National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for battery thermal management

  1. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2006-10-01

    Presents the objectives and motivations for a battery thermal management vehicle system design study.

  2. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

    2006-11-01

    Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

  3. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  4. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodie, Brad

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  5. Thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.T.; Winchester, C.S.; Jolson, J.D.

    1989-06-20

    A thermal battery is described comprising at least one electrochemical cell comprising an anode of alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or alloys thereof, a fusible salt electrolyte, a fluorocarbon polymer or fluorochlorocarbon polymer depolarizer, and means for heating the cell to melt the electrolyte.

  6. Thermal Management of Batteries in Advanced Vehicles Using Phase-Change Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Gonder, J.; Lustbader, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2007-12-01

    This Powerpoint presentation examines battery thermal management using PCM and concludes excellent performance in limiting peak temperatures at short period extensive battery use; although, vehicle designers will need to weigh the potential increase in mass and cost associated with adding PCM against the anticipated benefits.

  7. Tools for Designing Thermal Management of Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature has a significant impact on life, performance, and safety of lithium-ion battery technology, which is expected to be the energy storage of choice for electric drive vehicles (xEVs). High temperatures degrade Li-ion cells faster while low temperatures reduce power and energy capabilities that could have cost, reliability, range, or drivability implications. Thermal management of battery packs in xEVs is essential to keep the cells in the desired temperature range and also reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations, both of which impact life and performance. The value that the battery thermal management system provides in reducing battery life and improving performance outweighs its additional cost and complexity. Tools that are essential for thermal management of batteries are infrared thermal imaging, isothermal calorimetry, thermal conductivity meter and computer-aided thermal analysis design software. This presentation provides details of these tools that NREL has used and we believe are needed to design right-sized battery thermal management systems.

  8. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Thomas F.; Bandhauer, Todd; Garimella, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  9. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-09

    This presentation provides an update of NREL's battery thermal characterization efforts for the 2015 U.S. Department of Energy Annual Merit Reviews.

  10. Ambient temperature thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, A. N.; Bliss, D. E.; McManis III

    1985-11-26

    An ambient temperature thermal battery having two relatively high temperature melting electrolytes which form a low melting temperature electrolyte upon activation.

  11. Electro-Thermal Modeling to Improve Battery Design: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.; Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Vlahinos, A.

    2005-09-01

    Operating temperature greatly affects the performance and life of batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Increased attention is necessary to battery thermal management. Electrochemical models and finite element analysis tools are available for predicting the thermal performance of batteries, but each has limitations. This study describes an electro-thermal finite element approach that predicts the thermal performance of a battery cell or module with realistic geometry.

  12. Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-499

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2013-10-01

    Under this CRADA NREL will support Creare's project for the Department of Energy entitled 'Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density' which involves the development of an air-flow based cooling product that increases energy density, safety, and reliability of hybrid electric vehicle battery packs.

  13. Lithium battery management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  14. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  15. Improving Battery Design with Electro-Thermal Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Kim, G.-H.; Duong, T.

    2005-08-01

    Temperature greatly affects the performance and life of batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles under real driving conditions, so increased attention is being paid to battery thermal management. Sophisticated electrochemical models and finite element analysis tools are available for predicting the thermal performance of batteries, but each has limitations. In this study we describe an electro-thermal finite element approach that predicts the thermal performance of a cell or module with realistic geometry, material properties, loads, and boundary conditions.

  16. Thermal battery with composite anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higley, L.R.

    1990-11-06

    This patent describes a thermal battery for generating electrical energy. It comprises: a sodium composite electrode comprising sodium metal and a protective metal; a cathode; and a separator located between the sodium composite electrode and the cathode.

  17. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  18. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Missert, Nancy A.; Brunke, Lyle Brent

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  19. NREL: Energy Storage - Energy Storage Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The lab's performance assessments factor in the design of the thermal management system, the thermal behavior of the cell, battery lifespan, and safety of the energy storage system...

  20. Thermal Evaluation of the Honda Insight Battery Pack: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolot, M.D.; Kelly, K.; Keyser, M.; Mihalic, M.; Pesaran, A.; Hieronymus, A.

    2001-06-18

    The hybrid vehicle test efforts at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with a focus on the Honda Insight's battery thermal management system, are presented. The performance of the Insight's high voltage NiMH battery pack was characterized by conducting in-vehicle dynamometer testing at Environmental Testing Corporation's high altitude dynamometer test facility, on-road testing in the Denver area, and out-of-car testing in NREL's Battery Thermal Management Laboratory. It is concluded that performance does vary considerably due to thermal conditions the pack encounters. The performance variations are due to both inherent NiMH characteristics, and the Insight's thermal management system.

  1. Sodium-sulfur thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, F.A.

    1990-12-11

    This paper discusses a sodium-sulfur thermal battery for generating electrical energy at temperatures above the melting point of sodium metal and sulfur. It comprises a sodium electrode comprising sodium metal; a sulfur electrode comprising sulfur; and a separator located between the sodium and sulfur electrodes. The separator having sufficient porosity to allow preliminary migration of fluid sodium metal and fluid sulfur and fluid sodium polysulfides therethrough during operation of the thermal battery to form a mixed polysulfides electrolyte gradient within the separator.

  2. Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL battery thermal modeling and testing work for the DOE Annual Merit Review, May 9, 2011.

  3. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  4. Robotic thermal battery pellet fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbler, D.L.; Townsend, A.S.; Walton, R.D.; Jones, C.W.

    1985-03-01

    Thermal battery manufacturing at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) is a sequence of operations involving materials processing, component manufacture, and assembly. These operations, for the most part, have been manually performed although some operations have been computer- or fixture-assisted. The high labor intensity and the need for process consistency in these operations made the conversion to a robotic work cell appealing in that it could increase productivity while allowing the reassignment of highly-trained workers to other duties. An Alpha robot (Microbot, Inc.) was coupled with a Hewlett-Packard HP-9816 microcomputer, and custom software was developed to control the thermal battery manufacturing process. The software provided a menu-driven main program with feedback at virtually every step to allow technicians with little or no computer experience to operate the system. Previously, one or two workers were assigned to each of several industrial presses used in the manufacture of thermal batteries. With the introduction of a robotic operator and a microcomputer process control, one worker alone could support two to three presses, thus freeing as many as five workers to be assigned to other labor intensive duties. The production rate of the robotic work cell was approximately the same as the manual method, but the consistency of production and yield showed significant improvement.

  5. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffat, Harry K.; John Hewson, Victor Brunini

    2013-09-24

    CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery adds constitutive models on top of the CanTrilBat framework. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery contains constitutive models for the electrode behavior when more than one electrode heterogeneous surface is reacting. This is a novel capability within the battery community. These models are named as the “Electrode_MultiPlateau” model.

  6. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-09-24

    CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery adds constitutive models on top of the CanTrilBat framework. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery contains constitutive models for the electrode behavior when more than one electrode heterogeneous surface is reacting. This is a novel capability within the battery community. These models are named as the “Electrode_MultiPlateau”more » model.« less

  7. Thermal battery automated assembly station conceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, D.

    1988-08-01

    Thermal battery assembly involves many operations which are labor- intense. In August 1986, a project team was formed at GE Neutron Devices to investigate and evaluate more efficient and productive battery assembly techniques through the use of automation. The result of this study was the acceptance of a plan to automate the piece part pellet fabrication and battery stacking operations by using computerized pellet presses and robots which would be integrated by a main computer. This report details the conceptual design and development plan to be followed in the fabrication, development, and implementation of a thermal battery automated assembly station. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. A thermal battery operational reliability evaluation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herzberg, M.; Jaeger, M.; Shalev, H.

    1994-12-31

    A thermal battery is a one shot device. Its overall reliability is given as the product of its technical and operational reliability. This work evaluates operational reliability. The operational reliability for various performance requirements was estimated by analyzing data received from qualification tests of a certain thermal battery. A lower bound of its operational reliability was evaluated by use of the statistical tolerance method for each specific electrical performance requirement. A conservative overall lower bound for the operational reliability of the thermal battery was calculated as the product of the individual operational reliability estimates corresponding to each performance requirement.

  9. Pyrite cathode material for a thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pemsler, J.P.; Litchfield, J.K.

    1991-02-07

    The present invention relates in general to a synthetic cathode material for a molten salt battery and, more particularly, to a process of providing and using synthetic pyrite for use as a cathode in a thermal battery. These batteries, which have been successfully used in a number of military applications, include iron disulfide cathode material obtained as benefacted or from natural occurring pyrite deposits, or as a byproduct of flotation concentrate from the processing of base or noble metal ores.

  10. Thermal battery statistics and plotting programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharrer, G.L.

    1990-04-01

    Thermal battery functional test data are stored in an HP3000 minicomputer operated by the Power Sources Department. A program was written to read data from a battery data base, compute simple statistics (mean, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, and K-factor), print out the results, and store the data in a file for subsequent plotting. A separate program was written to plot the data. The programs were written in the Pascal programming language. 1 tab.

  11. Optimal management of batteries in electric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley; Butler, Paul C.; Corey, Garth P.; Symons, Philip C.

    2002-01-01

    An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

  12. NREL Battery Thermal and Life Test Facility (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, M.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation describes NREL's Battery Thermal Test Facility and identifies test requirements and equipment and planned upgrades to the facility.

  13. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances ...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Battery Research Partner Requests...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Battery Research Partner Requests Proposals for Thermal Management Systems Vehicle Technologies Office Battery Research Partner Requests Proposals for Thermal Management Systems ...

  15. Thermal fuse for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph G.; Armijo, James R.; Frear, Darrel R.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal fuse, preferably for a high-temperature battery, comprising leads and a body therebetween having a melting point between approximately 400.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. The body is preferably an alloy of Ag--Mg, Ag--Sb, Al--Ge, Au--In, Bi--Te, Cd--Sb, Cu--Mg, In--Sb, Mg--Pb, Pb--Pd, Sb--Zn, Sn--Te, or Mg--Al.

  16. Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas A; Williford, Ralph E; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-06-01

    The entropy changes (ΔS) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO2 has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNixCoyMnzO2 and LiFePO4, while lithium titanate based anode has lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. Reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat.

  17. Energy Management Strategies for Fast Battery Temperature Rise...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management Strategies for Fast Battery Temperature Rise and Engine Efficiency Improvement at Very Cold Conditions Energy Management Strategies for Fast Battery Temperature Rise and ...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Battery Thermal Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by NREL at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about battery thermal characterization.

  19. Thermal battery for portable climate control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayanan, S; Li, XS; Yang, S; Kim, H; Umans, A; McKay, IS; Wang, EN

    2015-07-01

    Current technologies that provide climate control in the transportation sector are quite inefficient. In gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of air-conditioning is known to result in higher emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants apart from decreasing the gas-mileage. On the other hand, for electric vehicles (EVs), a drain in the onboard electric battery due to the operation of heating and cooling system results in a substantial decrease in the driving range. As an alternative to the conventional climate control system, we are developing an adsorption-based thermal battery (ATB), which is capable of storing thermal energy, and delivering both heating and cooling on demand, while requiring minimal electric power supply. Analogous to an electrical battery, the ATB can be charged for reuse. Furthermore, it promises to be compact, lightweight, and deliver high performance, which is desirable for mobile applications. In this study, we describe the design and operation of the ATB-based climate control system. We present a general theoretical framework to determine the maximum achievable heating and cooling performance using the ATB. The framework is then applied to study the feasibility of ATB integration in EVs, wherein we analyze the use of NaX zeolite-water as the adsorbent-refrigerant pair. In order to deliver the necessary heating and cooling performance, exceeding 2.5 kW h thermal capacity for EVs, the analysis determines the optimal design and operating conditions. While the use of the ATB in EVs can potentially enhance its driving range, it can also be used for climate control in conventional gasoline vehicles, as well as residential and commercial buildings as a more efficient and environmentally-friendly alternative. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal battery comprising iron pyrite depolarizer and ferric sulfate additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winchester, C.S.; Williams, M.T.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a thermal battery having a salt electrolyte, means to activate the battery by melting the electrolyte, and a FeS/sub 2/ depolarizer. The improvement comprises an amount of ferric sulfate effective to cause the occurrence of a voltage transient of predetermined magnitude and duration on activation of the battery.

  1. Iron-lithium anode for thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winchester, C.S.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a lithium anode for use in a thermal battery having a composite material comprising lithium and a particulate metal capable of being wetted by molten lithium, but only slightly or not alloyable with the lithium. The composite anode material is positioned adjacent a metal collector element the improvement comprising: a metal screen positioned between and substantially co-extensive with the anode composite and the metal collector element. The anode is thereby spaced apart from the element but is in electrical contact and the screen is electrically conductive.

  2. Battery and Thermal Energy Storage | Energy Systems Integration | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery and Thermal Energy Storage Not long ago, the mantra among electric utilities was that "you can't store electricity"-instantaneous power production had to nearly equal demand. But NREL research is changing this belief, demonstrating the high performance of grid-integrated battery and thermal energy storage technologies. Photo of a battery energy storage system NREL examines how best to integrate these energy storage technologies into the electrical grid and potentially into

  3. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  4. Pyrolysis of epoxies used for thermal-battery headers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Thornberg, S.M.; Campbell-Domme, B.

    1995-08-01

    Thermally activated batteries use an epoxy for encapsulation of the electrical feedthroughs in the header of the battery. When the thermal battery is thermally abused, the encapsulant can pyrolyze and generate large internal pressures. This causes the battery to vent in extreme cases. The nature of these gases has never been adequately documented. Therefore, a study was undertaken to address this deficiency. The pyrolysis of various encapsulants that have been used, or are being considered for use, in thermally activated batteries was studied over a temperature range of 155 to 455 C. The composition of the pyrolysis decomposition products was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GS/MS). This determination is helpful in assessing the potential environmental and health effect for personnel exposed to such gases. In addition, the thermal stability of the various epoxies was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  5. Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... gas, electric, and solar hot water evaluation * Energy Storage Laboratory is home to the world's most accurate battery calorimeters of their kind, thermal imaging, battery ...

  6. A miniature shock-activated thermal battery for munitions applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Kirby, D.L.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of a small, fast-rise thermal battery for non-spinning munitions applications was examined by studying the response of conventional thermal cells to impact (mechanical) energy to simulate a setback environment. This is an extension of earlier work that demonstrated that shock activation could be used to produce power from a conventional thermal-battery cell. The results of tests with both single and multiple cells are presented, along with data for a 5-cell miniature (5-mm diameter) thermal battery. The issues needing to be resolved before such a device can become a commercial reality are also discussed.

  7. Characteristics and development report for the MC3573 thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Street, H.K.

    1983-02-01

    This report describes the design intent, product characteristics, and development history of the MC3573 high-current, electrically activated thermal battery. This battery is required to operate five to six times longer than the usual weapon system power battery. The MC3573 employs the Li(Si)/LiCl.KCl/FeS/sub 2/ electrochemical system. The battery is a right-circular cylinder with attached mounting brackets. It measures 122.1 mm in length, 88.9 mm in diameter, and stands 96.2 mm high. The battery is the power supply for the W81 and W85 JTA telemetry systems.

  8. A design for a thermal battery automated assembly station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, D.; Herrig, D.M.

    1989-05-19

    Thermal battery assembly involves many operations which are labor intensive. In August 1986, a project team was formed at GE Neutron Devices to investigate and evaluate more efficient and productive battery assembly techniques through the use of automation. A plan was formulated to automate the piece part pellet fabrication and battery stacking operations by using computerized pellet presses and robots integrated by a main computer. This report details the conceptual design and development plan which was followed in the fabrication, development, and implementation of the thermal battery automated assembly station. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Characteristics and development report for the MC3714 thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharrer, G.L.; Lasky, F.P.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the design intent, design considerations, system use, development, product characteristics, and early production history of the MC3714 Thermal Battery. This battery has a required operating life of 146 s above 24.0 V with a constant current load of 0.5 A. It is activated when the MC3830 Actuator initiates the WW42C1 Percussion Primer in the battery. The MC3714 employs the Li(Si)/LiCl-CCl/lithiated FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system. The battery is a hermetically sealed right-circular cylinder with an antirotation ring brazed to the base of the cylinder. The battery is 50 mm long and 38.1 mm in diameter. The mass of the battery is 165 g. The battery was designed and developed to provide the power for the W82 JTA Telemetry System. 8 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Characteristics and development report for the MC3493 thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, A.R.; Pitre, L.J.

    1981-09-01

    The design intent, product characteristics, and development history of the MC3493 fused-salt, fast-rise, pulse-type thermal battery are described. The MC3493 employs the Fe/Ca/LiCl.KCl/CaCrO/sub 4//Fe electrochemical system. The battery is a right-circular cylinder measuring 19.4 mm in diameter and 34.2 mm in length. The battery was designed to supply reefing-line cutter power for the B83 system.

  11. Characterization studies and defect analysis of thermal battery components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antepenko, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A very brief discussion on thermal batteries and the analytical techniques and procedures used in obtaining data characterizing the various battery components is given. The information is taken from four publications: GEPP-189, GEPP-299, GEPP-260, and GEPP-TM-459. 4 figures. (RWR)

  12. Coupling Mechanical with Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Batteries under Abuse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Sahraei, Elham; Dajka, Stephen; Li, Genong; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Zhang, Chao; Kim, Gi-Heon; Sprague, Michael A.

    2015-06-09

    This presentation provides an update on coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal models for batteries under abuse.

  13. Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es110smith2011p.pdf (852.63 KB) More Documents & Publications NREL Battery Thermal and Life Test ...

  14. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances to current land-based turbines are directly linked to our country's economic and energy security. Technical advancement for any type of gas turbine generally implies better performance, greater efficiency, and extended component life. From the standpoint of cycle efficiency and durability, this suggests that a continual

  15. Calcium/calcium chromate thermal battery and thermal battery assignment at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neale, J.B.; Walton, R.D.

    1980-10-10

    A nontechnical overview of thermal battery design and fabrication methods is given, along with a description of the role of the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) in the Department of Energy's battery program. A thermal battery is a primary, reserve electrochemical power source; that is, it can be used only once and then for a relatively short period, measured in minutes. To energize the battery, an external electrical signal ignites a heat source in the battery to melt the electrolyte and initiate an electrochemical reaction. The battery is made up of several series-connected cells, each with an anode, a cathode, and a current collector. A cell's anode is calcium; its cathode is hexavalent chromium. The electrochemical reaction takes place when the electrolyte is melted by heat supplied from ignition of an iron-potassium perchlorate disk. Since no reaction occurs while the electrolyte is in the solid state, the battery does not deteriorate with time and has a shelf life exceeding 20 years. Presented are such critical battery operating characteristics as temperature, rise time, active life, current capacity, etc. Design factors described include size and shape, pellet density, ignition methods, anode construction, etc. These batteries are designed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque. GEND acts as a procurement agency and provides engineering support to suppliers. 18 figures.

  16. Thermal Characterization and Analysis of A123 Systems Battery Cells, Modules and Packs: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-243

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.

    2012-03-01

    In support of the A123 Systems battery development program with USABC/DOE, NREL provided technical support in thermal characterization, analysis and management of batteries. NREL's effort was part of Energy Storage Project funded by DOE Vehicle Technologies Program. The purpose of this work was for NREL to perform thermal characterization and analysis of A123 Systems cells and modules with the aim for Al23 Systems to improve the thermal performance of their battery cells, modules and packs.

  17. Additive for iron disulfide cathodes used in thermal batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armijo, James R.; Searcy, Jimmie Q.

    1983-01-01

    The invention comprises thermal batteries employing an FeS.sub.2 depolarizer, i.e. cathode material, and the depolarizer itself. A minor amount of CaSi.sub.2 preferably, 1-3% by weight is provided as an additive in the FeS.sub.2 depolarizer to eliminate the voltage transient (spike) which normally occurs upon activation of batteries of this type. The amount of FeS.sub.2 by weight generally comprises 64-90%.

  18. Additive for iron disulfide cathodes used in thermal batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-03-23

    The invention comprises thermal batteries employing an FeS/sub 2/ depolarizer itself. A minor amount of CaSi/sub 2/ preferably 1-3% by weight is provided as an additive in the FeS/sub 2/ depolarizer to eliminate the voltage transient (spike) which normally occurs upon activation of batteries of this type. The amount of FeS/sub 2/ by weight generally comprises 64 to 90%.

  19. Deformation study of separator pellets for thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.; Thomas, E.V.

    1995-05-01

    The deformation characteristics of pellets of electrolyte-binder (EB) mixes based on MgO were measured under simulated, thermal-battery conditions. Measurements (using a statistically designed experimental strategy) were made as a function of applied pressure, temperature, and percentage of theoretical density for four molten-salt electrolytes at two levels of MgO. The EB mixes are used as separators in Li-alloy thermal batteries. The electrolytes included LiCl-KCI eutectic, LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic, LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic, and a LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte with a minimum-melting composition. The melting points ranged from 313 C to 436 C. The experimental data were used to develop statistical models that approximate the deformation behavior of pellets of the various EB mixes over the range of experimental conditions we examined. This report, discusses the importance of the deformation response surfaces to thermal-battery design.

  20. Thermal characteristics of air flow cooling in the lithium ion batteries experimental chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukhanin A.; Rohatgi U.; Belyaev, A.; Fedorchenko, D.; Khazhmuradov, M.; Lukhanin, O; Rudychev, I.

    2012-07-08

    A battery pack prototype has been designed and built to evaluate various air cooling concepts for the thermal management of Li-ion batteries. The heat generation from the Li-Ion batteries was simulated with electrical heat generation devices with the same dimensions as the Li-Ion battery (200 mm x 150 mm x 12 mm). Each battery simulator generates up to 15W of heat. There are 20 temperature probes placed uniformly on the surface of the battery simulator, which can measure temperatures in the range from -40 C to +120 C. The prototype for the pack has up to 100 battery simulators and temperature probes are recorder using a PC based DAQ system. We can measure the average surface temperature of the simulator, temperature distribution on each surface and temperature distributions in the pack. The pack which holds the battery simulators is built as a crate, with adjustable gap (varies from 2mm to 5mm) between the simulators for air flow channel studies. The total system flow rate and the inlet flow temperature are controlled during the test. The cooling channel with various heat transfer enhancing devices can be installed between the simulators to investigate the cooling performance. The prototype was designed to configure the number of cooling channels from one to hundred Li-ion battery simulators. The pack is thermally isolated which prevents heat transfer from the pack to the surroundings. The flow device can provide the air flow rate in the gap of up to 5m/s velocity and air temperature in the range from -30 C to +50 C. Test results are compared with computational modeling of the test configurations. The present test set up will be used for future tests for developing and validating new cooling concepts such as surface conditions or heat pipes.

  1. Thermal batteries: A technology review and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    Thermally activated (``thermal``) batteries have been used for ordnance applications (e.g., proximity fuzes) since World War II and, subsequent to that, in nuclear weapons. This technology was developed by the Germans as a power source for their V2 rockets. It was obtained by the Allies by interrogation of captured German scientists after the war. The technology developed rapidly from the initial primitive systems used by the Germans to one based on Ca/CaCrO{sub 4}. This system was used very successfully into the late 1970s, when it was replaced by the Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system. This paper describes the predominant electrochemical couples that have been used in thermal batteries over the years. Major emphasis is placed on the chemistry and electrochemistry of the Ca/CaCrO{sub 4} and Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} systems. The reason for this is to give the reader a better appreciation for the advances in thermal-battery technology for which these two systems are directly responsible. Improvements to date in the current Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} and related systems are discussed and areas for possible future research and development involving anodes, cathodes, electrolytes, and insulations are outlined. New areas where thermal-battery technology has potential applications are also examined.

