National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for battery pack weight

  1. Optimization of blended battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erb, Dylan C. (Dylan Charles)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reviews the traditional battery pack design process for hybrid and electric vehicles, and presents a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm that eases the process of cell selection and pack design, especially ...

  2. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pack Design and Optimization Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the...

  3. Fact #823: June 2, 2014 Hybrid Vehicles use more Battery Packs but Plug-in Vehicles use More Battery Capacity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Of the battery packs used for electrified vehicle powertrains in model year 2013, the greatest number went into conventional hybrid vehicles which use battery packs that average about 1.3 kilowatt...

  4. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  5. Fact #823: June 2, 2014 Hybrid Vehicles use more Battery Packs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lower volume, their battery packs are much larger with capacities as high as 85 kWh - a battery offering for the Tesla Model S. Number of Batteries Sold and Battery Capacity Sold...

  6. Design of a Lithium-ion Battery Pack for PHEV Using a Hybrid Optimization Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Design of a Lithium-ion Battery Pack for PHEV Using a Hybrid Optimization Method Nansi Xue1 Abstract This paper outlines a method for optimizing the design of a lithium-ion battery pack for hy- brid, volume or material cost. Keywords: Lithium-ion, Optimization, Hybrid vehicle, Battery pack design

  7. It's getting hot in here : temperature gradients in lithium-ion battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niewood, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A 5 channel, 40A battery cycler was constructed for the purpose of carrying out thermal studies on Lithium-ion battery packs. Boston Power Swing Key 442 battery blocks were tested to determine the magnitude of the temperature ...

  8. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Experimental Validation Development of CellPack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  9. Aalborg Universitet Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Sřren Juhl

    in a e-mobility application. Simulation results demonstrate the technical feasibility of this newlyAalborg Universitet Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs Barreras, R. E. (2014). Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs: A paradigm

  10. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  11. Design and fabrication of retrofit e-bike powertrain and custom lithium-ion battery pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Helena

    2015-01-01

    A chopper-style bicycle was converted to a functional e-bike with electric powertrain, involving a hub motor, a custom power source, and throttle speed control. A custom battery pack was designed to meet system performance ...

  12. Designing Safe Lithium-Ion Battery Packs Using Thermal Abuse Models (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Darcy, E.

    2008-12-01

    NREL and NASA developed a thermal-electrical model that resolves PTC and cell behavior under external shorting, now being used to evaluate safety margins of battery packs for spacesuit applications.

  13. Aalborg Universitet A novel BEV concept based on fixed and swappable li-ion battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    and Control, Robotics and Mechatronics Center German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling, D-82234, Germany Email@fe.up.pt Abstract--In this paper a novel battery electric vehicle (BEV) concept based on a small fixed and a big swappable li-ion battery pack is proposed in order to achieve: longer range, lower initial purchase price

  14. Modular Approach for Continuous Cell-Level Balancing to Improve Performance of Large Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muneed ur Rehman, M.; Evzelman, M.; Hathaway, K.; Zane, R.; Plett, G. L.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Maksimovic, D.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage systems require battery cell balancing circuits to avoid divergence of cell state of charge (SOC). A modular approach based on distributed continuous cell-level control is presented that extends the balancing function to higher level pack performance objectives such as improving power capability and increasing pack lifetime. This is achieved by adding DC-DC converters in parallel with cells and using state estimation and control to autonomously bias individual cell SOC and SOC range, forcing healthier cells to be cycled deeper than weaker cells. The result is a pack with improved degradation characteristics and extended lifetime. The modular architecture and control concepts are developed and hardware results are demonstrated for a 91.2-Wh battery pack consisting of four series Li-ion battery cells and four dual active bridge (DAB) bypass DC-DC converters.

  15. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    packdesignb.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Workshop: Power Electronics and Thermal...

  16. Battery Pack Requirements and Targets Validation FY 2009 DOE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    mechanical and electric drive Achieving battery life cycle net benefits, given low U.S. gasoline prices * Total project funding - 100% DOE funding * FY09 funding 600K Timeline...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2013: A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by LG Chem at 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a high-performance battery pack the company is researching for plug-in electric vehicles.

  18. 2000-01-1556 Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    drive schedules. These life cycle costs include the initial manufacturing cost of components, fuel cost2000-01-1556 Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV John W. McKeever, Sujit defined the peak power ratings for each HEV drive system's electric components: batteries, battery cables

  19. Battery Pack Requirements and Targets Validation FY 2009 DOE Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy and ForestBattery Chargers

  20. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.

    1998-12-15

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode is described. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell. 15 figs.

  1. Conversion of Russian Defense Enterprises to the production of rechargeable batteries and battery packs. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    This report, prepared by E-Tech, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the International Integration Association of Moscow, Russia. It presents the results of a study which was conducted to assess the economic and technical feasibility of converting the facilities of three Russian defense enterprises to the production of rechargeable batteries and battery packs for sale to the Russian domestic market and to international commercial markets. The three issues that are addressed in the report include: (1) Whether or not a project of this nature can be successful in present-day Russia; (2) Are the Russian enterprises identified for this study are capable of executing the project; and (3) Whether a U.S. company with extensive battery manufacturing experience can carry out a project in Russia. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Introduction; (3) Background; (4) Technical Overview; (5) Market Overview; (6) Project Description; (7) Socioeconomic Benefits; (8) Legal Structure; (9) Appendices.

  2. USING WEIGHTED SUM METHOD FOR THE CHOICE OF THE NIGHT VISION GOGGLES BATTERY POWER SUPPLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borissova, Daniela

    USING WEIGHTED SUM METHOD FOR THE CHOICE OF THE NIGHT VISION GOGGLES BATTERY POWER SUPPLY Daniela into account device working range, weight and price and also electrical battery power supply lifetime, temperature working range and its mechanics. The multicriteria optimization choice of the electrical battery

  3. Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-499

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2013-10-01

    Under this CRADA NREL will support Creare's project for the Department of Energy entitled 'Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density' which involves the development of an air-flow based cooling product that increases energy density, safety, and reliability of hybrid electric vehicle battery packs.

  4. Integration Issues of Cells into Battery Packs for Plug-in and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Keyser, M.

    2009-05-01

    The main barriers to increased market share of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and commercialization of plug-in HEVs are the cost, safety, and life of lithium ion batteries. Significant effort is being directed to address these issues for lithium ion cells. However, even the best cells may not perform as well when integrated into packs for vehicles because of the environment in which vehicles operate. This paper discusses mechanical, electrical, and thermal integration issues and vehicle interface issues that could impact the cost, life, and safety of the system. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of using many small cells versus a few large cells and using prismatic cells versus cylindrical cells.

  5. Thermal Characterization and Analysis of A123 Systems Battery Cells, Modules and Packs: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-243

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.

