biodiesel and outputting to a steam engine was decided upon. The system

  6. Acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, B.; Haws, R.; Little, D.; Reese, D.; Peterson, C.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    This study develops data on the acute aquatic toxicity of selected biodiesel fuels which may become subject to environmental effects test regulations under the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The test substances are Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Methyl Soyate (MS), a biodiesel mixture of 20% REE and 80% Diesel, a biodiesel mixture of 50% REE and diesel, and a reference substance of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel. The test procedure follows the Daphnid Acute Toxicity Test outlined in 40 CFR {section} 797.1300 of the TSCA regulations. Daphnia Magna are exposed to the test substance in a flow-through system consisting of a mixing chamber, a proportional diluter, and duplicate test chambers. Novel system modifications are described that accommodate the testing of oil-based test substances with Daphnia. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an EC50, an effective concentration producing immobility in 50% of the test specimen.

  7. 1. RN p R 1 p g1,...,gN Lp()

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishii, Hitoshi

    22080119 : 1. RN p R 1 p W1,p() W1,p() = u Lp() ; g1,...,gN Lp() u xi dx = - gidx for C c () i = 1,...,N u W1,p() u xi = gi u = grad u = ( u x1 ,..., u xN ) W1,p() u W1,p()= u Lp() + N i=1 u xi Lp() ( ( u p Lp() +N i=1 u xi p Lp() ) 1 p ) 1 = B1 = {x R2 ; |x| p = 1 u

  8. San Diego Bay Bibliography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brueggeman, Peter

    1994-01-01

    A in: Final EIR, Proposed Shipyard Expansion Project forfrom Southwest Marine Shipyard #4 in San Diego Bay. Toxscan,Florida. Final EIR, Proposed Shipyard Expansion Project for

  9. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION, L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EXPANSION, L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 11-161-LNG - ORDER 3357 SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION, L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO....

  10. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS - FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 12-06-LNG - ORDER 3066 SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION, L.P. & FLNG...

  11. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    2007-09-17

    that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production...

  12. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office�¢����s (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost�¢���effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally�¢���friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  13. A numerical investigation into the anomalous slight NOx increase when burning biodiesel; A new (old) theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Chen, J.Y.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    G. et al, 2005. The Biodiesel Handbook. AOCS Publishing,x Increase When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory GeorgeIncrease When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory. Fuel

  14. Bayesian Model Bayes rule for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    Bayesian Model Comparison Will Penny Bayes rule for models Bayes factors Nonlinear Models Model Comparison Will Penny June 2nd 2011 #12;Bayesian Model Comparison Will Penny Bayes rule for models and the denominator is given by p(y) = m p(y|m )p(m ) #12;Bayesian Model Comparison Will Penny Bayes rule for models

  15. Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zummo, Michael M; Munson, J; Derr, A; Zemple, T; Bray, S; Studer, B; Miller, J; Beckler, J; Hahn, A; Martinez, P; Herndon, B; Lee, T; Newswanger, T; Wassall, M

    2012-03-30

    Many obvious and significant concerns arise when considering the concept of small-scale biodiesel production. Does the fuel produced meet the stringent requirements set by the commercial biodiesel industry? Is the process safe? How are small-scale producers collecting and transporting waste vegetable oil? How is waste from the biodiesel production process handled by small-scale producers? These concerns and many others were the focus of the research preformed in the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation project over the last three years. This project was a unique research program in which undergraduate engineering students at Messiah College set out to research the feasibility of small-biodiesel production for application on a campus of approximately 3000 students. This Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program developed out of almost a decade of small-scale biodiesel research and development work performed by students at Messiah College. Over the course of the last three years the research team focused on four key areas related to small-scale biodiesel production: Quality Testing and Assurance, Process and Processor Research, Process and Processor Development, and Community Education. The objectives for the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project included the following: 1. Preparing a laboratory facility for the development and optimization of processors and processes, ASTM quality assurance, and performance testing of biodiesel fuels. 2. Developing scalable processor and process designs suitable for ASTM certifiable small-scale biodiesel production, with the goals of cost reduction and increased quality. 3. Conduct research into biodiesel process improvement and cost optimization using various biodiesel feedstocks and production ingredients.

  16. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide: Fourth Edition (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-01-01

    Intended for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and its blends, this guide contains procedures for handling and using these fuels.

  17. Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Bob McCormick (PI) with Colleen Alexander, Teresa Alleman, Robb Barnitt, Wendy Clark, John Ireland, Keith...

  18. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

    2006-11-01

    Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

  19. Biodiesel Utilization: Update on Recent Analytical Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; Luecke, J.; Thornton, M.; McAlpin, C.

    2009-05-01

    To understand and increase the use of biodiesel, analytical methods need to be shared and compared to ensure that accurate data are gathered on this complex fuel.

  20. Biodiesel Quality in the United States | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Diesel Injection Shear-Stress Advanced Nozzle (DISSAN) Microstructural Contol of the Porous Si3N4 Ceramics Consisted...

  1. San Diego Bay Bibliography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brueggeman, Peter

    1994-01-01

    South Bay Power Plant, San Diego, California. Woodward-Station B Power Plant in San Diego, California, operated byPower Plant Receiving Water Monitoring Program. Prepared for the California

  2. Elliott Bay Scholarship 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    A SIMULATION MODEL OF BROWN SHRIMP (Penaeus aztecus Ives) GROWTH, MOVEMENT, AND SURVIVAL IN GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS A Thesis by LEROY CONRAD GEORGE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1981 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences A SINOIAFION NODHD OF BROHH SHRINP IP* I* I ) GROWTH, MOVEMENT, AND SURVIVAL IN GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS A Thesis by LEROY CONRAD GEORGE...

  3. EFFECTS OF BIODIESEL BLENDING ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Jing

    2011-08-31

    examined as a potential substitute for conventional high-pollutant fuels because it is a biodegradable, non-toxic, and relatively clean-burning fuel generated from natural and renewable sources such as vegetable oils, animal fats, recycled restaurant... facility to study various innovations in processing and quality of renewable fuels. 3. Obtain the equipment and experience necessary to perform American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) testing of biodiesel produced at the University of Kansas...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: ASTM Biodiesel Specifications

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternativeASTM Biodiesel Specifications

  5. Module bay with directed flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  6. Reachability Analysis of a Biodiesel Production System Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Reachability Analysis of a Biodiesel Production System Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems Derek Riley defines the creation of biodiesel from soybean oil and methanol. Modeling and analyzing the biodiesel. In this paper we model a biodiesel production system as a stochastic hybrid system, and we present

  7. Biodiesel Sim: Crowdsourcing Simulations for Complex Model Analysis Derek Riley, Xiaowei Zhang, Xenofon Koutsoukos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Biodiesel Sim: Crowdsourcing Simulations for Complex Model Analysis Derek Riley, Xiaowei Zhang Computation, Biodiesel Abstract Biodiesel is an alternative fuel source that can be easily made by novices of the proces- sor. A biodiesel processor is a complex system that can be modeled and simulated using formal

  8. Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production from cooking oil is to simultaneously optimize and heat integrate the production of biodiesel from each of the different oil sources in the design. When using algae oil, the optimal process employs alkali as catalyst with a production cost of 0

  9. Optimal biodiesel production using bioethanol: Towards process integration.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Optimal biodiesel production using bioethanol: Towards process integration. Kristen Severson using bioethanol from algae following four different transesterification paths: alkali, enzymatic@cmu.edu (I.E. Grossmann) #12;1.-Introduction. Biodiesel and bioethanol are the most important liquid biofuels

  10. Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

    2009-04-08

    Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

  11. Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    molybdenum dioxide displays excellent behavior as catalytic material for the oxidative reforming of bothOxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide Jessica Whalen, Oscar Marin Flores, Su candidate as an effective catalyst for biodiesel. Few papers have been published on the topic of catalytic

  12. Approved Module Information for LP2007, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Comparative Government and Politics Module Code: LP2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LP2007, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Comparative Government and Politics Module Code: LP2007 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Ed Turner Email Address e

  13. Approved Module Information for LP3024, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Political Parties and Party Systems Module Code: LP3024

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LP3024, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Political Parties and Party Systems Module Code: LP3024 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Ed Turner Email Address e

  14. Approved Module Information for LP2029, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Introduction to Political Economy I Module Code: LP2029

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LP2029, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Introduction to Political Economy I Module Code: LP2029 School: Languages and Social Sciences Module Type: Standard Module New Module? Not Specified Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Balazs Szent-Ivanyi Email

  15. QER- Comment of Plains All American Pipeline, L.P.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To: Members of the Quadrennial Energy Review Task Force Secretariat and Energy Policy and Systems Analysis Staff, U.S. Department of Energy Enclosed please find comments submitted on behalf of Plains All American Pipeline, L.P. for the record of the QER’s August 21, 2014 Infrastructure Siting and Permitting Meeting in Cheyenne, WY. Feel free to contact me if you need anything further regarding this communication.

  16. z=0 z=0 z=0 Steam-turbin Condenser LP-pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    ¡ ¢£ ¤ ¥§¦ ¨ © ¥£ ¡ £ ¨ © ¦ ¦ ¡ £ ¨ © ¦ ¦ ¥ ¦ © © ¡ ¥ ¥ £ ¦ ¡ ! ¦ " ©# £ $ ¤ #12; 4 ¡ 3 @ ¢ 2 6 3 F 4 9 7 LC LC PC z=0 z=0 z=0 z=1 z=1 TC TC z=0 HP-pump Steam-turbin Condenser LP-pump Air compressor Deaerator HP-pump Steam-turbin Condenser LP-pump Air compressor Deaerator HP Combustor Fuel compressor Steam-turbine HP-valve valve LP- drum Evaporator #12; F 4 9 7 ¢ D ¡ 2 B@ 9 7 6

  17. Exploring Hydrodynamic Modeling of Texas Bays With focus on Corpus Christi Bay & Lavaca Bay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furnans, Jordan

    2004-01-01

    , although likely affected by tides, is from Oso Bay into Corpus Christi Bay. This is because of the power plant located inbetween Oso Bay and Laguna Madre. This plant withdraws cooling water from Laguna Madre in discharges it into Oso Bay. This water... leading to the hypoxia. In order to develop such a model, much environmental and spatial data needed to be collected. This data includes information on regional wind patterns, tidal data, river inflow data, and weather data. It also was necessary...

  18. Biodiesel - SSC Process - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura|Bilayer Graphene GetsBiodiesel - SSC Process Idaho

  19. Midwest Biodiesel Producers LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO isMickeyWestNewOhio:Midstate ElectricBiodiesel

  20. Buffalo Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick, Maine: Energy Resources JumpBiodiesel Inc

  1. Rix Biodiesel Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,EnergyEast Jump to:Ridgway, Colorado:RistmaRix Biodiesel

  2. San Francisco Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-bRenewableSMUD Wind FarmSmartSociety JumpBiodiesel Jump

  3. Tellurian Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ Automation Jump to:Information 8) JumpTellurian Biodiesel Inc

  4. General Biodiesel Incorporated | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprintGEXAGemini Solar Development Company JumpBiodiesel

  5. Biodiesel Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETO Quiz -Technologies forBigBiodiesel Fuel Basics

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsas a Vehicle FuelFuelingBiodiesel

  7. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC - FE...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy (DOEFE) issued Order No. 3357 (FLEX II Conditional Order) to Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, and FLNG...

  8. Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    million yearly after upgrading the steam system in its ammonia plant in Verdigris, Oklahoma. Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption...

  9. Empirical Bayes Linear Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    , Sw ) S-1 w = XT C-1 y X + C-1 w mw = Sw (XT C-1 y y + C-1 w µw ) #12;Empirical Bayes Will Penny | |Sw | where is a vector of hyperparameters that parameterise the covariances Cw and Cy

  10. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charpe, Trupti W. [Chemical Engineering Department, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Rathod, Virendra K., E-mail: vk.rathod@ictmumbai.edu.in [Chemical Engineering Department, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. {yields} Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. {yields} Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. {yields} Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  11. Genesee Power Station LP Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway EditOpen EnergyNew York: EnergyLP Biomass

  12. EA-340-A Saracen Energy Partners, LP | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus, LLC to export electricSilverhillSaracen Energy Partners, LP

  13. Little Sioux Corn Processors LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervarLeeds, UnitedLibertyLite On TechnologyCorn Processors LP Jump

  14. NextEra Retail of Texas LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg, Oregon: Energy Resources Jump to:Inc Jump to:of Texas LP Jump

  15. Corn LP formerly Central Iowa Renewable Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company)| Open(Evans,Oregon:Volcano, Hawaii | OpenCorinna,CorixCornLP

  16. Algal Harvesting for Biodiesel Production: Comparing Centrifugation and Electrocoagulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kovalcik, Derek John

    2013-08-09

    Electrocoagulation was compared to centrifugation at pilot scale for harvesting Nannochloris oculata and Nannochloropsis salina for biodiesel production. The pilot scale testing is a proof of concept and no optimization ...

  17. Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fractal dimensions of particle aggregates and the fringe lengths and fringe tortuosity within the primary soot particles has been assessed as functions of load, rail pressure, and biodiesel content.

  18. www.postersession.com Performance Analysis of Cottonseed Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    and Lubricants. Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 58-75, June 2011. · Cottonseed contains many similar qualities consumption. · Cottonseed biodiesel was shown to have a similar lower heating value to diesel indicating

  19. Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the Performance and Durability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Performance and Durability of DOC and DPF Technologies Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the Performance and Durability of DOC and DPF Technologies Poster presented at the 16th...

  20. Fact #662: February 14, 2011 World Biodiesel Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Europe has been the dominant region for biodiesel production with increased production each year since 2005. North America has been a distant second led by the United States until 2009. In 2009, U...

  1. Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myint, Lay L.

    2009-05-15

    ???????????????????????? 12 2.3 Fatty Acid Methyl Ester???????????????????. 12 2.4 Comparison of Different Oil Prices in the United States??????... 15 2.5 Biodiesel Production Plant Capacities using Different Feedstocks??... 16 2.6 Molecular Structure of Soap...?????????????????.. 18 2.7 Emulsification of Bioidiesel by Soap??????????????. 18 2.8 Intermediate Steps in Biodiesel Transesterification????????... 21 3.1 Schematic of Proposed Process Design?????????????. 26 4.1 Process Synthesis?????????????????????... 27 4...

  2. Design and Analysis of Flexible Biodiesel Processes with Multiple Feedstocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokoo-Aikins, Grace Amarachukwu

    2011-10-21

    oil and methyl esters of other oils as diesel fuel (Knothe et al., 1997, Knothe, 2001). Prior to World War II biodiesel continued to be developed and utilized but widespread use of biodiesel was deterred by the low cost of petroleum derived fuels... and non-food crops, wastes, genetically engineered and recombinant sources (such as plants and microorganisms), oils and other sources that do not fit into any of these categories. The focus for a sustainable biorefinery is agricultural, food industry...

  3. The Runaway Binary LP 400-22 is Leaving the Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R; Harris, Hugh C; Dahn, Conard C; Agueros, M A; Heinke, Craig O; Kenyon, S J; Panei, J A; Camilo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy, astrometry, radio, and X-ray observations of the runaway binary LP 400-22. We refine the orbital parameters of the system based on our new radial velocity observations. Our parallax data indicate that LP 400-22 is significantly more distant (3 sigma lower limit of 840 pc) than initially predicted. LP 400-22 has a tangential velocity in excess of 830 km/s; it is unbound to the Galaxy. Our radio and X-ray observations fail to detect a recycled millisecond pulsar companion, indicating that LP 400-22 is a double white dwarf system. This essentially rules out a supernova runaway ejection mechanism. Based on its orbit, a Galactic center origin is also unlikely. However, its orbit intersects the locations of several globular clusters; dynamical interactions between LP 400-22 and other binary stars or a central black hole in a dense cluster could explain the origin of this unusual binary.

  4. Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.; Jarvis, E.; Dunahay, T.; Roessler, P.; Zeiler, K. ); Sprague, S. )

    1993-05-01

    The primary goal of the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project is to develop the technology for growing microalgae as a renewable biomass feedstock for the production of a diesel fuel substitute (biodiesel), thereby reducing the need for imported petroleum. Microalgae are of interest as a feedstock because of their high growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions, and because the oils (lipids) they produce can be extracted and converted to substitute petroleum fuels such as biodiesel. Microalgae can be grown in arid and semi-arid regions with poor soil quality, and saline water from aquifers or the ocean can be used for growing microalgae. Biodiesel is an extremely attractive candidate to fulfill the need for a diesel fuel substitute. Biodiesel is a cleaner fuel than petroleum diesel; it is virtually free of sulfur, and emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulates during combustion are significantly reduced in comparison to emissions from petroleum diesel. Biodiesel provides essentially the same energy content and power output as petroleum-based diesel fuel.

  5. The Characterization of Two-Stage Ignition Effects on Late Injection Low Temperature Combustion Using Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tompkins, Brandon T

    2015-08-12

    combustion in a medium duty diesel engine with both petroleum diesel and biodiesel fuels and to determine the influence of such behavior on LTC torque and emissions. Three experiments were performed to meet these objectives: the first studies two operating...

  6. Mercury bioaccumulation in Lavaca Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Sally Jo

    1992-01-01

    estuary, Keller Bay. The rate of Hg accumulation in shrimp, Penaeus sp. , blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, and oysters, Crassostrea virginica and the Hg depuration rate in C. virginica were examined by performing caging experiments.... For the accumulation experiment shrimp from Matagorda Bay, blue crabs from Keller Bay, and oysters from Carancahua Reef in Carancahua Bay were collected and placed in ambient water and sediment of Lavaca and Keller Bays. Oysters were collected in North Lavaca Bay...

  7. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies ftp01lee.pdf More...

  8. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Discusses the impact of Na in biodiesel...

  9. Fact #700: November 7, 2011 Biodiesel Consumption is on the Rise for 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration began tracking biodiesel consumption in 2001. For the first few years biodiesel consumption remained relatively low – well under one thousand barrels per...

  10. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The objective of the current...

  11. BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring onboard fuel monitoring of fuel and biofuel qualities using an optical sensor for engine...

  12. Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel...

  13. Evaluation and Comparison of Test Methods to Measure the Oxidation Stability of Neat Biodiesel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, S. R.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare and evaluate several candidate test methods for evaluating oxidation stability of biodiesel.

  14. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for biodiesel.

  15. Experimental study of the oxidation of large surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental study of the oxidation of large surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels Mohammed of the oxidation of two blend surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels, n-decane/n-hexadecane and n-alkanes and methyl esters. Keywords: Oxidation; Diesel; Biodiesel; Methyl esters; n-Decane; n-Hexadecane; Methyl

  16. Sustainable distributed biodiesel manufacturing under uncertainty: An interval-parameter-programming-based approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yinlun

    Sustainable distributed biodiesel manufacturing under uncertainty: An interval A sophisticated biodiesel manufacturing study demonstrated methodological efficacy. a r t i c l e i n f o Article Simulation Uncertainty a b s t r a c t Biodiesel, a clean-burning alternative fuel, can be produced using

  17. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2013-03-15

    Petroleum-based liquid hydrocarbons is exclusively major energy source in the transportation sector. Thus, it is the major CO{sub 2} source which is the associated with greenhouse effect. In the United States alone, petroleum consumption in the transportation sector approaches 13.8 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d). It is corresponding to a release of 0.53 gigatons of carbon per year (GtC/yr), which accounts for approximate 7.6 % of the current global release of CO{sub 2} from all of the fossil fuel usage (7 GtC/yr). For the long term, the conventional petroleum production is predicted to peak in as little as the next 10 years to as high as the next 50 years. Negative environmental consequences, the frequently roaring petroleum prices, increasing petroleum utilization and concerns about competitive supplies of petroleum have driven dramatic interest in producing alternative transportation fuels, such as electricity-based, hydrogen-based and bio-based transportation alternative fuels. Use of either of electricity-based or hydrogen-based alternative energy in the transportation sector is currently laden with technical and economical challenges. The current energy density of commercial batteries is 175 Wh/kg of battery. At a storage pressure of 680 atm, the lower heating value (LHV) of H{sub 2} is 1.32 kWh/liter. In contrast, the corresponding energy density for gasoline can reach as high as 8.88 kWh/liter. Furthermore, the convenience of using a liquid hydrocarbon fuel through the existing infrastructures is a big deterrent to replacement by both batteries and hydrogen. Biomass-derived ethanol and bio-diesel (biofuels) can be two promising and predominant U.S. alternative transportation fuels. Both their energy densities and physical properties are comparable to their relatives of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, however, biofuels are significantly environmental-benign. Ethanol can be made from the sugar-based or starch-based biomass materials, which is easily fermented to create ethanol. In the United States almost all starch ethanol is mainly manufactured from corn grains. The technology for manufacturing corn ethanol can be considered mature as of the late 1980s. In 2005, 14.3 % of the U.S. corn harvest was processed to produce 1.48 x10{sup 10} liters of ethanol, energetically equivalent to 1.72 % of U.S. gasoline usage. Soybean oil is extracted from 1.5 % of the U.S. soybean harvest to produce 2.56 x 10{sup 8} liters of bio-diesel, which was 0.09 % of U.S. diesel usage. However, reaching maximum rates of bio-fuel supply from corn and soybeans is unlikely because these crops are presently major contributors to human food supplies through livestock feed and direct consumption. Moreover, there currently arguments on that the conversion of many types of many natural landscapes to grow corn for feedstock is likely to create substantial carbon emissions that will exacerbate globe warming. On the other hand, there is a large underutilized resource of cellulose biomass from trees, grasses, and nonedible parts of crops that could serve as a feedstock. One of the potentially significant new bio-fuels is so called "cellulosic ethanol", which is dependent on break-down by microbes or enzymes. Because of technological limitations (the wider variety of molecular structures in cellulose and hemicellulose requires a wider variety of microorganisms to break them down) and other cost hurdles (such as lower kinetics), cellulosic ethanol can currently remain in lab scales. Considering farm yields, commodity and fuel prices, farm energy and agrichemical inputs, production plant efficiencies, byproduct production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and other environmental effects, a life-cycle evaluation of competitive indicated that corn ethanol yields 25 % more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas soybean bio-diesel yields 93 % more. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12 % by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41 % by bio-diesel. Bio-diesel also releases less ai

  18. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO{sub 2} and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD{sub 5} and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population.

  19. FAST ITERATIVELY REWEIGHTED LEAST SQUARES FOR LP REGULARIZED IMAGE DECONVOLUTION AND RECONSTRUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granada, Universidad de

    and then propose an Alternat- ing Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) to solve the reweighted linear equations and the Department of Energy grant DE-NA0000457. The l2 - lp model has been widely applied in sparse sig- nal

  20. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC - FE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0-161-LNG Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC - FE Dkt. No. 10-161-LNG On May 17, 2013, the Office of Fossil Energy of the Department of Energy (DOEFE) issued...

  1. Flint Hills Resources, LP- FE Dkt. No. 15-168-LNG

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) gives notice of receipt of an application, filed on November 5, 2015, by Flint Hills Resources, LP (Flint Hills), requesting long...

  2. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTIO...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2014 April 2015 October 2015 More Documents & Publications SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION, L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 11-161-LNG - ORDER 3357...

  3. Los Alamos National Laboratory considers the use of biodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matlin, M. K.

    2002-01-01

    A new EPA-approved alternative fuel, called biodiesel, may soon be used at Los Alamos National Laboratory in everything from diesel trucks to laboratory equipment. Biodiesel transforms vegetable oils into a renewable, cleaner energy source that can be used in any machinery that uses diesel fuel. For the past couple years, the Laboratory has been exploring the possibility of switching over to soybean-based biodiesel. This change could lead to many health and environmental benefits, as well as help reduce the nation's dependence on foreign oil. Biodiesel is a clean, renewable diesel fuel substitute made from soybean and other vegetable oil crops, as well as from recycled cooking oils. A chemical process breaks down the vegetable oil into a usable form. Vegetable oil has a chain of about 18 carbons and ordinary diesel has about 12 or 13 carbons. The process breaks the carbon chains of the vegetable oil and separates out the glycerin (a fatty substance used in creams and soaps). The co-product of glycerin can be used by pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies, as well as many other markets. Once the chains are shortened and the glycerin is removed from the oil, the remaining liquid is similar to petroleum diesel fuel. It can be burned in pure form or in a blend of any proportion with petroleum diesel. To be considered an alternative fuel source by the EPA, the blend must be at least 20 percent biodiesel (B20). According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), biodiesel is America's fastest growing alternative fuel.

  4. Sonar imaging of bay bottom sediments and anthropogenic impacts in Galveston Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, Donald Shea

    2007-04-25

    Knowledge of surface sediment distribution in Galveston Bay is important because it allows us to better understand how the bay works and how human activities impact the bay and its ecosystems. In this project, six areas ...