  2. New processing technique for DEB powder for thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szwarc, R.; Walton, R.D.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how material processing influences thermal battery performance, and how battery performance can be improved by changes in processing. This discussion is confined to the class of thermal batteries designed by Sandia Laboratories and built under the supervision of General Electric in St. Petersburg, Florida. The electrochemical system employed is: Ca/LiCl-KCl-CaCrO/sub 4//Fe. These batteries are primary reserve batteries which employ a pelletized cell design. Each cell consists of an electrolyte-depolarizer pellet sandwiched between an anode and a heat pellet. The anode employed may be one of two forms: sheet calcium disc, mechanically attached to an iron or steel backing; or a substrate disc of iron or steel on which 3 to 5 mils of calcium had been evaporated. The depolarizer-electrolyte, commonly referred to as DEB, is composed of CaCrO/sub 4/, LiCl-KCl eutectic and SiO/sub 2/ binder powder, which has been blended and pressed into pellets. The DEB pellet serves as electrolyte and as active cathode when the salt becomes molten upon battery activation. The heat pellet serves the dual purpose of providing the heat necessary to activate the battery and as the cathode current collector. The heat pellet is composed of iron powder and KClO/sub 4/. A battery is made up of one or more stacks of about 12 cells connected in series to produce a voltage of 28 to 32 volts. Since activated life requirements for batteries vary from seconds up to one hour, the battery must be well insulated to conserve the heat produced by the ignition of the heat pellets to maintain the electrolyte in a molten state. This insulation is also important to protect sensitive electronic components in contact with the battery case. Because the electrolyte, particularly LiCl, is hygroscopic, the batteries are hermetically sealed in stainless steel cans, and are manufactured in dryrooms maintained at 3% relative humidity or better.

  3. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  4. Evaluating the ignition sensitivity of thermal battery heat pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, E.V.

    1993-09-01

    Thermal batteries are activated by the ignition of heat pellets. If the heat pellets are not sensitive enough to the ignition stimulus, the thermal battery will not activate, resulting in a dud. Thus, to assure reliable thermal batteries, it is important to demonstrate that the pellets have satisfactory ignition sensitivity by testing a number of specimens. There are a number of statistical methods for evaluating the sensitivity of a device to some stimulus. Generally, these methods are applicable to the situation in which a single test is destructive to the specimen being tested, independent of the outcome of the test. In the case of thermal battery heat pellets, however, tests that result in a nonresponse do not totally degrade the specimen. This peculiarity provides opportunities to efficiently evaluate the ignition sensitivity of heat pellets. In this paper, a simple strategy for evaluating heat pellet ignition sensitivity (including experimental design and data analysis) is described. The relatively good asymptotic and small-sample efficiencies of this strategy are demonstrated.

  5. Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy Storage Citation Details ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 25 ...

  6. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries (Management Publication)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  7. Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph George; Armijo, James Rudolph; Frear, Darrel Richard

    2000-01-01

    A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

  8. Method for improving voltage regulation of batteries, particularly Li/FeS/sub 2/ thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godshall, N.A.

    1988-08-02

    In a battery composition useful as the cathode of a Li/-FeS/sub 2/ thermal battery, consisting essentially of substantially pure FeS/sub 2/, the improvement is described wherein sufficient lithium is added to the composition whereby the resultant composition falls into a three-phase thermodynamically invariant region of the Li/Fe/S phase diagram and has the formula Li/sub x/FeS/sub 2/ with the proviso that 0.05 less than or equal toxless than or equal to 1.5.

  9. EV Everywhere Workshop: Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Session Report | Department of Energy Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Workshop: Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session Report Presentation given at the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge … Electric Drive (Power Electronics and Electric Machines) Workshop on July 24, 2012 held at the Doubletree O'Hare, Chicago, IL. 9b_traction_drive_systems_ed.pdf (122.88 KB) More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop -

  10. US Advanced Battery Consortium Reissues Request for Proposal Information to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develop Improved Thermal Management Systems for Li-Ion Batteries for Vehicles | Department of Energy US Advanced Battery Consortium Reissues Request for Proposal Information to Develop Improved Thermal Management Systems for Li-Ion Batteries for Vehicles US Advanced Battery Consortium Reissues Request for Proposal Information to Develop Improved Thermal Management Systems for Li-Ion Batteries for Vehicles July 7, 2016 - 2:39pm Addthis The U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), which

  11. Considerations and measurements of latent-heat-storage salts for secondary thermal battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, A.A.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Armijo, J.R.

    1988-05-16

    Given its potential benefits, the practicality of using a latent heat-storage material as the basis for a passive thermal management system is being assessed by Chloride Silent Power Ltd. (CSPL) with technical assistance from Beta Power, Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Based on the experience gained in large-scale solar energy storage programs, fused salts were selected as the primary candidates for the heat-storage material. The initial phase of this assessment was directed to an EV battery being designed at CSPL for the ETX-II program. Specific tasks included the identification and characterization of potential fused salts, a determination of placement options for the salts within the battery, and an assessment of the ultimate benefit to the battery system. The results obtained to date for each of these tasks are presented in this paper.

  12. Three Dimensional Thermal Abuse Reaction Model for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-06-29

    Three dimensional computer models for simulating thermal runaway of lithium ion battery was developed. The three-dimensional model captures the shapes and dimensions of cell components and the spatial distributions of materials and temperatures, so we could consider the geometrical features, which are critical especially in large cells. An array of possible exothermic reactions, such as solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer decomposition, negative active/electrolyte reaction, and positive active/electrolyte reaction, were considered and formulated to fit experimental data frommore » accelerating rate calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. User subroutine code was written to implement NREL developed approach and to utilize a commercially available solver. The model is proposed to use for simulation a variety of lithium-ion battery safety events including thermal heating and short circuit.« less

  13. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Workshop: Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries ...

  14. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  15. Fluoride based cathodes and electrolytes for high energy thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briscoe, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    A research and development program is being conducted at the Saft Advanced Technologies Division in Hunt Valley, MD to double the energy density of a thermal battery. A study of high voltage cathodes to replace iron disulfide is in progress. Single cells are being studied with a lithium anode and either a copper(II) fluoride, silver(II) fluoride, or iron(III) fluoride cathode. Due to the high reactivity of these cathodes, conventional alkali metal chloride and bromide salt electrolytes must be replaced by alkali metal fluoride electrolytes. Parametric studies using design-of-experiments matrices will be performed so that the best cathode for an improved battery design can be selected. Titanium hardware for the design will provide a higher strength to weight ratio with lower emissivity than conventional stainless steel. The battery will consist of two power sections. The goals are battery activation in less than 0.2 s, 88 Wh/kg, 1,385 W/kg, and 179 Wh/L over an environmental temperature range of {minus}40 C to +70 C.

  16. Engineering process instructions and development summary MC3642 thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, D.

    1981-06-01

    The MC3642 is a dual channel thermal battery used on the DE1010/W85 Command Disable Controller. It utilizes the CalCaCrO{sub 4} electrochemical system. The electrical requirements of this battery are as follows: RISE TIME PEAK VOLTAGE ACTIVE LIFE LOAD Channel 1 - 1.0 Sec. Max. 34 Volts 10 Sec. Min. 40.0 Ohms to 20 Volts above 20 Volts Channel 2 - .350 Sec. Max. 42 Volts 10 MSec. Min. 6.5 Ohms to 23 Volts above 23 Volts The battery consists of 14 cells connected in series (Channel 2) and 12 cells connected in series (Channel 1). Each cell is composed of an anode fabricated from a bimetallic sheet (0.005{double_prime} thick calcium on 0.005{double_prime} thick iron substrate), a depolarizer-electrolyte-binder (DEB) pellet and a heat pellet. Activation is achieved by mechanical primer. Optimum battery performance is achieved with a 35155/10 DEB pellet weighing .80g and a heat pellet, weighing 1.30 grams, of 88/12 heat powder.

  17. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  18. Evaluation of Fiber Separators for Use in Thermal Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    1999-09-08

    Fiberglass tape and borosilicate filter discs impregnated with molten LiCl-KCl eutectic were examined for potential use as separators for high-temperature LiSi/LiCl-KCl/FeS{sub 2} thermal batteries. Test discs were punched from these materials and evaluated at 400 C in single cells at a steady-state current of 63 mA/cm{sup 2}. The performance generally improved with electrolyte loading for most of the materials. Better results were obtained with the filter discs than with the tape. The best overall results were obtained with Whatman GF/A discs. Active lives for cells with these separators were about 85% of the standard cells with pressed-powder separators. More work with other materials and electrolytes over a wider temperature range is underway, along with 5-cell-battery tests.

  19. High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-15

    HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.

  20. Composition and Manufacturing Effects on Electrical Properties of Li/FeS2 Thermal Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinholz, Emilee Lolita

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to better understand the relationship between processing, microstructure, and electrical conductivity of LiFeS2 thermal battery cathodes.

  1. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Systems (VTMS) Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Characterization and Development of Advanced...

  2. Limiting factors to advancing thermal-battery technology for naval applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, P.B.; Winchester, C.S.

    1991-10-01

    Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and Power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

  3. Parallel integrated thermal management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennion, Kevin; Thornton, Matthew

    2014-08-19

    Embodiments discussed herein are directed to managing the heat content of two vehicle subsystems through a single coolant loop having parallel branches for each subsystem.

  4. Electrochemical Thermal Network Model for Multi-Cell Lithium Ion Battery

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-02-28

    Increasing the numbers and size of cells in a battery pack complicates electrical and thermal control of the system. In addition to keeping a battery pack in the optimal temperature range, maintaining temperature uniformity among all cells in a pack is important to prolong life and enhance safety. Electrical, electrochemical, and thermal responses of a lithium ion battery are closely coupled through macroscopic design factors of the cells and module or pack. The model hasmore » to resolve complex interaction between cell characteristics, pack design, and load conditions. Safe and durable battery pack design requires a battery thermal model that can be coupled with a battery performance more and/or safety model with good accuracy and simulation time. The model is proposed to be used for various technical purposes: Design optimization for safety and/or performance, On-board control.« less

  5. Electrochemical Thermal Network Model for Multi-Cell Lithium Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-28

    Increasing the numbers and size of cells in a battery pack complicates electrical and thermal control of the system. In addition to keeping a battery pack in the optimal temperature range, maintaining temperature uniformity among all cells in a pack is important to prolong life and enhance safety. Electrical, electrochemical, and thermal responses of a lithium ion battery are closely coupled through macroscopic design factors of the cells and module or pack. The model has to resolve complex interaction between cell characteristics, pack design, and load conditions. Safe and durable battery pack design requires a battery thermal model that can be coupled with a battery performance more and/or safety model with good accuracy and simulation time. The model is proposed to be used for various technical purposes: Design optimization for safety and/or performance, On-board control.

  6. Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  7. Evaluation of two lower-melting electrolytes in lithium silicon/iron disulfide thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morella, A.T.

    1991-08-02

    Two new thermal battery electrolyte materials were investigated with the intent of extending the life of lithium silicon/iron disulfide [Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2}] thermal batteries. These new electrolyte materials freeze at a lower temperature than the standard electrolyte, which should extend the life of the thermal batteries in which they are used. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque requested that the GE Neutron Devices (GEND) Power Sources Engineering group evaluate these new electrolytes in 40 MC3575 thermal batteries and compare the performance to an established data base. It was found that the batteries using the lower-melting electrolytes performed equal to or better than the batteries in the data base using the standard LiCl/KCl electrolyte at the same test conditions. The usage of these electrolytes increased the battery life, suppressed the voltage spikes, reduced heat requirements, shortened battery stack heights, and produced faster rise times. All of these improvements would merit further investigation of the new electrolyte materials.

  8. Designing Safe Lithium-Ion Battery Packs Using Thermal Abuse Models (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Darcy, E.

    2008-12-01

    NREL and NASA developed a thermal-electrical model that resolves PTC and cell behavior under external shorting, now being used to evaluate safety margins of battery packs for spacesuit applications.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Battery Research Partner Requests Proposals for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Management Systems | Department of Energy Battery Research Partner Requests Proposals for Thermal Management Systems Vehicle Technologies Office Battery Research Partner Requests Proposals for Thermal Management Systems January 12, 2016 - 3:06pm Addthis The U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), which partners with the Vehicle Technologies Office to support battery research and development projects, recently issued a request for proposal information. The request focuses on

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Battery Thermal Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about battery...

  11. Unexpected Type of Failure of Thermal Battery Resulting in a Near Miss to a Serious Injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, Daena Kei

    2015-10-01

    On 6/26/2015 at 1445 in 894/136, a thermal battery (approximately the size of a commercial size C cell) experienced an unexpected failure following a routine test where the battery is activated. The failure occurred while a test operator was transferring the battery from the testing primary containment box to another containment box within the same room; initial indications are that the battery package ruptured after it went into thermal runaway which led to the operator receiving bruising to the palm of the hand from the pressure of the expulsion. The operator was wearing the prescribed PPE, which was safety glasses and a high temperature glove on the hand that was holding the battery.

  12. Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Battery Management System (BMS) for Grid-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawder, M. T.; Suthar, B.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Hoff, C. M.; Leitermann, O.; Crow, M. L.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Subramanian, V. R.

    2014-05-07

    The current electric grid is an inefficient system that wastes significant amounts of the electricity it produces because there is a disconnect between the amount of energy consumers require and the amount of energy produced from generation sources. Power plants typically produce more power than necessary to ensure adequate power quality. By taking advantage of energy storage within the grid, many of these inefficiencies can be removed. Advanced modeling is required when using battery energy storage systems (BESS) for grid storage in order to accurately monitor and control the storage system. Battery management systems (BMS) control how the storage system will be used and a BMS that utilizes advanced physics-based models will offer for much more robust operation of the storage system. The paper outlines the current state of the art for modeling in BMS and the advanced models required to fully utilize BMS for both lithium-ion batteries and vanadium redox-flow batteries. In addition, system architecture and how it can be useful in monitoring and control is discussed. A pathway for advancing BMS to better utilize BESS for grid-scale applications is outlined.

  13. Characterization of cathodic corrosion products in the Ca/CaCrO/sub 4/ thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.; Venturini, E.L.; Rogers, J.W. Jr.; Cathey, W.N.

    1985-05-01

    Using thermal analysis techniques, we investigated the corrosion process resulting from the reaction of iron, nickel, and stainless steel (used as current collectors in Ca/CaCrO/sub 4/ thermal batteries) with CaCrO/sub 4/ dissolved in LiCl-KCl eutectic. The reaction product for iron was synthesized in bulk external to the battery and was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, static magnetization, and electrical conductivity. This characterization provides a better understanding of the cathodic corrosion processes that occur in the Ca/CaCrO/sub 4/ thermal battery, and how the properties of the reaction layer at the catholyte-current collector interface influence battery performance.

  14. Composition and Manufacturing Effects on Electrical Conductivity of Li/FeS 2 Thermal Battery Cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reinholz, Emilee L.; Roberts, Scott A.; Apblett, Christopher A.; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Schunk, P. Randall

    2016-06-11

    The electrical conductivity is key to the performance of thermal battery cathodes. In this work we present the effects of manufacturing and processing conditions on the electrical conductivity of Li/FeS2 thermal battery cathodes. Finite element simulations were used to compute the conductivity of three-dimensional microcomputed tomography cathode microstructures and compare results to experimental impedance spectroscopy measurements. A regression analysis reveals a predictive relationship between composition, processing conditions, and electrical conductivity; a trend which is largely erased after thermally-induced deformation. Moreover, the trend applies to both experimental and simulation results, although is not as apparent in simulations. This research is amore » step toward a more fundamental understanding of the effects of processing and composition on thermal battery component microstructure, properties, and performance.« less

  15. Characterization of vacuum-multifoil insulation for long-life thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; KAUN,THOMAS

    2000-04-17

    The use of vacuum multifoil (VMF) container for thermal insulation in long-life thermal batteries was investigated in a proof-of-concept demonstration. An InvenTek-designed VMF container 4.9 inches in diameter by 10 inches long was used with an internally heated aluminum block, to simulate a thermal-battery stack. The block was heated to 525 C or 600 C and allowed to cool while monitoring the temperature of the block and the external case at three locations with time. The data indicate that it should be possible to build an equivalent-sized thermal battery that should last up to six hours, which would meet the requirements for a long-life sonobuoy application.

  16. New technique for improving voltage regulation in Li/FeS/sub 2/ thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godshall, N.A.; Baldwin, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Lithiation of the FeS/sub 2/ cathode material lowers the voltage of the initial discharge (which is often too high for many applications) and raises the voltage of the battery at the end of discharge (which is often too low due to a second voltage plateau). In the example of the Sandia ten-cell Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ long-life thermal battery, lithiating the cathode improves the voltage regulation from 12.8 to 0.5% during the initial 5 minutes of discharge and from 38 to 12% over the entire 60 minute discharge time. Batteries employing the new lithiated cathode material were also subjected to dynamic mechanical environments, both before and during electrochemical discharge. No adverse changes in either the electrical or mechanical properties of these batteries was observed, relative to standard composition batteries.

  17. Thermal Analysis of the Vulnerability of the Spacesuit Battery Design to Short-Circuit Conditions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Chaney, L.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2010-04-22

    NREL researchers created a mathematical model of a full 16p-5s spacesuit battery for NASA that captures electrical/thermal behavior during shorts to assess the vulnerability of the battery to pack-internal (cell-external) shorts. They found that relocating the short from battery pack-external (experimental validation) to pack-internal (modeling study) causes substantial additional heating of cells, which can lead to cell thermal runaway. All three layers of the bank-to-bank separator must fail for the pack-internal short scenario to occur. This finding emphasizes the imperative of battery pack assembly cleanliness. The design is tolerant to pack-internal shorts when stored at 0% state of charge.

  18. Methods for the analysis of lithium-silicon, iron disulfide thermal battery materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krall, P.R.

    1985-09-30

    Analytical methods for the characterization of the lithium-silicon/iron disulfide thermal battery materials have been developed and evaluated. The standard procedures being used for the quality control testing of the battery materials are described in this report. These procedures are based on both classical chemical methods and instrumental methods of analysis. The materials characterized include lithium-silicon alloy, iron disulfide, catholyte material, separator material, calcium disilicide, depolarizer-electrolyte-binder material, electrolyte and electrolyte binder material.

  19. Battery management system with distributed wireless sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2016-02-23

    A system for monitoring parameters of an energy storage system having a multiplicity of individual energy storage cells. A radio frequency identification and sensor unit is connected to each of the individual energy storage cells. The radio frequency identification and sensor unit operates to sense the parameter of each individual energy storage cell and provides radio frequency transmission of the parameters of each individual energy storage cell. A management system monitors the radio frequency transmissions from the radio frequency identification and sensor units for monitoring the parameters of the energy storage system.

  20. Lithium oxide in the Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal battery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, J.Q.; Neiswander, P.A.; Armijo, J.R.; Bild, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    The formation of lithium oxide (Li/sub 2/O) in Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal batteries during the required shelf life of twenty-five years has been identified in previous work as a reaction deleterious to thermal battery performance. This paper gives the results of a study designed to determine performance degradation caused by Li/sub 2/O and to determine an acceptable level of Li/sub 2/O that can be used to define required dryness of battery parts and allowable leak rates. Pellets preconditioned with Li/sub 2/O were used in single cells or in batteries. Their performance was compared with discharges made using pellets with no Li/sub 2/O added. The actual Li/sub 2/O present in anode pellets at various stages during fabrication was determined by using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis. Results are reported. This work shows that thermal battery production controls should be designed in such a manner that not more than 15 wt.% of the Li(Si) is oxidized at the end of the desired self life. Furthermore, the formation of a Li/sub 2/O layer equivalent to the oxidation of 6.0 wt.% of the anode on the surface facing the current collector must be prevented. Battery designers must allow for a drop in coulombic efficiency as the Li(Si) reacts, and the effect on performance of Li/sub 2/O in the separator must be considered.

  1. Characterization of energetic devices for thermal battery applications by high-speed photography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosser, L.R.; Guidotti, R.

    1993-12-31

    High-speed photography at rates of up to 20,000 images per second was used to measure these properties in thermal battery igniters and also the ignition of thermal battery itself. By synchronizing a copper vapor laser to the high-speed camera, laser-illuminated images recorded details of the performance of a component. Output characteristics of several types of hermetically-sealed igniters using a TiH{chi}/KCIO{sub 4} pyrotechnic blend were measured as a function of the particle size of the pyrotechnic fuel and the closure disc thickness. The igniters were filmed under both ambient (i.e., unconfined) and confined conditions. Recently, the function of the igniter in a cut-away section of a ``mock`` thermal battery has been filmed. Partial details of these films are discussed in this paper, and selected examples of the films will be displayed via video tape during the presentation of the paper.

  2. NREL: Transportation Research - Power Electronics Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Electronics Thermal Management A photo of water boiling in liquid cooling lab equipment. Power electronics thermal management research aims to help lower the cost and improve the performance of electric-drive vehicles. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL investigates and develops thermal management strategies for power electronics systems that use wide-bandgap technology, which enables the development of devices that are smaller than those based on other materials, demonstrating

  3. Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes...

  4. NREL: Transportation Research - Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Motor Thermal Management A photo of a piece of laboratory testing equipment. NREL ... motors is helping to improve the performance and reliability of electric-drive vehicles. ...

  5. Method for improving voltage regulation of batteries, particularly Li/FeS.sub.2 thermal batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Godshall, Ned A.

    1988-01-01

    Batteries are improved, especially with respect to voltage regulation properties, by employing as anode and cathode compositions, those which fall in a thermodynamically invariant region of the metallurgical phase diagram of the combination of the constituent components. The invention is especially useful in the Li/FeS.sub.2 system.

  6. Method for improving voltage regulation of batteries, particularly Li/FeS/sub 2/ thermal batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Godshall, N.A.

    1986-06-10

    Batteries are improved, especially with respect to voltage regulation properties, by employing as anode and cathode compositions, those which fall in a thermodynamically invariant region of the metallurgical phase diagram of the combination of the constituent components. The invention is especially useful in the Li/FeS/sub 2/ system.

  7. A materials database for Li(Si)/FeS sub 2 thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1990-09-01

    The establishment of a database for the materials that are used in production Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal batteries designed at Sandia National Laboratories is described. The database is a Hewlett-Packard (HP) network type (IMAGE) designed to run on an HP3000 computer. Heavy emphasis is placed on the use of screen forms for entry, editing, and retrieval of data. Custom screen forms were used for the various materials in the battery. For the purposes of the materials database, each battery is composed of four mixes: cathode, separator, anode, and heat (pyrotechnic) powders. A consistent lot-numbering system was adopted for both the mixes and the discrete components that make up the mixes. Each serial number of a particular battery is linked to the lot numbers of the four mixes used in the battery. Each mix, in turn, is linked to the lot numbers of the discrete components that are contained within the mix. This allows traceability of each of the components used in any given serial number of a particular battery. The materials database provides the necessary traceability, as required by the Department of Energy, for the lifetime of the program associated with the battery. 3 refs., 23 figs.

  8. Battery Wear from Disparate Duty-Cycles: Opportunities for Electric-Drive Vehicle Battery Health Management; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-10-01

    Electric-drive vehicles utilizing lithium-ion batteries experience wholly different degradation patterns than do conventional vehicles, depending on geographic ambient conditions and consumer driving and charging patterns. A semi-empirical life-predictive model for the lithium-ion graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum chemistry is presented that accounts for physically justified calendar and cycling fade mechanisms. An analysis of battery life for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles considers 782 duty-cycles from travel survey data superimposed with climate data from multiple geographic locations around the United States. Based on predicted wear distributions, opportunities for extending battery life including modification of battery operating limits, thermal and charge control are discussed.