    2012-03-01

    In support of the A123 Systems battery development program with USABC/DOE, NREL provided technical support in thermal characterization, analysis and management of batteries. NREL's effort was part of Energy Storage Project funded by DOE Vehicle Technologies Program. The purpose of this work was for NREL to perform thermal characterization and analysis of A123 Systems cells and modules with the aim for Al23 Systems to improve the thermal performance of their battery cells, modules and packs.

  6. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S.Z.

    1996-12-03

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery. 35 figs.

  7. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery.

  8. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, Stanley C. (Alameda, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA); Salas-Morales, Juan (Berkeley, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

  9. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

    1995-08-15

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

  10. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team also completed four GM engineering development Buy-Off rides/milestones. The project included numerous engineering vehicle and systems development trips including extreme hot, cold and altitude exposure. The final fuel economy performance demonstrated met the objectives of the PHEV collaborative GM/DOE project. Charge depletion fuel economy of twice that of the non-PHEV model was demonstrated. The project team also designed, developed and tested a high voltage battery module concept that appears to be feasible from a manufacturability, cost and performance standpoint. The project provided important product development and knowledge as well as technological learnings and advancements that include multiple U.S. patent applications.

  11. An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    , nanostructures have been used in energy storage fields, such as lithium ion batteries (LIBs), due to their high is based on a silicon solar panel and a solid-state lithium battery as the two independent parts, which

  12. LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA 1. Abstract This report introduces how. Battery Pack 1 · Cycle 1 : 2334 mAh · Cycle 2: 2312 mAh #12;LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT 3 · Cycle to handle the Powerizer Li-Ion rechargeable Battery Packs. It will bring reveal battery specifications

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by EC Power at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about evelopment of cell/pack level models...

  14. Mechanical characterization of lithium-ion battery micro components for development of homogenized and multilayer material models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Kyle M. (Kyle Mark)

    2014-01-01

    The overall battery research of the Impact and Crashworthiness Laboratory (ICL) at MIT has been focused on understanding the battery's mechanical properties so that individual battery cells and battery packs can be ...

  15. Packed Lunches. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reasonover, Frances L.

    1982-01-01

    puddings; hard cheeses; unopen ed, r~urized process cheese spreads. Jot Group. Canned potted meats, canned meat spreads, canned Vienna sausages, canned luncheon meats, jerky and canned fish such as salmon, sardines, shrimp, tuna; peanut butter and nuts.... Wash your hands before handling the food and clean the working areas and utensils used to prepare it. Also store food properly after it is purchased. Packing Pointers Time Savers Buy fresh fruits that only require washing in prepa ration for lunch...

  16. A Phenomenological Model of Bulk Force in a Li-Ion Battery Pack and Its Application to State of Charge Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, S; Kim, Y; Siegel, JB; Samad, NA; Stefanopoulou, AG

    2014-09-19

    A phenomenological model of the bulk force exerted by a lithium ion cell during various charge, discharge, and temperature operating conditions is developed. The measured and modeled force resembles the carbon expansion behavior associated with the phase changes during intercalation, as there are ranges of state of charge (SOC) with a gradual force increase and ranges of SOC with very small change in force. The model includes the influence of temperature on the observed force capturing the underlying thermal expansion phenomena. Moreover the model is capable of describing the changes in force during thermal transients, when internal battery heating due to high C-rates or rapid changes in the ambient temperature, which create a mismatch in the temperature of the cell and the holding fixture. It is finally shown that the bulk force model can be very useful for a more accurate and robust SOC estimation based on fusing information from voltage and force (or pressure) measurements. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is not changed in any way and is properly cited. For permission for commercial reuse, please email oa@electrochem.org. All rights reserved.

  17. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  18. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Simulations of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles Using Advanced Lithium Batteries and Ultracapacitors on Various Driving Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Zhao, Hengbing

    2010-01-01

    of Ultracapacitor-Battery Energy Storage Systems GainingFerdowsi, A New Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systemthe vehicle. The energy storage and battery weight for AER

  20. 1 of 5 Copyright 2007 Tesla Motors Updated: December 19, 2007 The Tesla Roadster Battery System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    1 of 5 Copyright © 2007 Tesla Motors Updated: December 19, 2007 The Tesla Roadster Battery System This paper provides details about the design of the Tesla Roadster's lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery pack of redundancy and multiple layers of protection in the Tesla Roadster battery pack have culminated in the safest

  1. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writ

  2. Battery Model for Embedded Systems , Gaurav Singhal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navet, Nicolas

    in design of mobile embedded sys- tems today is the battery lifetime for a given size and weight in the energy densities of the battery technologies, estimating the lifetime and energy delivered by the battery applications. Stochastic battery models [6, 8] have also been proposed which are faster than to the PDE model

  3. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    M=Mn, Ni, Co) in Lithium Batteries at 50°C. Electrochem.Electrodes for Lithium Batteries. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82:S CIENCE AND T ECHNOLOGY Batteries: Overview of Battery

  4. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    Challenges in Future Li-Battery Research. Phil Trans. RoyalBatteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes Marca M. Doeffduring cell discharge. Battery-a device consisting of one or

  5. Design and analysis of a battery for a formula electric car

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reineman, Samuel (Samuel Thomas)

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the philosophy and methodology behind the design of the battery pack for MITs 2013 Formula SAE Electric racecar. Functional requirements are established for the pack. An overview of ...

  6. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the original equipment manufacturer. less Authors: Nelson, Paul A. 1 ;...

  7. In-Vehicle Testing and Computer Modeling of Electric Vehicle Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    In-Vehicle Testing and Computer Modeling of Electric Vehicle Batteries B. Thomas, W.B. Gu, J.edu Abstract A combined simulation and testing approach has been developed to evaluate battery packs in real accelerates battery development cycle, and enables innovative battery design and optimization. Several

  8. Battery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B; Andrew, Michael G

    2013-08-27

    A battery module includes a plurality of battery cells and a system configured for passing a fluid past at least a portion of the plurality of battery cells in a parallel manner.

  9. Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information...

  10. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    2000) Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles. Report,for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries. J. Power Sources 128:in High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.

  11. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are readylithium ion batteries (i.e. , to lithiate graphite anodes soGraphite Electrodes Due to the Deposition of Manganese Ions on Them in Li-Ion Batteries.

  12. [11] Cui L, Hu L, Choi JW, Cui Y. Light-weight free-standing carbon nanotube-silicon films for anodes of lithium ion batteries.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for anodes of lithium ion batteries. ACS Nano 2010;4:3671­8. [12] Krivchenko VA, Pilevsky AA, Rakhimov AT, Seleznev BV, Suetin NV, Timofeyev MA, et al. Nanocrystalline graphite: promising material for high current-band Raman intensity of graphitic materials as a function of laser energy and crystallite size. Chem Phys

  13. Thermal Analysis of the Vulnerability of the Spacesuit Battery Design to Short-Circuit Conditions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Chaney, L.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2010-04-22

    NREL researchers created a mathematical model of a full 16p-5s spacesuit battery for NASA that captures electrical/thermal behavior during shorts to assess the vulnerability of the battery to pack-internal (cell-external) shorts. They found that relocating the short from battery pack-external (experimental validation) to pack-internal (modeling study) causes substantial additional heating of cells, which can lead to cell thermal runaway. All three layers of the bank-to-bank separator must fail for the pack-internal short scenario to occur. This finding emphasizes the imperative of battery pack assembly cleanliness. The design is tolerant to pack-internal shorts when stored at 0% state of charge.