  5. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  6. Applied methods to verify LP turbine performance after retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overby, R. [Florida Power and Light Co., Juno Beach, FL (United States); Lindberg, G. [ABB Power Generation, Baden (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    With increasing operational hours of power plants, many utilities may find it necessary to replace turbine components, i.e., low pressure turbines. In order to decide between different technical and economic solutions, the utility often takes the opportunity to choose between an OEM or non-OEM supplier. This paper will deal with the retrofitting of LP turbines. Depending on the scope of supply the contract must define the amount of improvement and specifically how to verify this improvement. Unfortunately, today`s Test Codes, such as ASME PTC 6 and 6.1, do not satisfactorily cover these cases. The methods used by Florida Power and Light (FP and L) and its supplier to verify the improvement of the low pressure turbine retrofit at the Martin No. 1 and Sanford No. 4 units will be discussed and the experience gained will be presented. In particular the influence of the thermal cycle on the applicability of the available methods will be analyzed and recommendations given.

  7. A comparison of gasoline and LP-gas as a fuel for medium or small size farm tractors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maher, Thomas Francis

    1952-01-01

    I Gasoline Fuel Consumption at the same Compression Ratio With the LP Ieae CarburCtOr Set fOr KSXlrrilm Power s e o e ~ e o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ e o ~ a o 55 Comparison of LP-Gas ancI Gasoline li"uel Consumption 8 t ths Same CQslpressiQn iiaii3 with the LP...-Gas Carburetor set for Eoonongr at ceo%i Loado ~ a o ~ s o ~ a a Comparison of LP-Gas anJ Gasoline Fuel Consulsptiozl at the salas ComprsssiQn Ratio sith t. ;s LP-Gas Carburetor set for 94/a of I'aIa~ POWSr e ~ ~ o e o o o e e a e o e e Comparison, ox LP...

  8. Approved Module Information for LP3030, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: The Far Right in Europe Module Code: LP3030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LP3030, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: The Far Right in Europe Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Jim Shields Email Address shieldjg Students? Not Specified Module Learning Information Module Aims: The module aims to equip students

  9. Aridity and Algae: Biodiesel Production in Arizona Jenna Bloxom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Aridity and Algae: Biodiesel Production in Arizona Jenna Bloxom Advisor: Dr. Scott Whiteford Center resources. Often excluded from the typical water- related concerns associated with biofuels as algae as the best location in the world to grow algae, the state of Arizona is now home to several premier algae

  10. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-17

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  11. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-20

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  12. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2008-08-15

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran and co-workers for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet-stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels. (author)

  13. Engineering for sustainable development for bio-diesel production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanan, Divya

    2009-05-15

    on their performance. The SD indicator priority score and each individual alternative’s performance score together are used to determine the most sustainable alternative. The proposed methodology for ESD is applied for bio-diesel production in this thesis. The results...

  14. Coalition Cooperation Defines Roadmap for E85 and Biodiesel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-06-01

    This Clean Cities success story relates how Colorado's Colorado Biofuels Coalition was formed and provides guidance on forming other such coalitions. This Colorado's coalition sucessfully increase the number of fueling stations providing biofuels and has goals to the number even more. Plans also include assisting with financing infrastructure, making alternative fuels available to more fleets, and educating about E85 and biodiesel use.

  15. GAS TURBINES AND BIODIESEL : A CLARIFICATION OF THE RELATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 GAS TURBINES AND BIODIESEL : A CLARIFICATION OF THE RELATIVE NOX INDICES OF FAME, GASOIL ("tallow"). A key factor for the use of biofuels in gas turbines is their Emissions Indices (NOx, CO, VOC to gas turbines is very scarce. Two recent, independent field tests carried out in Europe (RME

  16. Electrochemical method for producing a biodiesel mixture comprising fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, YuPo J; St. Martin, Edward J

    2013-08-13

    The present invention relates to an integrated method and system for the simultaneous production of biodiesel from free fatty acids (via esterification) and from triglycerides (via transesterification) within the same reaction chamber. More specifically, one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for the production of biodiesel using an electrodeionization stack, wherein an ion exchange resin matrix acts as a heterogeneous catalyst for simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions between a feedstock and a lower alcohol to produce biodiesel, wherein the feedstock contains significant levels of free fatty acid. In addition, because of the use of a heterogeneous catalyst, the glycerol and biodiesel have much lower salt concentrations than raw biodiesel produced by conventional transesterification processes. The present invention makes it much easier to purify glycerol and biodiesel.

  17. Chesapeake Bay Approaches to Baltimore Harbor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chesapeake Bay Approaches to Baltimore Harbor Chart 12278 BookletChart Commemorative Edition ­ June;United States ­ East Coast MARYLAND CHESAPEAKE BAY APPROACHES TO BALTIMORE HARBOR The chart on the cover forces on the Chesapeake Bay, and defending Baltimore itself. Privateering With peacetime commerce

  18. Effect of Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability, Emission and Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Jatropha is a drought-resistant, non-edible plant that can be grown on marginal land and used in the production of biodiesel fuel.

  19. Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance and Long-term Durability of Advanced Aftertreatment Systems Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term Durability of Advanced Aftertreatment...

  20. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of the current research is to assess differences in NOx emissions between biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels, resulting from fundamental issues and system-response issues.

  1. Meet the Bay Biscayne Bay is a subtropical marine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . It is bordered on the west by Miami-Dade County and on the east side by 2 islands (Miami Beach and Fisher Island meters). Most Miami Heat players could comfortably stand in the Bay and still breathe. Text: Erica Van

  2. Acoustic characteristics of bay bottom sediments in Lavaca Bay, TX 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patch, Mary Catherine

    2005-08-29

    . The Lavaca Bay estuary is a drowned river valley containing a history of estuary development in the late Pleistocene and Holocene. We used a chirp sonar to gather acoustic reflection profiles, which were classified to categorize and trace reflectors. The data...

  3. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  4. Biodiesel is produced from a wide variety of oilseed crops. In Europe, canola is the major biodiesel crop while in the U.S. soybeans dominate. Montana State University researchers have developed a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Technology Biodiesel is produced from a wide variety of oilseed crops. In Europe, canola is the major biodiesel crop while in the U.S. soybeans dominate. Montana State University researchers have plants used for biodiesel. Seed oil content increases are induced by puroindoline genes which promote

  5. Biodiesel and the Advanced Biofuel Market | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy|Make Fuels and Chemicals | DepartmentBiodiesel

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternativeASTMInfrastructureBiodiesel

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender Pump Dispensers toStation Locations toBiodiesel

  8. PERFORMANCE OF THE CAPSTONE C30 MICROTURBINE ON BIODIESEL BENDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2007-01-01

    This report will describe the tests of biodiesel blends as a fuel in a Capstone oil fired microturbine (C30) with a nominal rating of 30 kW. The blends, in ASTM No. 2 heating oil, ranged from 0% to 100% biodiesel. No changes were made to the microturbine system for operation on the blends. Apart from the data that the control computer acquires on various turbine parameters, measurements were made in the hot gas exhaust from the turbine. The results from this performance testing and from the atomization tests reported previously provide some insight into the use of biodiesel blends in microturbines of this type. The routine use of such blends would need more tests to establish that the life of the critical components of the microturbine are not diminished from what they are on the baseline diesel or heating fuel. Of course, the extension to 'widespread' use of such blends in generating systems based on the microturbine is also determined by economic and other considerations.

  9. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Investigation of Solid Acid Catalyst Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acid Catalyst Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel Elliot James Nash University of British Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel By Elliot James Nash Thesis CHBE 493/494 4 April 2013 The Faculty;ii Abstract The adoption of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is gaining momentum despite its large

  10. Parallel distributed-memory simplex for large-scale stochastic LP problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    T p = eT p B-1 BTRAN aT p = T p N PRICE aq = B-1aq FTRAN Invert B INVERT Hyper-sparsity Vectors ep-scale stochastic LP problems 7 / 23 #12;Stochastic MIP problems: For Argonne Power systems optimization project at Argonne Integer second-stage decisions Stochasticity comes from availability of wind-generated electricity

  11. Towards the optimal integrated production of biodiesel with internal recycling of methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    the use of autoreforming for a production cost 0f $0.61/gal, 3.34MJ/gal of energy consumption and 0.79gal1 Towards the optimal integrated production of biodiesel with internal recycling of methanol of the production methanol from glycerol and its integration in the production of biodiesel from algae. We propose

  12. Applications of Highly Cross Linked Mixed Bed Ion Exchange Resins in Biodiesel Processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamal, Yousuf

    2010-10-12

    is far below the petro-diesel consumption and demand. To increase the availability of biodiesel in the market, new methods of biodiesel production must be developed to take advantage of the plentiful low quality waste derived feed stocks that currently...

  13. Biodiesel Supply and Consumption in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The historical biodiesel consumption data published in the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review March 2009 edition were revised to account for imports and exports. Table 10.4 of the Monthly Energy Review was expanded to display biodiesel imports, exports, stocks, stock change, and consumption. Similar revisions were made in the April 2009 edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  14. Biodiesel Clears the Air in Underground Mines, Clean Cities, Fact Sheet, June 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Mining companies are using biodiesel in their equipment to help clear the air of diesel particulate matter (DPM). This action improves air quality and protects miners' lungs. Though using biodiesel has some challenges in cold weather, tax incentives, and health benefits make it a viable option.

  15. An Intensified Reaction/Product Recovery Process for the Continuous Production of Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Biodiesel Cooperative Research into Biobased Fuels between ORNL and Nu-Energie Biodiesel: This project transfer and small business development through the commercialization of energy-saving technologies from the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy that leverages a 50/50 DOE/industry cost

  16. Pollutant Emissions from Biodiesels in Diesel Engine Tests and On-road Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Yue

    2012-08-31

    and HC emissions. The H: C ratio, ratio of saturated fatty acids and degree of unsaturation of biodiesels all had a substantial effect on NO emissions. Density measurement was an easy way to predict total NOx from biodiesels. Methods of running on...

  17. Planning For Jamaica Bay's Future: Final Recommendations on the Jamaica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Planning For Jamaica Bay's Future: Final Recommendations on the Jamaica Bay Watershed Protection Plan Submitted by the Jamaica Bay Watershed Protection Plan Advisory Committee June 1, 2007 #12;Photo. The Jamaica Bay watershed protection plan. Presentation at York College, Queens. #12;PLANNING FOR JAMAICA BAY

  18. NAME: Habitat Restoration in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii LOCATION: Kaneohe Bay, County of Honolulu, Hawaii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    NAME: Habitat Restoration in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii LOCATION: Kaneohe Bay, County of Honolulu, Hawaii ACRES: 13 acres coral reef NON-FEDERAL SPONSOR: State of Hawaii: Department of Land and Natural

  19. EA-389 Greay Bay Energy VI, LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bay Energy VI, LLC Order authorizing Great Bay Energy to export electric energy to Canada. EA-389 Great Bay Energy (CN).pdf More Documents & Publications Application to Export...

  20. Tidal Marsh Vegetation of China Camp, San Pablo Bay, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baye, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board. p 33–48.Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board. p 9–32.Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board. p 332–

  1. The California Biodiesel Alliance CBA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeterInformation Policy and Development PlanBiodiesel Alliance CBA

  2. Big Daddy s Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformation BeaufortBentMichigan:Greece)Daddy s Biodiesel Inc Jump to:

  3. Biodiesel of Las Vegas Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYorkColoradoBelcherCarbonAlgeneBioLogicalBiodiesel of Las

  4. Biodiesel Revs Up Its Applications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, IncBio Centers Announcement at the NationalBiodiesel Revs Up

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More places to shareNatural GasToolsBiodiesel

  6. RISK ANALYSIS REPORT FOR THE BAY PARK SEWAGE TREATMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Minghua

    RISK ANALYSIS REPORT FOR THE BAY PARK SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (STP) TR-0 analyzes the flooding risks of the Bay Park Sewage Treatment Plant (STP

  7. An Archaeological Survey for the Riverbend Midstream Partners, LP Neches River Crossing Project in Jasper and Tyler Counties Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, William

    2015-07-30

    RiverBend Midstream Partners, LP (client) proposes to install a natural gas pipeline that will pass beneath the Neches River in western Jasper and eastern Tyler counties, Texas. Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA) and Dixie Environmental...

  8. OFF-THE-RECORD COMMUNICATION FOR JORDAN COVE ENERGY PROJECT, L.P., FE DKT. NO. 12-32-LNG

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Posting of Off-the-Record CommunicationThe documents linked below were sent to the Department of Energy (DOE) in reference to the Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P., FE Dkt. No. 12-32-LNG proceeding....

  9. The field brown dwarf LP 944-20 and the Castor moving group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Ribas

    2003-01-06

    A reliable age estimation for the field brown dwarf LP 944-20 is accomplished through the analysis of its kinematic properties. The space velocities of this star strongly suggest its membership in the so-called Castor moving group. LP 944-20 can be sensibly assumed to have the group's age, which is estimated to be ~320 Myr, and metal content, which is found to be roughly solar. With these new constrains and the available photometry and lithium abundance, current brown dwarf models are put to a test. Using the IR magnitudes and the lithium diagnostics, the models are able to provide a reasonable description of the brown dwarf's properties (to within a few sigma) but yield an age which is roughly 50% larger than our estimate. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  10. Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and higher melting temperature - and with increased potential to cause vehicle performance issues. This explains why fuel-filter clogging typically occurs over the course of long, repeated diurnal cooling cycles. The elevated final melting points mean that restarting vehicles with clogged filters can be difficult even after ambient temperatures have warmed to well above CP. By examining how biodiesel impurities affect filtration and crystallization during warming and cooling cycles, NREL researchers uncovered an explanation for poor biodiesel performance at low temperatures. The observation of a eutectic point, or a concentration below which SMGs have no effect, indicates that SMGs do not have to be completely removed from biodiesel to solve low-temperature performance problems.

  11. Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G. [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL; Joyce, Blake [ORNL; Crawford, Robert W. [Rincon Ranch Consulting

    2014-06-23

    Over the past 5 years, ORNL has run 95 diesel range fuels in homogene-ous charge compression ignition (HCCI), including 40 bio-diesels and associated diesel fuels in their blending. The bio-diesel blends varied in oxygen content, iodine number, cetane, boiling point distribution, chemical composition, and some contained nitrogen. All fuels were run in an HCCI engine at 1800 rpm, in the power range of 2.5 to 4.5 bar IMEP, using intake air heating for combustion phasing control, and at a compression ratio of 10.6. The engine response to fuel variables has been analyzed statistically. Generally, the engine responded well to fuels with lower nitrogen and oxygen, lower cetane, and lower aromatics. Because of the wide range of fuels combined in the model, it provides only a broad overview of the engine response. It is recommended that data be truncated and re-modeled to obtain finer resolution of engine response to particular fuel variables.

  12. San Francisco Bay Nutrient Management Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NUMBER 733 DEC 2014 San Francisco Bay Nutrient Management Strategy: Detailed Modeling Workplan-746-7334 (SFEI) · f: 510-746-7300 · www.sfei.org #12;THIS REPORT SHOULD BE CITED AS: SFEI (2014). San Francisco Bay Nutrient Management Strategy: Detailed Modeling Workplan for FY15-FY21. San Francisco Estuary

  13. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in Indian Locomotives (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2009-03-01

    With India's transportation sector relying heavily on imported petroleum-based fuels, the Planning Commission of India and the Indian government recommended the increased use of blended biodiesel in transportation fleets, identifying Jatropha as a potentially important biomass feedstock. The Indian Oil Corporation and Indian Railways are collaborating to increase the use of biodiesel blends in Indian locomotives with blends of up to B20, aiming to reduce GHG emissions and decrease petroleum consumption. To help evaluate the potential for Jatropha-based biodiesel in achieving sustainability and energy security goals, this study examines the life cycle, net GHG emission, net energy ratio, and petroleum displacement impacts of integrating Jatropha-based biodiesel into locomotive operations in India. In addition, this study identifies the parameters that have the greatest impact on the sustainability of the system.

  14. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomberlin, Jeff

    of petroleum. Bioethanol and biodiesel are two kinds of biofuel. Biomass resources can be converted be developed with cheap waste, such as dairy manure, to produce bioethanol (Liao et al., 2008; Predojevic

  15. Investigating the Use of Ion Exchange Resins for Processing Biodiesel Feedstocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamal, Yousuf 1973-

    2012-11-27

    at a larger market share within the existing US economy. Alternative feedstocks must also be examined for their ability to produce biodiesel and additional recoverable organics. Use of ion exchange resins under low temperature and pressure...

  16. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  17. Application of Real Options Analysis in the Valuation of Investment in Biodiesel Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeboah, F. E.; Shahbazi, A.; Yeboah, O.A.; Singh, H.; Holcomb, F. H.

    2011-01-01

    to value investment projects that have flexibility in them tend to underestimate the values of the projects, because they fail to capture the value of the flexibility embedded in such projects. For biodiesel production, such flexibility may include...

  18. Use of an Engine Cycle Simulation to Study a Biodiesel Fueled Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Junnian

    2010-01-14

    Based on the GT-Power software, an engine cycle simulation for a biodiesel fueled direct injection compression ignition engine was developed and used to study its performance and emission characteristics. The major objectives were to establish...

  19. Emissions comparison between petroleum diesel and biodiesel in a medium-duty diesel engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tompkins, Brandon T.

    2009-05-15

    Biofuels have become very important topics over the past decade due to the rise in crude oil prices, fear of running out of crude oil, and environmental impact of emissions. Biodiesel is a biofuel that is made from plant ...

  20. Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light Duty Tier 2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems Presentation given at 2007 Diesel...

  1. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Chicken Processing Wastewater and Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foucault, Lucas Jose

    2011-10-21

    The main objective of this thesis was to study the anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater from a chicken processing facility and of crude glycerol from local biodiesel operations. The AD of these substrates was conducted in bench-scale reactors...

  2. New and Underutilized Technology: High Bay LED Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following information outlines key deployment considerations for high bay LED lighting within the Federal sector.

  3. Planning For Jamaica Bay's Future: Preliminary Recommendations on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Planning For Jamaica Bay's Future: Preliminary Recommendations on the Jamaica Bay Watershed Protection Plan Submitted by the Jamaica Bay Watershed Protection Plan Advisory Committee June 29, 2006 #12, February 9. The Jamaica Bay watershed protection plan. Presentation at York College, Queens. #12;PLANNING

  4. Process simulation, integration and optimization of blending of petrodiesel with biodiesel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ting

    2009-05-15

    of payback period (PP) for the three options????????100 5.15 Comparison of net CO2 life-cycle emissions for petroleum diesel and biodiesel blends???????...????????????.102 5.16 Net CO2 emission vs. blend price of biodiesel blend... quantities significantly rely on enhanced hydrotreating technology, which is the major method to produce ULSD at this time (EIA, 2001). 4 Conventional hydrotreating is a commercially proven refining process that inputs feedstock together with hydrogen...

  5. A Numerical Investigation into the Anomalous Slight NOx Increase when Burning Biodiesel: A New (Old) Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, G A; Chen, J Y; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

    2007-01-30

    Biodiesel is a notable alternative to petroleum derived diesel fuel because it comes from natural domestic sources and thus reduces dependence on diminishing petroleum fuel from foreign sources, it likely lowers lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, and it lowers an engine's emission of most pollutants as compared to petroleum derived diesel. However, the use of biodiesel often slightly increases a diesel engine's emission of smog forming nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) relative to petroleum diesel. In this paper, previously proposed theories for this slight NOx increase are reviewed, including theories based on biodiesel's cetane number, which leads to differing amounts of charge preheating, and theories based on the fuel's bulk modulus, which affects injection timing. This paper proposes an additional theory for the slight NO{sub x} increase of biodiesel. Biodiesel typically contains more double bonded molecules than petroleum derived diesel. These double bonded molecules have a slightly higher adiabatic flame temperature, which leads to the increase in NOx production for biodiesel. Our theory was verified using numerical simulations to show a NOx increase, due to the double bonded molecules, that is consistent with observation. Further, the details of these numerical simulations show that NOx is predominantly due to the Zeldovich mechanism.

  6. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses the impact of Na in biodiesel on three emission control devices: the diesel particulate filter, diesel oxidation catalyst, and zeolyte-based SCR catalyst

  7. Strategic Utilization of Paper/Wood Waste for Biodiesel Fuel Art J. Ragauskas, Institute of Paper Science and Technology; Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strategic Utilization of Paper/Wood Waste for Biodiesel Fuel Art J. Ragauskas, Institute of Paper lignocellulosics to biodiesel fuel Feedstocks ABSTRACT This poster examines the potential of utilizing waste paper

  8. The following are appendices A, B1 and B2 of our paper, "Integrated Process Modeling and Product Design of Biodiesel Manufacturing", that appears in the Industrial and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y. A.

    Design of Biodiesel Manufacturing", that appears in the Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research a Biodiesel Process Model To access NIST TDE Data Engine in Aspen Plus version 2006.5 or V7.0 Step 1. Enter

  9. Keweenaw Bay Indian Community- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC) is committed to preserving our natural environment and reducing the amount of fossil fuels consumed while developing "green" business manufacturing jobs on tribal lands.

  10. Laboratory Policy (LP) Homepage | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thI D- 6 0 4 2 rz machineBrochures,Programs »AboutLP Home

  11. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  12. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 post-test calculations of the OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E J; Neill, A P [UKAEA Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith (UK)

    1990-04-01

    Analysis of the small, cold leg break, OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-3 using the best-estimate computer code TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is presented. Descriptions of the LOFT facility and the LP-SB-3 experiment are given and development of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 input model is detailed. The calculations performed in achieving the steady state conditions, from which the experiment was initiated, and the specification of experimental boundary conditions are outlined. Results of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 calculation are found to be generally consistent with those reported, by members of the OECD LOFT Program Review Group, in the LP-SB-3 Comparison Report.'' Overall trends with respect to pressure histories, minimum primary system mass inventory and accumulator behaviour are reasonably well reproduced by TRAC-PF1/MOD1. 17 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Biodiesel is produced from a wide variety of oilseed crops. In Europe, canola is the major biodiesel crop while in the U.S. soybeans dominates. Montana State University and USDA researchers have

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    for License Increased Oil Yield in Oilseed Crops to Enhance Biodiesel Production #12; have developed a protein that can be expressed in a variety of oilseed crops to increase the oil yield to work for a broad range of oilseed plants including biodiesel and cereal crops. Increased oil

  14. TRAC-PF1 MOD1 post test calculations of the OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E J [UKAEA Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith (UK)

    1990-04-01

    Analysis of the small, hot leg break, OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-1. using the best-estimate'' computer code TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is presented. Descriptions of the LOFT facility and the LP-SB-1 experiment are given and development of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 input model is detailed. The calculations performed in achieving the steady state conditions, from which the experiment was initiated, and the specification of experimental boundary conditions are outlined. 24 refs., 66 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European 2008 Abstract Biogenic emissions of carbonaceous greenhouse gases and N2O turn out to be important determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European

  16. Formation Kinetics of Nitric Oxide of Biodiesel Relative to Petroleum Diesel under Comparable Oxygen Equivalence Ratio in a Homogeneous Reactor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathore, Gurlovleen K.

    2011-10-21

    of the methyl esters relative to the n-heptane in biodiesel surrogate perhaps indicates the favorable role of fuel-bound oxygen in the fuel’s combustion. The low utilization of oxygen by the biodiesel surrogate could not be explained in this study. The dominance...

  17. Biodiesel from aquatic species. Project report: FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.M.; Sprague, S.; Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Zeiler, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    Researchers in the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project focus on the use of microalgae as a feedstock for producing renewable, high-energy liquid fuels. The program`s basic premise is that microalgae, which have been called the most productive biochemical factories in the world, can produce up to 30 times more oil per unit of growth area than land plants. It is estimated that 150 to 400 barrels of oil per acre per year (0.06 to 0.16 million liters/hectar) could be produced with microalgal oil technology. Initial commercialization of this technology is envisioned for the desert Southwest because this area provides high solar radiation and offers flat land that has few competing uses (hence low land costs). Similarly, there are large saline aquifers with few competing uses in the region. This water source could provide a suitable, low-cost medium for the growth of many microalgae. The primary area of research during FY 1993 was the effort to genetically improve microalgae in order to control the timing and magnitude of lipid accumulation. Increased lipid content will have a direct effect on fuel price, and the control of lipid content is a major project goal. The paper describes progress on the following: culture collection; molecular biology of lipid biosynthesis; microalgal transformation; and environmental, safety, and health and quality assurance.