  9. Automotive Li-ion Battery Cooling Requirements | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presents thermal management of lithium-ion battery packs for electric vehicles cunningham.pdf (691.5 KB) More Documents & Publications Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design Activity Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Design and Analysis Activity Overview of Battery R&D Activities

  10. CNEEC - Batteries Tutorial by Prof. Cui

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries

  11. Development and operating characteristics of the PS132 thermal battery. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krieger, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The development and operating characterisitics of the PS132 thermal battery are described. The PS132 uses the electrochemical system Ca/LiCl-KCl eutectic-SiO2/CaCrO4, and it is one of the smallest batteries of its type ever built that can meet its electrical and environmental requirements. A development program that included construction of approximately 400 PS132-like batteries showed that obtaining acceptable DEB electrolyte-cathode powders was a major problem. Most commercial DEB powders caused excessive amounts of CaLi/sub 2/ molten metal to form in the operating thermal cells of the PS132. This molten metal then flowed from the cells and caused electrical short circuits.

  12. Utilization of sensitivity coefficients to guide the design of a thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackwell, B.F.; Dowding, K.J.; Cochran, R.J.; Dobranich, D.

    1998-08-01

    Equations are presented to describe the sensitivity of the temperature field in a heat-conducting body to changes in the volumetric heat source and volumetric heat capacity. These sensitivity equations, along with others not presented, are applied to a thermal battery problem to compute the sensitivity of the temperature field to 19 model input parameters. Sensitivity coefficients, along with assumed standard deviation in these parameters, are used to estimate the uncertainty in the temperature prediction. From the 19 parameters investigated, the battery cell heat source and volumetric heat capacity were clearly identified as being the major contributors to the overall uncertainty in the temperature predictions. The operational life of the thermal battery was shown to be very sensitive to uncertainty in these parameters.

  13. Thermal battery. [solid metal halide electrolytes with enhanced electrical conductance after a phase transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlsten, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.

    1973-03-06

    The patent describes an improved thermal battery whose novel design eliminates various disadvantages of previous such devices. Its major features include a halide cathode, a solid metal halide electrolyte which has a substantially greater electrical conductance after a phase transition at some temperature, and a means for heating its electrochemical cells to activation temperature.

  14. Recent developments in Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, J.Q.; Quinn, R.K.; Saxton, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ electrochemical system has been under development for thermal battery applications as an alternative to Ca/CaCrO/sub 4/ for several years at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The new technology differs from the old in that the anode is a pressed powder (44 wt % lithium in Li(Si) alloy) as opposed to sheet calcium or bimetal; and a separator composed of LiCl.KCl eutectic electrolyte and MgO binder is required with a separate cathode pellet composed of FeS/sub 2/ and electrolyte to replace the DEB pellet; and current collectors which may actually function as temperature moderators are always used. The applications require high reliability (typically, a success probability of 0.995) and a twenty-five year shelf-life. Consequently, a substantial materials effort has been necessary to assess degradation and deleterious reactions during storage and to determine necessary production specifications and controls. Experience with several applications has indicated that Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal batteries are easier to develop and produce than those which use Ca/CaCrO/sub 4/. Furthermore, the new system is more capable and more forgiving. Therefore, an effort has been initiated to develop the new technology for all SNL thermal battery applications. This paper reviews both the materials-related development and the progress toward utilization of Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ for all SNL thermal battery applications.

  15. Thermal Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device Thermal Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_coker.pdf (1.85 MB) More Documents & Publications Heavy Duty Vehicle In-Use Emission Performance Why Light Duty Diesels Make Sense in the North American Market Scalable, Low-Cost, High

  16. New composite separator pellet to increase power density and reduce size of thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondy, Lisa Ann; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Grillet, Anne Mary; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; Barringer, David Alan; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Chavez, Thomas P.; Ingersoll, David T.; Hughes, Lindsey Gloe; Evans, Lindsey R.; Fitchett, Stephanie

    2013-11-01

    We show that it is possible to manufacture strong macroporous ceramic films that can be backfilled with electrolyte to form rigid separator pellets suitable for use in thermal batteries. Several new ceramic manufacturing processes are developed to produce sintered magnesium oxide foams with connected porosities of over 80% by volume and with sufficient strength to withstand the battery manufacturing steps. The effects of processing parameters are quantified, and methods to imbibe electrolyte into the ceramic scaffold demonstrated. Preliminary single cell battery testing show that some of our first generation pellets exhibit longer voltage life with comparable resistance at the critical early times to that exhibited by a traditional pressed pellets. Although more development work is needed to optimize the processes to create these rigid separator pellets, the results indicate the potential of such ceramic separator pellets to be equal, if not superior to, current pressed pellets. Furthermore, they could be a replacement for critical material that is no longer available, as well as improving battery separator strength, decreasing production costs, and leading to shorter battery stacks for long-life batteries.

  17. Performance data for a lithium-silicon/iron disulfide, long-life, primary thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, R.K.; Baldwin, A.R.; Armijo, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently been involved in the development of a 60-minute, 28 volt, primary thermal battery with a volume of 400 cm/sup 3/. The feasibility of Li(Si)/LiCl.KCl/FeS/sub 2/ battery was previously demonstrated at a current of 0.5 A. In this paper, the effects of various environmental tests on battery performance are reported. In order to simulate possible nuclear ordnance environments, batteries have been subjected to shock, rhythmic and random vibration, and longitudinal and lateral acceleration in the unactivated and activated state. The level and duration of these tests varied, but the performance remained good. The effects of variation in current density from open circuit to 1 A/cm/sup 2/, as well as various pulse loads, have been examined. Also presented are results of stabilizing the batteries at temperatures in the range of -54/sup 0/C to +70/sup 0/C as reflected in various performance parameters. The Li(Si)/LiCl.KCl/FeS/sub 2/ electrochemical system has also been applied to two new Sandia-designed batteries requiring rugged, medium-life performance, i.e., activated lives of 2.5 and 4 minutes. Encouraging initial results of this application are included here.

  18. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Modeling for Accelerated Design of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Kim, Gi-heon; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2015-06-10

    The physical and chemical phenomena occurring in a battery are many and complex and in many different scales. Without a better knowledge of the interplay among the multi-physics occurring across the varied scales, it is very challenging and time consuming to design long-lasting, high-performing, safe, affordable large battery systems, enabling electrification of the vehicles and modernization of the grid. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory, has been developing thermal and electrochemical models for cells and battery packs. Working with software producers, carmakers, and battery developers, computer-aided engineering tools have been developed that can accelerate the electrochemical and thermal design of batteries, reducing time to develop and optimize them and thus reducing the cost of the system. In the past couple of years, we initiated a project to model the mechanical response of batteries to stress, strain, fracture, deformation, puncture, and crush and then link them to electrochemical and thermal models to predict the response of a battery. This modeling is particularly important for understanding the physics and processes that happen in a battery during a crush-inducing vehicle crash. In this paper, we provide an overview of electrochemical-thermal-mechanical models for battery system understanding and designing.

  19. Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From consumer electronics to laptops to vehicles, batteries are an important part of our everyday life. Learn about the Energy Department's innovative research and development in different energy storage options.

  20. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  1. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-08-25

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  2. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-02-24

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  3. Review of US Nanocorp - SNL Joint Development of Thermal-Sprayed Thin-Film Cathodes for Thermal Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; DAI,JINXIANG; XIAO,T. DANNY; REISNER,DAVID E.

    2000-11-14

    The use of plasma spray to deposit thin metal-sulfide cathode films is described in this paper. Conventional electroactive stack components in thermal batteries are constructed from pressed-powder parts that are difficult to fabricate in large diameters in thicknesses <0.010. Plasma-sprayed electrodes do not steer from this difficulty, allowing greater energy densities and specific energies to be realized. Various co-spraying agents have been found suitable for improving the mechanical as well as electrochemical properties of plasma-sprayed cathodes for thermal batteries. These electrodes generally show equal or improved performance over conventional pressed-powder electrodes. A number of areas for future growth and development of plasma-spray technology is discussed.

  4. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  5. Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger waste packages. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management...

  6. EV Everywhere Workshop: Power Electronics and Thermal Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Workshop: Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session Report Presentation given at the ...

  7. Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Session Presentation given at the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge ...

  8. Characterization of semiconductor bridges (SCB) igniters for use in thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W.; Guidotti, R.A.; McCampbell, C.B.

    1996-05-01

    Semiconductor bridges (SCB) igniters were evaluated as possible replacements for conventional hot-wire igniters for use in thermal batteries. The all-fire and no-fire characteristics were determined using an up-down scheme; the Neyer/SENSIT program was used to analyze the data. The SCB igniters functioned with a higher no-fire level, relative to a hot-wire igniter, for a given all-fire level. This makes the SCB igniter safer and more reliable than its hot-wire counterpart. The SCB is very resistant to electrostatic discharge and does not require a sensitization mixture for ignition of the primary pyrotechnic charge. These factors, along with its amenability to large-scale production, make the SCB igniter ideally suited for use in thermal batteries.

  9. MC3755 Thermal Battery Lot No. 2 production summary and engineering process instruction manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, D.

    1989-04-27

    Production of MC3755 Thermal Battery Lot No. 2 was performed at GE Neutron Devices (GEND) in the Power Sources Development Laboratory. This report documents the results of the production build and includes an overall review of the production process, lot performance data, and the engineering process instruction manual. The overall production yield was 92%, all performance specifications were met within significant margin. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Thermal-sprayed, thin-film pyrite cathodes for thermal batteries -- Discharge-rate and temperature studies in single cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; DAI,JINXIANG; XIAO,T. DANNY; REISNER,DAVID

    2000-05-25

    Using an optimized thermal-spray process, coherent, dense deposits of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) with good adhesion were formed on 304 stainless steel substrates (current collectors). After leaching with CS{sub 2} to remove residual free sulfur, these served as cathodes in Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells. The cells were tested over a temperature range of 450 C to 550 C under baseline loads of 125 and 250 mA/cm{sup 2}, to simulate conditions found in a thermal battery. Cells built with such cathodes outperformed standard cells made with pressed-powder parts. They showed lower interracial resistance and polarization throughout discharge, with higher capacities per mass of pyrite. Post-treatment of the cathodes with Li{sub 2}O coatings at levels of >7% by weight of the pyrite was found to eliminate the voltage transient normally observed for these materials. Results equivalent to those of standard lithiated catholytes were obtained in this manner. The use of plasma-sprayed cathodes allows the use of much thinner cells for thermal batteries since only enough material needs to be deposited as the capacity requirements of a given application demand.

  11. Evolution of a voltage-time model of thermal batteries. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, J.

    1991-02-01

    A temperature time model of thermal batteries has almost been completed and validated against experimental data. This Memorandum first summarises early attempts to integrate a voltage-time model into this, taking advantage of the instantaneous predictions of temperature, thermodynamic potentials, and internal resistance which the thermal model provides. It then describes how recent refinements of the voltage-time model have led to improved simulation of the discharges of a wide range of sizes and types of thermal battery under an equally wide range of test conditions. The semi-empirical approach adopted has been to provide a universally-applicable framework based on logical concepts to cover various effects such as polarisation etc, but with adjustable numerical parameters. It is shown that a moderately good simulation may be obtained for the majority of available discharge curves, using this one set of equations and without altering parameter values. Further improvements can be obtained when parameter values are optimised for one particular type of battery. Comparisons of model simulations against a body of experimental data have pinpointed remaining discrepancies which will guide further refinement efforts.

  12. High power rechargeable thermal battery. Final report, 1 September 1996-31 July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaun, T.D.

    1997-08-15

    Report developed under STTR contract; a proof of concept for a portable, rechargeable thermal battery (RTB). Including a superinsulated case, a lightweight (10 lb) RTB can provide 250W for 2-6h at 140 Wh/kg with days of activation between recharging. It can also provide 1 kW pulses (30s) throughout its capacity. The RTB at 10 lbs 250W fills a gap in power supply capability for ARMY field operations under which motor generators cannot be down-sized (about 40 lbs). Three accomplishments have lead to the portable RTB. (1) Increased specific energy by way of high rate, thick electrode LiAl/FeS2 with CuFeS2 cells. (No Ni or Co content) (2) A vacuum-insulated case enables versitility (3W heat loss for days of operation, no heat signature) (3) High durability under abusive field conditions (safety discharge to 0 volts, no overheating at full power). Durability and safety are key features of the Phase I demonstration. A 4-cell battery RTB was operated for 140 cycles under full capacity, constant power discharges. More than twenty thermal cycles, some deactivations during charging or discharging, showed no ill effects. (It uses MgO powder separator). Overcharging and overdischarging posed no safety problems. The RTB has inherent battery charge/discharge balancing which remains a problem for Li-ion, Li/polymer batteries. Also RTB has no organic or Ni/Co compounds which avoids toxicity and explosion hazards. Improved RTB design gives prospect for low cost commercial battery applications. The elevated operating temperature of RTB provides a unique symbiotic-type technology with cheap getters (gas absorbers) forming/sustaining the vacuum insulated housing and dramatically-extending the operating life for 2-3 days after activation. It is immune to hot/cold ambient temperatures, and can be operated continuously with periodic charging. A 25 year shelf life can be anticipated.

  13. Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: 31st Annual Battery Seminar, Orlando, FL, United States, Mar 16 - Mar 21, 2014 Research Org: Lawrence ...

  14. Lithium-boron anodes in nitrate thermal battery cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManis III, G. E.; Fletcher, A. N.; Miles, M. H.

    1985-08-13

    A thermally activated electrochemical cell utilizes a lithium-boron anode and a molten nitrate electrolyte selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrate, a mixture of lithium nitrate and sodium nitrate, a mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and a mixture of lithium nitrate and sodium nitrate with potassium nitrate, to provide improved cell electrical performance. The electrolyte is contained on a fiberglass separator and the electrolyte adjacent to the cathode may contain silver nitrate as well. Current densities over 300 mA/cm/sup 2/ with a usable temperature range of over 150/sup 0/ C. have been obtained. Anode open circuit potentials of about 3.2 V were found with little polarization at 100 mA/cm/sup 2/ and with very slight polarization at 300 mA/cm/sup 2/.

  15. Hydrogen sorption studies of materials used in Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assink, R.A.; Schneider, D.A.; Guidotti, R.A.

    1988-06-01

    Hydrogen formation occurs during long-term storage of Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal batteries as a result of residual moisture reacting with the Li(Si) anode. A study of the rates of hydrogen sorption by materials used in Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal batteries was undertaken in order to obtain a measure of their reactivity to hydrogen in the thermal battery environment. The sorption of hydrogen by pellets of the anode material, separator mix, catholyte mix, and heat powder was monitored for periods of up to a month at a temperature of 60/degree/C. The anode material was 44% Li/56% Si alloy; the separator was 65% LiCl-KCl eutectic/35% MgO; the catholyte was 75% FeS/sub 2//25% electrolyte binder mix (with the composition 88% LiCl-KCl eutectic/12% SiO/sub 2/; and the heat powder was 88% Fe/12% KClO/sub 4/. Individual components of the mixes exhibiting significant sorption of hydrogen were examined, and the FeS/sub 2/ was the only material found to be actively sorbing hydrogen. The kinetics of the sorption process were enhanced by a smaller particle size of FeS/sub 2/, a higher hydrogen pressure, and a higher level of oxidized iron impurities. The hydrogen was not removed by vacuum heating at 200/degree/C. A hydrogen sorption study of the insulation materials used in the battery showed the ceramic-fiber blanket to be a significant sorbent for hydrogen. 7 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Electrolyte effects in Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1994-10-01

    The most common electrochemical couple for thermally activated (``thermal``) batteries is the Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} system. The most common Li-alloys used for anodes are 20% Li-80% Al and 44% Li-56% Si (by weight); liquid Li immobilized with iron powder has also been used. The standard electrolyte that has been used in thermal batteries over the years is the LiCl-KCl eutectic that melts at 352{degrees}C. The LiCl-LiBr-LiF eutectic had the best rate and power characteristics. This electrolyte melts at 436{degrees}C and shows very low polarization because of the absence of Li+ gradients common with the LiCl-KCl eutectic. The low-melting electrolytes examined included a KBr-LiBr-LiCl eutectic (melting at 321{degrees}C), a LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic (melting at 313{degrees}C), and a CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic (melting at 238{degrees}C). The CsBr-based salt had poor conductivity and was not studied further. The LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic outperformed the KBr-LiBr-LiCl eutectic and was selected for more extensive testing. Because of their lower melting points and larger liquidi relative to the LiCl-KCl eutectic, the low-melting electrolytes are prime candidates for long-life applications (i.e., for activated lives of one hour or more). This paper will detail the relative performance of the Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} couple using primarily the LiCl-KCl (standard) eutectic, the LiCl-LiBr-LiF (all-Li) eutectic, and the LiBr-KBr-LiF (low-melting) eutectic electrolytes. Most of the tests were conducted with 5-cell batteries; validation tests were also carried out with appropriate full-sized batteries.

  17. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullin, Scott; Panday, Ashoutosh; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2014-04-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics. In another aspect, the electrolyte exhibits a conductivity drop when the temperature of electrolyte increases over a threshold temperature, thereby providing a shutoff mechanism for preventing thermal runaway in lithium battery cells.

  18. Development of a high-power and high-energy thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; SCHARRER,GREGORY L.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    2000-04-18

    The Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} and Li(Si)/CoS{sub 2} couples were evaluated with a low-melting LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic and all-Li LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte for a battery application that required both high energy and high power for short duration. Screening studies were carried out with 1.25 inch-dia. triple cells and with 10-cell batteries. The Li(Si)/LiCl-LiBr-LiF/CoS{sub 2} couple performed the best under the power load and the Li(Si)/LiCl-LiBr-LiF/FeS{sub 2} was better under the energy load. The former system was selected as the best overall performer for the wide range of temperatures for both loads, because of the higher thermal stability of CoS{sub 2}.

  19. Lithiation of FeS/sub 2/ for use in thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The inability of the standard Sandia catholyte to meet the discharge requirements of a 60-min, Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ long-life thermal battery (LLTB) necessitated the development of a new catholyte based on lithiated FeS/sub 2/. Lithiation of FeS/sub 2/ by Li/sub 2/S, Li alloys, and Li/sub 2/O was examined under various processing conditions and the resulting catholytes were tested in a half-size, 5-cell battery. The best overall results were achieved with Li/sub 2/O-lithiated catholytes. The optimum compositions were successfully tested in the full-size LLTB. The excessive, initial voltage transient normally observed was totally eliminated and the pulse performance near the end of life was dramatically improved.

  20. Combining automatic titration of total iron and sulfur in thermal battery materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marley, N.A.

    1986-05-28

    Optimal thermal battery performance requires careful control of the iron disulfide content in the catholyte mixture. Previously, the iron and sulfur content of battery materials was determined separately, each requiring a lengthy sample preparation and clean up procedure. A new method has been developed which allows both determinations to be made on the same sample following a simple dissolution procedure. Sample preparation requires oxidation and dissolution with nitric acid followed by dissolution in hydrochloric acid. Iron and sulfur are then determined on sample aliquots by automatic titration. The implementation of this combined procedure for the determination of iron and sulfur by automatic titration has resulted in a substantial reduction in the analysis time. Since sample aliquots are used for each determination, the need to repeat a sample for analysis is rare, improving both the analytical efficiency and sample throughput. Results obtained for sulfur show an improved precision.

  1. Understanding and managing the effects of battery charger and inverter aging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther, W. ); Aggarwal, S. )

    1992-01-01

    An aging assessment of battery chargers and inverters was conducted under the auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The intentions of this program are to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems at operating reactor facilities and to assess their impact on safety. Inverters and battery chargers are used in nuclear power plants to perform significant functions related to plant safety and availability. The specific impact of a battery charger or inverter failure varies with plant configuration. Operating experience data have demonstrated that reactor trips, safety injection system actuations, and inoperable emergency core cooling systems have resulted from inverter failures; and dc bus degradation leading to diesel generator inoperability or loss of control room annunication and indication have resulted from battery and battery charger failures. For the battery charger and inverter, the aging and service wear of subcomponents have contributed significantly to equipment failures. This paper summarizes the data and then describes methods that can be used to detect battery charger and inverter degradation prior to failure, as well as methods to minimize the failure effects. In both cases, the managing of battery charger and inverter aging is emphasized. 5 refs.

  2. Understanding and managing the effects of battery charger and inverter aging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther, W.; Aggarwal, S.

    1992-06-01

    An aging assessment of battery chargers and inverters was conducted under the auspices of the NRC`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The intentions of this program are to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems at operating reactor facilities and to assess their impact on safety. Inverters and battery chargers are used in nuclear power plants to perform significant functions related to plant safety and availability. The specific impact of a battery charger or inverter failure varies with plant configuration. Operating experience data have demonstrated that reactor trips, safety injection system actuations, and inoperable emergency core cooling systems have resulted from inverter failures; and dc bus degradation leading to diesel generator inoperability or loss of control room annunication and indication have resulted from battery and battery charger failures. For the battery charger and inverter, the aging and service wear of subcomponents have contributed significantly to equipment failures. This paper summarizes the data and then describes methods that can be used to detect battery charger and inverter degradation prior to failure, as well as methods to minimize the failure effects. In both cases, the managing of battery charger and inverter aging is emphasized. 5 refs.

  3. MC3714 Thermal Battery Lot No. 1 production summary and engineering process instruction manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, D.

    1990-03-01

    The MC3714 Thermal Battery provides the instrumentation power for the W82 joint test assembly (JTA). Lot No. 1 production was performed at GE Neutron Devices (GEND) by Power Sources Development Laboratory. Production started directly after the development program utilizing tooling, and processes from development. This substantially reduced preproduction activities and start up costs. Included in this report are the Engineering Process Instructions and the performance data from the build. The overall production yield was 99% and all performance requirements were met with no problems. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Three-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Coupled Model for Spirally Wound Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. J.; Smith K.; Kim, G. H.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses the behavior of spirally wound large-format Li-ion batteries with respect to their design. The objectives of the study include developing thermal and electrochemical models resolving 3-dimensional spirally wound structures of cylindrical cells, understanding the mechanisms and interactions between local electrochemical reactions and macroscopic heat and electron transfers, and developing a tool and methodology to support macroscopic designs of cylindrical Li-ion battery cells.

  5. Studies on the thermal breakdown of common Li-ion battery electrolyte components

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, Emanuel Peter; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2015-08-06

    While much attention is paid to the impact of the active materials on the catastrophic failure of lithium ion batteries, much of the severity of a battery failure is also governed by the electrolytes used, which are typically flammable themselves and can decompose during battery failure. The use of LiPF6 salt can be problematic as well, not only catalyzing electrolyte decomposition, but also providing a mechanism for HF production. This work evaluates the safety performance of the common components ethylene carbonate (EC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) in the context of the gasses producedmore » during thermal decomposition, looking at both the quantity and composition of the vapor produced. EC and DEC were found to be the largest contributors to gas production, both producing upwards of 1.5 moles of gas/mole of electrolyte. DMC was found to be relatively stable, producing very little gas regardless of the presence of LiPF6. EMC was stable on its own, but the addition of LiPF6 catalyzed decomposition of the solvent. As a result, while gas analysis did not show evidence of significant quantities of any acutely toxic materials, the gasses themselves all contained enough flammable components to potentially ignite in air.« less

  6. Studies on the thermal breakdown of common Li-ion battery electrolyte components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, Emanuel Peter; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2015-08-06

    While much attention is paid to the impact of the active materials on the catastrophic failure of lithium ion batteries, much of the severity of a battery failure is also governed by the electrolytes used, which are typically flammable themselves and can decompose during battery failure. The use of LiPF6 salt can be problematic as well, not only catalyzing electrolyte decomposition, but also providing a mechanism for HF production. This work evaluates the safety performance of the common components ethylene carbonate (EC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) in the context of the gasses produced during thermal decomposition, looking at both the quantity and composition of the vapor produced. EC and DEC were found to be the largest contributors to gas production, both producing upwards of 1.5 moles of gas/mole of electrolyte. DMC was found to be relatively stable, producing very little gas regardless of the presence of LiPF6. EMC was stable on its own, but the addition of LiPF6 catalyzed decomposition of the solvent. As a result, while gas analysis did not show evidence of significant quantities of any acutely toxic materials, the gasses themselves all contained enough flammable components to potentially ignite in air.