  14. Battery life and performance depend strongly on temperature; thus there exists a need for thermal conditioning in plug-in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    ABSTRACT Battery life and performance depend strongly on temperature; thus there exists a need battery life depends on the design of thermal management used as well as the specific battery chemistry of an air cooled plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery pack with cylindrical LiFePO4/graphite cell design

  15. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, Kurt Edward (Avella, PA); Kolsun, George J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  16. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  17. Engineering design factors in flowing electrolyte bipolar batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, P.; Bellows, R.; Malachesky, P.

    1984-08-01

    Flowing electrolyte bipolar batteries allow a system designer great flexibility in fitting the batteries to applications. A mathematical model has been developed describing flow battery characteristics to aid the designer. This model can be used to compute the interrelationships of power, energy, volume, number of cells, cell area, capacity, weight, etc. Examples from zinc bromine battery systems are given.

  18. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing EnerDel technology, and helps DOE to evaluate the merits of underlying technology. The successful completion of this program demonstrated the capability of EnerDel battery packs to satisfactorily supply all power and energy requirements of a real-world HEV-Bus drive profile. This program supports green solutions to metropolitan public transportation problems by demonstrating the effectiveness of EnerDel lithium ion batteries for HEV-Bus applications.

  19. Optimization of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Charging and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misic, Aleksandar

    The goal of this project is to efficiently and safely charge a 5kWh battery pack in 15 minutes. Since the project is still in progress, this report describes experiments on a 56Wh battery. Experiments were performed to ...

  20. Cell Equalization In Battery Stacks Through State Of Charge Estimation Polling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Cell Equalization In Battery Stacks Through State Of Charge Estimation Polling Carmelo Speltino, Anna Stefanopoulou and Giovanni Fiengo Abstract-- Battery packs are charged and discharged as a single battery, therefore it is possible that differences between cells (i.e. chemical characteristics, operating

  1. Safe battery solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Delmastro, Joseph R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  2. Professional Training Information Pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    Intending Professional Training Students Year 2 Information Pack #12;- 1 - Applying for a Professional Training Placement To be allowed to do the Professional Training you must have enrolled on one must talk to Dr J. M. Thompson immediately. General introduction to professional training Students

  3. Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallett, William L.H.

    Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Université d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

  4. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    for Li-ion batteries. Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI)-athe formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) onElectrolyte Solutions, Temperatures). Electrochem. and Solid-

  5. KAir Battery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    KAir Battery, from Ohio State University, is commercializing highly energy efficient cost-effective potassium air batteries for use in the electrical stationary storage systems market (ESSS). Beyond, the ESSS market potential applications range from temporary power stations and electric vehicle.

  6. Enumerating rigid sphere packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda C. Holmes-Cerfon

    2015-05-08

    Packing problems, which ask how to arrange a collection of objects in space to meet certain criteria, are important in a great many physical and biological systems, where geometrical arrangements at small scales control behaviour at larger ones. In many systems there is no single, optimal packing that dominates, but rather one must understand the entire set of possible packings. As a step in this direction we enumerate rigid clusters of identical hard spheres for $n\\leq 14$, and clusters with the maximum number of contacts for $n\\leq 19$. A rigid cluster is one that cannot be continuously deformed while maintaining all contacts. This is a nonlinear notion that arises naturally because such clusters are the metastable states when the spheres interact with a short-range potential, as is the case in many nano- or micro-scale systems. We expect these lists are nearly complete, except for a small number of highly singular clusters (linearly floppy but nonlinearly rigid.) The data contains some major geometrical surprises, such as the prevalence of hypostatic clusters: those with less than the $3n-6$ contacts generically necessary for rigidity. We discuss these and several other unusual clusters, whose geometries may shed insight into physical mechanisms, pose mathematical and computational problems, or bring inspiration for designing new materials.

  7. Ab initio structure search and in situ 7Li NMR studies of discharge products in the Li-S battery system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    See, Kimberly A.; Leskes, Michal; Griffin, John M.; Britto, Sylvia; Matthews, Peter D.; Emly, Alexandra; Van der Ven, Anton; Wright, Dominic S.; Morris, Andrew J.; Grey, Clare P.; Seshadri, Ram

    2014-11-10

    it an attractive candidate for energy storage applications where battery weight is of the highest importance, including electric vehicle and mobile electronics applications. The comparatively added benefit of the Li?S system is the low cost and greater availability... ?correlation functional was used with Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotentials.24 A basis set containing plane waves with energies of up to 500 eV and a Monkhorst?Pack (MP) grid corresponding to a Brillouin zone (BZ) sampling grid finer than 2? × 0.05 Ĺ?1 was used. Electric...

  8. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease payments for space to the IDA. A commercial venture is being formed to utilize the LiFeBATT product for consumer use in enabling photovoltaic powered boat lifts. Field tests of the system have proven to be very effective and commercially promising. This venture is expected to result in significant sales within the next six months.

  9. Last Revised: 10/2013 Battery Waste Collection Request

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    Only Storage Location Mixed Batteries (alkaline, carbon zinc, Ni-Cad, nickel metal hydride, mercuryLast Revised: 10/2013 Battery Waste Collection Request www.ehs.washington.edu/forms/epo/1943.pdf Instructions: Fill out the approximate weight of each battery type KG For Environmental Health and Safety Use

  10. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Charger Efficiency Issues with Marine and Recreational Vehicle Battery Chargers Marine and RV battery chargers differ from power tool and small appliance chargers CEC...

  11. What to Pack for Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Weck, Olivier L.

    De Weck, O.L. “What to Pack for Mars.” Spectrum, IEEE 46.6 (2009): 39. © 2009 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

  12. Convex Optimization Course Welcome Pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    1 NATCOR Convex Optimization Course 23rd ­ 27th June 2014 Welcome Pack This pack contains. ABSTRACT Convex optimization is the fundamental process of optimal decision-making. Although mathematically restrictive, many practical problems may be modelled directly as convex optimization problems. Convex

  13. Undergraduate Offer Pack 2015 2016

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Undergraduate Offer Pack 2015 ­ 2016 #12;#12;Graduate Offer Pack 2015-2016 5 Welcome from the Dean of Undergraduate Studies 5 What you need to do now 6-11 Your Checklist 7 Types of Offer 9 Accepting your Offer 9 Meeting the conditions of your Offer 10 Deferring your Offer 11 Rejecting an Offer 11 Financial

  14. Battery Pack Requirements and Targets Validation FY 2009 DOE...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. es01santini.pdf More Documents &...