  18. Modeling the Auto-Ignition of Biodiesel Blends with a Multi-Step Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toulson, Dr. Elisa [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Allen, Casey M [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, Dennis J [Michigan State University, East Lansing; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Schock, Harold [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in using biodiesel in place of or in blends with petrodiesel in diesel engines; however, biodiesel oxidation chemistry is complicated to directly model and existing surrogate kinetic models are very large, making them computationally expensive. The present study describes a method for predicting the ignition behavior of blends of n-heptane and methyl butanoate, fuels whose blends have been used in the past as a surrogate for biodiesel. The autoignition is predicted using a multistep (8-step) model in order to reduce computational time and make this a viable tool for implementation into engine simulation codes. A detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends was used as a basis for validating the multistep model results. The ignition delay trends predicted by the multistep model for the n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends matched well with that of the detailed CHEMKIN model for the majority of conditions tested.

  19. Solving Random Subset Sum Problem by lp-norm SVP Gengran Hu, Yanbin Pan and Feng Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Solving Random Subset Sum Problem by lp-norm SVP Oracle Gengran Hu, Yanbin Pan and Feng Zhang Key, it is a long standing open problem to solve the RSSP instances with density 1 using the lattice l2-norm SVP be solved with an l2-norm SVP oracle by Lagarias and Odlyzko. Later, Coster et al. improved the bound to 0

  20. 2004 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © 2004 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice Mind Your Ps: Processes, Policies, Protocols WWW' 2004 Akhil Sahai (Ph.D) HP Laboratories, Palo-Alto, CA asahai@hpl.hp.com #12;June 7, 2004 2 Confusions galore ! · Global Processes = Local

  1. Genetics and genomics of disease and development What: CCNY_BIO_Lecture V0005_2LP_2363 and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yi

    Genetics and genomics of disease and development Fall 2013 What: CCNY_BIO_Lecture V0005_2LP Genes to Genomes Hartwell et al., McGraw Hill (not mandatory). On reserve in the Biology Resource will also cover methods in genomics as these are completely integrated into model system genetics

  2. Detection, Monitoring and Management of Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 LP That Causes Large Patch in Zoysiagrass in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nissen, Lorna Denise

    2015-07-20

    solani AG 2-2 LP activity in Zeon® zoysiagrass per 48-h sampling period each month from November 2012 to March 2013 at a driving range at The Club at Carlton Woods in The Woodlands, TX... 2012 to March 2013 at a driving range at The Club at Carlton Woods in The Woodlands, TX ........................................... 26 xii...

  3. Farm Fuel Safety Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, LP-gas and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    112 Farm Fuel Safety Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel and by keeping fuel storage facilities in top condition. Flammable Liquids and Gases Gasoline, diesel fuel, LP, deterioration or damage. Never store fuel in food or drink containers. When transferring farm fuels, bond

  4. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Swartz, Matthew M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  5. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project SYNTHESES OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project SYNTHESES OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE for Maintaining and Improving Functioning of the South Bay Ecosystem and Restoring Tidal Salt Marsh and Associated Habitats over) Maintaining and Improving Functioning of the South Bay Ecosystem and (2) Restoring tidal salt marsh

  6. Sedimentary parameters of upper Barataria Bay, Louisiana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegert, Rudolf B

    1961-01-01

    SEDIMENTARY PARAMETERS OF UPPER BARATARIA BAY, LOUISIANA A Thesis Rudolf Bernhardt Siegert Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural snd Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the reGulremente for the d. agree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1961 Ma)or Sub)ect GeologP SEDYIKNTARY PARAI'ZTEHS OF DT'PBR BARATARIA BAY, LOUISIANA A Thesis By Rudolf Bernhardt Siegert Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of C 'tice Bea of Department or Student Advisor...

  7. Reconnaissance survey of eight bays in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strand, J.A.; Crecelius, E.A.; Pearson, W.H.; Fellingham, G.W.; Elston, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    From 1983 to 1985, Battelle/Marine Research Laboratory conducted reconnaissance-level field and laboratory studies to better characterize toxic contamination problems occurring in selected urban-industrialized bays (Bellingham Bay, Port Gardner - Everett Harbor, Fourmile Rock - Elliot Bay dump site vicinity, Sinclair Inlet) of Puget Sound. It was envisioned that this goal was best achieved by simultaneously determining levels of contamination in selected baseline or 'reference bays' (Samish Bay, Case Inlet, Dabob Bay, Sequim Bay). Two major tasks composed this effort. The first was conducted in 1983 and consisted of preliminary or screening surveys to collect and analyze sediment samples from 101 stations distributed in the four urban-industrialized bays (Figure 1), and at 80 stations distributed in the four baseline bays (Figure 2). The second task was undertaken in 1984 and involved detailed surveys and analyses of the same bays, but at a limited number of stations (32 in urban embayments, 16 in baseline bays). The stations to be resampled in 1984 were the ''cleanest'' of the clean and the ''dirtiest'' of the dirty as determined by the 1983 sediment chemical analyses, and within restrictions imposed by sediment type.

  8. Prudhoe Bay Oil Production Optimization: Using Virtual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    1 Prudhoe Bay Oil Production Optimization: Using Virtual Intelligence Techniques, Stage One: Neural total field oil production by optimizing the gas discharge rates and pressures at the separation handling capacity and subsequent oil production. 10 YEAR AVERAGE AMBIENT 1990-2000 & 2001, 2002 Averages

  9. Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary GIS Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary GIS Capacity Binder Index Background 2 Hardware, Software Report, configuration notes American Samoa Spatial Data Infrastructure Maps GIS Data CDs Operating System) #12;Compiled by Allison Graves, Nuna Technologies 2002. 2 Background A GIS presence was established

  10. Fuzzy decision and control, the Bayes context 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, John H.

    1993-12-15

    This paper shows how it is that fuzzy control may be viewed as a particular kind of stochastic (Bayesian) control. With the Bayes approach, fuzzy control may be viewed as an ensembled-average control, where the average is taken over a set...

  11. Cape Bowling Green Green BayBowling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    KIRWAN AL CLUDEN AL DEERAGUN AL PALLARENDA AL NORTH WARD AL MT MARGARET AL CASTLE HILL AL THE PINNACLES Dotswood Home Hill Townsville Rollingstone Fletcher Vale Burdekin Downs Alligator Creek Charters Towners YABULU MINGELA AL/MAN BAMBAROO LANSDOWN CLARE MUTARNEE NELLY BAY HOME HILL GIRU NORTH RAVENSWOOD

  12. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  13. Mass Production of Biodiesel From Algae UROP Summer 2008 Project Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    1 Mass Production of Biodiesel From Algae UROP Summer 2008 Project Proposal Steven A. Biorn Faculty energy products from algae. The first step in this process is to select species of algae with high growth of green algae. Once the oils have been extracted, the remnants of the algae contain protein, starches

  14. Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine From Various Biodiesel Feedstock 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

    2011-02-22

    in the total hydrocarbon and CO2 emissions, as blends were increased from B20 to B100, was also found to be an indication of better combustion using biodiesel fuels than petroleum diesel. However, NOx emissions were higher, predominantly at low speeds for most...

  15. Advantages of Biofuels B100 biodiesel has many benefits over traditional, petroleum-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advantages of Biofuels B100 biodiesel has many benefits over traditional, petroleum-based diesel-produced biofuels. Environmental & Social Benefits Decreases emissions of fossil fuels that contribute to climate-powered vessel fleet to biofuels and bio-lubricants. This effort produced the first federal vessel to run

  16. Supporting Information for: A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    -specific vegetable oil production for feedstock i, country j FAO 2005 Units = metric tons APj Aggregate vegetable oil production for country j FAO 2005 Units = metric tons PEOij Potential exports of processed vegetable oilSupporting Information for: A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials Matt

  17. Analysis of Biodiesel Blends Samples Collected in the United States in 2008 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    NREL sampled and tested the quality of U.S. B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel) in 2008; 32 samples from retail locations and fleets were tested against a proposed ASTM D7467 B6-B20 specification, now in effect.

  18. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  19. Comparative analysis of the atomization characteristics of fifteen biodiesel fuel types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, C.A.W.; Watts, K.C.

    2000-04-01

    Engine results using biofuels have varied considerably in the reported literature. This article addresses two potential sources of this variation, atomization differences and impurities due to lack of quality control during production. Atomization is the first process encountered during the combustion of fuels in a compression ignition engine and is largely determined by the fuel's viscosity and surface tension. Previous work using five experimentally produced methyl ester biodiesel fuels showed that the viscosity and surface tension could be predicted from their fatty acid ester composition, and the atomization characteristics in turn could be predicted from their viscosity and surface tension. This article utilizes the results of that work to give a quantitative comparison of the atomization characteristics of fifteen biodiesel fuel types using the fuel's viscosity and surface tension, predicted directly from the fatty acid composition of the fuels. Except for coconut and rapeseed biodiesel fuels, all of the rest of the 15 biodiesel fuels had similar atomization characteristics. Since the most likely contaminant in the fuel from the processing was residual glycerides, their effect on viscosity and surface tension was studied experimentally and their effect on the atomization characteristics was computed.

  20. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels Jason- out reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodie- sel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested

  1. The influence of biodiesel composition on compression ignition combustion and emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are to be achieved4,5 . Such factors have driven legislative alternatives to fossil fuels are necessary for the reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissionsThe influence of biodiesel composition on compression ignition combustion and emissions Paul

  2. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Biodiesel and Other Technologies Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-28

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biodiesel and Other Technologies, held on August 14th and 15th in Golden, Colorado.

  3. Operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on biodiesel with a partial oxidation reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N, Shekhawat, D.; Gemmen, R.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Office of Research & Development (NETL/ORD) has successfully demonstrated the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using reformed biodiesel. The biodiesel for the project was produced and characterized by West Virginia State University (WVSU). This project had two main aspects: 1) demonstrate a catalyst formulation on monolith for biodiesel fuel reforming; and 2) establish SOFC stack test stand capabilities. Both aspects have been completed successfully. For the first aspect, in–house patented catalyst specifications were developed, fabricated and tested. Parametric reforming studies of biofuels provided data on fuel composition, catalyst degradation, syngas composition, and operating parameters required for successful reforming and integration with the SOFC test stand. For the second aspect, a stack test fixture (STF) for standardized testing, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the Solid Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, was engineered and constructed at NETL. To facilitate the demonstration of the STF, NETL employed H.C. Starck Ceramics GmbH & Co. (Germany) anode supported solid oxide cells. In addition, anode supported cells, SS441 end plates, and cell frames were transferred from PNNL to NETL. The stack assembly and conditioning procedures, including stack welding and sealing, contact paste application, binder burn-out, seal-setting, hot standby, and other stack assembly and conditioning methods were transferred to NETL. In the future, fuel cell stacks provided by SECA or other developers could be tested at the STF to validate SOFC performance on various fuels. The STF operated on hydrogen for over 1000 hrs before switching over to reformed biodiesel for 100 hrs of operation. Combining these first two aspects led to demonstrating the biodiesel syngas in the STF. A reformer was built and used to convert 0.5 ml/min of biodiesel into mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas.) The syngas was fed to the STF and fuel cell stack. The results presented in this experimental report document one of the first times a SOFC has been operated on syngas from reformed biodiesel.

  4. Comparison of Simulated and Experimental Combustion of Biodiesel Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The effect of biodiesel content on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine performance has been investigated both experimentally and by computer simulation. Combustion experiments were performed in a single cylinder HCCI engine using blends of soy biodiesel in ultra low sulfur diesel, with concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 vol% and equivalence ratios ( ) from 0.38 to 0.48. Data from the engine tests included combustion analysis and exhaust composition analysis with standard gaseous emissions equipment. The engine utilized a custom port fuel injection strategy to provide highly premixed charges of fuel and air, making it possible to compare the results with single zone chemical kinetics simulations that were performed using CHEMKIN III, with a reaction set including 670 species and over 3000 reactions. The reaction mechanism incorporated equations for the combustion of a paraffinic fuel, n-heptane, and an oxygenated component, methyl butanoate, as well as reactions for the formation of NOx. The zero-dimensional model did a reasonably good job of predicting the HCCI combustion event, correctly predicting intake temperature effects on the phasing of both low temperature heat release (LTHR) and the main combustion event. It also did a good job of predicting the magnitude of LTHR. Differences between the simulation and experimental data included the dependence on biodiesel concentration and the duration of both LTHR and the main combustion event. The probable reasons for these differences are the changing derived cetane number (DCN) of the model fuel blend with biodiesel concentration, and the inability of the model to account for stratification of temperature and . The simulation also showed that concentrations of intermediate species produced during LTHR are dependent on the magnitude of LTHR, but otherwise the addition of biodiesel has no discernable effect.

  5. Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Manbae [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO/dx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NO/dx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NO/dx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%). ULSD, soybean B5, and coconut B5 showed no difference in exhaust emissions. However, PM emissions increased slightly for soybean B20 and coconut B20. NO/dx emissions increased significantly for soybean B20, while those for coconut B20 were comparable to ULSD. Differences in the chemical and physical properties of soybean and coconut biodiesel fuels compared with ULSD, such as higher fuel-borne oxygen, greater viscosity, and higher boiling temperatures, play a key role in combustion processes and, therefore, exhaust emissions. Furthermore, the highly unsaturated ester composition in soybean biodiesel can be another factor in the increase of NO/dx emissions.

  6. Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG)- Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported LNG- FE Dkt. No. 15-103-LNG

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Office of Fossil Energy gives notice of receipt of an Application filed June 25, 2015 by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied...

  7. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC and FLNG Liquefaction 3, LLC- 14-005-CIC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Application of Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC and FLNG Liquefaction 3, LLC to Transfer Control of Long-term Authorization to Export LNG to Free Trade...

  8. Analysis of Coconut-Derived Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel Fuel Samples from the Philippines: Task 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    NREL tested Philippines coconut biodiesel samples of neat and blended fuels. Results show that the current fuel quality standards were met with very few exceptions. Additional testing is recommended.

  9. Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hoseok

    2012-07-16

    Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the ...

  10. Operational and policy implications of managing uncertainty in quality and emissions of multi-feedstock biodiesel systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gül?en, Ece

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been widely promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ...

  11. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell, J.F., Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C; Day, J.N. (Nu-Energie, LLC); Hullette, J.N. (Nu-Energie, LLC)

    2009-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate ports. Results from laboratory operations showed that the ASTM specification for bound acylglycerides was achieved only at extended reaction times ({approx}25 min) using a single-stage batch contact at elevated temperature and pressure. In the single-pass configuration, the time required gives no throughput advantage over the current batch reaction process. The limitation seems to be the presence of glycerine, which hinders complete conversion because of reversible reactions. Significant improvement in quality was indicated after a second and third passes, where product from the first stage was collected and separated from the glycerine, and further reacted with a minor addition of methanol. Chemical kinetics calculations suggest that five consecutive stages of 2 min residence time would produce better than ASTM specification fuel with no addition of methanol past the first stage. Additional stages may increase the capital investment, but the increase should be offset by reduced operating costs and a factor of 3 higher throughput. Biodiesel, a mixture of methyl esters, is made commercially from the transesterification of oil, often soy oil (see Reaction 1). The kinetics of the transesterification process is rapid; however, multiphase separations after the synthesis of the fuel can be problematic. Therefore, the process is typically run in batch mode. The biodiesel fuel and the glycerine product take several hours to separate. In addition, to push yields to completion, an excess of methoxide catalyst is typically used, which has to be removed from both the biodiesel and the glycerine phase after reaction. Washing steps are often employed to remove free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable saponification. Standards for biodiesel purity are based either on the removal of contaminants before the oil feedstock is esterified or on the separation of unwanted by-products. Various methods have been examined to enhance either the pretreatment of biodiesel feedstocks or the posttreatment of reaction products, including the use of a cavitation reactor in the process i

  12. Impact of the Fuel Molecular Structure on the Oxidation Process of Real Diesel fuels According to Storage Conditions and Biodiesel Content

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hydrocarbon profilers can provide a clear understanding of complex interactions between fuel chemistry, storage conditions, and quantity of biodiesel over time.

  13. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  14. Promising Technology: High Bay Light-Emitting Diodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High bay LEDs offer several advantages over conventional high intensity discharge (HID) luminaires including longer lifetimes, reduced maintenance costs, and lower energy consumption.

  15. The Detector System of The Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. P. An; J. Z. Bai; A. B. Balantekin; H. R. Band; D. Beavis; W. Beriguete; M. Bishai; S. Blyth; R. L. Brown; I. Butorov; D. Cao; G. F. Cao; J. Cao; R. Carr; W. R. Cen; W. T. Chan; Y. L. Chan; J. F. Chang; L. C. Chang; Y. Chang; C. Chasman; H. Y. Chen; H. S. Chen; M. J. Chen; Q. Y. Chen; S. J. Chen; S. M. Chen; X. C. Chen; X. H. Chen; X. S. Chen; Y. X. Chen; Y. Chen; J. H. Cheng; J. Cheng; Y. P. Cheng; J. J. Cherwinka; S. Chidzik; K. Chow; M. C. Chu; J. P. Cummings; J. de Arcos; Z. Y. Deng; X. F. Ding; Y. Y. Ding; M. V. Diwan; L. Dong; J. Dove; E. Draeger; X. F. Du; D. A. Dwyer; W. R. Edwards; S. R. Ely; S. D. Fang; J. Y. Fu; Z. W. Fu; L. Q. Ge; V. Ghazikhanian; R. Gill; J. Goett; M. Gonchar; G. H. Gong; H. Gong; Y. A. Gornushkin; M. Grassi; L. S. Greenler; W. Q. Gu; M. Y. Guan; R. P. Guo; X. H. Guo; R. W. Hackenburg; R. L. Hahn; R. Han; S. Hans; M. He; Q. He; W. S. He; K. M. Heeger; Y. K. Heng; A. Higuera; P. Hinrichs; T. H. Ho; M. Hoff; Y. K. Hor; Y. B. Hsiung; B. Z. Hu; L. M. Hu; L. J. Hu; T. Hu; W. Hu; E. C. Huang; H. Z. Huang; H. X. Huang; P. W. Huang; X. Huang; X. T. Huang; P. Huber; G. Hussain; Z. Isvan; D. E. Jaffe; P. Jaffke; K. L. Jen; S. Jetter; X. P. Ji; X. L. Ji; H. J. Jiang; W. Q. Jiang; J. B. Jiao; R. A. Johnson; J. Joseph; L. Kang; S. H. Kettell; S. Kohn; M. Kramer; K. K. Kwan; M. W. Kwok; T. Kwok; C. Y. Lai; W. C. Lai; W. H. Lai; T. J. Langford; K. Lau; L. Lebanowski; J. Lee; M. K. P. Lee; R. T. Lei; R. Leitner; J. K. C. Leung; K. Y. Leung; C. A. Lewis; B. Li; C. Li; D. J. Li; F. Li; G. S. Li; J. Li; N. Y. Li; Q. J. Li; S. F. Li; S. C. Li; W. D. Li; X. B. Li; X. N. Li; X. Q. Li; Y. Li; Y. F. Li; Z. B. Li; H. Liang; J. Liang; C. J. Lin; G. L. Lin; P. Y. Lin; S. X. Lin; S. K. Lin; Y. C. Lin; J. J. Ling; J. M. Link; L. Littenberg; B. R. Littlejohn; B. J. Liu; C. Liu; D. W. Liu; H. Liu; J. L. Liu; J. C. Liu; S. Liu; S. S. Liu; X. Liu; Y. B. Liu; C. Lu; H. Q. Lu; J. S. Lu; A. Luk; K. B. Luk; T. Luo; X. L. Luo; L. H. Ma; Q. M. Ma; X. Y. Ma; X. B. Ma; Y. Q. Ma; B. Mayes; K. T. McDonald; M. C. McFarlane; R. D. McKeown; Y. Meng; I. Mitchell; D. Mohapatra; J. Monari Kebwaro; J. E. Morgan; Y. Nakajima; J. Napolitano; D. Naumov; E. Naumova; C. Newsom; H. Y. Ngai; W. K. Ngai; Y. B. Nie; Z. Ning; J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux; A. Olshevskiy; A. Pagac; H. -R. Pan; S. Patton; C. Pearson; V. Pec; J. C. Peng; L. E. Piilonen; L. Pinsky; C. S. J. Pun; F. Z. Qi; M. Qi; X. Qian; N. Raper; B. Ren; J. Ren; R. Rosero; B. Roskovec; X. C. Ruan; W. R. Sands III; B. Seilhan; B. B. Shao; K. Shih; W. Y. Song; H. Steiner; P. Stoler; M. Stuart; G. X. Sun; J. L. Sun; N. Tagg; Y. H. Tam; H. K. Tanaka; W. Tang; X. Tang; D. Taychenachev; H. Themann; Y. Torun; S. Trentalange; O. Tsai; K. V. Tsang; R. H. M. Tsang; C. E. Tull; Y. C. Tung; N. Viaux; B. Viren; S. Virostek; V. Vorobel; C. H. Wang; L. S. Wang; L. Y. Wang; L. Z. Wang; M. Wang; N. Y. Wang; R. G. Wang; T. Wang; W. Wang; W. W. Wang; X. T. Wang; X. Wang; Y. F. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. M. Wang; D. M. Webber; H. Y. Wei; Y. D. Wei; L. J. Wen; D. L. Wenman; K. Whisnant; C. G. White; L. Whitehead; C. A. Whitten Jr.; J. Wilhelmi; T. Wise; H. C. Wong; H. L. H. Wong; J. Wong; S. C. F. Wong; E. Worcester; F. F. Wu; Q. Wu; D. M. Xia; J. K. Xia; S. T. Xiang; Q. Xiao; Z. Z. Xing; G. Xu; J. Y. Xu; J. L. Xu; J. Xu; W. Xu; Y. Xu; T. Xue; J. Yan; C. G. Yang; L. Yang; M. S. Yang; M. T. Yang; M. Ye; M. Yeh; Y. S. Yeh; K. Yip; B. L. Young; G. Y. Yu; Z. Y. Yu; S. Zeng; L. Zhan; C. Zhang; F. H. Zhang; H. H. Zhang; J. W. Zhang; K. Zhang; Q. X. Zhang; Q. M. Zhang; S. H. Zhang; X. T. Zhang; Y. C. Zhang; Y. H. Zhang; Y. M. Zhang; Y. X. Zhang; Y. M. Zhang; Z. J. Zhang; Z. Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; J. Zhao; Q. W. Zhao; Y. F. Zhao; Y. B. Zhao; L. Zheng; W. L. Zhong; L. Zhou; N. Zhou; Z. Y. Zhou; H. L. Zhuang; S. Zimmerman; J. H. Zou

    2015-08-17

    The Daya Bay experiment was the first to report simultaneous measurements of reactor antineutrinos at multiple baselines leading to the discovery of $\\bar{\

  16. Supplement to Chrisman, Langley, Bay, and Pohorille, \\Incorporating Biological Knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chrisman, Lonnie

    Supplement to Chrisman, Langley, Bay, and Pohorille, \\Incorporating Biological Knowledge This supplement contains some of the detailed technical details of the proba- bilistic model, algorithm

  17. NOAA Selects Alaska's Kachemak Bay as New Habitat Focus Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Resilient coastal communities · Increased coastal/marine tourism, access, and recreation Alaska is also fishing, marine transportation, tourism. A Marine Researcher's Paradise Although Kachemak Bay has amazing

  18. The Making of a Modern Market: eBay.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kashkool, Keyvan

    2010-01-01

    political coalitions shift market design and influence theeBay and The Politics of Market Design and Management Thejustification for the market design as a level playing field

  19. The Detector System of The Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An, F P; Balantekin, A B; Band, H R; Beavis, D; Beriguete, W; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Brown, R L; Butorov, I; Cao, D; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Carr, R; Cen, W R; Chan, W T; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, L C; Chang, Y; Chasman, C; Chen, H Y; Chen, H S; Chen, M J; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S J; Chen, S M; Chen, X C; Chen, X H; Chen, X S; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, J H; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y P; Cherwinka, J J; Chidzik, S; Chow, K; Chu, M C; Cummings, J P; de Arcos, J; Deng, Z Y; Ding, X F; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dong, L; Dove, J; Draeger, E; Du, X F; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Ely, S R; Fang, S D; Fu, J Y; Fu, Z W; Ge, L Q; Ghazikhanian, V; Gill, R; Goett, J; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Gornushkin, Y A; Grassi, M; Greenler, L S; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, R P; Guo, X H; Hackenburg, R W; Hahn, R L; Han, R; Hans, S; He, M; He, Q; He, W S; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Higuera, A; Hinrichs, P; Ho, T H; Hoff, M; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, L M; Hu, L J; Hu, T; Hu, W; Huang, E C; Huang, H Z; Huang, H X; Huang, P W; Huang, X; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Hussain, G; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; Jaffke, P; Jen, K L; Jetter, S; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiang, H J; Jiang, W Q; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Joseph, J; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kohn, S; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Lai, C Y; Lai, W C; Lai, W H; Langford, T J; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lee, M K P; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, J K C; Leung, K Y; Lewis, C A; Li, B; Li, C; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, J; Li, N Y; Li, Q J; Li, S F; Li, S C; Li, W D; Li, X B; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, J; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, P Y; Lin, S X; Lin, S K; Lin, Y C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, B J; Liu, C; Liu, D W; Liu, H; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Liu, S; Liu, S S; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Lu, J S; Luk, A; Luk, K B; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Ma, L H; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; Mayes, B; McDonald, K T; McFarlane, M C; McKeown, R D; Meng, Y; Mitchell, I; Mohapatra, D; Kebwaro, J Monari; Morgan, J E; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Newsom, C; Ngai, H Y; Ngai, W K; Nie, Y B; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevskiy, A; Pagac, A; Pan, H -R; Patton, S; Pearson, C; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Piilonen, L E; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Ren, B; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Sands, W R; Seilhan, B; Shao, B B; Shih, K; Song, W Y; Steiner, H; Stoler, P; Stuart, M; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tagg, N; Tam, Y H; Tanaka, H K; Tang, W; Tang, X; Taychenachev, D; Themann, H; Torun, Y; Trentalange, S; Tsai, O; Tsang, K V; Tsang, R H M; Tull, C E; Tung, Y C; Viaux, N; Viren, B; Virostek, S; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, L S; Wang, L Y; Wang, L Z; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, T; Wang, W; Wang, W W; Wang, X T; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Webber, D M; Wei, H Y; Wei, Y D; Wen, L J; Wenman, D L; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Whitten, C A; Wilhelmi, J; Wise, T; Wong, H C; Wong, H L H; Wong, J; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, F F; Wu, Q; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xiang, S T; Xiao, Q; Xing, Z Z; Xu, G; Xu, J Y; Xu, J L; Xu, J; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yan, J; Yang, C G; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Ye, M; Yeh, M; Yeh, Y S; Yip, K; Young, B L; Yu, G Y; Yu, Z Y; Zeng, S; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, F H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, K; Zhang, Q X; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X T; Zhang, Y C; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y F; Zhao, Y B; Zheng, L; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhou, Z Y; Zhuang, H L; Zimmerman, S; Zou, J H

    2015-01-01

    The Daya Bay experiment was the first to report simultaneous measurements of reactor antineutrinos at multiple baselines leading to the discovery of $\\bar{\

  20. Modeling nitrogen cycling in forested watersheds of Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsaker, C.T.; Garten, C.T.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Agreement calls for a 40% reduction of controllable phosphorus and nitrogen to the tidal Bay by the year 2000. To accomplish this goal the Chesapeake Bay Program needs accurate estimates of nutrient loadings, including atmospheric deposition, from various land uses. The literature was reviewed on forest nitrogen pools and fluxes, and nitrogen data from research catchments in the Chesapeake Basin were identified. The structure of a nitrogen module for forests is recommended for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model along with the possible functional forms for fluxes.