  7. Improvements in Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, J.Q.; Armijo, J.R.

    1982-06-01

    Potential improvements in Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal battery technology were evaluated using as the test vehicle a 28 +- 4-V, 400-cm/sup 3/ battery discharged through a 28-..cap omega.. load. Successful improvements included incorporating a catholyte additive to improve voltage regulation during discharge, changing the catholyte composition and blending procedure to increase life and current carrying capability, changing the anode composition to obtain better voltage regulation, and optimizing the heat and mass input. One end-of-life mechanism for higher current drain batteries was determined to be electrolytic freeze-out at the anode at temperatures that increase as the current density increases. The increase in freezing temperature was caused by a change in the K/sup +//Li/sup +/ ratio in the electrolyte near the anode as the anode discharged. A balanced ratio of cathode to anode weight was determined for the two catholytes and anode powders considered. The balance was based on electrode polarization at various resistive loads.

  8. Characterization of MgO powders for use in thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, W.

    1996-09-01

    Ten commercial MgO powders were evaluated for their suitability to act as a binder in the separator of thermal batteries to immobilize the electrolyte when it is molten. One brand in particular, Maglite S from Calgon, outperformed all the others. This report describes the results of a characterization study of this MgO as well as similar materials from other commercial vendors. The study objective was to define the critical properties of Maglite S MgO that are responsible for its superior performance in thermal-battery separators. Separator mixes were prepared with the various MgO powders and the resulting powders and pellets were characterized, to correlate key physical properties of these materials to select physical and chemical properties of the MgO powders used in their preparation. The MgO pore-size distribution was the only parameter that could be related to the deformation and electrolyte-leakage behavior of separator pellets. A potential replacement for the Maglite S is currently being qualified, since Maglite S MgO is no longer available.

  9. Characterization of electrolyte-binder mixes for use in thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1991-03-01

    A number of metal oxides were evaluated for their ability to immobilize molten LiCl-KCl eutectic in electrolyte-binder (EB) mixes used in thermally activated batteries. These metal oxides included fumed silicas, alumina, and a titania (all prepared by steam hydrolysis of the halides), floated silicas, MgO, and an alumina molecular sieve. The characteristics of the EB powders that were used as metrics were flow properties, homogeneity, BET surface area, particle-size distribution, and moisture content. The characteristics of EB pellets used as metrics were deformation at 530{degrees}C under an applied pressure and tendency for electrolyte leakage at 400{degrees}C. Many of the same characterization techniques used for EB powders were applied to the LiCl-KCl eutectic, its component halides, and the metal oxides as well. The reproducibility of the properties of several of the standard Sandia EB mixes was evaluated for materials prepared at a number of thermal-battery manufacturing facilities following the same processing procedures. 13 refs., 14 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Anodic reactions in the Ca/CaCrO/sub 4/ thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1985-09-01

    The reaction of Ca with a CaCrO/sub 4/-(LiCl-KCl eutectic) solution at temperatures of 400/sup 0/C to 500/sup 0/C was studied to better understand the nature of the chemical reactions and electrochemical processes that occur in the Ca/CaCrO/sub 4/ thermal battery at the anode during activation and discharge. Limited tests also were conducted with a CaCrO/sub 4/-(CaCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic) solution at 550/sup 0/C. Ca/CaCrO/sub 4/ and CaLi/sub 2//CaCrO/sub 4/ single cells were tested to observe the relative performance differences of Ca and CaLi/sub 2/ anodes. The discharged cells were analyzed by optical microscopy, electron microprobe, Auger electron spectroscopy, and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. These analytical data were used in conjunction with the results of chemical-reaction experiments to propose a discharge mechanism for the Ca/CaCrO/sub 4/ thermal battery, consistent with experimental observations.

  11. Parallel Integrated Thermal Management - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Find More Like This Return to Search Parallel Integrated Thermal Management National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Many current cooling systems for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with a high power electric drive system utilize a low temperature liquid cooling loop for cooling the power electronics system and electric machines associated with the electric

  12. Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Sessions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    POWER ELECTRONICS AND THERMAL MANAGEMENT EV Everywhere Workshop July 24, 2012 Breakout Session #1 - Discussion of Performance Targets and Barriers Comments on the Achievability of the Targets * Performance: Is achievable with these assumptions * Production Cost: $8/KW is achievable for PHEV40 and BEV300, $14/KW is okay for BEV100 * Production Efficiency: 95% system efficiency might be achievable * It is easier to achieve performance than cost targets * Integration of the different

  13. ARPA-E's 19 New Projects Focus on Battery Management and Storage |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy E's 19 New Projects Focus on Battery Management and Storage ARPA-E's 19 New Projects Focus on Battery Management and Storage August 7, 2012 - 1:17pm Addthis Principal Deputy Director Eric Toone, former ARPA-E Director Arun Majumdar, the Honorable Bart Gordon and IBM Research Senior Director Kathleen Kingscott discuss the future of energy innovation at an ITIF event on August 2. | Energy Department photo. Principal Deputy Director Eric Toone, former ARPA-E Director Arun

  14. Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy The stack characterization system (SCS) is a tele-operated remote system that collects samples and data to characterize the quantitative and qualitative levels of contamination inside off-gas stacks protecting workers from the physical, radiological and chemical hazards of deteriorating contaminated stacks. Stack Characterization System for Inspection of Contaminated Off-Gas Stacks (130.58 KB) More Documents & Publications Uranium Downblending and Disposition

  15. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime: Applications in Design and Health Management (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Jun, M.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation discusses models for battery reliability and lifetime and the Battery Ownership Model.

  16. Personal, closed-cycle cooling and protective apparatus and thermal battery therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.; Klett, Lynn B.

    2004-07-20

    A closed-cycle apparatus for cooling a living body includes a heat pickup body or garment which permits evaporation of an evaporating fluid, transmission of the vapor to a condenser, and return of the condensate to the heat pickup body. A thermal battery cooling source is provided for removing heat from the condenser. The apparatus requires no external power and provides a cooling system for soldiers, race car drivers, police officers, firefighters, bomb squad technicians, and other personnel who may utilize protective clothing to work in hostile environments. An additional shield layer may simultaneously provide protection from discomfort, illness or injury due to harmful atmospheres, projectiles, edged weapons, impacts, explosions, heat, poisons, microbes, corrosive agents, or radiation, while simultaneously removing body heat from the wearer.

  17. Evaluation of plasma-sprayed CoS{sub 2} cathodes for thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1999-12-22

    Conventional electroactive stack components in thermal batteries are constructed from pressed-powder parts. These include the anode, separator, and cathode pellets (discs). Pressing parts that are less than 0.010 inch thick is difficult. The use of plasma spray to deposit thin CoS{sub 2} cathode films onto a stainless steel substrate was examined as an alternative to pressed-powder cathodes. The plasma-sprayed electrodes were tested in single cells under isothermal conditions and constant-current discharge over a temperature range of 400 C to 550 C using standard LiSi anodes and separators based on the LiCl-KCl eutectic. Similar tests were conducted with cells built with conventional pressed-powder cathodes, which were tested under the same conditions for comparative purposes. This paper presents the results of those tests.

  18. A study of the stack relaxation in thermal batteries on activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; THOMAS,EDWARD V.

    2000-04-17

    The stack-relaxation processes occurring in a thermal-battery upon activation and discharge were studied dynamically with a special test fixture that incorporated an internal load cell. The factors which were screened initially included stack diameter and height (number of cells), thickness and binder content of the separator, temperature, and closing pressure. A second series of more-detailed experiments included only those factors that were identified by the screening study as being important (as closing force, number of cells, and separator thickness). The resulting experimental data from this second series of experiments were used to generate a surface-response model based on these three factors. This model accounted for 94% of the variation in the response (final stack-relaxation pressure) over the range of conditions studied.

  19. MC3714 Thermal Battery Lot 01 Tool Made Sample failure and corrective action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, D.; Hardy, D.B.

    1989-03-01

    As part of the determination of a products conformance to design definition, as defined in the product specification, and the capability of the production facility to produce product of the required quantity and quality, as determined by facilities equipment processes and controls, a Tool Made Sample (TMS) is required. TMS is evaluated under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), and verifies that the performance of the product meets design requirements. Production of product is authorized with an acceptable Qualification Evaluation Release (QER). This report describes the TMS failure which occurred when testing the MC3714 Thermal Battery Part No. 318936-00, at GE Neutron Devices (GEND) during the week of October 17, 1988, and the subsequent evaluation program leading to a design change and an acceptable TMS the week of December 5, 1988. 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. A study of the ignition processes in a center-hole-fired thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-04-01

    The ignition processes that take place during activation of a 16 cell, center hole fired thermal battery were examined by monitoring the voltage of each cell during activation. The average rise time of each cell to a voltage of 1.125 V was determined for the LiSi/LiCl-LiBr-LiF/FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system. The effects of heat pellet composition, center hole diameter, and the load on the activation parameters were examined for three different igniters. A large variability in individual cell performance was evident along with cell reversal, depending on the location of the cell in the stack. It was not possible to draw detailed statistical information of the relative ignition sequence due to the intrinsic large scatter in the data.

  1. Additional experiments relative to the shelf life of Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, J.Q.; Armijo, J.R.

    1985-02-01

    Work described in this report is part of a continuing effort to develop a new thermal battery technology based on the Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ electrochemical couple. The results reported relate to the long shelf-life requirement for thermal batteries designed by Sandia, and include topics relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal and accelerated aging experiments with materials new to the technology. Conclusions relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal are that the maximum leak rate must not exceed 1.8 x 10/sup -7/ w, where w is the grams of Li(Si) contained by a battery, and that a bomb-type leak test can be designed that is adequate for most Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ batteries. Conclusions relevant to long-term compatibility of new materials include the following: nickel is not compatible with the iron disulfide in the cathode; the CaSi/sub 2/ additive used to suppress the initial voltage transient does not react or degrade during accelerated aging experiments, but the use of that material can lead to an increase in the variability of the activated lives, especially for long-life batteries; Grafoil current collectors used with the cathode do not degrade in accelerated aging experiments.

  2. Aerospatiale Batteries ASB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aerospatiale Batteries ASB Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aerospatiale Batteries (ASB) Place: France Product: Research, design and manufacture of Thermal Batteries. References:...

  3. Screening study of lithiated catholyte mixes for a long-life Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giuidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.; Hammetter, W.F.

    1988-12-01

    The inability of the standard catholyte used by Sandia National Laboratories to meet all of the discharge requirements of a 60-min Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal battery necessitated the evaluation of lithiated catholytes as a replacement. Over 100 experimental mixes were examined as part of a screening study using a 5-cell battery as a test vehicle. Parameters studied included: catholyte composition (extent of lithiation), lithiation agents (Li/sub 2/S, Li alloys, Li/sub 2/O), processing technique (single step vs. multiple step, heating conditions), type of electrolyte-binder mix used in the catholyte (SiO/sub 2/-based vs. MgO-based), and the effect of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ impurity in the mix. The deformation behavior at 530/degree/C of pellets of the more promising lithiated catholytes was measured, to evaluate their behavior under simulated battery-discharge conditions. A thermoanalytical study was also conducted to help identify deleterious chemical reactions which occur during heating of the precursor mixes, and to define the chemistry associated with the lithiation processes. The better lithiated catholytes were subjected to performance-verification tests and were then tested in the 10-cell 60-min thermal battery. The best overall results were obtained with Li/sub 2/O-lithiated catholytes, with optimum performance occurring at a Li/FeS/sub 2/ mole ratio of /approximately/0.16. The initial voltage transient which normally occurs upon activation of Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal batteries was totally eliminated and the pulse performance of the battery near the end of life was significantly improved. 24 refs., 40 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Standard Missile Block IV battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.

    1996-11-01

    During the 1980`s a trend in automatic primary battery technologies was the replacement of silver-zinc batteries by thermal battery designs. The Standard missile (SM 2) Block IV development is a noteworthy reversal of this trend. The SM2, Block IV battery was originally attempted as a thermal battery with multiple companies attempting to develop a thermal battery design. These attempts resulted in failure to obtain a production thermal battery. A decision to pursue a silver-zinc battery design resulted in the development of a battery to supply the SM 2, Block IV (thermal battery design goal) and also the projected power requirements of the evolving SM 2, Block IVA in a single silver-zinc battery design. Several advancements in silver-zinc battery technology were utilized in this design that improve the producibility and extend the boundaries of silver-zinc batteries.

  5. Evaluation of ceramic papers and tapes for use as separators in thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhardt, Frederick William; Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Ceramic tapes and papers were evaluated for potential use as separators in high-temperature thermal batteries. The bulk of the tests involved fiberglass tape and borosilicate filter discs. Quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) materials were also examined to a limited extent. In addition, custom-prepared MgO-coated ceramic discs from Inventek Inc. were evaluated as separators. The tapes and paper discs were impregnated with LiCl-KCl eutectic or LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolytes using three different techniques. Test discs were punched from the tapes and papers, impregnated with electrolyte and evaluated as separators in Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} single cells at 400 or 500 C at a steady-state current of 63 or 125 mA/cm{sup 2}. The performance of single cells containing these discs generally improved with increased electrolyte loading for most of the materials in the case of the LiCl-KCl eutectic. Better results were obtained with the paper filter discs than with the tapes. The best results with the paper discs were obtained with Whatman GF/A filter discs. Active lives for cells with these separators were about 85% of standard cells with pressed-powder separators. Good results were obtained in one battery test with the eutectic electrolyte. Mixed results were obtained with the LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte under similar conditions. Higher loadings of electrolyte did not always translate into improved cell performance. Self-discharge reactions are believed responsible. The best overall results were obtained with the Inventek separators. Based on the results of this study, more work in this technology area is merited.

  6. Rapid Modeling of Power Electronics Thermal Management Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Kelly, K.

    2009-08-01

    Describes a method of rapidly evaluating trade-offs associated with alternative packaging configurations and thermal management technologies for power electronics packaging.

  7. Performance data for a lithium-silicon/iron disulfide, long-life, primary thermal battery. [28 V, 0. 5 A, -54 to +75/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, R.K.; Baldwin, A.R.; Armijo, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    A 60-minute, 28-volt, 0.5-ampere, primary thermal battery with a volume of 400 cm/sup 3/ was developed in the Li(Si)/LiCl-KCl/FeS/sub 2/ electrochemical system. The effects of various simulated environmental tests on the performance of this battery are described. 8 figures, 1 table.

  8. Characterization of the Li(Si)/CoS(2) couple for a high-voltage, high-power thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    2000-02-01

    In order to determined the capabilities of a thermal battery with high-voltage and high-power requirements, a detailed characterization of the candidate LiSi/LiCl-LiBr-LiF/CoS{sub 2} electrochemical couple was conducted. The rate capability of this system was investigated using 0.75 inch-dia. and 1.25 inch-dia. single and multiple cells under isothermal conditions, where the cells were regularly pulsed at increasingly higher currents. Limitations of the electronic loads and power supplies necessitated using batteries to obtain the desired maximum current densities possible for this system. Both 1.25 inch-dia. and 3 inch-dia. stacks were used with the number of cells ranging from 5 to 20. Initial tests involved 1.25 inch-dia. cells, where current densities in excess of 15 A/cm{sup 2} (>200 W/cm{sup 2}) were attained with 20-cell batteries during 1-s pulses. In subsequent follow-up tests with 3 inch-dia., 10-cell batteries, ten 400-A 1-s pulses were delivered over an operating period often minutes. These tests formed the foundation for subsequent full-sized battery tests with 125 cells with this chemistry.

  9. Nickel-hydrogen battery with oxygen and electrolyte management features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sindorf, John F.

    1991-10-22

    A nickel-hydrogen battery or cell having one or more pressure vessels containing hydrogen gas and a plurality of cell-modules therein. Each cell-module includes a configuration of cooperatively associated oxygen and electrolyte mangement and component alignment features. A cell-module having electrolyte includes a negative electrode, a positive electrode adapted to facilitate oxygen diffusion, a separator disposed between the positive and negative electrodes for separating them and holding electrolyte for ionic conductivity, an absorber engaging the surface of the positive electrode facing away from the separator for providing electrolyte to the positive electrode, and a pair of surface-channeled diffusion screens for enclosing the positive and negative electrodes, absorber, and separator and for maintaining proper alignment of these components. The screens, formed in the shape of a pocket by intermittently sealing the edges together along as many as three sides, permit hydrogen gas to diffuse therethrough to the negative electrodes, and prevent the edges of the separator from swelling. Electrolyte is contained in the cell-module, absorbhed by the electrodes, the separator and the absorber.

  10. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Cell Components to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Computer- Aided Engineering of Batteries under Abuse

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Cell Components to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Computer- Aided Engineering of Batteries under Abuse P.I.: Ahmad Pesaran Team: Tomasz Wierzbicki and Elham Sahraei (MIT) Genong Li and Lewis Collins (ANSYS) M. Sprague, G.H. Kim and S. Santhangopalan (NREL) June 17, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project ID: ES199 NREL/PR-5400-61885 2 Overview * Project Start: October 2013 * Project

  11. Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Researchers at the Thermal Test Facility (TTF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, are addressing maximizing thermal efficiency and optimizing energy management through analysis of efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) strategies, automated home energy management (AHEM), and energy storage systems.

  12. Development of a tester for evaluation of prototype thermal cells and batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    A tester was developed to evaluate prototype thermal cells and batteries--especially high-voltage units--under a wide range of constant-current and constant-resistance discharge conditions. Programming of the steady-state and pulsing conditions was by software control or by hardware control via an external pulse generator. The tester was assembled from primarily Hewlett-Packard (H-P) instrumentation and was operated under H-P`s Rocky Mountain Basic (RMB). Constant-current electronic loads rated up to 4 kW (400 V at up to 100 A) were successfully used with the setup. For testing under constant-resistance conditions, power metal-oxide field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) controlled by a programmable pulse generator were used to switch between steady-state and pulse loads. The pulses were digitized at up to a 50 kHz rate (20 {mu} s/pt) using high-speed DVMs; steady-state voltages were monitored with standard DVMs. This paper describes several of the test configurations used and discusses the limitations of each. Representative data are presented for a number of the test conditions.

  13. Development of a high-voltage, high-power thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Scharrer, G.L.; Binasiewicz, E.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-04-01

    The power requirements for an inverter application were specified to be 500 V at 360 A, or 180 kW per each of six 1-s pulses delivered over a period of 10 minutes. Conventional high-power sources (e.g., flywheels) could not meet these requirements and the use of a thermal battery was considered. The final design involved four, 125-cell, 50-kW modules connected in series. A module using the LiSi/CoS{sub 2} couple and all-Li (LiCI-LiBr-LiF minimum-melting) electrolyte was successfully developed and tested. A power level of over 40 kW was delivered during a 0.5-s pulse. This translates into a specific power level of over 9 kW/kg or 19.2 kW/L delivered from a module. The module was still able to deliver over 30 kW during a 1-s pulse after 10 minutes.

  14. PHEV Battery Trade-Off Study and Standby Thermal Control (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-03-01

    Describes NREL's R&D to optimize the design of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to meet established requirements at minimum cost.

  15. NREL: Transportation Research - Vehicle Thermal Management Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a test pad to conduct vehicle thermal soak testing and stationary heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) load testing on light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles. ...

  16. Causal Analysis For Occurrence Report OR NA-SS-SNL-2000-2015-0005 Unexpected Type of Failure of Thermal Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forbes, Elizabeth H.

    2015-08-01

    On 6/26/2015 at approximately 1445 in 894/136, a pulse thermal battery (approximately the size of a commercial size C cell) experienced an unexpected failure following an electrical performance test that is routinely conducted on thermal batteries. A dedicated tester for this operation was used and it ran the test until the nominal 28-volt output of the battery had dropped to 5 volts, usually indicative of the battery being spent and safe enough to move. The failure occurred while a test operator was transferring the battery from the testing primary containment box to another primary containment box within the same room; initial indications are that the battery experienced an over-pressurization failure which led to the battery's base plate being expelled and the operator receiving a non-recordable injury (bruising to the palm of the hand) from the pressure of the expulsion. The operator was wearing the prescribed PPE (safety glasses and high temperature glove) and was handling the battery appropriately with an open, flat hand. Pictures of the scene are below.

  17. Efficient simulation and model reformulation of two-dimensional electrochemical thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Northrop, Paul W. C.; Pathak, Manan; Rife, Derek; De, Sumitava; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-03-09

    Lithium-ion batteries are an important technology to facilitate efficient energy storage and enable a shift from petroleum based energy to more environmentally benign sources. Such systems can be utilized most efficiently if good understanding of performance can be achieved for a range of operating conditions. Mathematical models can be useful to predict battery behavior to allow for optimization of design and control. An analytical solution is ideally preferred to solve the equations of a mathematical model, as it eliminates the error that arises when using numerical techniques and is usually computationally cheap. An analytical solution provides insight into the behavior of the system and also explicitly shows the effects of different parameters on the behavior. However, most engineering models, including the majority of battery models, cannot be solved analytically due to non-linearities in the equations and state dependent transport and kinetic parameters. The numerical method used to solve the system of equations describing a battery operation can have a significant impact on the computational cost of the simulation. In this paper, a model reformulation of the porous electrode pseudo three dimensional (P3D) which significantly reduces the computational cost of lithium ion battery simulation, while maintaining high accuracy, is discussed. This reformulation enables the use of the P3D model into applications that would otherwise be too computationally expensive to justify its use, such as online control, optimization, and parameter estimation. Furthermore, the P3D model has proven to be robust enough to allow for the inclusion of additional physical phenomena as understanding improves. In this study, the reformulated model is used to allow for more complicated physical phenomena to be considered for study, including thermal effects.

  18. Efficient simulation and model reformulation of two-dimensional electrochemical thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Northrop, Paul W. C.; Pathak, Manan; Rife, Derek; De, Sumitava; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-03-09

    Lithium-ion batteries are an important technology to facilitate efficient energy storage and enable a shift from petroleum based energy to more environmentally benign sources. Such systems can be utilized most efficiently if good understanding of performance can be achieved for a range of operating conditions. Mathematical models can be useful to predict battery behavior to allow for optimization of design and control. An analytical solution is ideally preferred to solve the equations of a mathematical model, as it eliminates the error that arises when using numerical techniques and is usually computationally cheap. An analytical solution provides insight into the behaviormore » of the system and also explicitly shows the effects of different parameters on the behavior. However, most engineering models, including the majority of battery models, cannot be solved analytically due to non-linearities in the equations and state dependent transport and kinetic parameters. The numerical method used to solve the system of equations describing a battery operation can have a significant impact on the computational cost of the simulation. In this paper, a model reformulation of the porous electrode pseudo three dimensional (P3D) which significantly reduces the computational cost of lithium ion battery simulation, while maintaining high accuracy, is discussed. This reformulation enables the use of the P3D model into applications that would otherwise be too computationally expensive to justify its use, such as online control, optimization, and parameter estimation. Furthermore, the P3D model has proven to be robust enough to allow for the inclusion of additional physical phenomena as understanding improves. In this study, the reformulated model is used to allow for more complicated physical phenomena to be considered for study, including thermal effects.« less

  19. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D: Annual Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... NREL Technical Report NRELTP- 5400-63887, June 2015. 5 K. Bennion. "Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D." 2015 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review, June ...

  20. NREL: Transportation Research - Light-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Light-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management Image of a semi-transparent car with parts of the engine highlighted in green. NREL evaluates technologies and methods such as advanced window glazing, cooling heat-pipe systems, parked car ventilation, and direct energy recovery. Illustration by Josh Bauer, NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers are focused on improving the thermal efficiency of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) while maintaining the thermal comfort that drivers expect.