  15. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in: Statement ofA CommonA DecadePAAA2

  16. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in: Statement ofA CommonA DecadePAAA20

  17. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in: Statement ofA CommonA DecadePAAA201

  18. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization Breakout

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25, 2014TEMPLATE | Tuesday,BreakoutSession

  19. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers | Department ofOctober0032 DOE

  20. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers | Department ofOctober0032 DOE1

  1. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers | Department ofOctober0032 DOE10

  2. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle...

  3. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies 2012 DOE...

  4. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  5. Metal-Air Electric Vehicle Battery: Sustainable, High-Energy Density, Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage – Metal-Air Ionic Liquid (MAIL) Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-21

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is developing a new class of metal-air batteries. Metal-air batteries are promising for future generations of EVs because they use oxygen from the air as one of the battery’s main reactants, reducing the weight of the battery and freeing up more space to devote to energy storage than Li-Ion batteries. ASU technology uses Zinc as the active metal in the battery because it is more abundant and affordable than imported lithium. Metal-air batteries have long been considered impractical for EV applications because the water-based electrolytes inside would decompose the battery interior after just a few uses. Overcoming this traditional limitation, ASU’s new battery system could be both cheaper and safer than today’s Li-Ion batteries, store from 4-5 times more energy, and be recharged over 2,500 times.

  6. Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-407

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2012-01-01

    Creare was awarded a Phase 1 STTR contract from the US Office of Naval Research, with a seven month period of performance from 6/28/2010 to 1/28/2011. The objectives of the STTR were to determine the feasibility of developing a software package for estimating reliability of battery packs, and develop a user interface to allow the designer to assess the overall impact on battery packs and host platforms for cell-level faults. NREL served as sub-tier partner to Creare, providing battery modeling and battery thermal safety expertise.

  7. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  8. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wordin, John J. (Bingham County, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  9. test problem for packing_sumit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chenwang

    2006-07-21

    Test problems of circles in circle packing with constraints and known ... test problems for circles packing problem with the optimal solutions known. That is ...

  10. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freeman, David H. (Potomac, MD); Angeles, Rosalie M. (Germantown, MD); Keller, Suzanne (Rockville, MD)

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  11. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  12. Ball Packings with Periodic Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Connelly; Jeffrey D. Shen; Alexander D. Smith

    2013-01-04

    We call a periodic ball packing in d-dimensional Euclidean space periodically (strictly) jammed with respect to a period lattice if there are no nontrivial motions of the balls that preserve the period (that maintain some period with smaller or equal volume). In particular, we call a packing consistently periodically (strictly) jammed if it is periodically (strictly) jammed on every one of its periods. After extending a well-known bar framework and stress condition to strict jamming, we prove that a packing with period Lambda is consistently strictly jammed if and only if it is strictly jammed with respect to Lambda and consistently periodically jammed. We next extend a result about rigid unit mode spectra in crystallography to characterize periodic jamming on sublattices. After that, we prove that there are finitely many strictly jammed packings of m unit balls and other similar results. An interesting example shows that the size of the first sublattice on which a packing is first periodically unjammed is not bounded. Finally, we find an example of a consistently periodically jammed packing of low density \\delta = \\frac{4 \\pi}{6 \\sqrt{3} + 11} + \\epsilon ~ 0.59, where \\epsilon is an arbitrarily small positive number. Throughout the paper, the statements for the closely related notions of periodic infinitesimal rigidity and affine infinitesimal rigidity for tensegrity frameworks are also given.

  13. Automating Personalized Battery Management on Smartphones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falaki, Mohamamd Hossein

    2012-01-01

    3 Automating Battery Management . . . . . . .122 Battery Goal Setting UI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Power and Battery Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  14. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  15. Piezonuclear battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bongianni, Wayne L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  16. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  17. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sally Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the standard lead-acid unit experienced significant degradation after only 6,273 cycles. The high-carbon, ALABC battery manufactured in Project C3 also was tested under the advanced HEV schedule. Its performance was significantly better than the standard lead-acid unit, but was still inferior compared with the UltraBattery. The batteries supplied by Exide as part of the C3 Project performed well under the HEV screening test, especially at high temperatures. The results suggest that higher operating temperatures may improve the performance of lead-acid-based technologies operated under HEV conditions—it is recommended that life studies be conducted on these technologies under such conditions.

  18. NREL-Led Team Improves and Accelerates Battery Design (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is leading some of the best minds from U.S. auto manufacturers, battery developers, and automotive simulation tool developers in a $20 million project to accelerate the development of battery packs and thus the wider adoption of electric-drive vehicles. The Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) collaboration is developing sophisticated software tools to help improve and accelerate battery design and boost the performance and consumer appeal of electric-drive vehicles with the ultimate goal of diminishing petroleum consumption and polluting emissions.

  19. Microfabricated packed gas chromatographic column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kottenstette, Richard; Matzke, Carolyn M.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-12-16

    A new class of miniaturized gas chromatographic columns has been invented. These chromatographic columns are formed using conventional micromachining techniques, and allow packed columns having lengths on the order of a meter to be fabricated with a footprint on the order of a square centimeter.

  20. RECHARGEABLE HIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2014-01-01

    F. Eshman, High-Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleS. Sudar, High Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleHIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES Elton J. Cairns January 1981 TWO-

  1. Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, David Tunmin

    2012-01-01

    Xiangyun Song helped me with battery experiments. I want toMesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators by DavidMesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators by David

  2. Additive for iron disulfide cathodes used in thermal batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-03-23

    The invention comprises thermal batteries employing an FeS/sub 2/ depolarizer itself. A minor amount of CaSi/sub 2/ preferably 1-3% by weight is provided as an additive in the FeS/sub 2/ depolarizer to eliminate the voltage transient (spike) which normally occurs upon activation of batteries of this type. The amount of FeS/sub 2/ by weight generally comprises 64 to 90%.

  3. Additive for iron disulfide cathodes used in thermal batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armijo, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Searcy, Jimmie Q. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    The invention comprises thermal batteries employing an FeS.sub.2 depolarizer, i.e. cathode material, and the depolarizer itself. A minor amount of CaSi.sub.2 preferably, 1-3% by weight is provided as an additive in the FeS.sub.2 depolarizer to eliminate the voltage transient (spike) which normally occurs upon activation of batteries of this type. The amount of FeS.sub.2 by weight generally comprises 64-90%.

  4. High-energy metal air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-09

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  5. High-energy metal air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  6. California Lithium Battery, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California Lithium Battery (CaLBattery), based in Los Angeles, California, is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined with other advanced battery materials, it could effectively lower battery life cycle cost by up to 70 percent. Over the next year, CALBattery will be working with Argonne National Laboratory to combine their patented silicon-graphene anode material process together with other advanced ANL cathode and electrolyte battery materials.