  1. Current Perspectives on the Physical and Biological Processes of Humboldt Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlosser, S. C.; Rasmussen, R.

    2007-01-01

    and licensing of bar pilots, assisting in the research of navigation and safety improvements for Humboldt Bay, coordinating the Humboldt Bay Oil

  2. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: Assessment and Recommendations Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: Assessment...

  3. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during continuous operation under DPF regeneration events. During the second stage of HD testing, the ULSD lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.5% to 0.8%, while for B20, lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.6% to 1.0%, but the fuel in the oil was 36% biodiesel. For the LD vehicle tests, the frequency of DPF regeneration events was observed to be the same for both ULSD and B20. No significant difference between the two fuels' estimated soot loading was detected by the engine control unit (ECU), although a 23% slower rate of increase in differential pressure across DPF was observed with B20. It appears that the ECU estimated soot loading is based on the engine map, not taking advantage of the lower engine-out particulate matter from the use of biodiesel. After 4,000 miles of LD vehicle operation with ULSD, fuel dilution in the lube-oil samples showed total dilution levels of 4.1% diesel. After 4,000 miles of operation with B20, total fuel in oil dilution levels were 6.7% consisting of 3.6% diesel fuel and 3.1% biodiesel. Extrapolation to the 10,000-mile oil drain interval with B20 suggests that the total fuel content in the oil could reach 12%, compared to 5% for operation on ULSD. Analysis of the oil samples also included measurement of total acid number, total base number, viscosity, soot, metals and wear scar; however, little difference in these parameters was noted.

  4. Methods and catalysts for making biodiesel from the transesterification and esterification of unrefined oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yan, Shuli (Detroit, MI); Salley, Steven O. (Grosse Pointe Park, MI); Ng, K. Y. Simon (West Bloomfield, MI)

    2012-04-24

    A method of forming a biodiesel product and a heterogeneous catalyst system used to form said product that has a high tolerance for the presence of water and free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil feedstock is disclosed. This catalyst system may simultaneously catalyze both the esterification of FAA and the transesterification of triglycerides present in the oil feedstock. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of zinc and lanthanum oxide heterogeneous catalysts that include different ratios of zinc oxide to lanthanum oxides (Zn:La ratio) ranging from about 10:0 to 0:10. The Zn:La ratio in the catalyst is believed to have an effect on the number and reactivity of Lewis acid and base sites, as well as the transesterification of glycerides, the esterification of fatty acids, and the hydrolysis of glycerides and biodiesel.

  5. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

    2011-06-01

    It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher HC slip and a reduction in NO{sub 2} formation. The metal-zeolite SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000 mile equivalent aging. This catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF, showed a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle.

  6. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  7. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement Vouchers TheIncentiveAlternativeBiodiesel

  8. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  9. Quality Parameters and Chemical Analysis for Biodiesel Produced in the United States in 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; Chupka, G.

    2013-03-01

    Samples of biodiesel (B100) from producers and terminals in 2011were tested for critical properties: free and total glycerin, flash point, cloud point, oxidation stability, cold soak filterability, and metals. Failure rates for cold soak filterability and oxidation stability were below 5%. One sample failed flash point due to excess methanol. One sample failed oxidation stability and metal content. Overall, 95% of the samples from this survey met biodiesel quality specification ASTM D6751. In 2007, a sampling of B100 from production facilities showed that nearly 90% met D6751. In samples meeting D6751, calcium was found above the method detection limit in nearly half the samples. Feedstock analysis revealed half the biodiesel was produced from soy and half was from mixed feedstocks. The saturated fatty acid methyl ester concentration of the B100 was compared to the saturated monoglyceride concentration as a percent of total monoglyceride. The real-world correlation of these properties was very good. The results of liquid chromatograph measurement of monoglycerides were compared to ASTM D6751. Agreement between the two methods was good, particularly for total monoglycerides and unsaturated monoglycerides. Because only very low levels of saturated monoglycerides measured, the two methods had more variability, but the correlation was still acceptable.

  10. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  11. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

    2011-04-01

    An accelerated durability test method determined the potential impact of biodiesel ash impurities, including engine testing with multiple diesel particulate filter substrate types, as well as diesel oxidation catalyst and selective catalyst reduction catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of a DPF after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in thermal shock resistance. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher hydrocarbon slip and a reduction in NO2 formation. The SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging. The SCR catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF and exposed to B20 exhaust suffered a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. The results of this study suggest that long-term operation with B20 at the current specification limits for alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities will adversely impact the performance of DOC, DPF and SCR systems.

  12. Willapa Bay Marine Ecology Research 1 Willapa Bay Marine Ecology Research: 2003 Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruesink, Jennifer

    for us ­ and, as you may have noticed, a "tent city" that periodically sprang up around our house, on average, by four days each decade since 1936, and the frequency of commercial sets is more common found for the last few years ­ but a little sooner, probably from the warm bay water conditions. Third

  13. The Young and Bright Type Ia Supernova ASASSN-14lp: Discovery, Early-Time Observations, First-Light Time, Distance to NGC 4666, and Progenitor Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shappee, B J; Holoien, T W -S; Prieto, J L; Contreras, C; Itagaki, K; Burns, C R; Kochanek, C S; Stanek, K Z; Alper, E; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Conseil, E; Danilet, A B; Dong, Subo; Falco, E; Grupe, D; Hsiao, E Y; Kiyota, S; Morrell, N; Nicolas, J; Phillips, M M; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G; Stritzinger, M; Szczygie?, D M; Thompson, T A; Thorstensen, J; Wagner, M; Wo?niak, P R

    2015-01-01

    On 2014 Dec. 9.61, the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") discovered ASASSN-14lp just $\\sim2$ days after first light using a global array of 14-cm diameter telescopes. ASASSN-14lp went on to become a bright supernova ($V = 11.94$ mag), second only to SN 2014J for the year. We present prediscovery photometry (with a detection less than a day after first light) and ultraviolet through near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic data covering the rise and fall of ASASSN-14lp for more than 100 days. We find that ASASSN-14lp had a broad light curve ($\\Delta m_{15}(B) = 0.796 \\pm 0.001_{\\textrm{stat}}$), a $B$-band maximum at $2457015.823 \\pm 0.030_{\\textrm{stat}}$, a rise time of $16.94^{+ 0.11 }_{- 0.11 }$ days, and moderate host--galaxy extinction ($E(B-V)_{\\textrm{host}} = 0.329 \\pm 0.001_{\\textrm{stat}}$). Using ASASSN-14lp we derive a distance modulus for NGC 4666 of $\\mu = 30.834 \\pm 0.003_{\\textrm{stat}} \\pm 0.16_{\\textrm{syst}}$ corresponding to a distance of $14.68 \\pm 0.02_{\\...

  14. Chesapeake Bay Chart 12254 Cape Henry to Thimble Shoal Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chesapeake Bay Chart 12254 ­ Cape Henry to Thimble Shoal Light BookletChart Commemorative Edition chart for navigation. · Complete, reduced scale nautical chart · Print at home for free · Convenient LIGHT The chart on the cover is Coast Chart No. 31, Chesapeake Bay­York River, Hampton Roads, Chesapeake

  15. Identifying Sources of Nitrogen to Hanalei Bay, Kauai, Utilizing the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    Identifying Sources of Nitrogen to Hanalei Bay, Kauai, Utilizing the Nitrogen Isotope Signature, Menlo Park, California 94025, and P.O. Box 681, Kilauea, Hawaii 96754 Sewage effluent, storm runoff of land derived nutrients into Hanalei Bay, Kauai. We determined the nitrogen isotopic signatures (15N

  16. Modeling the Circulation in Penobscot Bay, Maine Huijie Xue1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiu, Peng

    Xue et al1 Modeling the Circulation in Penobscot Bay, Maine Huijie Xue1 , Yu Xu1 , David Brooks2 , Neal Pettigrew1 , John Wallinga1 1. School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 Penobscot Bay, with approximate dimensions 50 x 100 km, is the largest estuarine embayment along the Maine

  17. Neutron calibration sources in the Daya Bay experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, J.; Carr, R.; Dwyer, D. A.; Gu, W. Q.; Li, G. S.; McKeown, R. D.; Qian, X.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Wu, F. F.; Zhang, C.

    2015-07-09

    We describe the design and construction of the low rate neutron calibration sources used in the Daya Bay Reactor Anti-neutrino Experiment. Such sources are free of correlated gamma-neutron emission, which is essential in minimizing induced background in the anti-neutrino detector. Thus, the design characteristics have been validated in the Daya Bay anti-neutrino detector.

  18. OFFSHORE FISHING IN BRISTOL BAY AND BERING SEA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OFFSHORE FISHING IN BRISTOL BAY AND BERING SEA Marine Biological Laboratory DEC 19 1952 WOODS HOLE AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;OFFSHORE FISHING IN BRISTOL BAY AND BERING SEA Marine Biological Laboratory DEC 19 governing the fishery 3 Experimental offshore fishing 5 Operations in 1939 6 Summary of 1939 operations , 13

  19. BayWa Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminexInformationArkansas: Energy ResourcesPoint,View,BayWa Group

  20. Hooper Bay Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam: Energyarea,Magazine Jump to: navigation,(SREP)Hooper Bay

  1. Bristol Bay Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin:PontiacInformation Forest ServiceBridgewater2Bristol Bay

  2. Cleveland Bay Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower Ventures Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clear PowerCleveland Bay Wind

  3. CHANGES IN THE DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY OF FLORIDA BAY MACROPHYTES: 1995 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durako, Michael J.

    CHANGES IN THE DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY OF FLORIDA BAY MACROPHYTES: 1995 ­ 2004 J. Brooke Landry................................................................................xiii BASIN-SCALE CHANGES IN THE DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY OF FLORIDA BAY MACROPHYTES: 1995 ­ 2004............................................................................194 BAY-SCALE CHANGES IN THE DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY OF FLORIDA BAY MACROPHYTES: 1995 ­ 2004

  4. A computational investigation of diesel and biodiesel combustion and NOx formation in a light-duty compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zihan; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Som, Sibendu

    2012-04-24

    Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogate fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0���° BTDC to 10���° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends."

  5. Table 4. Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, October 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S. Coke515 2.494 2.484Biodiesel producers and

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I NLoans TheCounty Schools Biodiesel and Propane

  7. Bayes Empirical Bayes Inference of Amino Acid Sites Under Positive Selection Ziheng Yang,* Wendy S.W. Wong, and Rasmus Nielsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    . In this paper, we develop a Bayes empirical Bayes (BEB) approach to the problem, which assigns a prior and simulated data sets. The results suggest that in small data sets the new BEB method does not generate false

  8. Muon Simulation at the Daya Bay SIte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mengyun, Guan; Jun, Cao; Changgen, Yang; Yaxuan, Sun; Luk, Kam-Biu

    2006-05-23

    With a pretty good-resolution mountain profile, we simulated the underground muon background at the Daya Bay site. To get the sea-level muon flux parameterization, a modification to the standard Gaisser's formula was introduced according to the world muon data. MUSIC code was used to transport muon through the mountain rock. To deploy the simulation, first we generate a statistic sample of sea-level muon events according to the sea-level muon flux distribution formula; then calculate the slant depth of muon passing through the mountain using an interpolation method based on the digitized data of the mountain; finally transport muons through rock to get underground muon sample, from which we can get results of muon flux, mean energy, energy distribution and angular distribution.

  9. Studies on the anatomy and ecological distribution of Dentalium texasianum Philippi 1848 in West Bay of the Galveston Bay complex (Mollusca: scaphopoda 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Larry Randal

    1972-01-01

    STUDIES ON THE ANATOMY AND ECOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DENTALIUM TEXASIANUM PHILIPPI 1848 IN WEST BAY OF THE GALVESTON BAY COMPLEX (MOLLUSCA:SCAPHOPODA) A Thesis by LARRY RANDAL PETERSEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972 Major Subject: Biology STUDIES ON THE ANATOMY AND ECOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DENTALIUM TEXASIANUM PHILIPPI 1848 IN WEST BAY OF THE GALVESTON BAY...

  10. Seagrass habitat utilization by fishes in Christmas Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crotwell, Patricia Lynn

    1997-01-01

    Fishes in Christmas Bay, TX were collected during April 1994 through March 1995 to: 1) assess temporal variability in their density, biomass, and diversity; 2) define the relationship between variability in fish population parameters...

  11. Manganese Oxidation In A Natural Marine Environment- San Antonio Bay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neyin, Rosemary Ogheneochuko

    2013-04-12

    the San Antonio Bay. In this study area, the formaldoxime assay was utilized to determine that manganese oxidation is catalyzed via multiple pathways utilizing various catalysts and proximal oxidants. The contribution of catalysts such as colloidal matter...

  12. Thermal Waters Along The Konocti Bay Fault Zone, Lake County...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Waters Along The Konocti Bay Fault Zone, Lake County, California- A Re-Evaluation Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  13. Assembly and Installation of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. R. Band; R. L. Brown; R. Carr; X. C. Chen; X. H. Chen; J. J. Cherwinka; M. C. Chu; E. Draeger; D. A. Dwyer; W. R. Edwards; R. Gill; J. Goett; L. S. Greenler; W. Q. Gu; W. S. He; K. M. Heeger; Y. K. Heng; P. Hinrichs; T. H. Ho; M. Hoff; Y. B. Hsiung; Y. Jin; L. Kang; S. H. Kettell; M. Kramer; K. K. Kwan; M. W. Kwok; C. A. Lewis; G. S. Li; N. Li; S. F. Li; X. N. Li; C. J. Lin; B. R. Littlejohn; J. L. Liu; K. B. Luk; X. L. Luo; X. Y. Ma; M. C. McFarlane; R. D. McKeown; Y. Nakajima; J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux; A. Pagac; X. Qian; B. Seilhan; K. Shih; H. Steiner; X. Tang; H. Themann; K. V. Tsang; R. H. M. Tsang; S. Virostek; L. Wang; W. Wang; Z. M. Wang; D. M. Webber; Y. D. Wei; L. J. Wen; D. L. Wenman; J. Wilhelmi; M. Wingert; T. Wise; H. L. H. Wong; F. F. Wu; Q. Xiao; L. Yang; Z. J. Zhang; W. L. Zhong; H. L. Zhuang

    2013-09-06

    The Daya Bay reactor antineutrino experiment is designed to make a precision measurement of the neutrino mixing angle theta13, and recently made the definitive discovery of its nonzero value. It utilizes a set of eight, functionally identical antineutrino detectors to measure the reactor flux and spectrum at baselines of 300 - 2000m from the Daya Bay and Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plants. The Daya Bay antineutrino detectors were built in an above-ground facility and deployed side-by-side at three underground experimental sites near and far from the nuclear reactors. This configuration allows the experiment to make a precision measurement of reactor antineutrino disappearance over km-long baselines and reduces relative systematic uncertainties between detectors and nuclear reactors. This paper describes the assembly and installation of the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors.

  14. Project Reports for Keweenaw Bay Indian Community- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC) is committed to preserving our natural environment and reducing the amount of fossil fuels consumed while developing "green" business manufacturing jobs on tribal lands.

  15. JAMAICA BAY TASK FORCE MEETING Tuesday April 6, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Len Houston, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) 7:30 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Update Dan Mundy Jr., Jamaica Bay EcoWatchers 7:50 Recent Nitrogen Agreement with NYC Brad Sewell, Natural Resources Defense

  16. Cross-media approach to saving the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appleton, E.L.

    1995-12-01

    A project EPA began in August will investigate the possibility of cross-media emissions trading as a new approach to reducing nitrogen loadings to the Chesapeake Bay. Working with the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the Agency hopes to device a NO{sub x} trading framework along the lines of existing sulfur dioxide trading plans to control acid rain. The Chesapeake Air Project will examine the feasibility of using emissions trading between and water sources, including trading credits between power plants and mobile sources, to reduce the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the bay. The progress of the Bay Program nutrient reduction goals is up for reevaluation in 1997, and Knopes and EDF economist Brian Morton have high hopes that the trading plan, which would place a cap on the mass of emissions and rate of deposition allowed by all sources, will become the atmospheric deposition portion of the Chesapeake Bay Program`s Nutrient Reduction Strategy. 6 refs.

  17. Project Reports for Keweenaw Bay Indian Community- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The goal of the project is to build the staff capacity to enable the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC) to establish a tribal weatherization program that promotes energy sufficiency throughout the tribal community.

  18. Fish assemblages on coral reefs in Guanaja, Bay Islands, Honduras 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahendran, Christopher Kandiah

    1999-01-01

    Species composition and relative abundance of ichthyofaunal assemblages on reefs surrounding Guanaja, Bay Islands, Honduras were censused from June through December 1996. Transect and random swim surveys were used to characterize community structure...

  19. Preliminary Investigation of Tracer Gas Reaeration Method for Shallow Bays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Sarah H.; Holley, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    Accurate estimates of surface exchange rates for volatile pollutants in bays are needed to allow predictions of pollutant movement and retention time. The same types of estimates can be used to calculate reaeration rates. The tracer gas technique...

  20. Geological oceanography of the Atchafalaya Bay area, Louisiana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Warren Charles

    1953-01-01

    GEOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE ATCHAFALAYA BAY AREA, LOUISIANA A Dissertation By WARREN CHARLES THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: t/yu*-. W. Armstrong Price,' Chairman of Committee Dale F. Leipper, Head of May 1953 GEOLOGICAL... OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE ATCHAFALAYA BAY AREA, LOUISIANA By WARREN CHARLES THOMPSON111 A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR...

  1. On the circulation and tidal flushing of Mobile Bay, Alabama 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Austin, George Belden

    1953-01-01

    of Symbols, Tables ~ . . . I, INTRODUCTION Historical B. Classification of Estuaries C. Ob]ectives II. GENERAL DISCUSSION OF NOBILE BAY A. Geomorphological B. Geological C. Biological iii ~ ~ vi ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o sic.... Collection of Data 27 2B V, ANALYSIS OF THE DATA A. Methods B. Distribution of Temperature, Salinity, and Fresh Water Page 30 30 C. Circulation D. Mass Transport . E. Tidal Flushing of Mobile Bay . VI ~ SUMMAHY AND CONCLUSIONS VII, BIBLIOGRAPHY...

  2. Subenvironments of deposition in San Antonio Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Gary Lynn

    1973-01-01

    SUBENVIRONMENTS OF DEPOSITION IN SAN ANTONIO BAY, TEXAS A Thesis by GARY LYNN HALL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1973 Major... Subject: Oceanography SUBENVIRONMENTS OF DEPOSITION IN SAN ANTONIO BAY, TEXAS A Thesis by GARY LYNN HALL Approved as to style and content by: hairman o ommi ttee Head of epartme, Mem er Mem e er December 1973 ABSTRACT Subenvironments...

  3. Comparison of Real-World Fuel Use and Emissions for Dump Trucks Fueled with B20 Biodiesel Versus Petroleum Diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    Versus Petroleum Diesel By H. Christopher Frey, Ph.D. Professor Department of Civil, Construction 2006 Annual Meeting CD-ROM Paper revised from original submittal. #12;Frey and Kim 1 ABSTRACT Diesel-world in-use on-road emissions of selected diesel vehicles, fueled with B20 biodiesel and petroleum diesel

  4. ICCBT 2008 -F -(07) pp79-94 Palm Biodiesel an Alternative Green Renewable Energy for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ducatelle, Frederick

    ICCBT 2008 - F - (07) ­ pp79-94 ICCBT2008 Palm Biodiesel an Alternative Green Renewable Energy increased the interest on alternative energy sources. Clean and renewable biofuels have been touted as an alternative source of green renewable energy through a survey conducted from previously researched findings

  5. Bay Alarm Contract: Campus Notification Purchasing has established a 3 year master agreement with Bay Alarm for burglary monitoring services,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bay Alarm Contract: Campus Notification Purchasing has established a 3 year master agreement verification fees, as I will pay those if you use the negotiated agreement. As long as you have existing phone

  6. Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

    2010-07-18

    In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C1-C4 oxidation and NOx formation kinetics.

  7. Global existence and $L^{p}$ convergence rates of planar waves for three-dimensional bipolar Euler-Poisson systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jie Liao; Yeping Li

    2015-01-24

    In the paper, we consider a multi-dimensional bipolar hydrodynamic model from semiconductor devices and plasmas. This system takes the form of Euler-Poisson with electric field and frictional damping added to the momentum equations. We show the global existence and $L^{p}$ convergence rates of planar diffusion waves for multi-dimensional bipolar Euler-Poisson systems when the initial data are near the planar diffusive waves. A frequency decomposition and approximate Green function based on delicate energy method are used to get the optimal decay rates of the planar diffusion waves. To our knowledge, the $L^p(p\\in[2,+\\infty])$-convergence rate of planar waves improves the previous results about the $L^2$-convergence rates.

  8. Developing New Alternative Energy in Virginia: Bio-Diesel from Algae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatcher, Patrick

    2012-03-29

    The overall objective of this study was to select chemical processing equipment, install and operate that equipment to directly convert algae to biodiesel via a reaction patented by Old Dominion University (Pat. No. US 8,080,679B2). This reaction is a high temperature (250- 330{degrees}C) methylation reaction utilizing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to produce biodiesel. As originally envisioned, algal biomass could be treated with TMAH in methanol without the need to separately extract triacylglycerides (TAG). The reactor temperature allows volatilization and condensation of the methyl esters whereas the spent algae solids can be utilized as a high-value fertilizer because they are minimally charred. During the course of this work and immediately prior to commencing, we discovered that glycerol, a major by-product of the conventional transesterification reaction for biofuels, is not formed but rather three methoxylated glycerol derivatives are produced. These derivatives are high-value specialty green chemicals that strongly upgrade the economics of the process, rendering this approach as one that now values the biofuel only as a by-product, the main value products being the methoxylated glycerols. A horizontal agitated thin-film evaporator (one square foot heat transfer area) proved effective as the primary reactor facilitating the reaction and vaporization of the products, and subsequent discharge of the spent algae solids that are suitable for supplementing petrochemicalbased fertilizers for agriculture. Because of the size chosen for the reactor, we encountered problems with delivery of the algal feed to the reaction zone, but envision that this problem could easily disappear upon scale-up or can be replaced economically by incorporating an extraction process. The objective for production of biodiesel from algae in quantities that could be tested could not be met, but we implemented use of soybean oil as a surrogate TAG feed to overcome this limitation. The positive economics of this process are influenced by the following: 1. the weight percent of dry algae in suspension that can be fed into the evaporator, 2. the alga species’ ability to produce a higher yield of biodiesel, 3. the isolation of valuable methoxylated by-products, 4. recycling and regeneration of methanol and TMAH, and 5. the market value of biodiesel, commercial agricultural fertilizer, and the three methoxylated by-products. The negative economics of the process are the following: 1. the cost of producing dried, ground algae, 2. the capital cost of the equipment required for feedstock mixing, reaction, separation and recovery of products, and reactant recycling, and 3. the electrical cost and other utilities. In this report, the economic factors and results are assembled to predict the commercialization cost and its viability. This direct conversion process and equipment discussed herein can be adapted for various feedstocks including: other algal species, vegetable oil, jatropha oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, and other TAG containing raw materials as a renewable energy resource.