  1. Report on Toyota Prius Motor Thermal Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, J.S.

    2005-02-11

    peak-torque (400-Nm) region, the efficiency goes down to the 40-50% range, and the power factor is nearly 100%. The efficiency is not a major concern at the high-torque region. The water-ethylene-glycol heat exchanger attached to the motor is small. During continuous operation, it dissipates about 76% of the total motor heat loss with 35 C coolant. The heat exchanger is less effective when the coolant temperature increases. With 75 C coolant, the heat exchanger dissipates about 38% of the motor heat. When the coolant temperature is 105 C, the heat exchanger not only stops cooling the motor but also adds heat to the large motor housing that acts as an air-cooled heat sink. From start to the base speed, 400 Nms of torque can be produced by the Prius motor with a reasonably low stator current. However, the permissible running time of the motor depends on the load drawn from the motor and the coolant temperature. In the Toyota Prius hybrid configuration, if the motor gets too hot and cannot keep running, the load can be shifted back to the engine. The motor acts to improve the system efficiency without being overly designed. A detailed thermal model was developed to help predict the temperature levels in key motor components. The model was calibrated and compared with the experimentally measured temperatures. Very good agreement was obtained between model and experiment. This model can now be used to predict the temperature of key motor components at a variety of operating conditions and to evaluate the thermal characteristics of new motor designs. It should be pointed out that a fuel-cell motor does not have an engine to fall back on to provide the needed wheel power. Therefore, the design philosophy of a fuel-cell motor is very different from that of a hybrid Prius motor. Further thermal management studies in the high-speed region of the Prius motor, fed by its inverter, are planned.

  2. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) and Introduction to Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Battery Thermal Modeling ...

  3. Fault-tolerant battery system employing intra-battery network architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagen, Ronald A.; Chen, Kenneth W.; Comte, Christophe; Knudson, Orlin B.; Rouillard, Jean

    2000-01-01

    A distributed energy storing system employing a communications network is disclosed. A distributed battery system includes a number of energy storing modules, each of which includes a processor and communications interface. In a network mode of operation, a battery computer communicates with each of the module processors over an intra-battery network and cooperates with individual module processors to coordinate module monitoring and control operations. The battery computer monitors a number of battery and module conditions, including the potential and current state of the battery and individual modules, and the conditions of the battery's thermal management system. An over-discharge protection system, equalization adjustment system, and communications system are also controlled by the battery computer. The battery computer logs and reports various status data on battery level conditions which may be reported to a separate system platform computer. A module transitions to a stand-alone mode of operation if the module detects an absence of communication connectivity with the battery computer. A module which operates in a stand-alone mode performs various monitoring and control functions locally within the module to ensure safe and continued operation.

  4. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  5. Fluorinated Phosphazene Co-solvents for Improved Thermal and Safety Performance in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry W. Rollins; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; David K. Jamison; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Dayna L. Daubaras

    2014-10-01

    The safety of lithium-ion batteries is coming under increased scrutiny as they are being adopted for large format applications especially in the vehicle transportation industry and for grid-scale energy storage. The primary short-comings of lithium-ion batteries are the flammability of the liquid electrolyte and sensitivity to high voltage and elevated temperatures. We have synthesized a series of non-flammable fluorinated phosphazene liquids and blended them with conventional carbonate solvents. While the use of these phosphazenes as standalone electrolytes is highly desirable, they simply do not satisfy all of the many requirements that must be met such as high LiPF6 solubility and low viscosity, thus we have used them as additives and co-solvents in blends with typical carbonates. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrolyte blends were characterized, and then the blends were used to build 2032-type coin cells which were evaluated at constant current cycling rates from C/10 to C/1. We have evaluated the performance of the electrolytes by determining the conductivity, viscosity, flash point, vapor pressure, thermal stability, electrochemical window, cell cycling data, and the ability to form solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. This paper presents our results on a series of chemically similar fluorinated cyclic phosphazene trimers, the FM series, which has exhibited numerous beneficial effects on battery performance, lifetimes, and safety aspects.

  6. Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    enhancement. Research results are delivered to industry in order to accelerate adoption of best practices and technologies. In this way, building owners can manage energy...

  7. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Program Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, R E

    1980-01-01

    The Office of the Associate Laboratory Director for Energy and Environmental Technology has established the OTEC Program Management Office to be responsible for the ANL-assigned tasks of the OTEC Program under DOE's Chicago Operations and Regional Office (DOE/CORO). The ANL OTEC Program Management Plan is essentially a management-by-objective plan. The principal objective of the program is to provide lead technical support to CORO in its capacity as manager of the DOE power-system program. The Argonne OTEC Program is divided into three components: the first deals with development of heat exchangers and other components of OTEC power systems, the second with development of biofouling counter-measures and corrosion-resistant materials for these components in seawater service, and the third with environmental and climatic impacts of OTEC power-system operation. The essential points of the Management Plan are summarized, and the OTEC Program is described. The organization of the OTEC Program at ANL is described including the functions, responsibilities, and authorities of the organizational groupings. The system and policies necessary for the support and control functions within the organization are discussed. These functions cross organizational lines, in that they are common to all of the organization groups. Also included are requirements for internal and external reports.

  8. Will Your Battery Survive a World With Fast Chargers?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.

    2015-05-04

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that result could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's development of BLAST-V-the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles-to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. We present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. We find that the impact of realistic fast charging on battery degradation is minimal for most drivers, due to the low frequency of use. However, in the absence of active battery cooling systems, a driver's desired utilization of a BEV and fast charging infrastructure can result in unsafe peak battery temperatures. We find that active battery cooling systems can control peak battery temperatures to safe limits while allowing the desired use of the vehicle.

  9. SOFC seal and cell thermal management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potnis, Shailesh Vijay; Rehg, Timothy Joseph

    2011-05-17

    The solid oxide fuel cell module includes a manifold, a plate, a cathode electrode, a fuel cell and an anode electrode. The manifold includes an air or oxygen inlet in communication with divergent passages above the periphery of the cell which combine to flow the air or oxygen radially or inwardly for reception in the center of the cathode flow field. The latter has interconnects providing circuitous cooling passages in a generally radial outward direction cooling the fuel cell and which interconnects are formed of different thermal conductivity materials for a preferential cooling.

  10. 3D Thermal and Electrochemical Model for Spirally Wound Large Format Lithium-ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. J.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2010-10-14

    In many commercial cells, long tabs at both cell sides, leading to uniform potentials along the spiral direction of wound jelly rolls, are rarely seen because of their high manufacturing cost. More often, several metal strips are welded at discrete locations along both current collector foils. With this design, the difference of electrical potentials is easily built up along current collectors in the spiral direction. Hence, the design features of the tabs, such as number, location and size, can be crucial factors for spiral-shaped battery cells. This paper presents a Li-ion battery cell model having a 3-dimensional spiral mesh involving a wound jellyroll structure. Further results and analysis will be given regarding impacts of tab location, number, and size.

  11. Power Electronics Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.

    2014-11-01

    This project will investigate and develop thermal-management strategies for wide bandgap (WBG)-based power electronics systems. Research will be carried out to deal with thermal aspects at the module- and system-level. Module-level research will focus on die- and substrate-integrated cooling strategies and heat-transfer enhancement technologies. System-level research will focus on thermal-management strategies for the entire power electronics system to enable smart packaging solutions. One challenge with WBG device-based power electronics is that although losses in the form of heat may be lower, the footprint of the components is also likely to be reduced to reduce cost, weight, and volume. Combined with higher operational temperatures, this creates higher heat fluxes which much be removed from a smaller footprint, requiring advanced cooling strategies.

  12. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.

    2014-11-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, the effective thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets was also measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Ford's Mercon LV was the ATF evaluated in this study. The presentation provides an overview of prior work with a focus on describing future plans for research to be performed during FY15.

  13. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Battery Crush; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbiki, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Propagation of failure in lithium-ion batteries during field events or under abuse is a strong function of the mechanical response of the different components in the battery. Whereas thermal and electrochemical models that capture the abuse response of batteries have been developed and matured over the years, the interaction between the mechanical behavior and the thermal response of these batteries is not very well understood. With support from the Department of Energy, NREL has made progress in coupling mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical lithium-ion models to predict the initiation and propagation of short circuits under external crush in a cell. The challenge with a cell crush simulation is to estimate the magnitude and location of the short. To address this, the model includes an explicit representation of each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc., and predicts their mechanical deformation under different crush scenarios. Initial results show reasonable agreement with experiments. In this presentation, the versatility of the approach for use with different design factors, cell formats and chemistries is explored using examples.

  14. Application of Sleeper Cab Thermal Management Technologies to Reduce Idle Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Venson, T.; Adelman, S.; Dehart, C.; Yeakel, S.; Castillo, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Each intercity long-haul truck in the U.S. idles approximately 1,800 hrs per year, primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads. Including workday idling, over 2 billion gallons of fuel are used annually for truck idling. NREL's CoolCab project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling and fuel use. The impact of thermal load reduction technologies on idle reduction systems were characterized by conducting thermal soak tests, overall heat transfer tests, and 10-hour rest period A/C tests. Technologies evaluated include advanced insulation packages, a solar reflective film applied to the vehicle's opaque exterior surfaces, a truck featuring both film and insulation, and a battery-powered A/C system. Opportunities were identified to reduce heating and cooling loads for long-haul truck idling by 36% and 34%, respectively, which yielded a 23% reduction in battery pack capacity of the idle-reduction system. Data were also collected for development and validation of a CoolCalc HVAC truck cab model. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches.

  15. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morman, J.A.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Reifman, J.

    1999-07-27

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced. 5 figs.

  16. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morman, James A.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Reifman, Jaques

    1999-01-01

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

  17. Thermal Stability of LiPF 6 Salt and Li-ion Battery Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In the presence of water (300 ppm) in the carrier gas, its decomposition onset temperature is lowered as a result of direct thermal reaction between LiPF 6 and water vapor to form ...

  18. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  19. Quantifying Thermal Runaway and Improvements Through Materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    L. Langendorf Sandia National Laboratories Next Generation Batteries 2015Battery Safety April 22, 2015 Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Challenges sL Energetic thermal runaway ...

  20. NREL: Transportation Research - Vehicle Thermal Management Models and Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Models and Tools image of three models of semi truck cabs. Truck cab models drawn from CAD geometry using CoolCalc (left and center), and a model with overlay of computational fluid dynamics flow (right) indicate areas of heat absorption and loss. Illustrations by Jason Lustbader, Matt Jeffers, and Larry Chaney, NREL The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) vehicle thermal management modeling tools allow researchers to assess the trade-offs and calculate the potential benefits of

  1. Copper (II) chloride-tetrachloroaluminate battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erbacher, J.K.; Hussey, C.L.; King, L.A.

    1980-06-10

    A pelletized, light weight, thermal battery having copper (II) chloride and an alkali tetrachloroaluminate as electrolytic components is disclosed.

  2. Annual Report: Turbine Thermal Management (30 September 2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Richards, George

    2014-04-10

    The FY13 NETL-RUA Turbine Thermal Management effort supported the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hydrogen Turbine Program through conduct of novel, fundamental, basic, and applied research in the areas of aerothermal heat transfer, coatings development, and secondary flow control. This research project utilized the extensive expertise and facilities readily available at NETL and the participating universities. The research approach included explorative studies based on scaled models and prototype coupon tests conducted under realistic high-temperature, pressurized, turbine operating conditions. This research is expected to render measurable outcomes that will meet DOE’s advanced turbine development goals of a 3- to 5-point increase in power island efficiency and a 30 percent power increase above the hydrogen-fired combined cycle baseline. In addition, knowledge gained from this project will further advance the aerothermal cooling and TBC technologies in the general turbine community. This project has been structured to address: • Development and design of aerothermal and materials concepts in FY12-13. • Design and manufacturing of these advanced concepts in FY13. • Bench-scale/proof-of-concept testing of these concepts in FY13-14 and beyond. In addition to a Project Management task, the Turbine Thermal Management project consists of four tasks that focus on a critical technology development in the areas of heat transfer, materials development, and secondary flow control. These include: • Aerothermal and Heat Transfer • Coatings and Materials Development • Design Integration and Testing • Secondary Flow Rotating Rig.

  3. Thermometry and thermal management of carbon nanotube circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayle, Scott; Gupta, Tanuj; Davis, Sam; Chandrasekhar, Venkat; Shafraniuk, Serhii

    2015-05-21

    Monitoring of the intrinsic temperature and the thermal management is discussed for the carbon nanotube nano-circuits. The experimental results concerning fabricating and testing of a thermometer able to monitor the intrinsic temperature on nanoscale are reported. We also suggest a model which describes a bi-metal multilayer system able to filter the heat flow, based on separating the electron and phonon components one from another. The bi-metal multilayer structure minimizes the phonon component of the heat flow, while retaining the electronic part. The method allows one to improve the overall performance of the electronic nano-circuits due to minimizing the energy dissipation.

  4. The Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System – Battery Storage Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Weimar, Mark R.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Ma, Jian; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2009-07-01

    This report presents the modeling approach, methodologies, and results of the sodium sulfur (NaS) battery evaluation study, which was conducted by Battelle for the California Energy Commission (CEC).

  5. Battery separator assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faust, M.A.; Suchanski, M.R.; Osterhoudt, H.W.

    1988-05-03

    A separator assembly for use in batteries is described comprising a film bearing a thermal fuse in the form of a layer of wax coated fibers; wherein the assembly is sufficiently porous to allow continuous flow of ions in the battery.

  6. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  7. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area...

  9. Progress in Modeling and Simulation of Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, John A

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of batteries, in conjunction with theory and experiment, are important research tools that offer opportunities for advancement of technologies that are critical to electric motors. The development of data from the application of these tools can provide the basis for managerial and technical decision-making. Together, these will continue to transform batteries for electric vehicles. This collection of nine papers presents the modeling and simulation of batteries and the continuing contribution being made to this impressive progress, including topics that cover: * Thermal behavior and characteristics * Battery management system design and analysis * Moderately high-fidelity 3D capabilities * Optimization Techniques and Durability As electric vehicles continue to gain interest from manufacturers and consumers alike, improvements in economy and affordability, as well as adoption of alternative fuel sources to meet government mandates are driving battery research and development. Progress in modeling and simulation will continue to contribute to battery improvements that deliver increased power, energy storage, and durability to further enhance the appeal of electric vehicles.

  10. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  11. NREL Battery Testing Capabilities Get a Boost - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery Testing Capabilities Get a Boost February 5, 2010 Photo of a Test engineer standing next to a camera showing a thermal image of a battery being tested. Enlarge image Engineer Dirk Long uses thermal imaging equipment to capture a battery's infrared fingerprint to diagnose its behavior. NREL soon will be ramping up testing as the battery industry uses stimulus funding to enhance batteries used in advanced vehicles. Credit: Pat Corkery Batteries are the heart of today's advanced electric

  12. Computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics for geosystems management.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davison, Scott; Alger, Nicholas; Turner, Daniel Zack; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Carnes, Brian; Martinez, Mario J.; Notz, Patrick K.; Klise, Katherine A.; Stone, Charles Michael; Field, Richard V., Jr.; Newell, Pania; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Red-Horse, John Robert; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hopkins, Polly L.; Mesh, Mikhail; Bean, James E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Yoon, Hongkyu

    2011-09-01

    This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics analysis of geosystems. The code was developed within the SNL Sierra software system. This report summarizes the capabilities of the simulation code and the supporting research and development conducted under this LDRD. The main goal of this project was the development of a foundational capability for coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) simulation of heterogeneous geosystems utilizing massively parallel processing. To solve these complex issues, this project integrated research in numerical mathematics and algorithms for chemically reactive multiphase systems with computer science research in adaptive coupled solution control and framework architecture. This report summarizes and demonstrates the capabilities that were developed together with the supporting research underlying the models. Key accomplishments are: (1) General capability for modeling nonisothermal, multiphase, multicomponent flow in heterogeneous porous geologic materials; (2) General capability to model multiphase reactive transport of species in heterogeneous porous media; (3) Constitutive models for describing real, general geomaterials under multiphase conditions utilizing laboratory data; (4) General capability to couple nonisothermal reactive flow with geomechanics (THMC); (5) Phase behavior thermodynamics for the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. General implementation enables modeling of other fluid mixtures. Adaptive look-up tables enable thermodynamic capability to other simulators; (6) Capability for statistical modeling of heterogeneity in geologic materials; and (7) Simulator utilizes unstructured grids on parallel processing computers.

  13. Thermal management for heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wambsganss, M.W.

    2000-04-03

    Thermal management is a crosscutting technology that has an important effect on fuel economy and emissions, as well as on reliability and safety, of heavy-duty trucks. Trends toward higher-horsepower engines, along with new technologies for reducing emissions, are substantially increasing heat-rejection requirements. For example, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which is probably the most popular near-term strategy for reducing NO{sub x} emissions, is expected to add 20 to 50% to coolant heat-rejection requirements. There is also a need to package more cooling in a smaller space without increasing costs. These new demands have created a need for new and innovative technologies and concepts that will require research and development, which, due to its long-term and high-risk nature, would benefit from government funding. This document outlines a research program that was recommended by representatives of truck manufacturers, engine manufacturers, equipment suppliers, universities, and national laboratories. Their input was obtained through personal interviews and a plenary workshop that was sponsored by the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies and held at Argonne National Laboratory on October 19--20, 1999. Major research areas that received a strong endorsement by industry and that are appropriate for government funding were identified and included in the following six tasks: (1) Program management/coordination and benefits/cost analyses; (2) Advanced-concept development; (3) Advanced heat exchangers and heat-transfer fluids; (4) Simulation-code development; (5) Sensors and control components development; and (6) Concept/demonstration truck sponsorship.

  14. Thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demko, Jonathan A; Hassenzahl, William V

    2011-01-01

    Projections of electric power production suggest a major shift to renewables, such as wind and solar, which will be in remote locations where massive quantities of power are available. One solution for transmitting this power over long distances to load centers is direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables. Electric transmission via dc cables promises to be effective because of the low-loss, highcurrent- carrying capability of HTS wire at cryogenic temperatures. However, the thermal management system for the cable must be carefully designed to achieve reliable and energyefficient operation. Here we extend the analysis of a superconducting dc cable concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), which has one stream of liquid nitrogen flowing in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the power cable, and a separate return tube for the nitrogen. Refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km cool both nitrogen streams. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum/cryogenic envelope. Other coolants, including gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen, could provide potential advantages, though they bring some technical challenges to the operation of long-length HTS dc cable systems. A discussion of the heat produced in superconducting cables and a system to remove the heat are discussed. Also, an analysis of the use of various cryogenic fluids in long-distance HTS power cables is presented.

  15. Battery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B; Andrew, Michael G

    2013-08-27

    A battery module includes a plurality of battery cells and a system configured for passing a fluid past at least a portion of the plurality of battery cells in a parallel manner.

  16. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information...

  17. Proceedings of the 31. intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2: Conversion technologies, electro-chemical technologies, Stirling engines, thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chetty, P.R.K.; Jackson, W.D.; Dicks, E.B.

    1996-12-31

    The 148 papers contained in Volume 2 are arranged topically as follows -- (A) Conversion Technologies: Superconductivity applications; Advanced cycles; Heat engines; Heat pumps; Combustion and cogeneration; Advanced nuclear reactors; Fusion Power reactors; Magnetohydrodynamics; Alkali metal thermal to electric conversion; Thermoelectrics; Thermionic conversion; Thermophotovoltaics; Advances in electric machinery; and Sorption technologies; (B) Electrochemical Technologies: Terrestrial fuel cell technology; and Batteries for terrestrial power; (C) Stirling Engines: Stirling machine analysis; Stirling machine development and testing; and Stirling component analysis and testing; (D) Thermal Management: Cryogenic heat transfer; Electronic components and power systems; Environmental control systems; Heat pipes; Numeric analysis and code verification; and Two phase heat and mass transfer. Papers within the scope of the data base have been processed separately.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by DENSO International America, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about stand-alone...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by DENSO International America at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about stand-alone...

  20. Automotive Underhood Thermal Management Analysis Using 3-D Coupled Thermal-Hydrodynamic Computer Models: Thermal Radiation Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, S; D'Azevedo, E; Zacharia, T

    2002-02-26

    The goal of the radiation modeling effort was to develop and implement a radiation algorithm that is fast and accurate for the underhood environment. As part of this CRADA, a net-radiation model was chosen to simulate radiative heat transfer in an underhood of a car. The assumptions (diffuse-gray and uniform radiative properties in each element) reduce the problem tremendously and all the view factors for radiation thermal calculations can be calculated once and for all at the beginning of the simulation. The cost for online integration of heat exchanges due to radiation is found to be less than 15% of the baseline CHAD code and thus very manageable. The off-line view factor calculation is constructed to be very modular and has been completely integrated to read CHAD grid files and the output from this code can be read into the latest version of CHAD. Further integration has to be performed to accomplish the same with STAR-CD. The main outcome of this effort is to obtain a highly scalable and portable simulation capability to model view factors for underhood environment (for e.g. a view factor calculation which took 14 hours on a single processor only took 14 minutes on 64 processors). The code has also been validated using a simple test case where analytical solutions are available. This simulation capability gives underhood designers in the automotive companies the ability to account for thermal radiation - which usually is critical in the underhood environment and also turns out to be one of the most computationally expensive components of underhood simulations. This report starts off with the original work plan as elucidated in the proposal in section B. This is followed by Technical work plan to accomplish the goals of the project in section C. In section D, background to the current work is provided with references to the previous efforts this project leverages on. The results are discussed in section 1E. This report ends with conclusions and future scope of

  1. NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

  2. Repository Reference Disposal Concepts and Thermal Load Management...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    enclosed and open mode disposal concepts, thermal analysis of open modes, a range of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) burnup, additional disposal system description, and cost estimation. ...

  3. First Diode for Thermal Management of Micro and Macro Devices...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SummaryAlex Zettl, Arun Majumdar and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have invented the first solid state thermal rectifier. The device consists of a boron nitride nanotube (BNNT)...

  4. Thermal management in heavy vehicles : a review identifying issues and research requirements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wambsganss, M. W.

    1999-01-15

    Thermal management in heavy vehicles is cross-cutting because it directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, engine/component life, driver comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and aerodynamics. It follows that thermal management is critical to the design of large (class 6-8) trucks, especially in optimizing for energy efficiency and emissions reduction. Heat rejection requirements are expected to increase, and it is industry's goal to develop new, innovative, high-performance cooling systems that occupy less space and are lightweight and cost-competitive. The state of the art in heavy vehicle thermal management is reviewed, and issues and research areas are identified.

  5. Model based control of a coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.M.; Srour, J.M.; Zulli, P.; Cunningham, R.; Hockings, K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a model-based strategy for coke battery control at BHP Steel`s operations in Pt Kembla, Australia. The strategy uses several models describing the battery thermal and coking behavior. A prototype controller has been installed on the Pt Kembla No. 6 Battery (PK6CO). In trials, the new controller has been well accepted by operators and has resulted in a clear improvement in battery thermal stability, with a halving of the standard deviation of average battery temperature. Along with other improvements to that battery`s operations, this implementation has contributed to a 10% decrease in specific battery energy consumption. A number of enhancements to the low level control systems on that battery are currently being undertaken in order to realize further benefits.

  6. Comparative Studies of the Electrochemical and Thermal Stability of Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Using Two Types of Boron-Based Anion Receptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X. Q.; Lee, H. S.; Sun, X.; McBreen, J.