  7. Adhesive Loose Packings of Small Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenwei Liu; Shuiqing Li; Adrian Baule; Hernán A. Makse

    2014-10-08

    We explore adhesive loose packings of dry small spherical particles of micrometer size using 3D discrete-element simulations with adhesive contact mechanics. A dimensionless adhesion parameter ($Ad$) successfully combines the effects of particle velocities, sizes and the work of adhesion, identifying a universal regime of adhesive packings for $Ad>1$. The structural properties of the packings in this regime are well described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function that includes correlations between bulk and contact spheres. Our theoretical and numerical results predict: (i) An equation of state for adhesive loose packings that appears as a continuation from the frictionless random close packing (RCP) point in the jamming phase diagram; (ii) The existence of a maximal loose packing point at the coordination number $Z=2$ and packing fraction $\\phi=1/2^{3}$. Our results highlight that adhesion leads to a universal packing regime at packing fractions much smaller than the random loose packing, which can be described within a statistical mechanical framework. We present a general phase diagram of jammed matter comprising frictionless, frictional, adhesive as well as non-spherical particles, providing a classification of packings in terms of their continuation from the spherical frictionless RCP.

  8. Katech (Lithium Polymer) 4-Passenger NEV - Range and Battery Testing Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) received a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) from the Korea Automotive Technology Institute (KATECH) for vehicle and battery characterization testing. The KATECH NEV (called the Invita) was equipped with a lithium polymer battery pack from Kokam Engineering. The Invita was to be baseline performance tested by AVTA’s testing partner, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA), at ETA’s contract testing facilities and test track in Phoenix, Arizona, to AVTA’s NEVAmerica testing specifications and procedures. Before and during initial constant speed range testing, the Invita battery pack experienced cell failures, and the onboard charger failed. A Kokamsupplied off-board charger was used in place of the onboard charger to successfully perform a constant speed range test on the Invita. The Invita traveled a total of 47.9 miles in 1 hour 47 minutes, consuming 91.3 amp-hours and 6.19 kilowatt-hours. The Kokam Engineering lithium polymer battery was also scheduled for battery pack characterization testing, including the C/3 energy capacity, dynamic stress, and peak power tests. Testing was stopped during the initial C/3 energy capacity test, however, because the battery pack failed to withstand cycling without cell failures. After the third discharge/charge sequence was completed, it was discovered that Cell 6 had failed, with a voltage reading of 0.5 volts. Cell 6 was replaced, and the testing sequence was restarted. After the second discharge/charge sequence was complete, it was discovered that Cell 1 had failed, with its voltage reading 0.2 volts. At this point it was decided to stop all battery pack testing. During the discharge cycles, the battery pack supplied 102.21, 94.34, and 96.05 amp-hours consecutively before Cell 6 failed. After replacing Cell 6, the battery pack supplied 98.34 and 98.11 amp-hours before Cell 1 failed. The Idaho National Laboratory managed these testing activities for the AVTA, as part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  9. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  10. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  11. C Battery Corral 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    reliability. The total consumption of lead-acid batteries in the United States reported in 2008 is $2.9 billion per year and is growing at an annual rate of 8%. The utilization of Lithium-ion battery is growing rapidly. The possibility of lithium-ion... Energy Storage Parameters ............................................................................ 25 Table 2 Case I Cost Comparison ................................................................................ 27 Table 3 PHEV Battery...

  12. battery, map parcel, med

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    Attic *** book teachest Servant dictionary scarf [11] Winery demijohn battery, map AuntLair X] EastAnnex battery[4] Cupboard2 [2] mask DeadEnd rucksack AlisonWriting [16] TinyBalcony [17] gold key. [2] Need new torch battery (see [4]) to enter. Then get painting. [3] To please aunt, must move

  13. Servant dictionary battery, map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    Attic *** book teachest Servant dictionary scarf [11] Winery demijohn battery, map AuntLair X] EastAnnex battery[4] Cupboard2 [2] mask DeadEnd rucksack AlisonWriting [16] TinyBalcony [17] gold key. [2] Need new torch battery (see [4]) to enter. Then get painting. [3] To please aunt, must move

  14. Accelerating Design of Batteries Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2010-11-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  15. The Packing of Granular Polymer Chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Ling-Nan; Cheng, Xiang; Rivers, Mark L.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nagel, Sidney R.; UC

    2009-12-01

    Rigid particles pack into structures, such as sand dunes on the beach, whose overall stability is determined by the average number of contacts between particles. However, when packing spatially extended objects with flexible shapes, additional concepts must be invoked to understand the stability of the resulting structure. Here, we examine the disordered packing of chains constructed out of flexibly connected hard spheres. Using x-ray tomography, we find that long chains pack into a low-density structure whose mechanical rigidity is mainly provided by the backbone. On compaction, randomly oriented, semi-rigid loops form along the chain, and the packing of chains can be understood as the jamming of these elements. Finally, we uncover close similarities between the packing of chains and the glass transition in polymers.

  16. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-01-01

    on New Sealed Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors, B.10. S. Hossain, in Handbook of Batteries, Second Edition, D.Workshop on Advanced Batteries (Lithium Batteries), February

  17. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    of a Rechargeable Lithium Battery," J. Power Sources, 24,Wada, "Rechargeable Lithium Battery Based on Pyrolytic Car-Li-Ion Battery," Lithium Battery Symposium, Electrochemical

  18. Collecting battery data with Open Battery Gareth L. Jones1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imperial College, London

    Collecting battery data with Open Battery Gareth L. Jones1 and Peter G. Harrison2 1,2 Imperial present Open Battery, a tool for collecting data on mobile phone battery usage, describe the data we have a useful tool in future work to describe mobile phone battery traces. 1998 ACM Subject Classification D.4

  19. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries (Management Publication)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  20. Remote Control Inserting the batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Top View Rear View Inserting the batteries 1 3Press in on the arrow mark and slide in the direction of the arrow to remove the battery cover. 2 Insert two AA size batteries, making sure their polarities match the and marks inside the battery compartment. Insert the side tabs of the battery cover into their slots

  1. New value packing technology extends service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.; Jackson, R. (Fisher Controls International, Inc., Marshalltown, IA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    New packing techniques can extend packing life and retain low stem leakage. The HPI can use these designs to avoid mandatory monitoring and repair schedules for valves that exceed the 500-ppm emission threshold. New EPA leakage limits will enforce monitoring and maintenance programs if more than 2% of the facility's valves exceed this limit. Because valves are dynamic, their control actions are prone to leakage. Also, the best fire-resistant packing material, graphite, has inherent deficiencies such as high compression stress and a high-friction coefficient that shortens its service life. Four basic principles overcome graphite packing's shortcomings for control valve applications. Examples show how these criteria improve sliding stem and rotary valve performance. Incorporating these principles into valve-packing designs can ensure long, low-maintenance service life, and the added benefit of low leakage. Graphite is a very important packing material for the HPI. Unlike fluoropolymer (e.g., PTFE) packing, graphite can tolerate high process temperature without decomposing or losing its sealing properties. More importantly, graphite packing is fire safe. It can survive a fire without a catastrophic failure that could add more flammable materials.