  9. The Cost of the Technological Sublime: Daring Ingenuity and the new San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frick, Karen Trapenberg

    2008-01-01

    Cruz. ‘Unity Towers East Bay Bridge‘, New East Span ProposalSubmitted to MTC Bay Bridge Design Task Force, 6 May.Francisco- Oakland Bay Bridge, T.Y. Lin International and

  10. An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Optical engine experiments suggest that near stoichiometric charge-gas mixtures in the standing premixed autoignition zone near flame lift-off length explains biodiesel NOx increase under all conditions

  11. Biodiesel Emissions Testing with a Modern Diesel Engine - Equipment Only: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-399

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the emissions and performance impact of biodiesel in a modern diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter. This testing is in support of the Non-Petroleum Based Fuels (NPBF) 2010 Annual Operating Plan (AOP).

  12. Proceedings of the Symposium: Current Perspectives on the Physical and Biological Processes of Humboldt Bay, March 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlosser, S. C.

    2007-01-01

    and licensing of bar pilots, assisting in the research of navigation and safety improvements for Humboldt Bay, coordinating the Humboldt Bay Oil

  13. Cathodic Protection of the Yaquina Bay Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Laylor, H.M.; Cryer, C.B.

    2001-02-01

    The Yaquina Bay Bridge in Newport, Oregon, was designed by Conde B. McCullough and built in 1936. The 3,223-foot (982 m) structure is a combination of concrete arch approach spans and a steel through arch over the shipping channel. Cathodic protection is used to prevent corrosion damage to the concrete arches. The Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) installed a carbon anode coating (DAC-85) on two of the north approach spans in 1985. This anode was operated at a current density of 6.6 mA/m2(0.6 mA/ft2). No failure of the conductive anode was observed in 1990, five years after application, or in 2000, 15 years after application. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 20 mils (0.5 mm) thick were applied to half the south approach spans beginning in 1990. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 15 mils (0.4 mm) thick were applied to the remaining spans in 1996. These anodes were operated at a current density of 2.2 mA/m2(0.2 mA/ft2). In 1999, four zones on the approach spans were included in a two-year field trial of humectants to improve zinc anode performance. The humectants LiNO3 and LiBr were applied to two zones; the two adjacent zones were left untreated as controls. The humectants substantially reduced circuit resistance compared to the controls.

  14. Energy Secretary Steven Chu to Travel to Bay Area to Highlight...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Secretary Steven Chu to Travel to Bay Area to Highlight State of the Union Address, Commitment to Clean Energy Energy Secretary Steven Chu to Travel to Bay Area to Highlight...

  15. Natural geological responses to anthropogenic alterations of the naples bay estuarine system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fielder, Bryan Robert

    2009-05-15

    .1 Regional Geologic Setting....................................................................... 4 2.2 Environmental Setting ............................................................................. 5 2.3 Historical Anthropogenic Alterations... ............................................................... 19 4.2.2 Southern Naples Bay ............................................................... 20 4.2.3 Dollar Bay ............................................................................... 22 5. DISCUSSION...

  16. Hydro INTERNATIONAL | OCTOBER 2015 | 21 Figure 1: Bechevin Bay Inlet System.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Hydro INTERNATIONAL | OCTOBER 2015 | 21 FEATURE | Figure 1: Bechevin Bay Inlet System. Bechevin Bay, the derived bathymetry was limited to very shallow depths because of the sediment #12;| OCTOBER 2015 | Hydro

  17. FISHES, MACROINVERTEBRATES, AND HYDROLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF UPLAND CANALS IN TAMPA BAY, FLORIDA'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with the estuary. Shortly after draglines removed earth plugs between the excavated canal system and the bay

  18. Education Program for Improved Water Quality in Copano Bay Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthold, A.; Moench, E.; Wagner, K.; Paschal, J.

    2012-05-17

    delivered educational programs to landowners throughout the watershed. Result demonstrations, county programs, one-on-one landowner assistance, BMP exhibits, Ag Tours, publications and other educational meetings have been used to reach the widest array... in Copano Bay to assess any potential trends or changes that have occurred. Summary of Task 2 Report Copano Bay is a 65-square-mile estuary located northeast of Corpus Christi, Texas. Port Bay, Mission Bay, the Aransas River arm, and the eastern...

  19. Anthropogenic Influence on Recent Bathymetric Change in West-Central San Francisco Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, Patrick; Kvitek, Rikk

    2010-01-01

    Bay coastal system. Sedimentology, In: Li M, Sherwood C,Publication Book on Shelf Sedimentology. 33 p. Fregoso TA,

  20. Recent Advances in Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models for Large Hydrocarbon and Biodiesel Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Herbinet, O; Mehl, M

    2009-03-30

    n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for these two primary reference fuels for diesel, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Also, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. Methyl decanoate and methyl stearate are large methyl esters that are closely related to biodiesel fuels, and kinetic models for these molecules have also been developed. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the fuel molecule size and structure on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  1. ZnO nanoparticle catalysts for use in biodiesel production and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2014-11-25

    A method of forming a biodiesel product and a heterogeneous catalyst system used to form said product that has a high tolerance for the presence of water and free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil feedstock is disclosed. This catalyst system may simultaneously catalyze both the esterification of FAA and the transesterification of triglycerides present in the oil feedstock. The catalyst system is comprised of a mixture of zinc oxide and a second metal oxide. The zinc oxide includes a mixture of amorphous zinc oxide and zinc oxide nanocrystals, the zinc nanocrystals having a mean grain size between about 20 and 80 nanometers with at least one of the nanocrystals including a mesopore having a diameter of about 5 to 15 nanometers. Preferably, the second metal oxide is a lanthanum oxide, the lanthanum oxide being selected as one from the group of La.sub.2CO.sub.5, LaOOH, and combinations or mixtures thereof.

  2. Impact of Biodiesel on the Oxidation Kinetics and Morphology of Diesel Particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We compare the oxidation characteristics of four different diesel particulates generated with a modern light-duty engine. The four particulates represent engine fueling with conventional ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), biodiesel, and two intermediate blends of these fuels. The comparisons discussed here are based on complementary measurements implemented in a laboratory micro-reactor, including temperature programmed desorption and oxidation, pulsed isothermal oxidation, and BET surface area. From these measurements we have derived models that are consistent with the observed oxidation reactivity differences. When accessible surface area effects are properly accounted for, the oxidation kinetics of the fixed carbon components were found to consistently exhibit an Arrhenius activation energy of 113 6 kJ/mol. Release of volatile carbon from the as-collected particulate appears to follow a temperaturedependent rate law.

  3. ESTERFIP, a transesterification process to produce biodiesel from renewable energy source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hennico, A.; Chodorge, J.A. [Institut Francais Du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-12-31

    The IFP ESTERFIP process, is based on the catalytic transesterification of fatty oils (rapeseed oil, soybean oil, palm oil, cottonseed oil, etc.): Vegetable Oils (Triglycerides) + Methanol----Esters + Glycerol. The press consists of the following major steps: Transesterification of the vegetable oil (obtained by classical grain trituration and partially refining) by dry methanol in the presence of a basic catalyst; Decantation to completely separate the esters from the glycerine; Water washing and purification of the ester phase to climinate the last traces of catalyst particles; Vacuum evaporation of the ester product to recover traces of remaining alcohol and water; Purification of the glycerine by-product; Environmental advantages of bio-diesel versus conventional diesel fuel are: No sulfur nor aromatics; Presence of oxygen in the molecular composition; Renewable energy; Highly biodegradable. Technical aspects of the Esterfip process as well as diesel fuel applications will be described.

  4. Federal and State Ethanol and Biodiesel Requirements (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act 2005 requires that the use of renewable motor fuels be increased from the 2004 level of just over 4 billion gallons to a minimum of 7.5 billion gallons in 2012, after which the requirement grows at a rate equal to the growth of the gasoline pool. The law does not require that every gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel be blended with renewable fuels. Refiners are free to use renewable fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, in geographic regions and fuel formulations that make the most sense, as long as they meet the overall standard. Conventional gasoline and diesel can be blended with renewables without any change to the petroleum components, although fuels used in areas with air quality problems are likely to require adjustment to the base gasoline or diesel fuel if they are to be blended with renewables.

  5. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2010-01-22

    New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

  6. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2010-05-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet-stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. (author)

  7. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-21

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

  8. A regional numerical ocean model of the circulation in the Bay of Biscay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    A regional numerical ocean model of the circulation in the Bay of Biscay Y. Friocourt,1,2,3 B Peninsula and in the Bay of Biscay is investigated by means of a regional ocean model. In particular numerical ocean model of the circulation in the Bay of Biscay, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C09008, doi:10

  9. Sedimentary environments and processes in a shallow, Gulf Coast Estuary-Lavaca Bay, Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bronikowski, Jason Lee

    2004-11-15

    Sedimentation rates in sediment cores from Lavaca Bay have been high within the last 1-2 decays within the central portion of the bay, with small fluctuations from river input. Lavaca Bay is a broad, flat, and shallow (<3 m) microtidal estuary...

  10. Naval submarine base Kings Bay and Bangor soil evaluations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, David Joseph; Patteson, Raymond; Wesenberg, Donald L.; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2004-08-01

    This report provides soil evaluation and characterization testing for the submarine bases at Kings Bay, Georgia, and Bangor, Washington, using triaxial testing at high confining pressures with different moisture contents. In general, the samples from the Bangor and Kings Bay sites appeared to be stronger than a previously used reference soil. Assuming the samples of the material were representative of the material found at the sites, they should be adequate for use in the planned construction. Since soils can vary greatly over even a small site, a soil specification for the construction contractor would be needed to insure that soil variations found at the site would meet or exceed the requirements. A suggested specification for the Bangor and Kings Bay soils was presented based on information gathered from references plus data obtained from this study, which could be used as a basis for design by the construction contractor.

  11. Recent marine podocopid Ostracoda of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, R. B.

    1966-11-23

    major factors: ( I) inadequate collecting station location density; (2) lack of en- vironmental data obtained at time of sampling; and (3), loss of portions of the sample attributable to leakage of the sampling apparatus. It may be that the third factor... ni. FM 6. Propontocypris edwardsi ( CusHmAN), a-c, RV int., LV hinge, both valves dorsal, X 90. Williams-Podocopid Ostracoda of Narragansett Bay 13 Material.-Specimens 34, of which 29 were articulated. Distribution.-Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island...

  12. AGE, GROWTH, SEX RATIO, AND MATURITY OF THE WHITEFISH IN CENTRAL GREEN BAY AND ADJACENT WATERS OF LAKE MICHIGAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    lighter than those from Green Bay. Weight increased to the 3.386 power of length in Green Bay (combinedAGE, GROWTH, SEX RATIO, AND MATURITY OF THE WHITEFISH IN CENTRAL GREEN BAY AND ADJACENT WATERS from five localities In central Green Bay in 1948-49 and 1951-52 and 204 in a single 1948 collection

  13. Inventory and analysis of bay management structure for the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, B.; Bacon, E.; Dietz, R.; DeMoors, K.; Needham, K.

    1996-02-01

    This report characterizes the existing resource management framework for the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program (CCBNEP) study area. Historical and current regulatory and non-regulatory approaches to resource management were examined, and an identification made of the significant gaps or overlaps in organizational roles and authorities. Efforts were taken to coordinate the Base Program Analysis with that for the Galveston Bay NEP, the Texas Coastal Management Program, and other similar projects, to both build upon and ensure that efforts are not duplicated.

  14. Bayes Estimation for the Marshall-Olkin Bivariate Weibull Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundu, Debasis

    Bayes Estimation for the Marshall-Olkin Bivariate Weibull Distribution Debasis Kundu1 & Arjun K distribution. It is a singular distribution whose marginals are Weibull dis- tributions with respect to the squared error loss function and the prior distributions allow for prior dependence among

  15. Covered Product Category: Industrial Luminaires (High/Low Bay)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements for Industrial Luminaires (High/Low Bay). Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  16. UMCESUNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND CENTER for ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CHESAPEAKE BAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    : Utility of ConMon Data for Assessing Shallow Water Habitats 2-1 Community Metabolism: Use of ConMon Data on ConMon data collected along a eutrophication gradient from the Maryland Coastal Bays (A) Bishopville versus daily DO range (max DO ­ min DO) based on ConMon data collected along a eutrophication gradient

  17. Water Recycling Becomes Reality In the South Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Recycling Becomes Reality In the South Bay 12th Biennial State of the San Francisco Estuary Conference Friday September 18, 2015 #12;2 Presentation will cover: Santa Clara Valley Water District and Water Supply Picture Silicon Valley Advanced Water Purification Center Recycled Water Expansion- Potable

  18. Predicting Customer Behavior using Naive Bayes and Maximum Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keysers, Daniel

    of returned goods, we additionally generated two binary features for zero and missing values. The remaining Naive Bayes, Maximum Entropy, Neural Networks and Logistic Regression for classification of cus- tomer classifiers won the Data-Mining-Cup in 2004. Combining Logistic Regression, Neural Networks, and Maximum

  19. AT GUANTANAMO BAY: A HYBRID WIND-DIESEL SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND POWER AT GUANTANAMO BAY: A HYBRID WIND-DIESEL SYSTEM FOR THE US NAVY AT GUANTANAMO NAVAL BASE Laboratory and are actively developing what will be the world's largest wind-diesel hybrid electric plant. The pending installation of four 950-kW wind turbines to supplement the 22.8 MW diesel electricity plant

  20. Observations of remote and local forcing in Galveston Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guannel, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    . The observations show that the subtidal water surface energy increases with decreasing frequency, and that amount of energy increases with distance towards the end of the estuary. The surface setup and the water elevation at the entrance of the bay are asymmetric...

  1. Manufacturing Facility/ Bay Library Information Introduction what is BREEAM?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Manufacturing Facility/ Bay Library Information Introduction ­ what is BREEAM? BREEAM is one Trust. For further information on the BRE Trust please refer to their website www.bre.co.uk BREEAM that the building can be simply identified. BREEAM Rating and score Targeting BREEAM `Excellent' 70.0% BREEAM

  2. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana Open Bays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1995-06-23

    Data were collected prior to termination of discharge at three sites (including two open bay sites at Delacroix Island and Bay De Chene) for the risk assessments. The Delacroix Island Oil and Gas Field has been in production since the first well drilling in 1940; the Bay De Chene Field, since 1942. Concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Po, and 228Th were measured in discharges. Radium conc. were measured in fish and shellfish tissues. Sediment PAH and metal conc. were also available. Benthos sampling was conducted. A survey of fishermen was conducted. The tiered risk assessment showed that human health risks from radium in produced water appear to be small; ecological risk from radium and other radionuclides in produced water also appear small. Many of the chemical contaminants discharged to open Louisiana bays appear to present little human health or ecological risk. A conservative screening analysis suggested potential risks to human health from Hg and Pb and a potential risk to ecological receptors from total effluent, Sb, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Ag, Zn, and phenol in the water column and PAHs in sediment; quantitiative risk assessments are being done for these contaminants.

  3. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Final Report 2000-2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Christopher

    2007-12-15

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ? 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report.

  4. Problem set 2: Constructing a nutrient budget for Bellingham Bay In recent years the concentration of dissolved oxygen in bottom water in Bellingham Bay has been

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, David H.

    (NO3 ) was highest in the deep water entering Bellingham Bay from the Strait of Georgia. Ammonium was slightly lower than that in deep water (Table 1). However, in much of the surface water in Bellingham Bay Nooksack River water and deep water (Fig.2). Nitrite concentrations (NO2 ) were generally low. Water

  5. SODAR DATA FROM OYSTER BAY AT WINYAH BAY NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.; Kohn, J.; Rigas, N.; Boessneck, E.; Kress, E.; Gayes, P.

    2013-04-29

    The SecondWind Triton® is a SODAR (SOnic Detection And Ranging) sonic wind profiler (Triton® sodar) system capable of profiling the wind characteristics up to 200m above the instrument. SODAR systems transmit acoustic chirps into the atmosphere and measure the backscattered signal returned to the device. The primary source of acoustic scattering is variations in air temperature, which cause changes in the refractive index of sound. By measuring the Doppler?shifted frequency of these returned signals, the Triton® can calculate the wind’s speed and direction for the volume of air above the instrument, measured at ten fixed heights, known as station heights. The Triton® is specifically designed for the purpose of wind energy resource assessment as it can remotely capture wind data at heights above ground where wind turbine rotors operate. The measurements made include horizontal wind speed and direction, vertical wind speed, and turbulence. Other integrated sensors provide time and location via GPS, barometric pressure, humidity, and the tilt of the instrument. The study area is located east of Georgetown, South Carolina in North Inlet ? Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The monitoring period for data in this report begins 5/14/2009 9:30:00 AM EST and ends 8/2/2010 11:40:00 AM EST.

  6. Lithium modified zeolite synthesis for conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayoub, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.ayoub@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia and School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 43000, Pinang (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi, E-mail: chzuhairi@usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 43000, Pinang (Malaysia); Inayat, Abrar, E-mail: abrar.inayat@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Basic zeolite has received significant attention in the catalysis community. These zeolites modified with alkaline are the potential replacement for existing zeolite catalysts due to its unique features with added advantages. The present paper covers the preparation of lithium modified zeolite Y (Li-ZeY) and its activity for solvent free conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol via etherification process. The modified zeolite was well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Nitrogen Adsorption. The SEM images showed that there was no change in morphology of modified zeolite structure after lithium modification. XRD patterns showed that the structure of zeolite was sustained after lithium modification. The surface properties of parent and modified zeolite was also observed N{sub 2} adsortion-desorption technique and found some changes in surface area and pore size. In addition, the basic strength of prepared materials was measured by Hammet indicators and found that basic strength of Li-ZeY was highly improved. This modified zeolite was found highly thermal stable and active heterogamous basic catalyst for conversion of solvent free glycerol to polyglycerol. This reaction was conducted at different temperatures and 260 °C was found most active temperature for this process for reaction time from 6 to 12 h over this basic catalyst in the absence of solvent.

  7. IDAHO BIODIESEL INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT DOE'S INITIATIVE ON COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS WITH STATES FOR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION GRANT NO. DE-FC36-02GO12021. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CROCKETT, JOHN

    2006-12-31

    The Idaho Energy Division issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) on March 14, 2006, inviting qualified licensed fuel wholesalers, fuel retailers, and vehicle fleet operators to provide proposals to construct and/or install infrastructure for biodiesel utilization in Idaho. The intent was to improve the ability of private and/or non-Federal public entities in Idaho to store, transport, or offer for sale biodiesel within the state. The RFP provided up $100,000 for co-funding the projects with a minimum 50% cash cost match. Four contracts were subsequetnly awarded that resulted in three new bidodiesel storage facilities immediately serving about 45 fueling stations from Sandpoint to Boise. The project also attracted considerable media attention and Idaho became more knowledgeable about biodiesel.

  8. Runaway Bay, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, NewMichigan:Roxbury, Vermont:(RedirectedEasements ||Runaway Bay,

  9. South Bay, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSiliciumEnergy IncAshburnham, Massachusetts:Barrington,Bay,

  10. An ecological study of the benthic macrofauna of Matagorda Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marland, Frederick C

    1958-01-01

    . Mitchell's vork iu Nategorda Bay is of such interest that it vill be discussed Lu a later section, Iu 1905~ Moors (1907) studied the oyster bcttons of Natagorda Bay ? partieularIy Halfssen Beef. Tbs purpose of this and other Lurestlgations that followed... vas an attsupt tc inorease the produotion of oysters in the Texas bays. A fev years later, Rxee and Dauglade (1915) ascertained ths character of the oyster bede@ ecologioal factors, eneniss aui pestsy and usda suggestions to benefit the oyster...

  11. Spectral measurement of electron antineutrino oscillation amplitude and frequency at Daya Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daya Bay Collaboration; F. P. An; A. B. Balantekin; H. R. Band; W. Beriguete; M. Bishai; S. Blyth; R. L. Brown; I. Butorov; G. F. Cao; J. Cao; R. Carr; Y. L. Chan; J. F. Chang; Y. Chang; C. Chasman; H. S. Chen; H. Y. Chen; S. J. Chen; S. M. Chen; X. C. Chen; X. H. Chen; Y. Chen; Y. X. Chen; Y. P. Cheng; J. J. Cherwinka; M. C. Chu; J. P. Cummings; J. de Arcos; Z. Y. Deng; Y. Y. Ding; M. V. Diwan; E. Draeger; X. F. Du; D. A. Dwyer; W. R. Edwards; S. R. Ely; J. Y. Fu; L. Q. Ge; R. Gill; M. Gonchar; G. H. Gong; H. Gong; Y. A. Gornushkin; W. Q. Gu; M. Y. Guan; X. H. Guo; R. W. Hackenburg; R. L. Hahn; G. H. Han; S. Hans; M. He; K. M. Heeger; Y. K. Heng; P. Hinrichs; yk. Hor; Y. B. Hsiung; B. Z. Hu; L. J. Hu; L. M. Hu; T. Hu; W. Hu; E. C. Huang; H. X. Huang; H. Z. Huang; X. T. Huang; P. Huber; G. Hussain; Z. Isvan; D. E. Jaffe; P. Jaffke; S. Jetter; X. L. Ji; X. P. Ji; H. J. Jiang; J. B. Jiao; R. A. Johnson; L. Kang; S. H. Kettell; M. Kramer; K. K. Kwan; M. W. Kwok; T. Kwok; W. C. Lai; W. H. Lai; K. Lau; L. Lebanowski; J. Lee; R. T. Lei; R. Leitner; A. Leung; J. K. C. Leung; C. A. Lewis; D. J. Li; F. Li; G. S. Li; Q. J. Li; W. D. Li; X. N. Li; X. Q. Li; Y. F. Li; Z. B. Li; H. Liang; C. J. Lin; G. L. Lin; S. K. Lin; Y. C. Lin; J. J. Ling; J. M. Link; L. Littenberg; B. R. Littlejohn; D. W. Liu; H. Liu; J. C. Liu; J. L. Liu; S. S. Liu; Y. B. Liu; C. Lu; H. Q. Lu; K. B. Luk; Q. M. Ma; X. B. Ma; X. Y. Ma; Y. Q. Ma; K. T. McDonald; M. C. McFarlane; R. D. McKeown; Y. Meng; I. Mitchell; Y. Nakajima; J. Napolitano; D. Naumov; E. Naumova; I. Nemchenok; H. Y. Ngai; W. K. Ngai; Z. Ning; J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux; A. Olshevski; S. Patton; V. Pec; J. C. Peng; L. E. Piilonen; L. Pinsky; C. S. J. Pun; F. Z. Qi; M. Qi; X. Qian; N. Raper; B. Ren; J. Ren; R. Rosero; B. Roskovec; X. C. Ruan; B. B. Shao; H. Steiner; G. X. Sun; J. L. Sun; Y. H. Tam; H. K. Tanaka; X. Tang; H. Themann; S. Trentalange; O. Tsai; K. V. Tsang; R. H. M. Tsang; C. E. Tull; Y. C. Tung; B. Viren; V. Vorobel; C. H. Wang; L. S. Wang; L. Y. Wang; L. Z. Wang; M. Wang; N. Y. Wang; R. G. Wang; W. Wang; W. W. Wang; X. Wang; Y. F. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. M. Wang; D. M. Webber; H. Wei; Y. D. Wei; L. J. Wen; K. Whisnant; C. G. White; L. Whitehead; T. Wise; H. L. H. Wong; S. C. F. Wong; E. Worcester; Q. Wu; D. M. Xia; J. K. Xia; X. Xia; Z. Z. Xing; J. Xu; J. L. Xu; J. Y. Xu; Y. Xu; T. Xue; J. Yan; C. G. Yang; L. Yang; M. S. Yang; M. Ye; M. Yeh; Y. S. Yeh; B. L. Young; G. Y. Yu; J. Y. Yu; Z. Y. Yu; S. L. Zang; L. Zhan; C. Zhang; F. H. Zhang; J. W. Zhang; Q. M. Zhang; S. H. Zhang; Y. C. Zhang; Y. H. Zhang; Y. M. Zhang; Y. X. Zhang; Z. J. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; Z. Y. Zhang; J. Zhao; Q. W. Zhao; Y. B. Zhao; L. Zheng; W. L. Zhong; L. Zhou; Z. Y. Zhou; H. L. Zhuang; J. H. Zou

    2014-01-15

    A measurement of the energy dependence of antineutrino disappearance at the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment is reported. Electron antineutrinos ($\\overline{\

  12. The hunt for theta13 at the Daya Bay nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Wang; for the Daya Bay collaboration

    2009-10-23

    The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment is located at the Daya Bay nuclear power plant in Shenzhen, China. The experiment deploys eight "identical" antineutrino detectors to measure antineutrino fluxes from six 2.9 GW_{th} reactor cores in three underground experimental halls at different distances. The target zone of the Daya Bay detector is filled with 20 t 0.1% Gd doped LAB liquid scintillator. The baseline uncorrelated detector uncertainty is ~0.38% using current experimental techniques. Daya Bay can reach a sensitivity of <0.01 to $sin^2 2theta_{13}$ with baseline uncertainties after 3 years of data taking.