    1999-10-17

    Comparative studies were done on two new types of boron based anion receptors, tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane (TFPB) and tris(pentafluorophenyl) borate (TFPBO), regarding conductivity enhancement electrochemical and thermal stability when used as additives in composite electrolytes for lithium batteries. Both additives enhance the ionic conductivity of electrolytes of simple lithium salts, LiF, CF{sub 3}CO{sub 2}Li and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}CO{sub 2}Li in several organic solvents. The electrochemical windows of TPFB based electrolytes in ethylene carbonate (EC)-propylene carbonate (PC)-dmethyl carbonate (DMC) (1:1:3, v/v) are up to 5, 4.76 and 4.96 V for LiF, CF{sub 3}CO{sub 2}Li and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}CO{sub 2}Li respectively. TPFBO has lower electrochemical stability compared to TPFB. The thermal stability of pure TFPB is better than TFPBO. The lithium salt complexes have higher thermal stability than these two compounds. TPFB based electrolytes showed high cycling efficiencies and good cycleability when they were tested in Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells. The capacity retention of the cells using TFPB based electrolytes during multiple cycling is better than those using TFPBO based electrolytes.

  7. Note: A simple model for thermal management in solenoids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, E. M. Ellis, J.

    2013-11-15

    We describe a model of the dynamical temperature evolution in a solenoid winding. A simple finite element analysis is calibrated by accurately measuring the thermally induced resistance change of the solenoid, thus obviating the need for accurate knowledge of the mean thermal conductivity of the windings. The model predicts quasi thermal runaway for relatively modest current increases from the normal operating conditions. We demonstrate the application of this model to determine the maximum current that can be safely applied to solenoids used for helium spin-echo measurements.

  8. Printable, flexible and stretchable diamond for thermal management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Dae Hyeong; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Carlisle, John

    2013-06-25

    Various heat-sinked components and methods of making heat-sinked components are disclosed where diamond in thermal contact with one or more heat-generating components are capable of dissipating heat, thereby providing thermally-regulated components. Thermally conductive diamond is provided in patterns capable of providing efficient and maximum heat transfer away from components that may be susceptible to damage by elevated temperatures. The devices and methods are used to cool flexible electronics, integrated circuits and other complex electronics that tend to generate significant heat. Also provided are methods of making printable diamond patterns that can be used in a range of devices and device components.

  9. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  10. Electric Motor Thermal Management for Electric Traction Drives (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of material thermal properties and convective heat transfer coefficients. In this work, the thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. Also, convective heat transfer coefficients of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets were measured to better understand the heat transfer of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients.

  11. Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr, Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep

    2016-08-30

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.

  12. Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep

    2013-12-10

    Lighting system having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.

  13. Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep

    2016-08-23

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.

  14. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, Kevin

    2015-06-09

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, work is being performed to measure motor material thermal properties and thermal contact resistances. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets is also being measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings.

  15. Management Council - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organization  MANAGEMENT COUNCIL Peter Green, Dir. MSE Rachel Goldman MSE Ctirad Uher Physics Jamie Phillips EECS Max Shtein MSE Roy Clarke Physics Ted Goodson III Chemistry ...

  16. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review, Management of the Safety-Related 480 Volt Diesel Bus Battery-Backed Power System of the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor –October 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Targeted Review of the Management of the Safety-Related 480 Volt Diesel Bus Battery-Backed Power System of the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho Site

  17. Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter.

  18. Power Electronics Thermal Management R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, Scot

    2015-06-10

    Presentation containing an update for the Power Electronics Thermal Management project in the Electric Drive Train task funded by the Vehicle Technology Office of DOE. This presentation outlines the purpose, plan, and results of research thus far for cooling and material selection strategies to manage heat in power electronic assemblies such as inverters, converters, and chargers.

  19. Repository Reference Disposal Concepts and Thermal Load Management Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A disposal concept consists of three parts: waste inventory (7 waste types examined), geologic setting (e.g., clay/shale, salt, crystalline, other sedimentary), and the engineering concept of operations (range of generic operational concepts examined; enclosed and open mode disposal concepts, thermal analysis, other).

  20. Lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), gamma-lithium vanadium bronze (gamma-LiV2O5) and vanadium dioxide (Vo2) as thermal-battery cathode materials. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richie, A.G.; Warner, K.

    1991-05-01

    Thermal batteries are high temperature reserve batteries, predominantly used in missiles. Modern designs use a lithium (or lithium alloy) anode, an immobilized molten salt electrolyte and an iron-disulphide cathode. These batteries have many advantages: high reliability, long storage life without maintenance, wide temperature range of operation and, sometimes, high power. However, the energy density is rather low and this could be improved if the individual cell voltage could be raised above the present 2.2 V/cell open circuit-voltage for the lithium iron-disulphide couple. A new cathode material, lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), been invented at RAE with the advantage of the much higher open-circuit voltage of 2.6 V/cell versus lithium. The properties of LVO have been investigated and it has been shown that LVO consists of vanadium dioxide as the major component. Some lithium bromide is also present.

  1. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    information about thin-film lithium batteries is available in full-text and on the Web. ... Additional Web Pages: Thin Films for Advanced Batteries Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium, ...

  2. Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1995-12-26

    A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter. 7 figs.

  3. Firearm suppressor having enhanced thermal management for rapid heat dissipation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, William C.; Anderson, Andrew T.

    2014-08-19

    A suppressor is disclosed for use with a weapon having a barrel through which a bullet is fired. The suppressor has an inner portion having a bore extending coaxially therethrough. The inner portion is adapted to be secured to a distal end of the barrel. A plurality of axial flow segments project radially from the inner portion and form axial flow paths through which expanding propellant gasses discharged from the barrel flow through. The axial flow segments have radially extending wall portions that define sections which may be filled with thermally conductive material, which in one example is a thermally conductive foam. The conductive foam helps to dissipate heat deposited within the suppressor during firing of the weapon.

  4. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Battery Chargers Marine and RV battery chargers differ from power tool and small appliance chargers CEC Testing assumes all variables are known - battery chemistry, battery size. ...

  5. Reducing cold-start emissions by catalytic converter thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, S D; Potter, T F; Keyser, M A; Brady, M J; Michaels, K F

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been used to enhance the heat retention of a prototype catalytic converter. Storing heat in the converter between trips allows exhaust gases to be converted more quickly, significantly reducing cold-start emissions. Using a small metal hydride, the thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation can be varied continuously between 0.49 and 27 W/m{sup 2}K (R-12 to R-0.2 insulation) to prevent overheating of the catalyst. A prototype was installed in a Dodge Neon with a 2.0-liter engine. Following a standard preconditioning and a 23-hour cold soak, an FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emissions test was performed. Although exhaust temperatures during the preconditioning were not hot enough to melt the phase-change material, the vacuum insulation performed well, resulting in a converter temperature of 146{degrees}C after the 23-hour cold soak at 27{degrees}C. Compared to the same converter at ambient conditions, overall emissions of CO and HC were reduced by 52 % and 29 %, to 0.27 and 0.037 g/mile, respectively. The maximum converter temperature during the FTP cycle was 720{degrees}C. This limited testing was performed with a nearly-fresh palladium-only catalyst, but demonstrates the potential of this vacuum insulation approach for emissions reduction and thermal control. Further testing is ongoing. An initial assessment of several production issues is made, including high-volume fabrication challenges, durability, and cost.

  6. Atom interferometry in space: Thermal management and magnetic shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milke, Alexander; Kubelka-Lange, André; Gürlebeck, Norman Rievers, Benny; Herrmann, Sven; Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus

    2014-08-15

    Atom interferometry is an exciting tool to probe fundamental physics. It is considered especially apt to test the universality of free fall by using two different sorts of atoms. The increasing sensitivity required for this kind of experiment sets severe requirements on its environments, instrument control, and systematic effects. This can partially be mitigated by going to space as was proposed, for example, in the Spacetime Explorer and Quantum Equivalence Principle Space Test (STE-QUEST) mission. However, the requirements on the instrument are still very challenging. For example, the specifications of the STE-QUEST mission imply that the Feshbach coils of the atom interferometer are allowed to change their radius only by about 260 nm or 2.6 × 10{sup −4} % due to thermal expansion although they consume an average power of 22 W. Also Earth's magnetic field has to be suppressed by a factor of 10{sup 5}. We show in this article that with the right design such thermal and magnetic requirements can indeed be met and that these are not an impediment for the exciting physics possible with atom interferometers in space.

  7. Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark K. Gee Zia Mirza

    2008-10-01

    PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to

  8. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Charger Efficiency Issues with Marine and Recreational Vehicle Battery Chargers Marine and RV battery chargers differ from power tool and small appliance chargers CEC Testing assumes all variables are known - battery chemistry, battery size. This is not the case in Marine and RV applications. * The battery charger manufacturer has no influence on the selection of batteries. * The battery charger could be used to charge a single battery, single battery bank, multiple batteries or multiple

  9. Performance and discharge characteristics of Ca/LiCl, LiNO/sub 3//LiNO/sub 3/, AgNO/sub 3//Ni thermal battery cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMains, G.E.; Fletcher, A.N.; Miles, M.H.

    1984-02-01

    Thermal battery cells utilizing molten LiNO/sub 3/ as an oxidizing electrolyte with calcium anodes have been characterized for high rate discharge conditions. The presence of small amounts of AgNO/sub 3/ greatly improves the cathode reaction. Half-cell studies of anode characteristics show little variation of anode potential with temperature. Gassing at the anode-electrolyte interface increases with temperature and current density. Overall anode consumption rates increase with increasing temperature, while anode coulombic efficiencies drop at high rates of discharge (300 mA/cm/sup -2/). Cathode half-cell data reveal that high rate reduction of AgNO/sub 3/ dissolved in LiNO/sub 3/ yields masses of dendritic growth at low temperatures (260/sup 0/-275/sup 0/C) while at higher temperatures (>400/sup 0/C) correspondingly fewer dendritic structures are observed. Cell experiments show anticipated current-voltage-temperature relationships, effectively mirroring half-cell experiments. Cell voltages sustain over 2V at 75 mA/cm/sup -2/ for periods which vary according to temperature of discharge.

  10. Multicell Li/SOCl/sub 2/ reserve battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, A.R.; Garoutte, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    Recent development work on reserve lithium thionyl chloride (RLTC) batteries at SNLA and Honeywell has included safety and performance evaluations. The RLTC battery is being considered for applications that have traditionally been fulfilled by state-of-the-art thermal batteries and reserve silver oxide zinc electrochemical systems. These applications typically demand a reserve battery having a rapid voltage rise, high reliability, operational safety and useful active lifetime ranging from minutes to hours. The RLTC work reported here was directed toward a power battery capable of meeting or exceeding the design requirements. Performance and safety test data indicate that the RLTC battery may be better suited than thermal batteries for some long-life applications. Table II presents a comparison between a Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal battery and an RLTC battery, both of which were designed to fulfill the requirements.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Development and Validation of a Simulation tool to Predict the Combined Structural, Electrical, Electrochemical, and Thermal Responses of Automotive Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Ford at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  12. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) Predictive models of Li-ion battery reliability must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. Complicating matters, Li-ion batteries can experience several path dependent degradation trajectories dependent on storage

  13. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This greatly expands the potential medical uses of the batteries, including transdermal applications for heart regulation.' -Edited excerpt from Medical Applications of Non-medical ...

  14. Battery Calorimetry Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calorimetry Laboratory - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  15. KAir Battery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    KAir Battery, from Ohio State University, is commercializing highly energy efficient cost-effective potassium air batteries for use in the electrical stationary storage systems market (ESSS). Beyond, the ESSS market potential applications range from temporary power stations and electric vehicle.

  16. Self-Regulating, Nonflamable Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2010-06-23

    Rechargeable lithium batteries are superior to other rechargeable batteries due to their ability to store more energy per unit size and weight and to operate at higher voltages. The performance of lithium ion batteries available today, however, has been compromised by their tendency to overheat during operation. This condition, called “thermal runaway,” can melt the battery’s lithium metal and, in the most serious cases, result in explosive chemical reactions....

  17. Thermal Management of Power Semiconductor Packages - Matching Cooling Technologies with Packaging Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Moreno, G.

    2010-04-27

    Heat removal for power semiconductor devices is critical for robust operation. Because there are different packaging options, different thermal management technologies, and a range of applications, there is a need for a methodology to match cooling technologies and package configurations to target applications. To meet this need, a methodology was developed to compare the sensitivity of cooling technologies on the overall package thermal performance over a range of power semiconductor packaging configurations. The results provide insight into the trade-offs associated with cooling technologies and package configurations. The approach provides a method for comparing new developments in power semiconductor packages and identifying potential thermal control technologies for the package. The results can help users select the appropriate combination of packaging configuration and cooling technology for the desired application.

  18. Lithium battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, H.; Nakaido, S.; Narukara, S.

    1983-08-16

    In a lithium battery having a negative electrode formed with lithium as active material and the positive electrode formed with manganese dioxide, carbon fluoride or the like as the active material, the discharge capacity of the negative electrode is made smaller than the discharge capacity of the positive electrode, whereby a drop in the battery voltage during the final discharge stage is steepened, and prevents a device using such a lithium battery as a power supply from operating in an unstable manner, thereby improving the reliability of such device.

  19. Innovative Way to Test Batteries Fills a Market Niche | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (IBC 284), developed by NREL and NETZSCH researchers, performs precise thermal measurements needed to design safer, longer-lasting, and more cost-effective battery systems. ...

  20. Flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lipka, Stephen M.; Swartz, Christopher R.

    2016-02-23

    An electrolyte system for a flow battery has an anolyte including [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.3- and [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.4- and a catholyte including Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+.

  1. Bipolar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  2. DOE battery program for weapon applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, R.P.; Baldwin, A.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

  3. DOE battery program for weapon applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, R.P.; Baldwin, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

  4. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Cell Components to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries under Abuse (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Wierzbicki, T.; Sahraei, E.; Li, G.; Collins, L.; Sprague, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhangopalan, S.

    2014-06-01

    The EV Everywhere Grand Challenge aims to produce plug-in electric vehicles as affordable and convenient for the American family as gasoline-powered vehicles by 2022. Among the requirements set by the challenge, electric vehicles must be as safe as conventional vehicles, and EV batteries must not lead to unsafe situations under abuse conditions. NREL's project started in October 2013, based on a proposal in response to the January 2013 DOE VTO FOA, with the goal of developing computer aided engineering tools to accelerate the development of safer lithium ion batteries.

  5. Assessment of thermal analysis software for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, P.T.; Graham, R.F.; Lagerberg, G.N.; Chung, T.C.

    1989-07-01

    This assessment uses several recent assessments and the more general code compilations that have been completed to produce a list of 116 codes that can be used for thermal analysis. This list is then compared with criteria prepared especially for the Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/OCRWM). Based on these criteria, fifteen codes are narrowed to three primary codes and four secondary codes for use by the OCRWM thermal analyst. The analyst is cautioned that since no single code is sufficient for all applications, a code must be selected based upon the predominate heat transfer mode of the problem to be solved, but the codes suggested in this report have been used successfully for a range of OCRWM applications. The report concludes with a series of recommendations for additional work of which the major points include the following: The codes suggested by this report must be benchmarked with the existing US and international problems and validated when possible; An interactive code selection tool could be developed or, perhaps even more useful, a users group could be supported to ensure the proper selection of thermal codes and dissemination of information on the latest version; The status of the 116 codes identified by this report should be verified, and methods for maintaining the still active codes must be established; and special capabilities of each code in phase change, convection and radiation should be improved to better enable the thermal analyst to model OCRWM applications. 37 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es099_pesaran_2011_p.pdf (1.5 MB) More Documents & Publications Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) and Introduction to Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT)

  7. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  8. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  9. A Two-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Model for Prismatic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Existing battery management algorithms rely upon empirical correlations between the cell voltage and the load profile. This approach limits the predictive ability of the battery ...

  10. Multi-cell storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brohm, Thomas; Bottcher, Friedhelm

    2000-01-01

    A multi-cell storage battery, in particular to a lithium storage battery, which contains a temperature control device and in which groups of one or more individual cells arranged alongside one another are separated from one another by a thermally insulating solid layer whose coefficient of thermal conductivity lies between 0.01 and 0.2 W/(m*K), the thermal resistance of the solid layer being greater by at least a factor .lambda. than the thermal resistance of the individual cell. The individual cell is connected, at least in a region free of insulating material, to a heat exchanger, the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger in the direction toward the neighboring cell being selected to be greater by at least a factor .lambda. than the thermal resistance of the individual cell and, in addition, the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger toward the temperature control medium being selected to be smaller by at least a factor of about 10 than the thermal resistance of the individual cell, and .lambda. being the ratio of the energy content of the individual cell to the amount of energy that is needed to trigger a thermally induced cell failure at a defined upper operating temperature limit.

  11. Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zia Mirza, Program Manager

    2011-12-06

    This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

  12. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid

  13. Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Li-Ion Battery Model for Better Design and Management (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Smith, K.

    2008-10-01

    The developed model used is to provide a better understanding and help answer engineering questions about improving the design, operational strategy, management, and safety of cells.

  14. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  15. Driving Battery Production in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Production in Ohio Driving Battery Production in Ohio November 1, 2010 - 6:19pm Addthis Randy Turk, Elyria Site Manager; Rep. Betty Sutton (OH); Frank Bozich, President Catalysts, BASF and Patrick Davis, DOE Program Manager participate in groundbreaking ceremony for BASF battery materials plant in Elyria, Ohio | Photo Courtesy of Nat Clymer Photography, LLC | Randy Turk, Elyria Site Manager; Rep. Betty Sutton (OH); Frank Bozich, President Catalysts, BASF and Patrick Davis, DOE Program

  16. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have

  17. battery2.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-1982J Solid-State Environmentally Safe Battery for Replacing Lithium Batteries 1. ... Signature 2. Joint Entry with High Power Battery Systems Company 5 Silkin Street, Apt. 40 ...

  18. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge- Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by technology manager David Howell at the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree O'Hare, Chicago, IL.

  19. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  20. battery electrode percolating network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery electrode percolating network - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ...

  1. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATTs products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATTs work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  2. Battery electrolytes. December 1982-June 1990 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for December 1982-June 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning solid, liquid, and gaseous battery electrolytes. Battery design, use, and construction are discussed, and battery life, efficiency, and maintenance characteristics are also considered. Lithium, lead, nickel-cadmium, and thermal battery systems are covered in a separate bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 241 citations, 190 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. Piezonuclear battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  4. NREL: Energy Storage - Battery Lifespan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and cost tradeoffs Excess power, energy, and thermal management system requirements Warranty, second ... Complicating matters, storage and cycling patterns can trigger varied ...

  5. A new class of electrochemically and thermally stable lithium salts for lithium battery electrolytes. 3: Synthesis and properties of some lithium organoborates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barthel, J.; Buestrich, R.; Carl, E.; Gores, H.J.

    1996-11-01

    Synthesis, analysis, and purification of new lithium salts for lithium batteries, lithium bis[tetrafluoro-1,2-benzene-diolato(2-)-O,O{prime}]borate and lithium bis[2,3-naphthalenediolato(2-)-O,O{prime}]borate are described, and the results of electrochemical studies of these salts and of lithium bis[3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O{prime}]borate, in propylene carbonate are reported. The effect of the electron-withdrawing substituent fluorine results in an increase of the electrochemical window by 0.1 V/fluorine per one chelate ligand. The slope, which can be calculated from the linear correlation of the highest occupied molecular orbital energies with anodic oxidation potentials is {minus}3.0 eV/V, a value equal to that known for aryl borates and fluoroaryl borates.

  6. A new class of electrochemically and thermally stable lithium salts for lithium battery electrolytes. 2: Conductivity of lithium organoborates in dimethoxyethane and propylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barthel, J.; Buestrich, R.; Carl, E.; Gores, H.J.

    1996-11-01

    A conductivity study is carried out on lithium bis[1,2 benzenediolato (2-)-O,O{prime}]borate and on lithium bis[3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O{prime}]borate in dimethoxyethane and propylene carbonate from infinite dilution to saturation in the temperature range 228 < T (K) < 308. The electron-drawing fluorine substituent produces a decrease of the association constant by a factor of about three for PC-based solutions and 5.5 for solutions in dimethoxyethane. The increase in the maximum of conductivity by about 30% (propylene carbonate) and about 80% (dimethoxyethane), independent of temperature, reveals the effect of ion-ion interaction on the conductivity maximum, with the solvent permittivity, viscosity, and ionic radii remaining unchanged. Synthesis, analysis, and purification of lithium bis[3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)O,O{prime}]borate, which is a candidate for lithium batteries, is described.

  7. Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Additives that Enhance Thermal and Overcharge Abuse Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery

  8. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela; Sisani, Luciano; Damiano, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes.

  9. Battery/Heat Engine Vehicle Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-03-01

    MARVEL performs least-life-cycle-cost analyses of battery/heat engine/hybrid vehicle systems to determine the combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and missions. Simplified models are used for the transmission, motor/generator, controller, and other vehicle components, while a rather comprehensive model is used for the battery. Battery relationships available include the Ragone curve, peak power versus specific energy and depth-of-discharge (DOD), cycle life versus DOD, effects of battery scale, and capacity recuperation duemore » to intermittent driving patterns. Energy management in the operation of the vehicle is based on the specified mission requirements, type and size of the battery, allowable DOD, size of the heat engine, and the management strategy employed. Several optional management strategies are available in MARVEL. The program can be used to analyze a pure electric vehicle, a pure heat engine vehicle, or a hybrid vehicle that employs batteries as well as a heat engine. Cost comparisons for these vehicles can be made on the same basis. Input data for MARVEL are contained in three files generated by the user using three preprocessors which are included. MVDATA processes vehicle specification and mission requirements information, while MBDATA creates a file containing specific peak power as a function of specific energy and DOD, and MPDATA produces the file containing vehicle velocity specification data based on driving cycle information.« less

  10. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  11. Energy Storage R&D: Thermal Management Studies and Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.

    2009-05-01

    Here we summarize NREL's FY09 energy storage R&D studies in the areas of 1. thermal characterization and analysis, 2. cost, life, and performance trade-off studies, and 3. thermal abuse modeling.

  12. Optima Batteries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Optima Batteries Jump to: navigation, search Name: Optima Batteries Place: Milwaukee, WI Website: www.optimabatteries.com References: Optima Batteries1 Information About...

  13. Fighting Fire with Fire: Modeling the Datacenter-Scale Effects of Targeted Superlattice Thermal Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, S; Tiwari, M; Theogarajan, L; Sherwood, T P; Chong, F T

    2010-11-11

    Local thermal hot-spots in microprocessors lead to worst case provisioning of global cooling resources, especially in large-scale systems. However, efficiency of cooling solutions degrade non-linearly with supply temperature, resulting in high power consumption and cost in cooling - 50 {approx} 100% of IT power. Recent advances in active cooling techniques have shown on-chip thermoelectric coolers (TECs) to be very efficient at selectively eliminating small hot-spots, where applying current to a superlattice film deposited between silicon and the heat spreader results in a Peltier effect that spreads the heat and lowers the temperature of the hot-spot significantly to improve chip reliability. In this paper, we propose that hot-spot mitigation using thermoelectric coolers can be used as a power management mechanism to allow global coolers to be provisioned for a better worst case temperature leading to substantial savings in cooling power. In order to quantify the potential power savings from using TECs in data center servers, we present a detailed power model that integrates on-chip dynamic and leakage power sources, heat diffusion through the entire chip, TEC and global cooler efficiencies, and all their mutual interactions. Our multiscale analysis shows that, for a typical data center, TECs allow global coolers to operate at higher temperatures without degrading chip lifetime, and thus save {approx}27% cooling power on average while providing the same processor reliability as a data center running at 288K.