  2. How to Pack Microfossils By Skip Lyles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    are the materials that we will be using to pack this roll of slides: raw bedding cotton 6" x 4" empty Kodak box materials that you're going to need are flexible corrugated cardboard and masking tape. Here we'll show you how to pack microfossils step-by-step using only these two materials. Step 1: Here are the materials

  3. Application pack for funding commencing in 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kheifets, Anatoli

    Application pack for funding commencing in 2012 GROUP OF EIGHT AUSTRALIA­GERMANY JOINT RESEARCH COOPERATION SCHEME #12;PAGE 2 OF 9GROUP OF EIGHT AUSTRALIA­GERMANY JOINT RESEARCH COOPERATION SCHEME © GROUP OF EIGHT Application pack for funding commencing in 2012 ABOUT THE GROUP OF EIGHT AUSTRALIA­GERMANY JOINT

  4. Graduate Offer Pack 2 University College Dublin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graduate Offer Pack 2015-2016 #12;2 University College Dublin #12;Graduate Offer Pack 2015-2016 3 Welcome from the Dean of Graduate Studies 5 What you need to do now 6-11 Your Checklist 7 Types of Offer 9 Accepting your Offer 9 Meeting the conditions of your Offer 10 Deferring your Offer 11 Rejecting an Offer 11

  5. Battery driven 8 channel pulse height analyzer with compact, single gamma-peak display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Piper, Thomas C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    The invention comprises a hand-held wand including an l.e.d. display and a aI photomultiplier tube encased in lead or other suitable gamma shielding material, and an electronics and battery back-pack package connected to the wand.

  6. Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries: Development of Ultra High Specific Energy Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: PolyPlus is developing the world’s first commercially available rechargeable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery. Li-Air batteries are better than the Li-Ion batteries used in most EVs today because they breathe in air from the atmosphere for use as an active material in the battery, which greatly decreases its weight. Li-Air batteries also store nearly 700% as much energy as traditional Li-Ion batteries. A lighter battery would improve the range of EVs dramatically. Polyplus is on track to making a critical breakthrough: the first manufacturable protective membrane between its lithium–based negative electrode and the reaction chamber where it reacts with oxygen from the air. This gives the battery the unique ability to recharge by moving lithium in and out of the battery’s reaction chamber for storage until the battery needs to discharge once again. Until now, engineers had been unable to create the complex packaging and air-breathing components required to turn Li-Air batteries into rechargeable systems.

  7. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetter, Roman; Herrmann, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists, biologists and materials engineers alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, however. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, self-similar structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  8. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Vetter; Falk K. Wittel; Hans J. Herrmann

    2015-04-03

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists, biologists and materials engineers alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, however. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, self-similar structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  9. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubblesmore »shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.« less

  10. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  11. Lithium battery management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  12. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The model development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.

  13. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01

    P. C. Butler, "Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles andIntroduction," in Hnadbook of Batteries, 3rd Edition, D.T. B. Reddy, Handbook of Batteries, 2002). [67] R. Zito, US

  14. Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, David Tunmin

    2012-01-01

    L. C. , R. , Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles. Inpast two decades, lithium-ion batteries have emerged as anMore recently, lithium-ion batteries have been employed in

  15. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01

    of a Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery to Maintain Power Quality,"Fuel System Using Redox Flow Battery," ed: WO Patentand D. B. Hickey, "Redox Flow Battery System for Distributed

  16. Packing TRU Waste Containers Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Packing TRU Waste Containers Design Packing TRU Waste Containers Design This document was used to determine facts and conditions during the Department of Energy Accident...

  17. Friction welded battery component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, G.K.; Zagrodnik, J.P.

    1990-07-31

    This patent describes a battery component for use in a flow battery containing fluid electrolyte. It comprises: first and second bond ribs disposed on opposite sides of and defining a channel and respective primary flash traps disposed adjacent the bond ribs opposite the channel.

  18. Green Weight 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Haji, A.; Al-Omair, A.

    2010-01-01

    Green-weight is a novel system designed to supply a high-rise building with all its needs of electricity using wind energy and to supplement its lighting needs with natural sunlight. David Fisher has proposed an ingenious method to harness the wind...

  19. Storage battery systems analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Storage Battery Systems Analysis supports the battery Exploratory Technology Development and Testing Project with technical and economic analysis of battery systems in various end-use applications. Computer modeling and simulation techniques are used in the analyses. Analysis objectives are achieved through both in-house efforts and outside contracts. In-house studies during FY82 included a study of the relationship between storage battery system reliability and cost, through cost-of-investment and cost-of-service interruption inputs; revision and update of the SOLSTOR computer code in standard FORTRAN 77 form; parametric studies of residential stand-alone photovoltaic systems using the SOLSTOR code; simulation of wind turbine collector/storage battery systems for the community of Kalaupapa, Molokai, Hawaii.

  20. A Novel Integrated Magnetic Structure Based DC/DC Converter for Hybrid Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on a novel actively controlled hybrid magnetic battery/ultracapacitor based energy storage system (ESS) for vehicular propulsion systems. A stand-alone battery system might not be sufficient to satisfy peak power demand and transient load variations in hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV, PHEV). Active battery/ultracapacitor hybrid ESS provides a better solution in terms of efficient power management and control flexibility. Moreover, the voltage of the battery pack can be selected to be different than that of the ultracapacitor, which will result in flexibility of design as well as cost and size reduction of the battery pack. In addition, the ultracapacitor bank can supply or recapture a large burst of power and it can be used with high C-rates. Hence, the battery is not subjected to supply peak and sharp power variations, and the stress on the battery will be reduced and the battery lifetime would be increased. Utilizing ultracapacitor results in effective capturing of the braking energy, especially in sudden braking conditions.

  1. Nanomaterials for Fuel cells, Batteries, and Supercapacitors Flow Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Indranath

    Nanomaterials for Fuel cells, Batteries, and Supercapacitors Flow Batteries 1. Shao Y, X Wang, MH storage in vanadium redox flow batteries." Journal of Power Sources 195(13):4375-4379. 2. Shao Y, MH nanotube electrodes for redox flow batteries." Electrochemistry Communications 11(10):2064-2067. doi:10

  2. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, T.J.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-09-08

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques. 3 figs.