  13. The hunt for theta13 at the Daya Bay nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment is located at the Daya Bay nuclear power plant in Shenzhen, China. The experiment deploys eight "identical" antineutrino detectors to measure antineutrino fluxes from six 2.9 GW_{th} reactor cores in three underground experimental halls at different distances. The target zone of the Daya Bay detector is filled with 20 t 0.1% Gd doped LAB liquid scintillator. The baseline uncorrelated detector uncertainty is ~0.38% using current experimental techniques. Daya Bay can reach a sensitivity of <0.01 to $sin^2 2theta_{13}$ with baseline uncertainties after 3 years of data taking.

  14. Sandia Energy - Bay-Area National Labs Team to Tackle Long-Standing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bay-Area National Labs Team to Tackle Long-Standing Automotive Hydrogen-Storage Challenge Home Energy Transportation Energy Facilities Capabilities News News & Events Research &...

  15. High-resolution pollutant transport in the San Pedro Bay of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohan, Alexander; Wu, Jun; Dabdub, Donald

    2011-01-01

    pollutant transport in the San Pedro Bay   of California California Institute of Technology (UCI–CIT) three– dimensional  atmospheric  chemical  transport 

  16. Avian Communities in Tidal Salt Marshes of San Francisco Bay: A Review of Functional Groups by Foraging Guild and Habitat Association

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    report on the Cargill Salt Ponds. Senate select committee onartificial salt evaporation ponds of the San Francisco BayMA. 2005. South Bay salt ponds restoration project short-

  17. SH Coatings LP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SH Coatings, based in Dallas, Texas, employs Super Hydrophobic Coating (SHC) technology that protects power systems by preventing ice accumulation on power lines in ice storm threatened areas and contamination of power lines from salt on the coasts. In order to successfully utilize and commercialize the SHC technology for this application, tools to apply the coating onto new and existing lines must be developed. SH Coatings is developing these tools with the help of technology from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Giver-LP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low LETUseful Links UsefulPhosphorGirls inGiselle

  19. Ecosystem under Pressure: Examining the Phytoplankton Community in the High Ballast Water Discharge Environment of Galveston Bay, Texas (USA) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steichen, Jamie L

    2013-01-15

    . Dinoflagellates, capable of forming harmful algal blooms leading to fish and shellfish kills, are being transported to Galveston Bay via ballast water. Our results suggest that Galveston Bay is at risk for invasive species introductions via ballast water...

  20. Late Holocene Stratigraphy, Humboldt Bay, California: Evidence for Late Holocene Paleoseismicity of the Southern Cascadia Subduction Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentine, David Wade

    1992-01-01

    the formation of the stratigraphy found in Humboldt Bay. .Discussion i ii iii iv y vi Stratigraphy . Mad River Slough—for the formation of the Stratigraphy found in Humboldt Bay.

  1. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEM imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.

  2. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEMmore »imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.« less

  3. Ecosystem-scale Selenium Model for the San Francisco Bay-Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration Implementation Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presser, Theresa S.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2013-01-01

    experimental ponds. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 62(1–2):Pollution [SFBRWQCB] California San Francisco Bay Regional Water

  4. Modeling Bed-Load Transport of Coarse Sediments in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Bed-Load Transport of Coarse Sediments in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire. A. Bilgili Hanover, NH 03755, U.S.A. 2 University of New Hampshire Ocean and Mechanical Engineering Departments River section of the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, USA.- a well-mixed and geometrically complex

  5. Wastewater Discharge, Nutrient Loading, and Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in a Shallow Texas Bay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroer, Lee Allen

    2014-05-07

    In Oso Bay, a wastewater treatment plant acts as a source of eutrophication and may have measureable impact on the health of the bay. The objectives of this study were to create a model for modeling dissolved oxygen concentrations over time...

  6. Environmental Research 105 (2007) 87100 The slow recovery of San Francisco Bay from the legacy of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    , Livermore, CA 94551, USA c Regional Water Quality Control Board, San Francisco Bay Region, 1515 Clay St of the Bay from these inputs and predict its future improvement. Legacy pesticides enter the water contaminated sediment deposits, and dredging and disposal of dredged material. Runoff from small

  7. THE SPAWNING CYCLE OF SOFT-SHELL CLAM, MYA ARENARIA, IN SAN FRANCISCO BAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to determine the spawning cycle. The spawning cycle was well synchronized among the four populations at this potential. Recently (1982), the digging of clams in San Fran- cisco Bay received official clearance harvesting. Prepared for the Association of Bay Area Governments, 171 p. ·Champion. D. 1982. Clam digging OK

  8. Time Series Measurements of Temperature, Current Velocity, and Sediment Resuspension in Saginaw Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time Series Measurements of Temperature, Current Velocity, and Sediment Resuspension in Saginaw Bay and verification. These measurements will be made as part of this project. Measurements of sediment resuspension sediment resuspension in the bay during the spring. Measurements of sediment resuspension are important

  9. THE ECOLOGICAL BOUNDARIES OF SIX CAROLINA BAYS: COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND ECOTONE DISTRIBUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchens, John

    of Biology P.O. Box 261954 Coastal Carolina University Conway, South Carolina, USA 29528-6054 E-mail: Joluken rims of each of six Carolina bays in northeastern South Carolina to characterize the community gradientTHE ECOLOGICAL BOUNDARIES OF SIX CAROLINA BAYS: COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND ECOTONE DISTRIBUTION

  10. Optimal Pollution Mitigation in Monterey Bay Based on Coastal Radar Data and Nonlinear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsden, Jerrold

    Optimal Pollution Mitigation in Monterey Bay Based on Coastal Radar Data and Nonlinear Dynamics run-off which is a typical source of pollution in the bay. We show that a HF radar-based pollution release scheme using this flow structure reduces the impact of pollution on the coastal envi- ronment

  11. Prudhoe Bay Oil Production Optimization: Using Virtual intelligence Techniques, Stage One: Neural Model Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    SPE 77659 Prudhoe Bay Oil Production Optimization: Using Virtual intelligence Techniques, Stage One, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435. Abstract Field data from the Prudhoe Bay oil field.998 respectively. This is the first phase in the development of a tool to maximize total field oil production

  12. Chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins in colonial nesting waterbirds of Galveston Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Donell Suzette

    1999-01-01

    the Houston Ship Channel, including control areas outside the bay. PCB 126 was highest in eggs of geotropic cormorants from Vingt-et-un and Smith Point Islands within Galveston Bay. 2,3,7,8 TCDD was the only dioxin detected in eggs from all locations within...

  13. Word Classification: An Experimental Approach with Nave Bayes ding@cs.umb.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Wei

    Word Classification: An Experimental Approach with Naïve Bayes Wei Ding ding@cs.umb.edu University 77058 USA Abstract Word classification is of significant interest in the domain of natural language presents an experimental method using Naïve Bayes for word classification. The method is based on combing

  14. Bay Area Transit Agencies Propel Fuel Cell Buses Toward Commercialization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration of the next generation of fuel cells buses. Several transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area are participating in demonstrating the largest single fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States.

  15. New York Harbor Chart 12334 New York Harbor Upper Bay and Narrows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York Harbor Chart 12334 ­ New York Harbor Upper Bay and Narrows Anchorage Chart Booklet, the nation's chartmaker #12;United States ­ East Coast NEW YORK ­ NEW JERSEY NEW YORK HARBOR UPPER BAY.noaa.gov/WarOf1812. #12;Because of its importance as a hub of international commerce, New York City served several

  16. SEISMIC PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF THE SKYWAY PIERS FOR THE NEW EAST BAY SPANS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hines, Eric

    -based criteria both for a functional evaluation earthquake (FEE) and for a safety evaluation earthquake (SEE) [2 conducted both to verify immediately the safety of the existing Skyway design and to sharpen the fundamental]. The new San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (SFOBB) East Bay Spans were designed according to performance

  17. West Bay Shore, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia: Energy Resources Jump to:SearchWesley Hills, NewBabylon, NewBay

  18. The muon system of the Daya Bay Reactor antineutrino experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daya Bay Collaboration

    2014-11-28

    The Daya Bay experiment consists of functionally identical antineutrino detectors immersed in pools of ultrapure water in three well-separated underground experimental halls near two nuclear reactor complexes. These pools serve both as shields against natural, low-energy radiation, and as water Cherenkov detectors that efficiently detect cosmic muons using arrays of photomultiplier tubes. Each pool is covered by a plane of resistive plate chambers as an additional means of detecting muons. Design, construction, operation, and performance of these muon detectors are described.

  19. The Muon System of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    An, F. P.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Brown, R. E.; Chasman, C.; Dale, E.; Diwan, M. V.; Gill, R.; Hans, S.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S. H.; Littenberg, L.; Pearson, C. E.; Qian, X.; Theman, H.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-02-01

    The Daya Bay experiment consists of functionally identical antineutrino detectors immersed in pools of ultrapure water in three well-separated underground experimental halls near two nuclear reactor complexes. These pools serve both as shields against natural, low-energy radiation, and as water Cherenkov detectors that efficiently detect cosmic muons using arrays of photomultiplier tubes. Each pool is covered by a plane of resistive plate chambers as an additional means of detecting muons. Design, construction, operation, and performance of these muon detectors are described. (auth)

  20. The Muon System of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    An, F. P.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Brown, R. E.; Chasman, C.; Dale, E.; Diwan, M. V.; Gill, R.; Hans, S.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; et al

    2014-10-05

    The Daya Bay experiment consists of functionally identical antineutrino detectors immersed in pools of ultrapure water in three well-separated underground experimental halls near two nuclear reactor complexes. These pools serve both as shields against natural, low-energy radiation, and as water Cherenkov detectors that efficiently detect cosmic muons using arrays of photomultiplier tubes. Each pool is covered by a plane of resistive plate chambers as an additional means of detecting muons. Design, construction, operation, and performance of these muon detectors are described. (auth)

  1. Huntington Bay, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas: EnergyHunterdon County, NewHunting Valley,Bay, New

  2. Hampton Bays, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynnMassachusetts: Energy Resources Jump to:Maine:Hampton Bays, New York:

  3. Mission Bay, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005Minnehaha County,EnergyII Geothermal1980)Bay, Florida:

  4. Palmetto Bay, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio Program |View New Pages Recent ChangesEtPalmer, Massachusetts:Bay,

  5. East Bay Municipal Util Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of the NationalDynetek EuropeEPG| OpenEXLEasley CombinedBay

  6. City of Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar EnergyLawler, IowaScottsboro,Kansas (Utility Company) JumpBay, Wisconsin

  7. Tampa Bay Area Ethanol Consortium | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ Automation Jump to: navigation, searchTalty, Texas: EnergyIncBay

  8. Bay County, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminexInformationArkansas: Energy Resources JumpBay

  9. Bay Harbor Islands, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminexInformationArkansas: Energy Resources JumpBayHarbor Islands,

  10. Bay Head, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminexInformationArkansas: Energy Resources JumpBayHarbor

  11. Bay Hill, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminexInformationArkansas: Energy Resources JumpBayHarborHill,

  12. Coos Bay, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company)| Open(Evans, EtInformationRoofCooperCoopersville,theBay,

  13. Cutler Bay, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstruments Inc Jump to: navigation, searchCut and Shoot, Texas:Bay,

  14. Morro Bay, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to: navigation, searchsource History ViewMoeOhio:LightNew Jersey:Morro Bay,

  15. BayWa Sunways JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'S FUTURE.EnergyWoodenDateSAEngineering LLCBarner InvestmentBayWa

  16. User's guide for BAYES: a general-purpose computer code for fitting a functional form to experimental data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, N M

    1982-08-01

    This report is intended as a user's manual for a general-purpose computer program BAYES to solve Bayes equations for updating parameter values, uncertainties, and correlations. Bayes equations are derived from Bayes theorem, using linearity and normality assumptions. The method of solution is described, and details are given for adapting the code for a specific purpose. Numerous examples are given, including problem description and solution method, FORTRAN coding, and sample input and output. A companion code LEAST, which solves the usual least-squares equations rather than Bayes equations but which encourages nondiagonal data weighting, is also described.

  17. An Improved Measurement of Electron Antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David M. Webber; for the Daya Bay Collaboration

    2012-11-07

    The theory of neutrino oscillations explains changes in neutrino flavor, count rates, and spectra from solar, atmospheric, accelerator, and reactor neutrinos. These oscillations are characterized by three mixing angles and two mass-squared differences. The solar mixing angle, {\\theta}_12, and the atmospheric mixing angle, {\\theta}_23, have been well measured, but until recently the neutrino mixing angle {\\theta}_13 was not well known. The Daya Bay experiment, located northeast of Hong Kong at the Guangdong Nuclear Power Complex in China, has made a precise measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance using six functionally-identical gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator-based detectors at three sites with distances between 364 and 1900 meters from six reactor cores. This proceeding describes the Daya Bay updated result, using 127 days of good run time collected between December 24, 2011 and May 11, 2012. For the far site, the ratio of the observed number of events to the expected number of events assuming no neutrino oscillation is 0.944 +/- 0.007(stat) +/- 0.003(syst). A fit for {\\theta}_13 in the three-neutrino framework yields sin^2 2{\\theta}_13 = 0.089 +/- 0.010(stat) +/- 0.005(syst).

  18. Emissions From Various Biodiesel Sources Compared to a Range of Diesel Fuels in DPF Equipped Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.; Tester, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NO{sub x} emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NO{sub x} emissions very similar to that caused by blending of biodiesel. Test cycles where an active regeneration of the DPF occurred resulted in a nearly threefold increase in NO{sub x} emissions and a 15% increase in fuel consumption. The full quantification of DPF regeneration events further complicates the accurate calculation of fuel impacts on emissions and fuel consumption.

  19. Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL] [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Foster, Prof. Dave [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

    2010-01-01

    Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

  20. Development of a Hydrodynamic and Transport model of Bellingham Bay in Support of Nearshore Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2010-04-22

    In this study, a hydrodynamic model based on the unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was developed for Bellingham Bay, Washington. The model simulates water surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity in a three-dimensional domain that covers the entire Bellingham Bay and adjacent water bodies, including Lummi Bay, Samish Bay, Padilla Bay, and Rosario Strait. The model was developed using Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s high-resolution Puget Sound and Northwest Straits circulation and transport model. A sub-model grid for Bellingham Bay and adjacent coastal waters was extracted from the Puget Sound model and refined in Bellingham Bay using bathymetric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and river channel cross-section data. The model uses tides, river inflows, and meteorological inputs to predict water surface elevations, currents, salinity, and temperature. A tidal open boundary condition was specified using standard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) predictions. Temperature and salinity open boundary conditions were specified based on observed data. Meteorological forcing (wind, solar radiation, and net surface heat flux) was obtained from NOAA real observations and National Center for Environmental Prediction North American Regional Analysis outputs. The model was run in parallel with 48 cores using a time step of 2.5 seconds. It took 18 hours of cpu time to complete 26 days of simulation. The model was calibrated with oceanographic field data for the period of 6/1/2009 to 6/26/2009. These data were collected specifically for the purpose of model development and calibration. They include time series of water-surface elevation, currents, temperature, and salinity as well as temperature and salinity profiles during instrument deployment and retrieval. Comparisons between model predictions and field observations show an overall reasonable agreement in both temporal and spatial scales. Comparisons of root mean square error values for surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity time series are 0.11 m, 0.10 m/s, 1.28oC, and 1.91 ppt, respectively. The model was able to reproduce the salinity and temperature stratifications inside Bellingham Bay. Wetting and drying processes in tidal flats in Bellingham Bay, Samish Bay, and Padilla Bay were also successfully simulated. Both model results and observed data indicated that water surface elevations inside Bellingham Bay are highly correlated to tides. Circulation inside the bay is weak and complex and is affected by various forcing mechanisms, including tides, winds, freshwater inflows, and other local forcing factors. The Bellingham Bay model solution was successfully linked to the NOAA oil spill trajectory simulation model “General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME).” Overall, the Bellingham Bay model has been calibrated reasonably well and can be used to provide detailed hydrodynamic information in the bay and adjacent water bodies. While there is room for further improvement with more available data, the calibrated hydrodynamic model provides useful hydrodynamic information in Bellingham Bay and can be used to support sediment transport and water quality modeling as well as assist in the design of nearshore restoration scenarios.

  1. Nature, Science, Bayes' Theorem, and the Whole of Reality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental problem in science is how to make logical inferences from scientific data. Mere data does not suffice since additional information is necessary to select a domain of models or hypotheses and thus determine the likelihood of each model or hypothesis. Thomas Bayes' Theorem relates the data and prior information to posterior probabilities associated with differing models or hypotheses and thus is useful in identifying the roles played by the known data and the assumed prior information when making inferences. Scientists, philosophers, and theologians accumulate knowledge when analyzing different aspects of reality and search for particular hypotheses or models to fit their respective subject matters. Of course, a main goal is then to integrate all kinds of knowledge into an all-encompassing worldview that would describe the whole of reality.

  2. Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. P. An; J. Z. Bai; A. B. Balantekin; H. R. Band; D. Beavis; W. Beriguete; M. Bishai; S. Blyth; K. Boddy; R. L. Brown; B. Cai; G. F. Cao; J. Cao; R. Carr; W. T. Chan; J. F. Chang; Y. Chang; C. Chasman; H. S. Chen; H. Y. Chen; S. J. Chen; S. M. Chen; X. C. Chen; X. H. Chen; X. S. Chen; Y. Chen; Y. X. Chen; J. J. Cherwinka; M. C. Chu; J. P. Cummings; Z. Y. Deng; Y. Y. Ding; M. V. Diwan; L. Dong; E. Draeger; X. F. Du; D. A. Dwyer; W. R. Edwards; S. R. Ely; S. D. Fang; J. Y. Fu; Z. W. Fu; L. Q. Ge; V. Ghazikhanian; R. L. Gill; J. Goett; M. Gonchar; G. H. Gong; H. Gong; Y. A. Gornushkin; L. S. Greenler; W. Q. Gu; M. Y. Guan; X. H. Guo; R. W. Hackenburg; R. L. Hahn; S. Hans; M. He; Q. He; W. S. He; K. M. Heeger; Y. K. Heng; P. Hinrichs; T. H. Ho; Y. K. Hor; Y. B. Hsiung; B. Z. Hu; T. Hu; T. Hu; H. X. Huang; H. Z. Huang; P. W. Huang; X. Huang; X. T. Huang; P. Huber; Z. Isvan; D. E. Jaffe; S. Jetter; X. L. Ji; X. P. Ji; H. J. Jiang; W. Q. Jiang; J. B. Jiao; R. A. Johnson; L. Kang; S. H. Kettell; M. Kramer; K. K. Kwan; M. W. Kwok; T. Kwok; C. Y. Lai; W. C. Lai; W. H. Lai; K. Lau; L. Lebanowski; J. Lee; M. K. P. Lee; R. Leitner; J. K. C. Leung; K. Y. Leung; C. A. Lewis; B. Li; F. Li; G. S. Li; J. Li; Q. J. Li; S. F. Li; W. D. Li; X. B. Li; X. N. Li; X. Q. Li; Y. Li; Z. B. Li; H. Liang; J. Liang; C. J. Lin; G. L. Lin; S. K. Lin; S. X. Lin; Y. C. Lin; J. J. Ling; J. M. Link; L. Littenberg; B. R. Littlejohn; B. J. Liu; C. Liu; D. W. Liu; H. Liu; J. C. Liu; J. L. Liu; S. Liu; X. Liu; Y. B. Liu; C. Lu; H. Q. Lu; A. Luk; K. B. Luk; T. Luo; X. L. Luo; L. H. Ma; Q. M. Ma; X. B. Ma; X. Y. Ma; Y. Q. Ma; B. Mayes; K. T. McDonald; M. C. McFarlane; R. D. McKeown; Y. Meng; D. Mohapatra; J. E. Morgan; Y. Nakajima; J. Napolitano; D. Naumov; I. Nemchenok; C. Newsom; H. Y. Ngai; W. K. Ngai; Y. B. Nie; Z. Ning; J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux; D. Oh; A. Olshevski; A. Pagac; S. Patton; C. Pearson; V. Pec; J. C. Peng; L. E. Piilonen; L. Pinsky; C. S. J. Pun; F. Z. Qi; M. Qi; X. Qian; N. Raper; R. Rosero; B. Roskovec; X. C. Ruan; B. Seilhan; B. B. Shao; K. Shih; H. Steiner; P. Stoler; G. X. Sun; J. L. Sun; Y. H. Tam; H. K. Tanaka; X. Tang; H. Themann; Y. Torun; S. Trentalange; O. Tsai; K. V. Tsang; R. H. M. Tsang; C. Tull; B. Viren; S. Virostek; V. Vorobel; C. H. Wang; L. S. Wang; L. Y. Wang; L. Z. Wang; M. Wang; N. Y. Wang; R. G. Wang; T. Wang; W. Wang; X. Wang; X. Wang; Y. F. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. M. Wang; D. M. Webber; Y. D. Wei; L. J. Wen; D. L. Wenman; K. Whisnant; C. G. White; L. Whitehead; C. A. Whitten Jr.; J. Wilhelmi; T. Wise; H. C. Wong; H. L. H. Wong; J. Wong; E. T. Worcester; F. F. Wu; Q. Wu; D. M. Xia; S. T. Xiang; Q. Xiao; Z. Z. Xing; G. Xu; J. Xu; J. Xu; J. L. Xu; W. Xu; Y. Xu; T. Xue; C. G. Yang; L. Yang; M. Ye; M. Yeh; Y. S. Yeh; K. Yip; B. L. Young; Z. Y. Yu; L. Zhan; C. Zhang; F. H. Zhang; J. W. Zhang; Q. M. Zhang; K. Zhang; Q. X. Zhang; S. H. Zhang; Y. C. Zhang; Y. H. Zhang; Y. X. Zhang; Z. J. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; Z. Y. Zhang; J. Zhao; Q. W. Zhao; Y. B. Zhao; L. Zheng; W. L. Zhong; L. Zhou; Z. Y. Zhou; H. L. Zhuang; J. H. Zou

    2012-04-02

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has measured a non-zero value for the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ with a significance of 5.2 standard deviations. Antineutrinos from six 2.9 GW$_{\\rm th}$ reactors were detected in six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (flux-weighted baseline 470 m and 576 m) and one far (1648 m) underground experimental halls. With a 43,000 ton-GW_{\\rm th}-day livetime exposure in 55 days, 10416 (80376) electron antineutrino candidates were detected at the far hall (near halls). The ratio of the observed to expected number of antineutrinos at the far hall is $R=0.940\\pm 0.011({\\rm stat}) \\pm 0.004({\\rm syst})$. A rate-only analysis finds $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}=0.092\\pm 0.016({\\rm stat})\\pm0.005({\\rm syst})$ in a three-neutrino framework.