  14. Investigations on Repository Near-Field Thermal Modeling - Repository Science/Thermal Load Management & Design Concepts (M41UF033302)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Fratoni, M; Greenberg, H R; Ross, A D

    2011-07-15

    The various layers of material from the waste package (such as components of the engineered barrier system and the host rock surface) to a given distance within the rock wall at a given distance can be described as concentric circles with varying thermal properties (see Figure 5.1-1). The selected model approach examines the contributions of the waste package, axial waste package neighbors and lateral neighboring emplacement drifts (see Section 5.2.1 and Appendix H, Section 2). In clay and deep borehole media, the peak temperature is driven by the central waste package whereas, in granite and salt, the contribution to the temperature rise by adjacent (lateral) waste packages in drift or emplacement borehole lines is dominant at the time of the peak temperature. Mathematical models generated using Mathcad software provide insight into the effects of changing waste package spacing for six waste forms, namely UOX, MOX, co-extraction, new extraction, E-Chem ceramic and E-Chem metal in four different geologic media (granite, clay, salt and deep borehole). Each scenario includes thermal conductivity and diffusivity for each layer between the waste package and the host rock, dimensions of representative repository designs (such as waste package spacing, drift or emplacement borehole spacing, waste package dimensions and layer thickness), and decay heat curves generated from knowledge of the contents of a given waste form after 10, 50, 100 and 200 years of surface storage. Key results generated for each scenario include rock temperature at a given time calculated at a given radius from the central waste package (Section 5.2.1 and Appendix H, Section 3), the corresponding temperature at the interface of the waste package and EBS material, and at each EBS layer in between (Section 5.2.2 and Appendix H, Section 4). This information is vital to understand the implications of repository design (waste package capacity, surface storage time, waste package spacing, and emplacement

  15. Thermal battery cells utilizing AgNO/sub 3/ in LiClO/sub 4/-LiNO/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, M.H.; Fletcher, A.N.

    1983-11-22

    A thermally activated electrochemical cell is provided having a low melting point electrolyte. The electrolyte is composed of a layer of a mixture of lithium perchlorate and lithium nitrate adjacent the anode and of a layer of a mixture of lithium perchlorate, lithium nitrate, and silver nitrate adjacent the cathode of the cell.

  16. Hardware Architecture for Measurements for 50-V Battery Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Bald; Evan Juras; Jon P. Christophersen; William Morrison

    2012-06-01

    Energy storage devices, especially batteries, have become critical for several industries including automotive, electric utilities, military and consumer electronics. With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. Because many of the systems these batteries integrated into are critical, there is an increased need for an accurate in-situ method of monitoring battery state-of-health. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of a compact IMB system that will perform rapid accurate measurements of a battery impedance spectrum working with higher voltage batteries of up to 300 volts. This paper discusses the successful realization of a system that will work up to 50 volts.

  17. ETA-UTP012 - Evaluation of Electric Vehicle On-Board Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Electric Vehicle On-Board Battery Energy Management System(s) BEMS ... 5.0 Charger Operation 5.1 Evaluation of Battery Temperature(s) 5 5.2 Evaluation of ...

  18. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Kim, Gi-heon; Shi, Ying; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-06-15

    It remains an open question how best to predict real-world battery lifetime based on accelerated calendar and cycle aging data from the laboratory. Multiple degradation mechanisms due to (electro)chemical, thermal, and mechanical coupled phenomena influence Li-ion battery lifetime, each with different dependence on time, cycling and thermal environment. The standardization of life predictive models would benefit the industry by reducing test time and streamlining development of system controls.

  19. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  20. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.

    2014-12-01

    The deployment and use of lithium-ion batteries in automotive and stationary energy storage applications must be optimized to justify their high up-front costs. Given that batteries degrade with use and storage, such optimizations must evaluate many years of operation. As the degradation mechanisms are sensitive to temperature, state-of-charge histories, current levels, and cycle depth and frequency, it is important to model both the battery and the application to a high level of detail to ensure battery response is accurately predicted. To address these issues, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) suite of tools. This suite of tools pairs NREL's high-fidelity battery degradation model with a battery electrical and thermal performance model, application-specific electrical and thermal performance models of the larger system (e.g., an electric vehicle), application-specific system use data (e.g., vehicle travel patterns and driving data), and historic climate data from cities across the United States. This provides highly realistic, long-term predictions of battery response and thereby enables quantitative comparisons of varied battery use strategies.

  1. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  2. Anodes for Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, Charles F.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss, "constructive corrosion" as it occurs in power generated devices, specifically batteries.

  3. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  4. Update on the Battery Projects at NREL (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, S.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-10-01

    NREL collaborates with industry, universities, and other national laboratories as part of the DOE integrated Energy Storage Program to develop advanced batteries for vehicle applications. Our efforts are focused in the following areas: thermal characterization and analysis, evaluation of thermal abuse tolerance via modeling and experimental analysis, and implications on battery life and cost. Our activities support DOE goals, FreedomCAR targets, the USABC Tech Team, and battery developers. We develop tools to support the industry, both through one-on-one collaborations and by dissemination of information in the form of presentations in conferences and journal publications.

  5. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  6. Thermal management system and method for a solid-state energy storing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger; Domroese, Michael K.; Gauthier, Michel; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Ranger, Michel; Rouillard, Jean; Shiota, Toshimi; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Trice, Jennifer L.; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    An improved electrochemical energy storing device includes a number of thin-film electrochemical cells which are maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of each electrochemical cell, conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cells and also conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cells and thermally conductive material disposed on a wall structure adjacent the conductors. The wall structure includes electrically resistive material, such as an anodized coating or a thin film of plastic. The thermal conductors are fabricated to include a spring mechanism which expands and contacts to maintain mechanical contact between the electrochemical cells and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the electrochemical cells and the wall structure. An active cooling apparatus may be employed external to a hermetically sealed housing containing the electrochemical cells to enhance the transfer of thermal energy into and out of the electrochemical cells. An integrated interconnect board may be disposed within the housing onto which a number of electrical and electro-mechanical components are mounted. Heat generated by the components is conducted from the interconnect board to the housing using the thermal conductors.

  7. Comparative analysis for various redox flow batteries chemistries using a cost performance model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Aladsair J.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Stephenson, David E.; Wang, Wei; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Reed, David M.; Li, Bin; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-10-20

    A robust performance-based cost model is developed for all-vanadium, iron-vanadium and iron chromium redox flow batteries. Systems aspects such as shunt current losses, pumping losses and thermal management are accounted for. The objective function, set to minimize system cost, allows determination of stack design and operating parameters such as current density, flow rate and depth of discharge (DOD). Component costs obtained from vendors are used to calculate system costs for various time frames. A 2 kW stack data was used to estimate unit energy costs and compared with model estimates for the same size electrodes. The tool has been shared with the redox flow battery community to both validate their stack data and guide future direction.

  8. AGM Batteries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: AGM Batteries Ltd Place: United Kingdom Product: Manufactures lithium-ion cells and batteries for AEA Battery Systems Ltd. References: AGM Batteries Ltd1...

  9. Batteries and energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantell, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A historical review of the galvanic concept and a brief description of the theory of operation of batteries are followed by chapters on specific types of batteries and energy systems. Chapters contain a section on basic theory, performance and applications. Secondary cells discussed are: SLI batteries, lead-acid storage batteries, lead secondary cells, alkaline secondary cells, nickel and silver-cadmium systems and solid electrolyte systems. Other chapters discuss battery charging, regenerative electrochemical systems, solar cells, fuel cells, electric vehicles and windmills. (KAW)

  10. Galileo probe battery system -- An update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagarin, B.P.; Taenaka, R.K.; Stofel, E.J.

    1996-11-01

    NASA`s Galileo 6-year trip to Jupiter is in its final phase. The mission consists of a Jovian Orbiter and an atmospheric entry Probe. The Probe is designed to coast autonomously for up to 190 days and turn itself on 6 hours prior to entry. It will then descend through the upper atmosphere for 50 to 75 minutes with the aid of an 8-foot parachute. This paper discusses sources of electrical power for the Probe and battery testing at the systems level. Described are the final production phase, qualification, and systems testing prior to and following launch, as well as decisions made regarding the Probe separation Li/SO{sub 2} battery configuration. In addition, the paper briefly describes the thermal battery verification program. The main power source comprises three Li/SO{sub 2} battery modules containing 13 D-sized cell strings per module. These modules are required to retain capacity for 7.5 years and support a 150-day clock, ending with a 7-hour mission sequence of increasing loads from 0.15 A to 9.5 A during the last 30 minutes. The main power source is supplemented by two thermal batteries (CaCrO{sub 4}-Ca), which will be used for firing the pyrotechnic initiators during the atmospheric entry.

  11. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

  12. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, P.C.

    1994-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

  13. Experience with thermal storage in tanks of stratified water for solar heating and load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wildin, M.W.; Witkofsky, M.P.; Noble, J.M.; Hopper, R.E.; Stromberg, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results have been obtained for performance of stratified tanks of water used to store heating and cooling capacity in a 5574 m/sup 2/ university building. The major sources of energy used to charge the heated tanks were solar energy, obtained via collectors on the roof of the building, and excess heat recovered from the interior of the building via thermal storage and electric-driven heat pump/chillers. Through stratification of the water in the storage tanks and an appropriate system operating strategy, 40 percent of the building's total heating needs were supplied by solar energy during the first four months of 1981. Month-long thermal efficiencies of the storage array ranging from 70 percent during the heating season to nearly 90 percent during the cooling season, were measured. Work is underway to improve the performance of thermal storage.

  14. Electric Vehicle Battery Performance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-20

    DIANE is used to analyze battery performance in electric vehicle (EV) applications. The principal objective of DIANE is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile. Two releases are included with the package. Diane21 has a graphics capability; DIANENP has no graphics capability.

  15. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  16. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  17. GBP Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GBP Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: GBP Battery Place: China Product: Shenzhen-China-based maker of Li-Poly and Li-ion batteries suitable for EVs and other applications....

  18. Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture ... Contact: John Hules, JAHules@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 6008 2011-01-11-Heat-Battery.jpg A ...

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramadesigan, V.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Braatz, R. D.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, stress-induced material damage, capacity fade, and the potential for thermal runaway. This paper reviews efforts in the modeling and simulation of lithium-ion batteries and their use in the design of better batteries. Likely future directions in battery modeling and design including promising research opportunities are outlined.

  20. Battery SEAB Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery SEAB Presentation Battery SEAB Presentation Battery SEAB Presentation (1.43 MB) More Documents & Publications Overview of Battery R&D Activities Hybrid Electric Systems Overview of Battery R&D Activities

  1. Phylion Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phylion Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: Phylion Battery Place: Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 215011 Sector: Vehicles Product: Jiangsu-province-based producer of...

  2. Battery Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Ventures (Boston) Name: Battery Ventures (Boston) Address: 930 Winter Street, Suite 2500 Place: Waltham, Massachusetts Zip: 02451 Region: Greater Boston Area Product:...

  3. Prieto Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Zip: 80526 Product: Colorado-based startup company that is developing lithium ion batteries based on nano-structured materials. References: Prieto Battery1 This...

  4. Consortium for Advanced Battery Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery Simulation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ...

  5. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  6. NREL Innovation Improves Safety of Electric Vehicle Batteries - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feature | NREL Innovation Improves Safety of Electric Vehicle Batteries October 30, 2015 A man holds a sheet of copper discs. NREL Senior Engineer Mathew Keyser holds a sheet of copper discs, one of the metal components that comprise the NREL Internal Short Circuit (ISC) device, capable of emulating latent defects that can cause escalating temperatures in lithium ion batteries and lead to thermal runaway. Industry can use the NREL ISC device to evaluate solutions intended to address this

  7. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  8. NREL Battery Thermal and Life Test Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  9. Safer Batteries through Coupled Multiscale Modeling (ICCS 2015)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, John A; Allu, Srikanth; Berrill, Mark A; Elwasif, Wael R; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Kumar, Abhishek; Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T; Pannala, Dr. Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan

    2015-01-01

    Batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems, with performance and safety governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. We describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulation known as VIBE - the Virtual Integrated Battery Environment. VIBE includes homogenized and pseudo-2D electrochemistry models such as those by Newman-Tiedemann-Gu (NTG) and Doyle- Fuller-Newman (DFN, a.k.a. DualFoil) as well as a new advanced capability known as AMPERES (Advanced MultiPhysics for Electrochemical and Renewable Energy Storage). AMPERES provides a 3D model for electrochemistry and full coupling with 3D electrical and thermal models on the same grid. VIBE/AMPERES has been used to create three-dimensional battery cell and pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical response under adverse conditions.

  10. CRADA final report: Technical assessment of roll-to-roll operation of lamination process, thermal treatment, and alternative carbon fiber precursors for low-cost, high-efficiency manufacturing of flow battery stacks and other energy devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus; Madden, Thomas; Wood, III, David L; Muth, Thomas R.; Warrington, Curtis; Ozcan, Soydan; Manson, Hunter; Tekinalp, Halil L.; Smith, Mark A.; Lu, Yuan; Loretz, Jeremy

    2015-09-23

    Among the various stationary-storage technologies under development, redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer the greatest potential to deliver inexpensive, scalable, and efficient grid-scale electrical-energy storage. Unlike traditional sealed batteries, in a flow battery power and energy are decoupled. Cell area and cell count in the stack determine the device power, and the chemical storage volume determines the total energy. Grid-scale energy-storage applications require megawatt-scale devices, which require the assembly of hundreds of large-area, bipolar cells per power plant. The cell-stack is the single system component with the largest impact on capital cost (due to the large number of highly engineered components) and operating costs (determined by overall round-trip efficiency).

  11. Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth; Berge, Nicole D.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from

  12. Thermal Management in Friction-Stir Welding of Precipitation-Hardening Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyay, Piyush; Reynolds, Anthony

    2015-05-25

    Process design and implementation in FSW is mostly dependent on empirical information gathered through experience. Basic science of friction stir welding and processing can only be complete when fundamental interrelationships between process control parameters and response variables and resulting weld microstructure and properties are established to a reasonable extent. It is known that primary process control parameters like tool rotation and translation rate and forge axis force have complicated and interactive relationships to the process response variables such as peak temperature, time at temperature etc. Of primary influence to the other process response parameters are temperature and its gradient at the deformation and heat affected zones. Through review of pertinent works in the literature and some experimental results from boundary condition work performed in precipitation hardening aluminum alloys this paper will partially elucidate the nature and effects of temperature transients caused by variation of thermal boundaries in Friction Stir Welding.

  13. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of Automatic Transmission Fluid Jets with Implications for Electric Machine Thermal Management: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto

    2015-09-29

    Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.

  14. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakout Session Report | Department of Energy Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree OHare, Chicago, IL. report_out-next-generation_li-ion_b.pdf (136.48 KB) More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion

  15. Polymeric battery separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchak, R. J.; Schenk, W. N.

    1985-06-11

    Configurations of cross-linked or vulcanized amphophilic or quaternized block copolymer of haloalkyl epoxides and hydroxyl terminated alkadiene polymers are useful as battery separators in both primary and secondary batteries, particularly nickel-zinc batteries. The quaternized block copolymers are prepared by polymerizing a haloalkyl epoxide in the presence of a hydroxyl terminated 1,3-alkadiene to form a block copolymer that is then reacted with an amine to form the quaternized or amphophilic block copolymer that is then cured or cross-linked with sulfur, polyamines, metal oxides, organic peroxides and the like.

  16. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  17. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  18. October 29 ESTAP Webinar: Flow Battery Basics (Part 2) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy October 29 ESTAP Webinar: Flow Battery Basics (Part 2) October 29 ESTAP Webinar: Flow Battery Basics (Part 2) October 29, 2014 - 12:08pm Addthis On Wednesday, October 29, 2014 from 1 - 2:30 p.m. ET, Clean Energy State Alliance will host the second in a series of webinars on flow batteries. OE's Imre Gyuk, Energy Storage Program Manager, will present an introduction to flow battery technology, and Dan Borneo of Sandia National Laboratories will discuss flow battery testing and

  19. Crash Models for Automotive Batteries (DOT/NHTSA Project Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, John A; Allu, Srikanth; Gorti, Sarma B; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T; Pannala, Dr. Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan; Slattery, Stuart R; Wang, Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Safety is a critical aspect of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery design. Impact/crash conditions can trigger a complex interplay of mechanical contact, heat generation and electrical discharge which can result in thermal events. Thermal events have been linked to internal short circuits that are initiated by a critical size of short-circuit area. Different loading conditions and battery states may lead to micro (soft) shorts where burnout due to generated heat eliminates contact between the electrodes, or persistent (hard) shorts which can lead to more significant thermal events and potentially damage the entire battery system and beyond. Experimental characterization of individual battery components for the onset of internal shorts is limited, since it is impractical to canvas all possible variations in battery state of charge, operating conditions, and impact loading in a timely manner. This report provides a survey of modeling and simulation approaches and documents the first phase of a project initiated and funded by DOT/NHTSA to improve modeling and simulation capabilities in order to design tests that provide leading indicators of failure in batteries. In this phase, ORNL has demonstrated a computational infrastructure to conduct impact simulations of Li-ion batteries using models that resolve internal structures and electro-thermo-chemical and mechanical conditions. Initial comparisons to abuse experiments on cells and cell strings conducted at ORNL and Carderock for parameter estimation and model validation have been performed. This research has provided unique insight into the underlying kinematic mechanisms of deformation (both at cell and electrode level) and their relationship to the safety of batteries. The second step was to conduct higher-speed crush experiments and simulations to more closely approximate the effect of vehicle impact.

  20. GP Batteries International Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Limited is principally engaged in the development, manufacture and marketing of batteries and battery-related products. References: GP Batteries International...

  1. RPM Flywheel Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RPM Flywheel Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: RPM Flywheel Battery Place: California Product: Start-up planning to develop, produce, and market flywheel batteries for...

  2. Ford Electric Battery Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Battery Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ford Electric Battery Group Place: Dearborn, MI References: Ford Battery1 Information About Partnership with NREL...

  3. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  4. Carbon Micro Battery LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro Battery LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC Place: California Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC, technology developer of micro and...

  5. Intellect Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Intellect Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Intellect Battery Co Ltd Place: Guangdong Province, China Product: Producer of NiMH rechargeable batteries and...

  6. Advanced Battery Factory | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Factory Place: Shen Zhen City, Guangdong Province, China Product: Producers of lithium polymer batteries, established in 1958. References: Advanced Battery Factory1 This...

  7. Ningbo Veken Battery Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Ningbo Veken Battery Company Place: China Product: Ningbo-based maker of Lithium polymer, aluminum-shell and lithium power batteries. References: Ningbo Veken Battery...

  8. Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make ...

  9. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries Lithium-ion battery ...

  10. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone ...

  11. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes Computations at NERSC show how multiply charged metal ions impact battery capacity ...

  12. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    es_02_barnett.pdf (615.99 KB) More Documents & Publications PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV and LEESS Battery Cost Assessment

  13. Batteries and Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPOTLIGHT Batteries and Energy Storage Argonne's all- encompassing battery research ... We develop more robust, safer and higher-energy density lithium-ion batteries, while using ...

  14. Depletion Aggregation > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries & Fuel Cells In This Section Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation Membranes Depletion Aggregation We are exploring a number of synthetic strategies to ...

  15. NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries A genomics approach to materials research could speed up advancements in battery performance December ...

  16. Laor Batteries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laor Batteries Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Laor Batteries Ltd. Place: Upper Nazareth, Israel Zip: 17105 Product: develops and distributes lead-acid batteries for variety...

  17. Carbonate fuel cell system with integrated carbon dioxide/thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paetsch, L.; Ding, J.; Hunt, J.

    1995-12-31

    Upon successful completion of Phase 1, the Phase 2 activities were initiated in July 1994 to define the stack design and system requirements for a commercial-scale burnerless carbonate fuel cell stack with an integrated carbon dioxide management system. The major goals of this program are to define the stack design and the system requirements of the integrated design. The approach taken was to maximize the similarities of this stack with ERC`s proven baseline stack design and power plant system. Recent accomplishments include a detailed stack design which retains all the essential elements of the baseline stack as well as the power plant system designs. All the auxiliary hardware and external flow patterns remain unchanged, only the internal flow configurations are modified.

  18. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management

  19. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  20. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  1. Battery Life Predictive Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a model used to predict battery capacity fade and resistance growth for arbitrary cycling and temperature profiles. It allows the user to extrapolate from experimental data to predict actual life cycle.

  2. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  3. battery2.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-1982J Solid-State Environmentally Safe Battery for Replacing Lithium Batteries 1. Submitting Organization Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800, MS 1033 Albuquerque, NM USA 87158-1033 Randy A. Normann (505) 845-9675, (505) 844-3952 (fax), ranorma@sandia.gov Affi rmation I affi rm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is fair and accurate representation of this product. ________________________________________________________________ Submitter Signature

  4. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  5. Thermal Design and Characterization of Heterogeneously Integrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with integrated thermal management on wide-bandgap AlN substrates followed by GaAs substrate removal are demonstrated. Without thermal management, substrate removal after ...

  6. Analyzing the Effects of Climate and Thermal Configuration on Community Energy Storage Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Coleman, D.; Chen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Community energy storage (CES) has been proposed to mitigate the high variation in output from renewable sources and reduce peak load on the electrical grid. Thousands of these systems may be distributed around the grid to provide benefits to local distribution circuits and to the grid as a whole when aggregated. CES must be low cost to purchase and install and also largely maintenance free through more than 10 years of service life to be acceptable to most utilities.Achieving the required system life time is a major uncertainty for lithium-ion batteries. The lifetime and immediate system performance of batteries can change drastically with battery temperature, which is a strong function of system packaging, local climate, electrical duty cycle, and other factors. In other Li-ion applications, this problem is solved via air or liquid heating and cooling systems that may need occasional maintenance throughout their service life. CES requires a maintenance-free thermal management system providing protection from environmental conditions while rejecting heat from a moderate electrical duty cycle. Thus, the development of an effective, low-cost, zero-maintenance thermal management system poses a challenge critical to the success of CES. NREL and Southern California Edison have collaborated to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of various CES thermal configurations in multiple climates by building a model of CES based on collected test data, integrating it with an NREL-developed Li-ion degradation model, and applying CES electrical duty cycles and historic location-specific meteorological data to forecast battery thermal response and degradation through a 10-year service life.

  7. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  8. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  9. Category:Battery makers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery makers Jump to: navigation, search Pages in category "Battery makers" The following 5 pages are in this category, out of 5 total. B Battery Ventures F Ford Electric Battery...

  10. Nickel coated aluminum battery cell tabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucchi, Robert S.; Casoli, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Nicotina, Joseph

    2014-07-29

    A battery cell tab is described. The battery cell tab is anodized on one end and has a metal coating on the other end. Battery cells and methods of making battery cell tabs are also described.

  11. New sealed rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, B.M. ); Dowgiallo, E. ); Halpert, G. ); Matsuda, Y. ); Takehara, Z.I. )

    1993-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: supercapacitors; nickel-metal hydride batteries; lithium polymer batteries; lithium/carbon batteries; cathode materials; and lithium batteries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers of this conference.

  12. BLE: Battery Life Estimator | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BLE: Battery Life Estimator BLE: Battery Life Estimator Argonne's Battery Life Estimator (BLE) software is a state-of-the-art tool kit for fitting battery aging data and for ...

  13. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L.; Jabbour, S.J.; Clark, H.K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  14. Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of ...

  15. Battery, heal thyself: Inventing self-repairing batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery, heal thyself: Inventing self-repairing batteries By Louise Lerner * January 11, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Imagine dropping your phone on the hard concrete sidewalk-but when...

  16. Testimonials- Partnerships in Battery Technologies- CalBattery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Phil Roberts, CEO and Founder of California Lithium Battery (CalBattery), describes the new growth and development that was possible through partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  18. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  19. Battery venting system and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  20. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following

  1. AVTA: Battery Testing - Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testbed | Department of Energy Battery Testing - Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed AVTA: Battery Testing - Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future

  2. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  3. Circulating current battery heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  4. Feasibility study of a 200 ampere battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, A.R.