  3. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Holdren, Jr., George R. (Kennewick, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

  4. Beta dose distribution for randomly packed microspheres 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urashkin, Alexander

    2007-04-25

    of radiation dose distribution when utilizing this technique. This study focuses on random packing of microspheres and seeks to determine dose distributions for specific cases. The Monte Carlo Neutral Particle code (MCNP) developed by Los Alamos National...

  5. Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, David Tunmin

    2012-01-01

    image. Chapter 2 – Relationship Between Morphology and Conductivity of Block- Copolymer Based Battery

  6. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  7. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  8. Polymeric battery separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchak, R. J.; Schenk, W. N.

    1985-06-11

    Configurations of cross-linked or vulcanized amphophilic or quaternized block copolymer of haloalkyl epoxides and hydroxyl terminated alkadiene polymers are useful as battery separators in both primary and secondary batteries, particularly nickel-zinc batteries. The quaternized block copolymers are prepared by polymerizing a haloalkyl epoxide in the presence of a hydroxyl terminated 1,3-alkadiene to form a block copolymer that is then reacted with an amine to form the quaternized or amphophilic block copolymer that is then cured or cross-linked with sulfur, polyamines, metal oxides, organic peroxides and the like.

  9. Weighted Guidelines | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Weighted Guidelines Weighted Guidelines Weighted Guidelines More Documents & Publications Weighted Guidelines DOE F 4220.23...

  10. SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract -This paper proposes new solar battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract - This paper proposes new solar battery chargers for NiMH batteries. Used with portable solar panels, existing charge control methods are shown of consumer portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, and flexible and have been

  11. Recycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, and alkaline batteries. All batteries need to be sorted by battery type. Each battery type must be accumulated in a clearly labeled receptacle to identify the acceptable battery type. Batteries can be dropped off

  12. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   One   of   the   challenges  of   sodium   ion   batteries   is   identification   of  for   use   in   batteries.   Our   recent   work   has  

  13. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Secondary Lithium Batteries. Journal of the Electrochemicalin Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Overcharge Protection.G. M. in Handbook of Batteries (eds Linden, D. & Reddy, T.

  14. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gabano, Ed. , Lithium Batteries, Academic Press, New York,K. V. Kordesch, "Primary Batteries 1951-1976," J. Elec- n ~.Rechargeable Lithium Batteries," J. Electrochem. Soc. , [20

  15. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414, 359-367 (lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionics 135,electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materials

  16. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca

    2014-01-01

    Company-v3832/Lithium-Ion-Batteries- Outlook-Alternative-Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Marca M. Doeff * , Jordirechargeable sodium ion batteries, particularly for large-

  17. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Anodes for Aluminum-Air Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.Anodes for Aluminum-Air Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.ALLOYS FOR ALUMINUM AIR BATTERIES. J. Electrochem. Soc.

  18. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    their use in lithium-ion batteries. However, applications atresponse of lithium rechargeable batteries,” Journal of therechargeable lithium batteries (Preliminary report, Sept.

  19. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Identification of a suitabledevelopment of sodium ion batteries, because graphite, theanode for lithium ion batteries, does not undergo sodium

  20. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Dual Intercalation Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    for Dual Intercalation Batteries Lithium supply securityinterest in sodium-ion batteries. These devices operate muchsodium-ion or lithium-ion batteries that utilize them as

  1. Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Battery Basics November 22, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Vehicle Battery Basics Batteries are essential for electric drive technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles...

  2. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery charging and discharging. Researchers first charged commercial-grade battery cells to 50% full in 30 minutes, mimicking real world conditions. Then, the battery cell...

  3. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vanpuzzling mysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book beginssuch importance to lithium ion batteries one is amazed that

  4. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionicselectrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materialsand side reactions in lithium-ion batteries. Journal of the

  5. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec- trochemistryOptimization of Lithium-Ion Batteries PhD thesis (Universityfor Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries. Journal of The

  6. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    K. M. Directions in secondary lithium battery research-and-runaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journalrunaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journal

  7. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene Carbonate for Lithium Ion Battery Use. Journal oflithium atoms in lithium-ion battery electrolyte. Chemicalcapacity fading of a lithium-ion battery cycled at elevated

  8. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  9. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks...

  10. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  11. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  12. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiser, Eric [The German Engineering Federation (VDMA), Battery Production Industry Group, Lyoner Str. 18, 60528 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  13. Accelerating Development of EV Batteries Through Computer-Aided Engineering (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Program has launched the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) project to work with national labs, industry and software venders to develop sophisticated software. As coordinator, NREL has teamed with a number of companies to help improve and accelerate battery design and production. This presentation provides an overview of CAEBAT, including its predictive computer simulation of Li-ion batteries known as the Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) model framework. MSMD's modular, flexible architecture connects the physics of battery charge/discharge processes, thermal control, safety and reliability in a computationally efficient manner. This allows independent development of submodels at the cell and pack levels.

  14. Method for packed column separations and purifications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, David A. (Richland, WA); Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J. (Richland, WA); Brockman, Fred J. (Kennewick, WA); Chandler, Darrell P. (Richland, WA)

    2006-08-15

    The invention encompasses a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber. A mixture of a fluid and a matrix material are introduced through a column chamber inlet so that the matrix material is packed within a column chamber to form a packed column. The column chamber having the column chamber inlet or first port for receiving the mixture further has an outlet port and an actuator port. The outlet port is partially closed for capturing the matrix material and permitting the fluid to flow therepast by rotating relative one to the other of a rod placed in the actuator port. Further rotation relative one to the other of the rod and the column chamber opens the outlet and permits the matrix material and the fluid to flow therethrough thereby unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber.

  15. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,lithium ion batteries. The chapter on aging summarizes the effects of the chemistry on the battery

  16. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of TheSalts Formed on the Lithium-Ion Battery Negative Electrodeion batteries In a lithium ion battery, positively charged

  17. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    polymer battery, lithium-ion batteries, and lithium-basedElectrolyte For Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries," LithiumK. Ozawa, "Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries with LiCo0 and

  18. Nickel coated aluminum battery cell tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bucchi, Robert S.; Casoli, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Nicotina, Joseph

    2014-07-29

    A battery cell tab is described. The battery cell tab is anodized on one end and has a metal coating on the other end. Battery cells and methods of making battery cell tabs are also described.

  19. New sealed rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, B.M. ); Dowgiallo, E. ); Halpert, G. ); Matsuda, Y. ); Takehara, Z.I. )

    1993-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: supercapacitors; nickel-metal hydride batteries; lithium polymer batteries; lithium/carbon batteries; cathode materials; and lithium batteries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers of this conference.