  3. Search for a Light Sterile Neutrino at Daya Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. P. An; A. B. Balantekin; H. R. Band; W. Beriguete; M. Bishai; S. Blyth; I. Butorov; G. F. Cao; J. Cao; Y. L. Chan; J. F. Chang; L. C. Chang; Y. Chang; C. Chasman; H. Chen; Q. Y. Chen; S. M. Chen; X. Chen; X. Chen; Y. X. Chen; Y. Chen; Y. P. Cheng; J. J. Cherwinka; M. C. Chu; J. P. Cummings; J. de Arcos; Z. Y. Deng; Y. Y. Ding; M. V. Diwan; E. Draeger; X. F. Du; D. A. Dwyer; W. R. Edwards; S. R. Ely; J. Y. Fu; L. Q. Ge; R. Gill; M. Gonchar; G. H. Gong; H. Gong; M. Grassi; W. Q. Gu; M. Y. Guan; X. H. Guo; R. W. Hackenburg; G. H. Han; S. Hans; M. He; K. M. Heeger; Y. K. Heng; P. Hinrichs; Y. K. Hor; Y. B. Hsiung; B. Z. Hu; L. M. Hu; L. J. Hu; T. Hu; W. Hu; E. C. Huang; H. Huang; X. T. Huang; P. Huber; G. Hussain; Z. Isvan; D. E. Jaffe; P. Jaffke; K. L. Jen; S. Jetter; X. P. Ji; X. L. Ji; H. J. Jiang; J. B. Jiao; R. A. Johnson; L. Kang; S. H. Kettell; M. Kramer; K. K. Kwan; M. W. Kwok; T. Kwok; W. C. Lai; K. Lau; L. Lebanowski; J. Lee; R. T. Lei; R. Leitner; A. Leung; J. K. C. Leung; C. A. Lewis; D. J. Li; F. Li; G. S. Li; Q. J. Li; W. D. Li; X. N. Li; X. Q. Li; Y. F. Li; Z. B. Li; H. Liang; C. J. Lin; G. L. Lin; P. Y. Lin; S. K. Lin; Y. C. Lin; J. J. Ling; J. M. Link; L. Littenberg; B. R. Littlejohn; D. W. Liu; H. Liu; J. L. Liu; J. C. Liu; S. S. Liu; Y. B. Liu; C. Lu; H. Q. Lu; K. B. Luk; Q. M. Ma; X. Y. Ma; X. B. Ma; Y. Q. Ma; K. T. McDonald; M. C. McFarlane; R. D. McKeown; Y. Meng; I. Mitchell; J. Monari Kebwaro; Y. Nakajima; J. Napolitano; D. Naumov; E. Naumova; I. Nemchenok; H. Y. Ngai; Z. Ning; J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux; A. Olshevski; S. Patton; V. Pec; J. C. Peng; L. E. Piilonen; L. Pinsky; C. S. J. Pun; F. Z. Qi; M. Qi; X. Qian; N. Raper; B. Ren; J. Ren; R. Rosero; B. Roskovec; X. C. Ruan; B. B. Shao; H. Steiner; G. X. Sun; J. L. Sun; Y. H. Tam; X. Tang; H. Themann; K. V. Tsang; R. H. M. Tsang; C. E. Tull; Y. C. Tung; B. Viren; V. Vorobel; C. H. Wang; L. S. Wang; L. Y. Wang; M. Wang; N. Y. Wang; R. G. Wang; W. Wang; W. W. Wang; X. Wang; Y. F. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. M. Wang; D. M. Webber; H. Y. Wei; Y. D. Wei; L. J. Wen; K. Whisnant; C. G. White; L. Whitehead; T. Wise; H. L. H. Wong; S. C. F. Wong; E. Worcester; Q. Wu; D. M. Xia; J. K. Xia; X. Xia; Z. Z. Xing; J. Y. Xu; J. L. Xu; J. Xu; Y. Xu; T. Xue; J. Yan; C. C. Yang; L. Yang; M. S. Yang; M. T. Yang; M. Ye; M. Yeh; Y. S. Yeh; B. L. Young; G. Y. Yu; J. Y. Yu; Z. Y. Yu; S. L. Zang; B. Zeng; L. Zhan; C. Zhang; F. H. Zhang; J. W. Zhang; Q. M. Zhang; Q. Zhang; S. H. Zhang; Y. C. Zhang; Y. M. Zhang; Y. H. Zhang; Y. X. Zhang; Z. J. Zhang; Z. Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; J. Zhao; Q. W. Zhao; Y. Zhao; Y. B. Zhao; L. Zheng; W. L. Zhong; L. Zhou; Z. Y. Zhou; H. L. Zhuang; J. H. Zou

    2014-10-08

    A search for light sterile neutrino mixing was performed with the first 217 days of data from the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment. The experiment's unique configuration of multiple baselines from six 2.9~GW$_{\\rm th}$ nuclear reactors to six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 512~m and 561~m) and one far (1579~m) underground experimental halls makes it possible to test for oscillations to a fourth (sterile) neutrino in the $10^{\\rm -3}~{\\rm eV}^{2} < |\\Delta m_{41}^{2}| < 0.3~{\\rm eV}^{2}$ range. The relative spectral distortion due to electron antineutrino disappearance was found to be consistent with that of the three-flavor oscillation model. The derived limits on $\\sin^22\\theta_{14}$ cover the $10^{-3}~{\\rm eV}^{2} \\lesssim |\\Delta m^{2}_{41}| \\lesssim 0.1~{\\rm eV}^{2}$ region, which was largely unexplored.

  4. Carsharing Parking Policy: A Review of North American Practices and San Francisco Bay Area Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Cohen, Adam P.; Martin, Elliot

    2010-01-01

    Salt Lake City. Free Metered Parking for “Green Vehicles. ”www.slcgov.com/Transportation/Parking/green.htm AccessedAccessed June 24, 2009. 27. Parking. San Francisco Bay Area

  5. Topographic and Base-level Control on Back-Barrier Lagoon Evolution: West Galveston Bay, TX 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laverty, Paul H

    2014-12-02

    that flow into Chocolate Bay, and formed the basal surface of the accommodation available for Holocene infill. Radiocarbon dating of salient lithologic and seismic transitions in a few key cores revealed that several flooding events related to Holocene sea...

  6. Ground penetrating radar characterization of wood piles and the water table in Back Bay, Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LeFrançois, Suzanne O'Neil, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys are performed to determine the depth to the water table and the tops of wood piles beneath a residential structure at 122 Beacon Street in Back Bay, Boston. The area of Boston known ...

  7. Review: Logistic regression, Gaussian nave Bayes, linear regression, and their connections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Tom

    Review: Logistic regression, Gaussian naïve Bayes, linear regression, and their connections Yi, and feature selection #12;Outline Logistic regression Decision surface (boundary) of classifiers Generative vs. discriminative classifiers Linear regression Bias-variance decomposition and tradeoff

  8. Antecedent Geologic Controls on the Distribution of Oyster Reefs in Copano Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piper, Erin Alynn

    2011-08-08

    in June and July 2007. Surficial sediment analysis confirms that the recent sedimentation in Copano Bay is comprised of mostly estuarine mud with little sand or shell, large extents of oyster reefs and smaller areas of sand. Seismic stratigraphy analyses...

  9. Organic Matter Analysis of Sediments from Simpson Bay, Alaska using Elemental, Stable Isotopic, and Molecular Signatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pondell, Christina

    2008-08-19

    Sediment samples from Simpson Bay, Alaska were analyzed to determine the influence of earthquake events on the accumulated organic matter. Radiochemical analysis of 210Pb activity in the sediment dated the cores and determined the depths...

  10. Spatial trends in community and health-related characteristics of Galveston Bay oyster reefs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Junggeun

    1994-01-01

    The spatial trends in the oyster community and healthrelated variables for Galveston Bay oyster reefs indicated that some other factors in addition to salinity are major structuring forces. Three different directional trends were found including one...

  11. iSAM2: Incremental smoothing and mapping using the Bayes tree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaess, Michael

    We present a novel data structure, the Bayes tree, that provides an algorithmic foundation enabling a better understanding of existing graphical model inference algorithms and their connection to sparse matrix factorization ...

  12. Age and growth of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) from Matagorda Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stunz, Gregory Wayne

    1995-01-01

    Estimates of age and growth of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) from Matagorda Bay, Texas were made by analyzing thin sections of otoliths (sagittae) from 892 specimens collected along the Texas coast from May 1992 to January 1995...

  13. Phosphorus Cycling in the Red Tide Incubator Region of Monterey Bay in Response to Upwelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackey, Katherine R. M; Mioni, Cecile E; Ryan, John P; Paytan, Adina

    2012-01-01

    of C. balechii from the RTI region of Monterey Bay differsThe red tide incubator (RTI) is a persistent feature ofspecies that incubate in the RTI may cause harmful effects

  14. Successful Application of Heat Pumps to a DHC System in the Tokyo Bay Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanagihara, R.; Okagaki, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Harumi-Island District Heating & Cooling (DHC), which is located in the Tokyo Bay area, introduced the heat pump and thermal storage system with the aim of achieving minimum energy consumption, minimum environmental load, and maximum economical...

  15. Guidelines for left-turn bays at unsignalized access locations on arterial roadways 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawley, Patrick Emmett

    1994-01-01

    It has long been recognized that effective access management along arterial streets can alleviate traffic congestion. A major goal within access management is to limit the speed differential between turning and through vehicles. Left-turn bays...

  16. Vegetation and sediment characteristics of created and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in Lower Galveston Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albertson, Andrea Kai

    1998-01-01

    Five natural and ten created Spartina altemiflora marshes in the Lower Galveston Bay System, Texas, were compared to determine if there were significantly different vegetative and sediment characteristics associated with ...

  17. Current Perspectives on the Physical and Biological Processes of Humboldt Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlosser, S. C.; Rasmussen, R.

    2007-01-01

    Spit, which had absorbed much of the wave energy. Once theseharbor entrance deepened, wave energy came into the bay andand refocusing wave energy that, in turn, increases risk to

  18. Increase in the Intensity of Postmonsoon Bay of Bengal Tropical Cyclones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Foltz, Gregory R.

    2014-05-28

    The post-monsoon (October-November) tropical cyclone (TC) season in the Bay of Bengal has spawned many of the deadliest storms in recorded history. Here it is shown that the intensity of post-monsoon Bay of Bengal TCs, and the contribution of major TCs to total TC power, increased during 1981-2010. It is found that changes in environmental parameters are responsible for the observed increases in TC intensity. Increases in sea surface temperature and upper ocean heat content made the ocean more conducive to TC development, while enhanced convective instability made the atmosphere more favorable for the growth of TCs. The largest changes in the atmosphere and ocean occurred in the eastern Bay of Bengal, where nearly all major TCs form. These changes are part of positive linear trends, suggesting that the intensity of post-monsoon Bay of Bengal TCs may continue to increase in the future.

  19. Hydro-Ecologic Responses to Land Use in Small Urbanizing Watersheds Within the Chesapeake Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    Hydro-Ecologic Responses to Land Use in Small Urbanizing Watersheds Within the Chesapeake Bay. The consequences for both the hydrology and 41 #12;42 HYDRO-ECOLOGIC RESPONSES TO LAND USE IN SMALL URBANIZING

  20. Habitat associations and photo-identification of sea otters in Simpson Bay, Prince William Sound, Alaska 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilkinson, Andrea Karin

    2006-04-12

    Habitat associations of sea otters during resting and feeding were investigated in Simpson Bay, Prince William Sound, Alaska during the summer months of 2001-2003. Sea otter locations collected during boat surveys were overlaid on bathymetry...

  1. The Association of Virulent Vibrio Spp. Bacteria on Gafftopsail and Hardhead Catfish in Galveston Bay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Leslie Deanne

    2011-10-21

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) are gram negative, halophilic bacteria that occur naturally in estuarine waters of Galveston Bay. Both bacteria have the potential to cause infections in humans either via consumption or direct...

  2. 13 OctOber 2013 Mission Bay Conference Center, San Francisco, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    1­3 OctOber 2013 Mission Bay Conference Center, San Francisco, USA www.beyond-the-genome.com Beyond the Genome 2013 #12;2 1­3 OctOber 2013 Mission Bay Conference Center, San Francisco, USA www.beyond-the-genome.com Beyond the Genome 2013 Exhibition and sponsorship Nick Moss BioMed Central T: +44 (0)20 3192 2723 E: nick

  3. An ecological study of an oyster population, including selected associated organisms in West Bay, Galveston, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillard, Robert Moore

    1969-01-01

    AN ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF AN OYSTER POPULATION, INCLUDING SELECTED ASSOCIATED ORGANISMS IN WEST BAY, GALVESTON, TEXAS A Thesis ROBERT MOORE GILLARD Subri t ted to the Graduate College o f Texas ASM University in partia3 fulfillment... of the requiresent for the deBree c f MASTER OF SCIENCL' May 1969 Major Szhject: Ma iac Bio' ogy AN ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF AN OYSTER POPULATION, INCLUDING SELECTED ASSOCIATED ORGANISMS IN WEST BAY, GALVESTON, TEXAS A Thesis by ROBERT MOORE GILLARD Approved...

  4. BayeSED: A GENERAL APPROACH TO FITTING THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Yunkun; Han, Zhanwen, E-mail: hanyk@ynao.ac.cn, E-mail: zhanwenhan@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650011 (China)

    2014-11-01

    We present a newly developed version of BayeSED, a general Bayesian approach to the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of galaxies. The new BayeSED code has been systematically tested on a mock sample of galaxies. The comparison between the estimated and input values of the parameters shows that BayeSED can recover the physical parameters of galaxies reasonably well. We then applied BayeSED to interpret the SEDs of a large K{sub s} -selected sample of galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field with stellar population synthesis models. Using the new BayeSED code, a Bayesian model comparison of stellar population synthesis models has been performed for the first time. We found that the 2003 model by Bruzual and Charlot, statistically speaking, has greater Bayesian evidence than the 2005 model by Maraston for the K{sub s} -selected sample. In addition, while setting the stellar metallicity as a free parameter obviously increases the Bayesian evidence of both models, varying the initial mass function has a notable effect only on the Maraston model. Meanwhile, the physical parameters estimated with BayeSED are found to be generally consistent with those obtained using the popular grid-based FAST code, while the former parameters exhibit more natural distributions. Based on the estimated physical parameters of the galaxies in the sample, we qualitatively classified the galaxies in the sample into five populations that may represent galaxies at different evolution stages or in different environments. We conclude that BayeSED could be a reliable and powerful tool for investigating the formation and evolution of galaxies from the rich multi-wavelength observations currently available. A binary version of the BayeSED code parallelized with Message Passing Interface is publicly available at https://bitbucket.org/hanyk/bayesed.

  5. Unusual sedimentation of a Galveston Bay wetland at Pine Gully, Seabrook, Texas: implications for beach renourishment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culver, Wesley Richard

    2009-06-02

    OF A GALVESTON BAY WETLAND AT PINE GULLY, SEABROOK, TEXAS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BEACH RENOURISHMENT A Thesis by WESLEY RICHARD CULVER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2007 Major Subject: Geology UNUSUAL SEDIMENTATION OF A GALVESTON BAY WETLAND AT PINE GULLY, SEABROOK, TEXAS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BEACH RENOURISHMENT A Thesis by WESLEY RICHARD CULVER...

  6. An internship with the Galveston Bay Foundation emphasizing Coastal Marsh Restoration with Spartina alterniflora 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoud, Joey

    1996-01-01

    Record of Study An Internship with the Galveston Bay Foundation Emphasizing Coastal Marsh Restoration with Spartina alterrsiflora A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by Joey Mahmoud Submitted to the College of Agriculture of Texas ASM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF AGRICULTURE May 1996 Rangeland Ecology and Management An Internship with the Galveston Bay Foundation Emphasizing Coastal Marsh Restoration with Spartina alterniflora A PROFESSIONAL PAPER...

  7. Sources and sinks of [sup 210]Pb in Concepcion Bay, Chile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salamanca, Orrego, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The sources and sinks of [sup 210]Pb to Concepcion Bay waters were evaluated to discern the relative importance of the main removal and supply mechanisms of this radionuclide to the waters of Concepcion Bay. The main inputs of [sup 210]Pb are the atmospheric supply and the advection of offshore upwelling waters. The atmospheric input was measured in precipitation using a collector and inventories of excess [sup 210]Pb in Rocuant and Raqui marsh sediments. The average atmospheric supply of [sup 210]Pb for Concepcion area is about 0.3 dpm cm[sup [minus]2] yr[sup [minus]1]. The advective input from upwelling varies from 0.6 [+-] 1.3 to 2.1 [+-] 2.0 dpm cm[sup [minus]2] yr[sup [minus]1]. [sup 210]Pb is removed efficiently from the water column as shelf water with high [sup 210]Pb content crosses the continental shelf off Concepcion Bay, with [sup 210]Pb/[sup 226]Ra activity ratios decreasing by a factor of 3 to 4 before reaching the interior of the bay. This is coincident with an increase of suspended matter concentration towards inside the bay. The main removal of [sup 210]Pb from Concepcion Bay waters is deposition in sediments. There is an increase of the [sup 210]Pb inventories toward the bay entrance excess (by a factor of 2) and outside the bay sediments (by a factor of 7). This pattern can be explained by an increase of mixing of sediments by the benthic infauna and enhanced removal of [sup 210]Pb from the water column by particles near the bay mouth. Mass balance calculations are included. The residence time of [sup 210]Pb with respect to removal from water column is estimated to be 17 to 43 days. The results of this research indicate that [sup 210]Pb and probably other similar particle-reactive contaminants (such as heavy metals) are retained and redistributed inside the bay by circulation, resuspension and biological mixing.

  8. Monitoring and Modeling Non-Point Source Contributions of Host-Specific Fecal Contamination in San Pablo Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wuertz, Stefan; Bombardelli, Fabian A; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Wang, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Host-Specific Fecal Contamination in San Pablo Bay Principlelivestock sources of fecal contamination in Kenya with host-Huang. Abstract Fecal contamination from non-point sources

  9. Analysis of the chemical behavior of iodine in the suppression tank of the LOFT facility during experiment LP-FP-2 with IODE and IMPAIR-2/M

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herranz, L.E.; Polo, J. (Nuclear Technology Inst., Madrid (Spain). Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas)

    1994-05-01

    The significance of iodine for source term quantification has been studied by investigating its chemical behavior under the prototypical conditions of a hypothetical severe accident within the containment. As a result, some computer codes were developed and their validation is currently under way. The loss-of-fluid test (LOFT) program was one of the most relevant research projects in the area of nuclear safety. Its last experiment, LP-FP-2, simulated a V-sequence. A great deal of information was recorded on the fission product release, transport, and deposition. A theoretical approach to the chemical behavior of iodine in the blowdown suppression tank (BST) of the LOFT facility was attempted with the IODE and IMPAIR-2/M codes. The comparison of the predictions with the existing experimental data led to the conclusion that the BST system behaved as a low-volatility system, with most of the iodine in the form of the soluble nonvolatile species iodide. Only a partial conversion to volatile molecular iodine was observed due to the presence of radiation. However, the intensity of the [gamma] field was so weak that this transformation was not quantitatively meaningful.

  10. HOOPER BAY HOUSING ANALYSIS AND ENERGY FEASIBILITY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SEA LION CORPORATION; COLD CLIMATE HOUSING RESEARCH CENTER; SOLUTIONS FOR HEALTHY BREATHING; WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION

    2012-12-30

    Sea Lion applied for and received a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) towards this end titled â??Energy Efficiency Development and Deployment in Indian Countryâ?. The initial objectives of the Hooper Bay Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study were to demonstrate a 30% reduction in residential/commercial energy usage and identify the economic benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures to the Tribe through: (1) partnering with Whitney Construction and Solutions for Healthy Breathing in the training and hire of 2 local energy assessors to conduct energy audits of 9 representative housing models and 2 commercial units in the community. These homes are representative of 52 homes constructed across different eras. (2) partnering with Cold Climate Housing Research Center to document current electrical and heating energy consumption and analyze data for a final feasibility report (3) assessing the economics of electricity & heating fuel usage; (4) projecting energy savings or fossil fuel reduction by modeling of improvement scenarios and cost feasibility The following two objectives will be completed after the publication of this report: (5) the development of materials lists for energy efficiency improvements (6) identifying financing options for the follow-up energy efficiency implementation phase.

  11. Improved Measurement of Electron Antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daya Bay Collaboration; F. P. An; Q. An; J. Z. Bai; A. B. Balantekin; H. R. Band; W. Beriguete; M. Bishai; S. Blyth; R. L. Brown; G. F. Cao; J. Cao; R. Carr; W. T. Chan; J. F. Chang; Y. Chang; C. Chasman; H. S. Chen; H. Y. Chen; S. J. Chen; S. M. Chen; X. C. Chen; X. H. Chen; X. S. Chen; Y. Chen; Y. X. Chen; J. J. Cherwinka; M. C. Chu; J. P. Cummings; Z. Y. Deng; Y. Y. Ding; M. V. Diwan; E. Draeger; X. F. Du; D. Dwyer; W. R. Edwards; S. R. Ely; S. D. Fang; J. Y. Fu; Z. W. Fu; L. Q. Ge; R. L. Gill; M. Gonchar; G. H. Gong; H. Gong; Y. A. Gornushkin; W. Q. Gu; M. Y. Guan; X. H. Guo; R. W. Hackenburg; R. L. Hahn; S. Hans; H. F. Hao; M. He; Q. He; K. M. Heeger; Y. K. Heng; P. Hinrichs; Y. K. Hor; Y. B. Hsiung; B. Z. Hu; T. Hu; H. X. Huang; H. Z. Huang; X. T. Huang; P. Huber; V. Issakov; Z. Isvan; D. E. Jaffe; S. Jetter; X. L. Ji; X. P. Ji; H. J. Jiang; J. B. Jiao; R. A. Johnson; L. Kang; S. H. Kettell; M. Kramer; K. K. Kwan; M. W. Kwok; T. Kwok; C. Y. Lai; W. C. Lai; W. H. Lai; K. Lau; L. Lebanowski; J. Lee; R. T. Lei; R. Leitner; J. K. C. Leung; K. Y. Leung; C. A. Lewis; F. Li; G. S. Li; Q. J. Li; W. D. Li; X. B. Li; X. N. Li; X. Q. Li; Y. Li; Z. B. Li; H. Liang; C. J. Lin; G. L. Lin; S. K. Lin; Y. C. Lin; J. J. Ling; J. M. Link; L. Littenberg; B. R. Littlejohn; D. W. Liu; J. C. Liu; J. L. Liu; Y. B. Liu; C. Lu; H. Q. Lu; A. Luk; K. B. Luk; Q. M. Ma; X. B. Ma; X. Y. Ma; Y. Q. Ma; K. T. McDonald; M. C. McFarlane; R. D. McKeown; Y. Meng; D. Mohapatra; Y. Nakajima; J. Napolitano; D. Naumov; I. Nemchenok; H. Y. Ngai; W. K. Ngai; Y. B. Nie; Z. Ning; J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux; A. Olshevski; S. Patton; V. Pec; J. C. Peng; L. E. Piilonen; L. Pinsky; C. S. J. Pun; F. Z. Qi; M. Qi; X. Qian; N. Raper; J. Ren; R. Rosero; B. Roskovec; X. C. Ruan; B. B. Shao; K. Shih; H. Steiner; G. X. Sun; J. L. Sun; N. Tagg; Y. H. Tam; H. K. Tanaka; X. Tang; H. Themann; Y. Torun; S. Trentalange; O. Tsai; K. V. Tsang; R. H. M. Tsang; C. E. Tull; Y. C. Tung; B. Viren; V. Vorobel; C. H. Wang; L. S. Wang; L. Y. Wang; L. Z. Wang; M. Wang; N. Y. Wang; R. G. Wang; W. Wang; X. Wang; Y. F. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. Wang; Z. M. Wang; D. M. Webber; H. Y. Wei; Y. D. Wei; L. J. Wen; K. Whisnant; C. G. White; L. Whitehead; Y. Williamson; T. Wise; H. L. H. Wong; E. T. Worcester; F. F. Wu; Q. Wu; J. B. Xi; D. M. Xia; Z. Z. Xing; J. Xu; J. Xu; J. L. Xu; Y. Xu; T. Xue; C. G. Yang; L. Yang; M. Ye; M. Yeh; Y. S. Yeh; B. L. Young; Z. Y. Yu; L. Zhan; C. Zhang; F. H. Zhang; J. W. Zhang; Q. M. Zhang; S. H. Zhang; Y. C. Zhang; Y. H. Zhang; Y. X. Zhang; Z. J. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; Z. Y. Zhang; J. Zhao; Q. W. Zhao; Y. B. Zhao; L. Zheng; W. L. Zhong; L. Zhou; Z. Y. Zhou; H. L. Zhuang; J. H. Zou

    2012-11-17

    We report an improved measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ from the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. We exclude a zero value for $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations. Electron antineutrinos from six reactors of 2.9 GW$_{\\rm th}$ were detected in six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (flux-weighted baselines of 470 m and 576 m) and one far (1648 m) underground experimental halls. Using 139 days of data, 28909 (205308) electron antineutrino candidates were detected at the far hall (near halls). The ratio of the observed to the expected number of antineutrinos assuming no oscillations at the far hall is $0.944\\pm 0.007({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.003({\\rm syst.})$. An analysis of the relative rates in six detectors finds $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}=0.089\\pm 0.010({\\rm stat.})\\pm0.005({\\rm syst.})$ in a three-neutrino framework.