    1991-06-01

    The results of a Sandia National Laboratories program to design and develop a high-current thermal battery for the Hypersonic Weapons Technology Program are presented. The feasibility of a 200 A, 150 s, 12 Vdc primary battery was demonstrated under ambient conditions. New header feedthrough design concepts were used, and new internal current collectors and internal power leads were considered. The Li(Si)/LiBr-LiCl-LiF/FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system has shown exceptional performance at the high-current operation conditions. A high-rate Zinc/Silver Oxide secondary cell was also evaluated, and the results are presented in this report. These cells exhibited excellent high-rate discharge performance. 5 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Grid Scale Flow Batteries IMRE GYUK, PROGRAM MANAGER ENERGY STORAGE RESEARCH, DOE FlowBat 03- 07- 12 Without technological breakthroughs in efficient, large scale Energy Storage, it will be difficult to rely on intermittent renewables for much more than 20-30% of our Electricity. Secretary Chu, Feb. 2010 The need for regulation services can dramatically increase as the amount of variable renewable resources is increased. Local storage is among the best means to ensure we can reliably

  6. Safe battery solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  7. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A.; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-08-19

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The modelmore » development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.« less

  8. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A.; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-08-19

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The model development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.

  9. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  10. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  11. Spinel Compounds as Multivalent Battery Cathodes: A Systematic Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Based on ab initio Calculations - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research December 16, 2014, Research Highlights Spinel Compounds as Multivalent Battery Cathodes: A Systematic Evaluation Based on ab initio Calculations Evaluation of multivalent spinel compounds based on multiple performance characteristics such as voltage, specific energy, thermodynamic stability, thermal stability and intercalant mobility. The favorable (unfavorable) properties are represented with light (dark) color

  12. Overview and Progress of the Advanced Battery Materials Research (BMR) Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview and Progress of the Advanced Battery Materials Research (BMR) Program Tien Q. Duong BMR Program Manager Energy Storage R&D Hybrid and Electric Systems Subprogram Department of Energy This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Project ID: ES 108 Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Advanced Battery Materials Research (BMR) Program  Previously known as: - Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) -

  13. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  14. Overview of Thermal Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  15. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  16. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  17. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  18. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Data center thermal management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Li, Hongfei

    2016-02-09

    Historical high-spatial-resolution temperature data and dynamic temperature sensor measurement data may be used to predict temperature. A first formulation may be derived based on the historical high-spatial-resolution temperature data for determining a temperature at any point in 3-dimensional space. The dynamic temperature sensor measurement data may be calibrated based on the historical high-spatial-resolution temperature data at a corresponding historical time. Sensor temperature data at a plurality of sensor locations may be predicted for a future time based on the calibrated dynamic temperature sensor measurement data. A three-dimensional temperature spatial distribution associated with the future time may be generated based on the forecasted sensor temperature data and the first formulation. The three-dimensional temperature spatial distribution associated with the future time may be projected to a two-dimensional temperature distribution, and temperature in the future time for a selected space location may be forecasted dynamically based on said two-dimensional temperature distribution.

  20. Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries & Fuel Cells Here are the details of what we're doing in the labs to improve battery & fuel cell technology. Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation ...

  1. China Hyper Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Hyper Battery Co Ltd Place: Shenzhen, China Zip: 518048 Product: Manufacturer and exporter of batteries and battery packs....

  2. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, James H.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  3. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  4. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  5. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Shi, Y.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Predictive models of Li-ion battery reliability must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. Complicating matters, Li-ion batteries can experience several path dependent degradation trajectories dependent on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must be absorbed by overdesign and warranty costs. Degradation models are needed that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. Models should also provide engineering feedback for next generation battery designs. This presentation reviews both multi-dimensional physical models and simpler, lumped surrogate models of battery electrochemical and mechanical degradation. Models are compared with cell- and pack-level aging data from commercial Li-ion chemistries. The analysis elucidates the relative importance of electrochemical and mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms in real-world operating environments. Opportunities for extending the lifetime of commercial battery systems are explored.

  6. Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Technology Transfer and Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-461

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.

    2014-12-01

    During the last 15 years, NREL has been utilizing its unique expertise and capabilities to work with industry partners on battery thermal testing and electric and hybrid vehicle simulation and testing. Further information and publications about NREL's work and unique capabilities in battery testing and modeling can be found at NREL's Energy Storage website: http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/energystorage/. Particularly, NREL has developed and fabricated a large volume isothermal battery calorimeter that has been made available for licensing and potential commercialization (http://techportal.eere.energy.gov/technology.do/techID=394). In summer of 2011, NREL developed and fabricated a smaller version of the large volume isothermal battery calorimeter, called hereafter 'cell-scale LVBC.' NETZSCH Instruments North America, LLC is a leading company in thermal analysis, calorimetry, and determination of thermo-physical properties of materials (www.netzsch-thermal-analysis.com). NETZSCH is interested in evaluation and eventual commercialization of the NREL large volume isothermal battery calorimeter.

  7. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing

  8. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  9. High energy density thermal cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1980-04-29

    A thermal battery is described that uses a calcium anode and a catholyte consisting of a mixture of lithium, potassium, nitrate and chloride ions. The device is operable over a temperature range of about 150 to 600/sup 0/C and produces a long lasting, high energy density output.

  10. Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Ion Battery Performance Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-05-07

    The Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Lithium Ion Battery Model allows for computer prediction and engineering optimization of thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of lithium ion cells with realistic geometries. The model introduces separate simulation domains for different scale physics, achieving much higher computational efficiency compared to the single domain approach. It solves a one dimensional electrochemistry model in a micro sub-grid system, and captures the impacts of macro-scale battery design factors on cell performance and materialmore » usage by solving cell-level electron and heat transports in a macro grid system.« less

  11. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module.more » Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.« less

  12. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module. Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.

  13. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality of controllers each monitoring input variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2013-10-15

    A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger is connected to a power supply. A plurality of controllers in communication with one and another are provided, each of the controllers monitoring a subset of input variables. A set of charging constraints may then generated for each controller as a function of the subset of input variables. A set of objectives for each controller may also be generated. A preferred charge rate for each controller is generated as a function of either the set of objectives, the charging constraints, or both, using an algorithm that accounts for each of the preferred charge rates for each of the controllers and/or that does not violate any of the charging constraints. A current flow between the battery and the battery charger is then provided at the actual charge rate.

  14. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Testing Reports DC Fast Charge Impacts on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance INL Efficiency and Security Testing of EVSE, DC Fast Chargers, and Wireless Charging Systems

  15. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Energy Storage R&D Progress Report, Sections 4-6 Analysis of Electric Vehicle Battery Performance Targets Building America Whole-House Solutions ...

  16. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  17. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  18. Batteries Breakout Session

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EV Everywhere Workshop July 26, 2012 Breakout Session #1 - Discussion of Performance Targets and Barriers Comments on the Achievability of the Targets * Reasonable for EV100 and EV300, Power/energy does not box well for PHEV40 * Need to look at whole system view of EV300 (utilization is not high) * EV100 has much better utilization * Target needs to capture external conditions (consumer and infrastructure) * Capture Secondary use of batteries * EV100 Primary Vehicle, felt not practical? Barriers

  19. Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery: Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery Climate Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-31

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermoadsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials’ ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. The ATB is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

  20. Thermal/Electrical Modeling for Abuse-Tolerant Design of Li-Ion Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2008-11-01

    To help design safe, high-performing batteries, NREL and NASA created and verified a new multicell math model capturing electrical-thermal interactions of cells with PTC devices during thermal abuse.

  1. Battery Chargers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Chargers Battery Chargers The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Battery Chargers -- v1.0 (94 KB) More Documents & Publications Illuminated Exit Signs

  2. Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-02-01

    Both the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies--in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market--could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary (automotive) and secondary (electricity grid) users. This study investigates the feasibility of and major barriers to the second use of lithium-ion PEV batteries by posing and answering the following critical B2U questions: 1. When will used automotive batteries become available, and how healthy will they be? 2. What is required to repurpose used automotive batteries, and how much will it cost? 3. How will repurposed automotive batteries be used, how long will they last, and what is their value? Advanced analysis techniques are employed that consider the electrical, thermal, and degradation response of batteries in both the primary (automotive) and secondary service periods. Second use applications are treated in detail, addressing operational requirements, economic value, and market potential. The study concludes that B2U is viable and could provide considerable societal benefits due to the large possible supply of repurposed automotive batteries and substantial remaining battery life following automotive service. However, the only identified secondary market large enough to consume the supply of these batteries (utility peaker plant replacement) is expected to be a low margin market, and thus B2U is not expected to affect the upfront cost of PEVs.

  3. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery...

  4. SANIK Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SANIK Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: SANIK Battery Co., Ltd. Place: China Product: Foshan City-based NiCd and NiMH rechargeable batteries producer for smaller...

  5. JYH Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    JYH Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: JYH Battery Co, Ltd Place: China Product: China-based maker of NiMH rechargeable batteries, also with some NiCd and Li-ion...

  6. Beijing Tianruichi Battery TRC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianruichi Battery TRC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Tianruichi Battery (TRC) Place: China Product: China-based maker of Li-Poly, Li-Iron and Li-Ion batteries....

  7. Category:Batteries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    9 pages are in this category, out of 9 total. * Definition:Battery B Batteries and Energy Storage Technology BEST L Definition:Lead-acid battery L cont. Definition:DIY...

  8. Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS Print Wednesday, 23 January 2013 16:59 toyota battery a) Cross-section of the in situ ...

  9. Washington: Battery Manufacturer Brings Material Production Home...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    can be used in ultracapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and advanced lead acid batteries. ... EnerG2 Ribbon Cutting Ceremony for new battery materials plant in Albany, Oregon. Photo ...

  10. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  11. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  12. EV Everywhere Challenge Battery Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Backsplash for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree O'Hare, Chicago, IL.

  13. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  14. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  15. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  16. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  17. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how

  18. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  19. Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Basics Vehicle Battery Basics November 22, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Vehicle Battery Basics Batteries are essential for electric drive technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (AEVs). WHAT IS A BATTERY? A battery is a device that stores chemical energy and converts it on demand into electrical energy. It carries out this process through an electrochemical reaction, which is a chemical reaction involving the

  20. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes Computations at NERSC show how multiply charged metal ions impact battery capacity June 30, 2014 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov PCCPxantheascover Imagine a cell phone battery that lasted a whole week on a single charge. A car battery that worked for months between charges. A massive battery that stores the intermittent electricity from wind turbines and releases it when

  1. Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-407

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2012-01-01

    Creare was awarded a Phase 1 STTR contract from the US Office of Naval Research, with a seven month period of performance from 6/28/2010 to 1/28/2011. The objectives of the STTR were to determine the feasibility of developing a software package for estimating reliability of battery packs, and develop a user interface to allow the designer to assess the overall impact on battery packs and host platforms for cell-level faults. NREL served as sub-tier partner to Creare, providing battery modeling and battery thermal safety expertise.

  2. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003-2012 (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. ...

  3. Electric Fuel Battery Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Battery Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Electric Fuel Battery Corporation Place: Auburn, Alabama Zip: 36832 Product: Develops and manufactures BA-8180U high...

  4. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. PDF icon esarravt002flicker2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing...

  5. American Battery Charging Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Charging Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Battery Charging Inc Place: Smithfield, Rhode Island Zip: 2917 Product: Manufacturer of industrial and railroad...

  6. Kayo Battery Industries Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    started by Hong Kong Highpower Technology and Japan Kayo Group, active in producing Lithium and NiMH batteries for various applications including batteries suitable for...

  7. Bullith Batteries AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Batteries AG Place: Ismaning, Germany Zip: 85737 Product: Batteries producer using the lithium-polymer technology. Coordinates: 48.22727, 11.676305 Show Map Loading map......

  8. TCL Hyperpower Batteries Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Batteries, Inc Place: China Product: China-based subsidiary of TCL Group, they make Lithium Polymer, NiMH and Primary batteries, primarily for smaller devices. References: TCL...

  9. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries Title: Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium ...

  10. Rechargeable Nanoelectrofuels for Flow Batteries | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Nanoelectrofuels for Flow Batteries Four-page general brochure describing a groundbreaking energy storage concept that may revolutionize the world of batteries PDF...

  11. Cathode material for lithium batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Cathode material for lithium batteries A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium ...

  12. Zibo Storage Battery Factory | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Storage Battery Factory Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zibo Storage Battery Factory Place: Zibo, Shandong Province, China Zip: 255056 Product: China-based affiliate of CSIC...

  13. Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies Lawrence ... improved battery life when used in the fabrication of negative silicon electrodes. ...

  14. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Workshop Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...2012 EV Everywhere Grand Challenge -- Battery Workshop Thursday, July 26, 2012 - ... Technologies Program 9:25-9:50 AM EV BATTERY TECHNOLOGY-CURRENT STATUS & COST ...

  15. Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies Brookhaven ... activation of the cell of a lithium battery having a primary metal sulfide additive ...

  16. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale ...

  17. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results

  18. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Washington: ... Improving charge time and these other battery characteristics could significantly expand ...

  19. Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance ...

  20. Self-Regulating, Nonflamable Rechargeable Lithium Batteries ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryRechargeable lithium batteries are superior to ...

  1. Disordered Materials Hold Promise for Better Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disordered materials hold promise for better batteries Disordered Materials Hold Promise for Better Batteries February 21, 2014 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov ...

  2. Ovonic Battery Company Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Ovonic Battery Company Inc Place: Michigan Zip: 48309 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Focused on commercializing its patented and proprietary NiMH battery...

  3. electrochemical battery stress-induced degradation mechanisms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electrochemical battery stress-induced degradation mechanisms - Sandia Energy Energy ... Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ...

  4. Horizon Batteries formerly Electrosource | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Batteries formerly Electrosource Jump to: navigation, search Name: Horizon Batteries (formerly Electrosource) Place: Texas Sector: Vehicles Product: Manufacturer of high-power,...

  5. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  6. Hierarchical Models for Batteries: Overview with Some Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Mukherjee, Partha P; Allu, Srikanth; Nanda, Jagjit; Martha, Surendra K; Dudney, Nancy J; Turner, John A

    2012-01-01

    Batteries are complex multiscale systems and a hierarchy of models has been employed to study different aspects of batteries at different resolutions. For the electrochemistry and charge transport, the models span from electric circuits, single-particle, pseudo 2D, detailed 3D, and microstructure resolved at the continuum scales and various techniques such as molecular dynamics and density functional theory to resolve the atomistic structure. Similar analogies exist for the thermal, mechanical, and electrical aspects of the batteries. We have been recently working on the development of a unified formulation for the continuum scales across the electrode-electrolyte-electrode system - using a rigorous volume averaging approach typical of multiphase formulation. This formulation accounts for any spatio-temporal variation of the different properties such as electrode/void volume fractions and anisotropic conductivities. In this talk the following will be presented: The background and the hierarchy of models that need to be integrated into a battery modeling framework to carry out predictive simulations, Our recent work on the unified 3D formulation addressing the missing links in the multiscale description of the batteries, Our work on microstructure resolved simulations for diffusion processes, Upscaling of quantities of interest to construct closures for the 3D continuum description, Sample results for a standard Carbon/Spinel cell will be presented and compared to experimental data, Finally, the infrastructure we are building to bring together components with different physics operating at different resolution will be presented. The presentation will also include details about how this generalized approach can be applied to other electrochemical storage systems such as supercapacitors, Li-Air batteries, and Lithium batteries with 3D architectures.

  7. Battery resource assessment. Subtask II. 5. Battery manufacturing capability recycling of battery materials. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pemsler, P.

    1981-02-01

    Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials. Each recycle process has been designed to produce a product material which can be used directly as a raw material by the battery manufacturer. Metal recoverabilities are in the range of 93 to 95% for all processes. In each case, capital and operating costs have been developed for a recycling plant which processes 100,000 electric vehicle batteries per year. These costs have been developed based on material and energy balances, equipment lists, factored installation costs, and manpower estimates. In general, there are no technological barriers for recycling in the Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine and Zinc/Bromine battery systems. The recycling processes are based on essentially conventional, demonstrate technology. The lead times required to build battery recycling plants based on these processes is comparable to that of any other new plant. The total elapsed time required from inception to plant operation is approximately 3 to 5 y. The recycling process for the sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/sulfide battery systems are not based on conventional technology. In particular, mechanical systems for dismantling these batteries must be developed.

  8. Grid-tied PV battery systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-09-01

    Grid tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (ALABC Advanced) proved to cycle well at a Partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

  9. Alumni | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Visit Website Bo Qiu ThermalMechanical Engineer, Intel Corporation Visit Website Veronika Rinnerbauer Innovation Management, Bosch Visit Website Nitin Shukla Thermal Testing ...

  10. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  11. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-10

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  12. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Tennessee Knoxville; U. Texas Austin; McGill U; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  13. Effect of an Ultrathin Coating on Stabilizing Li-ion Battery Cathodes |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Effect of an Ultrathin Coating on Stabilizing Li-ion Battery Cathodes Sunday, January 31, 2016 Improvements in the high-voltage cycling stability of lithium ion battery cathode materials are needed to enable the wide-spread adoption of renewable energy technologies such as electric vehicles. One cathode material which exhibits significant advantages over the commonly-used commercial material LiCoO2 in terms of higher capacity, increased thermal

  14. Battery Chargers | Electrical Power Conversion and Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Chargers | Electrical Power Conversion and Storage 625 West A Street | Lincoln, NE 68522-1794 | LesterElectrical.com P: 402.477.8988 | F: 402.441.3727, 402.474.1769 (Sales) MEMORANDUM TO: United States Department of Energy (DOE), Via Email, expartecommunications@hq.doe.gov FROM: Spencer Stock, Product Marketing Manager, Lester Electrical DATE: June 18, 2012 RE: Ex Parte Communications, Docket Number EERE-2008-BT-STD-0005, RIN 1904-AB57 On Monday, June 11, 2012, representatives from

  15. Hydraulic seal battery terminal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadnick, S.J.

    1980-09-23

    A self-sealing battery terminal is described that includes a hydroformed Inconel outer case, a low shear strength sealant material, and a central post in the form of a bolt which acts as both a conductor and transmits the preload from a pair of Belleville washers to a lower ceramic washer. The lower ceramic washer acts like a piston to compress the sealant when the nut on the central post is tightened. The Belleville washers serve to maintain a minimum tension on the central post. A top ceramic washer is held in place by the tension in the central bolt as long as the tension exceeds a minimum value.

  16. Battery Life Data Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    The FreedomCar Partnership has established life goals for batteries. Among them is a 15 year calendar life. The software and the underlying methodology attempt to predict cell and battery life using, at most, two years of test data. The software uses statistical models based on data from accelerated aging experiments to estimate cell life. The life model reflects the average cell performance under a given set of stress conditions with time. No specific form ofmore » the life model is assumed. The software will fit the model to experimental data. An error model, reflecting the cell-to-cell variability and measurement errors, is included in the software. Monte Carlo simulations, based on the developed models, are used to assess Lack-of-fit and develop uncertainty limis for the average cell life. The software has three operating modes: fit only, fit and simulation and simulation only. The user is given these options by means of means and alert boxes.« less

  17. BEST (Battery Economics for more Sustainable Transportation)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    Computer software for the simulation of battery economics based on various transportation business models.

  18. management

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5%2A en Management and Budget http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsmanagementandbudget

  19. 'Underground battery' could store renewable energy, sequester CO2 |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) 'Underground battery' could store renewable energy, sequester CO2 Wednesday, January 6, 2016 - 2:40pm NNSA Blog This integrated system would store carbon dioxide in an underground reservoir, with concentric rings of horizontal wells confining the pressurized CO2 beneath the caprock. Stored CO2 displaces brine that flows up wells to the surface where it is heated by thermal plants (e.g., solar farms) and reinjected into the reservoir to store

  20. The ANL electric vehicle battery R D program for DOE-EHP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.

  1. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office: Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles & Batteries » Vehicle Technologies Office: Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: Batteries Improving the batteries for electric drive vehicles, including hybrid electric (HEV) and plug-in electric (PEV) cars, is key to improving vehicles' economic, social, and environmental sustainability. In fact, transitioning to a light-duty fleet of HEVs and PEVs could reduce U.S. foreign oil dependence by 30-60% and greenhouse gas

  3. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, S.J.; Liu, M.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1992-11-10

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145 C (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium trifluorate (PEO[sub 8]LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS)[sub n], and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte. 2 figs.

  4. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Liu, Meilin; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145.degree. C. (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium triflate (PEO.sub.8 LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS).sub.n, and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte.

  5. Solid polymer battery electrolyte and reactive metal-water battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Peterson, Eric S.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2000-01-01

    In one implementation, a reactive metal-water battery includes an anode comprising a metal in atomic or alloy form selected from the group consisting of periodic table Group 1A metals, periodic table Group 2A metals and mixtures thereof. The battery includes a cathode comprising water. Such also includes a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a polyphosphazene comprising ligands bonded with a phosphazene polymer backbone. The ligands comprise an aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion and a metal ion carrier portion. The metal ion carrier portion is bonded at one location with the polymer backbone and at another location with the aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion. The invention also contemplates such solid polymer electrolytes use in reactive metal/water batteries, and in any other battery.

  6. Analysis of Heat Dissipation in Li-Ion Cells & Modules for Modeling of Thermal Runaway (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2007-05-15

    The objectives of this study are: (1) To develop 3D Li-Ion battery thermal abuse ''reaction'' models for cell and module analysis; (2) To understand the mechanisms and interactions between heat transfer and chemical reactions during thermal runaway for Li-Ion cells and modules; (3) To develop a tool and methodology to support the design of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems for PHEVs/HEVs; and (4) To help battery developers accelerate delivery of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems in support of the FreedomCAR's Energy Storage Program.

  7. Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties Henderson, Wesley 25 ENERGY STORAGE battery, electrolyte, solvation, ionic association battery, electrolyte,...

  8. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation Neubauer, J. 25 ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY; LITHIUM-ION; STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE; BLAST; BATTERY DEGRADATION;...

  9. Leading experts to speak at battery & energy storage technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including: new battery chemistries, battery longevity and performance, energy storage in electric grid applications and the latest developments in fuel cells and flow batteries. ...

  10. ZAP Advanced Battery Technologies JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    battery manufacturer Advanced Battery Technologies focusing on manufacturing and marketing of advanced batteries for electric cars using the latest in nanotechnology....

  11. Hunan Copower EV Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Copower EV Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hunan Copower EV Battery Co Ltd Place: Hunan Province, China Sector: Vehicles Product: Producer of batteries and...

  12. Guangzhou Fullriver Battery New Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fullriver Battery New Technology Co, Ltd Place: China Product: China-based maker of Lithium Polymer and Lithium Iron batteries as well protection circuit modules and battery...

  13. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage Citation Details ... Subject: energy storage; flow battery; grid storage; lithium-ion battery; manufacturing ...

  14. Fact Sheet: Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (October 2012)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    temperature window by 83%, so the battery can operate between -5 and 50C. Other ... Old Battery Technology New Battery Technology The benefits of the new electrolyte include: ...

  15. EERE Success Story-Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries EERE Success Story-Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies ...

  16. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and Manufactur...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion ...

  17. Recent Developments and Trends in Redox Flow Batteries - Joint...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 1, 2015, Research Highlights Recent Developments and Trends in Redox Flow Batteries Different flow batteries schemes were investigated. The classic flow battery (top left, ...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery Recycling March 23, 2011 Lead Acid Batteries on secondary containment pallet Lead Acid Batteries on secondary containment pallet In 2004, the US...

  19. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  20. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Liu, Hansan; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.