  12. Deep porosity preservation in the Norphlet Formation, Mobil Bay, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajdukiewicz, J.M.; Paxton, S.T.; Szabvo, J.O. )

    1991-03-01

    Compaction and pressure solution have commonly been assumed to destroy primary intergranular porosity in deeply buried sandstones. However, primary porosities of up to 20% are preserved at depths greater than 20,000 feet in the Norphlet Formation of Mobile Bay. Previous workers have called upon a number of mechanisms to preserve these high porosities in the Norphlet, specifically chlorite rim cements, gas emplacement, overpressuring, and decementation. In contrast, our study of data from 23 Norphlet wells, including 450 thin sections, indicates that these suggested mechanisms are not the primary cause of porosity preservation in the Norphlet. The authors propose an alternative interpretation: that in the Norphlet, as in other well-sorted, ductile-grain-poor sandstones, porosity loss from compaction did not go to completion under reservoir (premetamorphic) conditions, but stabilized at depths of about 5,000-8,000 feet and porosity values of about 26%. Porosity loss below these values is due to cementation. For cementation to occur, both an adequate source of cement and geochemical conditions favoring cement precipitation must be present. Computer simulations of Norphlet burial history, including post-depositional fluid-flow patterns, suggest that conditions favorable to quartz cementation never occurred in the bulk of the Norphlet because of the formation's stratigraphic position and isolation from a basinward source of silica-saturated fluids.

  13. Experimental Studies for CPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, John; Naber, Jeffrey; Parker, Gordon; Yang, Song-Lin; Stevens, Andrews; Pihl, Josh

    2013-04-30

    The research carried out on this project developed experimentally validated Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) high?fidelity models that served as the basis for the reduced order models used for internal state estimation. The high?fidelity and reduced order/estimator codes were evaluated by the industrial partners with feedback to MTU that improved the codes. Ammonia, particulate matter (PM) mass retained, PM concentration, and NOX sensors were evaluated and used in conjunction with the estimator codes. The data collected from PM experiments were used to develop the PM kinetics using the high?fidelity DPF code for both NO2 assisted oxidation and thermal oxidation for Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (ULSF), and B10 and B20 biodiesel fuels. Nine SAE papers were presented and this technology transfer process should provide the basis for industry to improve the OBD and control of urea injection and fuel injection for active regeneration of the PM in the DPF using the computational techniques developed. This knowledge will provide industry the ability to reduce the emissions and fuel consumption from vehicles in the field. Four MS and three PhD Mechanical Engineering students were supported on this project and their thesis research provided them with expertise in experimental, modeling, and controls in aftertreatment systems.

  14. Many people and organizations are working together to ensure the Morro Bay ecosystem remains healthy: the San Luis Obispo Science and Ecosystem Alliance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilderbrand, Robert H.

    healthy: the San Luis Obispo Science and Ecosystem Alliance (SLOSEA), the Morro Bay National Estuary were developed by members of the San Luis Obispo Science and Ecosystem Alliance, the Morro Bay National

  15. EA-1992: Funding for Principle Power, Inc., for the WindFloat Pacific Offshore Wind Demonstration Project, offshore of Coos Bay, Oregon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Funding for Principle Power, Inc., for the WindFloat Pacific Offshore Wind Demonstration Project, offshore of Coos Bay, Oregon

  16. Bay County, Florida ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminexInformationArkansas: Energy Resources Jump to:Biodiesel

  17. USDA Forest Service Gen.Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-187. 2003. 249 VI. The Association of Bay Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of leaders in the high-tech industry, in writing a report designed to address the problem of housingUSDA Forest Service Gen.Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-187. 2003. 249 VI. The Association of Bay Area in the region. #12;USDA Forest Service Gen.Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-187. 2003. SectionVI 250 THE ASSOCIATION OF BAY

  18. Seasonal dynamics of bacterial biomass and production in a coastal arctic ecosystem: Franklin Bay, western Canadian Arctic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    Seasonal dynamics of bacterial biomass and production in a coastal arctic ecosystem: Franklin Bay 2008. [1] The Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES) included the overwintering deployment biomass and production in a coastal arctic ecosystem: Franklin Bay, western Canadian Arctic, J. Geophys

  19. Impacts of Radioactive 137Cs on Marine Bacterioplankton: Effects of the Fukushima Disaster on Hawaii's Kaneohe Bay Bacterial Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Paul

    Impacts of Radioactive 137Cs on Marine Bacterioplankton: Effects of the Fukushima Disaster such catastrophe, a tsunami off the coast of Japan, occurred on March 11, 2011. The tsunami caused the Fukushima on the bacterioplankton community of Kaneohe Bay in Oahu, Hawaii. The bay is in the direct path of Fukushima's radioactive

  20. Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century - A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, K.M.; Fuller, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would require measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. 31 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Cultural contributions to the island of St. John, United States Virgin Islands: underwater historical archaeology at Cruz Bay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Carmen M

    1995-01-01

    on the eastern side of St. John. Coral Bay was the principal port of St. John until 1733, when a major slave insurrection occurred, and the population moved west toward Cruz Bay, a primary anchorage for interisland and transoceanic vessels during the 18th and 19...

  2. Sanders, J. E.; Merguerian, Charles; and Okulewicz, S. C., 1995b, Recumbent fold in displaced slab of Upper Cretaceous sediments, Princes Bay, Staten Island, New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merguerian, Charles

    of Upper Cretaceous sediments, Princes Bay, Staten Island, New York: further evidence that ice flowing Program with Abstracts, 135 p. RECUMBENT FOLD IN DISPLACED SLAB OF UPPER CRETACEOUS SEDIMENTS, PRINCES BAY the navigation tower along the shores of Princes Bay, Staten Island, [UTM grid coordinates 566.70E, 4484.20N

  3. Independent measurement of the neutrino mixing angle ?13 via neutron capture on hydrogen at Daya Bay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaffe, D. E.

    2014-10-03

    A new measurement of the ?13 mixing angle has been obtained at the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment via the detection of inverse beta decays tagged by neutron capture on hydrogen. The antineutrino events for hydrogen capture are distinct from those for gadolinium capture with largely different systematic uncertainties, allowing a determination independent of the gadolinium-capture result and an improvement on the precision of the ?13 measurement. With a 217-day antineutrino data set obtained with six antineutrino detectors and from six 2.9 GWth reactors, the rate deficit observed at the far hall is interpreted as sin22?13=0.083±0.018 in the three-flavor oscillationmore »model. When combined with the gadolinium-capture result from Daya Bay, we obtain sin22?13=0.089±0.008 as the final result for the six-antineutrino-detector configuration of the Daya Bay experiment.« less

  4. Ann bay lodyans 2 / se Bryant Freeman ("Tonton Liben") ki pare ti liv sa a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Bryant C.

    2000-01-01

    tonton an di li: "Zafe moun pa gade Neg la sezi. Li joure tonton an, epi I ale fe wout li. Nan yon ti bout I £l|P' =kite vye chemen pou chemen nef." ou. chemen, li...: "Pa kite vye chemen pou chemen nef." Lamenm li pran wout vye chemen. Epi void yo ki t ap tann li nan gran chemen rete jouk devanjou, bekeke. Neg la mache anpil anko anvan li rive lakay li. Le I rive, li pa t fin fe jou. Li ale sere estati a nan...

  5. Ann bay lodyans 1 / se Bryant Freeman ("Tonton Liben") ki pare ti liv sa a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Bryant C.

    2000-01-01

    KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Ann Bay Lodyans 1 se Bryant Freeman (“Tonton Liben”) ki pare ti liv sa a 2000 by Bryant C. Freeman, ed. This work has been made available by the University of Kansas Libraries’ Office of Scholarly... Freeman (“Tonton Liben”) ki pare ti liv sa a. [Lawrence, Kan.] : Institute of Haitian Studies ; [Port-au-Prince] : Bon Nouvèl : Fondasyon Alfa Lwès, 2000. Terms of Use: http://www2.ku.edu/~scholar/docs/license.shtml ANN BAY LODYANS 1 Se Bryant Freeman...

  6. A study of the foraminifera and sediments of Matagorda Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shenton, Edward Heriot

    1957-01-01

    A STUDY OF THE FORAMINIFERA AND SEDIMENTS OF MATAGORDA BAY& TEXAS ahg C0 L ( /SF OP FF QS A Thesis By Edward Heriot Shenton Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfilhaent... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1957 MaJor SubJect: Oceanography A STUDY OF THE FORAMINIFEBA AND SEDIMEETS OF MATAGOBDA BAY, TEXAS A Thesis By Edward Heriot Shenton Approved as to style and content by; Chairman of Couu~it e Head...

  7. Abundance and distribution of the western Gulf stone crab (Menippe adina) in Galveston Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boslet, Jane Murray

    1989-01-01

    I BUNDANCE AND DI STRISUT . ON OF THE WESTERN GULF STOiuE CRAB LilFNIL'PC l', Diijil) IN GALVESTON BAY TEXAS Thesis JALXE iiURRAY HOSLET SuL&mitted to th= Office of Graduate Studies of Texa Aai1 University in :. a- Dial fulfullment... of the requirements for the deqree of MAS'I ~ R OI" SCIENCE May 19B9 Major subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE WESTERN GULF STONE CRAB (NENIPPE ADINA) IN GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS A Thesis by JANE MURRAY BOSLET Approved...

  8. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.; Walker, A.; Roberts, J.; Falcey, J.

    2011-11-01

    DOD's U.S. Pacific Command has partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency in Hawaii installations. NREL selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations.

  9. MHK Projects/Kachemak Bay Tidal Energy Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050 JumpCoos Bay OPTHalf Moon CoveHydroKachemak Bay

  10. Glacial and nonglacial events in the eastern James Bay lowlands, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and dating nonglacial deposits in sedimentary sequences east of James Bay. Our investigations indicate that the regional stratigraphy comprises at least five distinct tills and an important unit of glaciola- custrine rhythmites. This glacial sequence lies on massive lacustrine clay and fluvial sand containing abundant

  11. Simulation of Estuarine Flooding and Dewatering with Application to Great Bay, New Hampshire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simulation of Estuarine Flooding and Dewatering with Application to Great Bay, New Hampshire Justin T. C. Ip, Daniel R. Lynch Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, 03755, U.S.A. Carl T, New Hamp­ shire estuary system are presented. The model incorporate two­dimensional kinematic wave

  12. Modeling tidal flow in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, using a depth averaged

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling tidal flow in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, using a depth averaged flooding, University of New Hampshire, USA. 2 Numerical Methods Lab., Dartmouth College, USA. 3 Ocean Process Analysis Lab., University of New Hampshire, USA. Abstract Current, sea level and bed load transport

  13. Simulation of the Great Bay Estuarine System: Tides with Tidal Flats Wetting and Drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , S.N. Erturk, M.R. Swift, W.S. Brown, B. Celikkol University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, 03824, U.S.A. J.T.C. Ip, D.R. Lynch Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, 03755, U.S.A. January 2 2 tide, Great Bay Estuarine System, New Hampshire coast. #12; 2 Simulation of the GBES 1

  14. Simulation of the Great Bay Estuarine System: Tides with Tidal Flats Wetting and Drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , A. Bilgili , M.R. Swift, W.S. Brown, B. Celikkol University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, 03824, U.S.A. J.T.C. Ip, D.R. Lynch Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, 03755, U.S.A. February 27 2 tide, Great Bay Estuarine System, New Hampshire coast. #12; 2 Simulation of the GBES 1

  15. Bayes Linear Uncertainty Analysis for Oil Reservoirs Based on Multiscale Computer Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakley, Jeremy

    of the input parameters for a reservoir model. Therefore, an uncertainty analysis for the model often proceedsBayes Linear Uncertainty Analysis for Oil Reservoirs Based on Multiscale Computer Experiments for the efficient management of the reservoir. In a Bayesian analysis, all of our uncertainties are incorporated

  16. Spatial analysis of air pollution and cancer incidence rates in Haifa Bay, Israel Ori Eitan a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spatial analysis of air pollution and cancer incidence rates in Haifa Bay, Israel Ori Eitan with historically high air pollution levels. This work tests whether persistent spatial patterns of metrics of chronic exposure to air pollutants are associated with the observed patterns of cancer incidence rates

  17. Are You Polluting Our Lakes and Streams and the Chesapeake Bay?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wendell T.

    1 Are You Polluting Our Lakes and Streams and the Chesapeake Bay? Pet waste left to decay, and rivers. They include the following: · Pesticides · Household chemicals · Fertilizers · Oil and antifreeze · Pet waste When pet waste is washed into lakes or streams, the waste decays, using up oxygen

  18. Posterior Probability Estimation Techniques Embedded in a Bayes Filter for Vibration-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zell, Andreas

    Posterior Probability Estimation Techniques Embedded in a Bayes Filter for Vibration-based Terrain Classification Philippe Komma and Andreas Zell Abstract Vibration signals acquired during robot traversal provide] or ladar sensors [15, 10] can be employed. Recently, several researchers considered vehicle vibrations

  19. Nekton of New Seagrass Habitats Colonizing a Subsided Salt Marsh in Galveston Bay, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nekton of New Seagrass Habitats Colonizing a Subsided Salt Marsh in Galveston Bay, Texas SETH P Delwood Beach Road, Panama City, Florida 32408 ABSTRACT: Subsidence and erosion of intertidal salt marsh on this system is the extrac- tion of subsurface oil, gas, and water resources that has caused land subsidence

  20. Space Use by Forster's Terns Breeding in South San Francisco Bay JILL BLUSO-DEMERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colwell, Mark

    , sex- specific foraging behaviors among seabirds with negligible sexual size dimorphism (i that differ- ences reported in sexually dimorphic species are not mediated exclusively by differences in body 95616 4 Current address: San Francisco Bay Bird Observatory, 524 Valley Way, Milpitas, CA 95035 Internet

  1. Offshore wind resources from satellite SAR Charlotte Bay Hasager, Merete Bruun Christiansen, Morten Nielsen,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Offshore wind resources from satellite SAR Charlotte Bay Hasager, Merete Bruun Christiansen, Morten Nielsen, Risoe National Laboratory, Wind Energy Department, DTU, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde-real-time calculated to wind maps using CMOD functions using the ANSWRS software from the Johns Hopkins University

  2. Coastal Wind Mapping from Satellite SAR: Possibilities and Limitations Charlotte Bay Hasager and Merete Bruun Christiansen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 21 - Coastal Wind Mapping from Satellite SAR: Possibilities and Limitations Charlotte Bay Hasager and Merete Bruun Christiansen Risø National Laboratory, Wind Energy Department, Meteorology Program, VEA-118 Abstract Satellite remote sensing of ocean wind fields from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations

  3. Impact of tropical cyclones on the ocean heat budget in the Bay of Bengal during 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Weiqing

    ­November in 1999 on the Bay of Bengal (BoB) heat budget are examined using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model estimates using previously published methods based on surface observations. The relatively weak heat pumping pumping (DOHP) by tropical cyclones (TCs), which mea- sures the amount of heat that is pumped down from

  4. Measuring Sin^22?_13 with the Daya Bay Nuclear Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yifang Wang

    2006-10-09

    Angle \\theta_13 is one of the two unknown neutrino mixing parameters to be determined. Its value may determine the future trend of the neutrino physics. We propose to measure sin^22\\theta_13 with a sensitivity better than 0.01 (90% C.L) at the Daya Bay reactor power plant.

  5. The Circulation of Tampa Bay Driven by Buoyancy, Tides and Winds, as Simulated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    1 The Circulation of Tampa Bay Driven by Buoyancy, Tides and Winds, as Simulated using a Finite by rivers, tides and winds. Because of a mean wind velocity vector directed down the estuary axis we ran a parallel model experiment without winds to distinguish the estuarine circulation by gravitational

  6. Using A Bayes Classifier to Draw the First Down Line on a Football Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Eric M.

    Using A Bayes Classifier to Draw the First Down Line on a Football Field Jeremy Anderson, Dr a line on an image of a football field without marking on the players. This project was motivated by Sport Vision, developers of the first down indicator used for television broadcasts of football games

  7. Composition of Fish Communities in a European Macrotidal Salt Marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Composition of Fish Communities in a European Macrotidal Salt Marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay At least 100 fish species are known to be present in the intertidal areas (estuaries, mudflats and salt, such as estuaries and lagoons, play a nursery role for many fish species. However, in Europe little attention has

  8. Heavy Metals contamination in two bioluminescent bays of Puerto Rico Yadira Soto Viruet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    1 Heavy Metals contamination in two bioluminescent bays of Puerto Rico Yadira Soto Viruet #802 characteristics. The main purpose of this research was to evaluate the presence of heavy metals of pesticides for agriculture, untreated wastewater and variety of industrial activities (power plants, oil

  9. Bayes and Big Data: The Consensus Monte Carlo Algorithm Steven L. Scott1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Bayes and Big Data: The Consensus Monte Carlo Algorithm Steven L. Scott1 , Alexander W. Blocker1 of Business October 31, 2013 Abstract A useful definition of "big data" is data that is too big to comfortably by splitting data across multiple machines. Communication between large numbers of machines is expensive

  10. Recipes from the Secret Book of Artephius San Francisco Bay Area, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, John

    Recipes from the Secret Book of Artephius Gold Team San Francisco Bay Area, California The Codex Leicester Introduction We seek the recipes contained in The Secret Book of Artephius, a text first. While in the possession of the Vatican, the recipes contained in the text were sold twice during

  11. A numerical study of circulation and mixing in a macrotidal estuary: Cobscook Bay, Maine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baca, Michael William

    1998-01-01

    A numerical, three-dimensional coastal ocean model was ics. used to study the circulation and subsequent mixing of Cobscook Bay by the lunar semi-diurnal tide. The results showed strong ebbing and flooding currents along a main channel connected...

  12. EIS-0296: South Oregon Coast Reinforcement Project, Coos Bay/North Bend, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes BPA's proposed action to build a 500- kilovolt (kV) transmission line and new substation to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of the state of Oregon. Nucor Steel, a division of Nucor Corporation, may build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend, Oregon, area.

  13. EIS-0296: South Oregon Coast Reinforcement Project, Coos Bay/North Bend, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration proposes to build a 500- kilovolt (kV) transmission line and new substation to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of the state of Oregon. Nucor Steel, a division of Nucor Corporation, may build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend, Oregon, area.

  14. Incorporating Optics into a Coupled Physical-Biological Forecasting System in the Monterey Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    Incorporating Optics into a Coupled Physical-Biological Forecasting System in the Monterey Bay Fei://www.marine.maine.edu/~eboss/index.html http://ourocean.jpl.nasa.gov/ LONG-TERM GOALS Modeling and predicting ocean optical properties for coastal waters requires linking optical properties with the physical, chemical, and biological processes

  15. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Toksook Bay, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Toksook Bay, Alaska. Data provided for this project include community load data, average wind turbine output, average diesel plant output, thermal load data, average net capacity factor, optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, average net wind penetration, estimated fuel savings, and wind system availability.

  16. On the fluctuations and vertical structure of the shelf circulation off Walvis Bay, Namibia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohrholz, Volker

    20nm off Walvis Bay, Namibia. Spatial and temporal variations of the wind field in the South East Atlantic were investigated by 3-day averaged wind fields measured by the QuikSCAT satellite. The local wind was provided by a time series of hourly wind vectors measured on a moored buoy off Swakopmund. The significant

  17. Chapter 24: Variational Bayes W. Penny, S. Kiebel and K. Friston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    Chapter 24: Variational Bayes W. Penny, S. Kiebel and K. Friston May 9, 2006 Introduction Bayesian and Bishop 2005]. It is now also widely used in the analysis of neuroimag- ing data [Penny et al. 2003, Woolrich 2004, Sato et al. 2004, Sahani and Nagarajan 2004, Penny et al. 2005, Friston et al. 2006

  18. Sand and mud deposited by Hurricane Katrina on Deer Island, Biloxi Bay, Mississippi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winglee, Robert M.

    Sand and mud deposited by Hurricane Katrina on Deer Island, Biloxi Bay, Mississippi Annaliese A University of Washington Department of Earth and Space Sciences #12;Sand and mud deposited by Hurricane ................................................................................................................. 14 ABSTRACT Hurricane Katrina overwash berms on both sides of Deer Island, Mississippi, include sub

  19. Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushman, Chris

    2014-02-03

    In 2011 the Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc. was awarded an Energy Efficiency Development and Deployment in Indian Country grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Energy Program. This grant aimed to study select Bay Mills Indian Community community/government buildings to determine what is required to reduce each building’s energy consumption by 30%. The Bay Mills Indian Community (BMIC) buildings with the largest expected energy use were selected for this study and included the Bay Mills Ellen Marshall Health Center building, Bay Mills Indian Community Administration Building, Bay Mills Community College main campus, Bay Mills Charter School and the Waishkey Community Center buildings. These five sites are the largest energy consuming Community buildings and comprised the study area of this project titled “Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community”. The end objective of this study, plan and the Tribe is to reduce the energy consumption at the Community’s most energy intensive buildings that will, in turn, reduce emissions at the source of energy production, reduce energy expenditures, create long lasting energy conscious practices and positively affect the quality of the natural environment. This project’s feasibility study and resulting plan is intended to act as a guide to the Community’s first step towards planned energy management within its buildings/facilities. It aims to reduce energy consumption by 30% or greater within the subject facilities with an emphasis on energy conservation and efficiency. The energy audits and related power consumption analyses conducted for this study revealed numerous significant energy conservation and efficiency opportunities for all of the subject sites/buildings. In addition, many of the energy conservation measures require no cost and serve to help balance other measures requiring capital investment. Reoccurring deficiencies relating to heating, cooling, thermostat setting inefficiencies, powering computers, lighting, items linked to weatherization and numerous other items were encountered that can be mitigated with the energy conservation measures developed and specified during the course of this project.

  20. Reducing methylmercury accumulation in the food webs of San Francisco Bay and its local watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.A., E-mail: jay@sfei.org [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Looker, R.E. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)] [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Yee, D. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States)] [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Marvin-Di Pasquale, M. [U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division/MS 480, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)] [U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division/MS 480, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grenier, J.L. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States)] [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Austin, C.M. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)] [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, 1515 Clay Street, Suite 1400, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); McKee, L.J.; Greenfield, B.K. [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States)] [San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Brodberg, R. [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95812 (United States)] [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95812 (United States); Blum, J.D. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, 1100 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    San Francisco Bay (California, USA) and its local watersheds present an interesting case study in estuarine mercury (Hg) contamination. This review focuses on the most promising avenues for attempting to reduce methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in Bay Area aquatic food webs and identifying the scientific information that is most urgently needed to support these efforts. Concern for human exposure to MeHg in the region has led to advisories for consumption of sport fish. Striped bass from the Bay have the highest average Hg concentration measured for this species in USA estuaries, and this degree of contamination has been constant for the past 40 years. Similarly, largemouth bass in some Bay Area reservoirs have some of the highest Hg concentrations observed in the entire US. Bay Area wildlife, particularly birds, face potential impacts to reproduction based on Hg concentrations in the tissues of several Bay species. Source control of Hg is one of the primary possible approaches for reducing MeHg accumulation in Bay Area aquatic food webs. Recent findings (particularly Hg isotope measurements) indicate that the decades-long residence time of particle-associated Hg in the Bay is sufficient to allow significant conversion of even the insoluble forms of Hg into MeHg. Past inputs have been thoroughly mixed throughout this shallow and dynamic estuary. The large pool of Hg already present in the ecosystem dominates the fraction converted to MeHg and accumulating in the food web. Consequently, decreasing external Hg inputs can be expected to reduce MeHg in the food web, but it will likely take many decades to centuries before those reductions are achieved. Extensive efforts to reduce loads from the largest Hg mining source (the historic New Almaden mining district) are underway. Hg is spread widely across the urban landscape, but there are a number of key sources, source areas, and pathways that provide opportunities to capture larger quantities of Hg and reduce loads from urban runoff. Atmospheric deposition is a lower priority for source control in the Bay Area due to a combination of a lack of major local sources. Internal net production of MeHg is the dominant source of MeHg that enters the food web. Controlling internal net production is the second primary management approach, and has the potential to reduce food web MeHg in some habitats more effectively and within a much shorter time-frame. Controlling net MeHg production and accumulation in the food web of upstream reservoirs and ponds is very promising due to the many features of these ecosystems that can be manipulated. The most feasible control options in tidal marshes relate to the design of flow patterns and subhabitats in restoration projects. Options for controlling MeHg production in open Bay habitat are limited due primarily to the highly dispersed distribution of Hg throughout the ecosystem. Other changes in these habitats may also have a large influence on food web MeHg, including temperature changes due to global warming, sea level rise, food web alterations due to introduced species and other causes, and changes in sediment supply. Other options for reducing or mitigating exposure and risk include controlling bioaccumulation, cleanup of contaminated sites, and reducing other factors (e.g., habitat availability) that limit at-risk wildlife populations.