  20. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar (Lenoir City, TN); An, Ke (Knoxville, TX); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Contescu, Cristian I. (Knoxville, TN); Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Beth L. (Clinton, TN)

    2011-09-13

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  1. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  2. Testimonials- Partnerships in Battery Technologies- CalBattery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Phil Roberts, CEO and Founder of California Lithium Battery (CalBattery), describes the new growth and development that was possible through partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,

  4. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  5. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, Thomas J. (Aurora, CO); Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO); Baer, Jose T. (Gaviota, CA); Swan, David H. (Monrovia, CA)

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  6. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO)

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  7. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  8. Circulating current battery heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  9. Mechanical design of flow batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Brandon J. (Brandon James)

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the design of low-cost, high-efficiency flow batteries. Researchers are searching for next-generation battery materials, and this thesis presents a systems analysis encompassing ...

  10. Module: Material Structure Focus: Crystal Packing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowley, Clarence W.

    ) and body centered cubic. Materials: Styrofoam Balls (20) Smaller Styrofoam Ball Round Toothpicks (16-258-5598 Teacher Notes: After a short review of crystal packing, have the students take 4 Styrofoam balls the students take 8 Styrofoam balls and attach them using toothpick so that they form 2 -4 ball diamond shape

  11. Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunawardena, Arunika

    Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats B A C K G R O U DN C H E C K ! Habitat, Food, Water. Disease,predation,pollution, accidents and climatic conditions are among other limiting factors which can affect an animal's ability to meet its needs. This section will look further into the impact of Climate

  12. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boling, Brian E. (Sugar Land, TX)

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  13. Flow Batteries A Historical Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flow Batteries A Historical Perspective Robert F. Savinell Case Western Reserve University Department of Chemical Engineering DOE Flow Battery Workshop March 2012 #12;2 OUTLINE ·The first flow cell? ·Review articles- documented progress ·Early NASA Work- some learning ·Fuel Cell and Flow Battery

  14. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated ...

  15. Copyright Office of Information Technology, University of Maryland Campus Pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yorke, James

    Copyright © Office of Information Technology, University of Maryland Campus Pack Blogs of Maryland College Park Spring 2015 #12;#12;1 Contents Introduction to Campus Pack Blogs Blog, Wiki, or Journal to an ELMS Course Space......................................... 3

  16. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  17. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and Manufactur...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond...

  18. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, James H. (New Baltimore, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  19. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  20. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, Gerald K. (Cedarburg, WI); Andrew, Michael G. (Wauwatosa, WI); Eskra, Michael D. (Fredonia, WI)

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  1. Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works to Cut Battery Costs in Half Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works to Cut Battery Costs in Half...

  2. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reg W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dial, Ralph E. (Concord, TN); Finnell, Wilber K. R. (Kingston, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocuple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  3. A Lighting Solution using Discarded Laptop Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    UrJar A Lighting Solution using Discarded Laptop Batteries Vikas Chandan vchanda4@in.ibm.com IBM year 3 #12;Li-Ion Batteries Li-Ion batteries power laptops, tablets and phones, form a key constituent of e-waste IBM India produced ~10 tons of discarded laptop batteries (2013) Recycling Li-Ion batteries

  4. High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun , Jiung Cho, James H. Pikul, William P. King storage Secondary batteries High energy density High power density Lithium ion battery 3D battery of rechargeable (second- ary) batteries, as this is critical for most applications. As the penetration

  5. Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, Fengshan

    Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights Ke Sun and Fengshan Bai Abstract--Association rule mining is a key issue in data mining. However, the classical models ignore the difference between the transactions, and the weighted association rule mining does not work on databases with only binary attributes

  6. Preliminary Design of a Smart Battery Controller for SLI Batteries Xiquan Wang and Pritpal Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Pritpal

    Preliminary Design of a Smart Battery Controller for SLI Batteries Xiquan Wang and Pritpal Singh Automotive start, light, ignition (SLI) lead acid batteries are prone to capacity loss due to low of these batteries can be improved by using the concept of a smart battery system (SBS). In a SBS, battery data from

  7. An Interleaved Dual-Battery Power Supply for Battery-Operated Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    An Interleaved Dual-Battery Power Supply for Battery-Operated Electronics QingQing Wu,Wu, Qinru VoltageAnalysis of Optimal Supply Voltage Design of Interleaved DualDesign of Interleaved Dual--Battery PowerBattery Power SupplySupply ConclusionsConclusions #12;Batteries in Mobile/Portable ElectronicsBatteries

  8. Tools for Designing Thermal Management of Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature has a significant impact on life, performance, and safety of lithium-ion battery technology, which is expected to be the energy storage of choice for electric drive vehicles (xEVs). High temperatures degrade Li-ion cells faster while low temperatures reduce power and energy capabilities that could have cost, reliability, range, or drivability implications. Thermal management of battery packs in xEVs is essential to keep the cells in the desired temperature range and also reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations, both of which impact life and performance. The value that the battery thermal management system provides in reducing battery life and improving performance outweighs its additional cost and complexity. Tools that are essential for thermal management of batteries are infrared thermal imaging, isothermal calorimetry, thermal conductivity meter and computer-aided thermal analysis design software. This presentation provides details of these tools that NREL has used and we believe are needed to design right-sized battery thermal management systems.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: A 12V Start-Stop Li Polymer Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by LG Chem Power at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about A 12V start-stop Li polymer...

  10. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen andExperimental

  11. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  12. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  13. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vantolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission andmysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book begins with an

  14. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery...

  15. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    their use in lithium-ion batteries. However, applications atfor use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities andFor rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, we require that any

  16. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    in High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybridas Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Chem. Mater. 2011,seen in magnesium or lithium ion batteries would operate at

  17. Advanced battery modeling using neural networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arikara, Muralidharan Pushpakam

    1993-01-01

    battery models are available today that can accurately predict the performance of the battery system. This thesis presents a modeling technique for batteries employing neural networks. The advantage of using neural networks is that the effect of any...

  18. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    simulate those in a lithium battery. Chapter 3 TransientModel for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of TheRole in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrochemistry.

  19. Energy transport in jammed sphere packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning Xu; Vincenzo Vitelli; Matthieu Wyart; Andrea J. Liu; Sidney R. Nagel

    2008-11-17

    We calculate the normal modes of vibration in jammed sphere packings to obtain the energy diffusivity, a spectral measure of transport. At the boson peak frequency, we find an Ioffe-Regel crossover from a diffusivity that drops rapidly with frequency to one that is nearly frequency-independent. This crossover frequency shifts to zero as the system is decompressed towards the jamming transition, providing unambiguous evidence of a regime in frequency of nearly constant diffusivity. Such a regime, postulated to exist in glasses to explain the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity, therefore appears to arise from properties of the jamming transition.

  20. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chi, John W. H. (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  1. Battery-Aware Power Management Based on Markovian Decision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Dynamic Power Management 101 ! Motivation and principle of operation " Rationale: Power and Smart BatteriesBattery Characteristics and Smart Batteries ! Nonlinear characteristics of batteries " Rate capacity effect # The total energy capacity that a battery can deliver during its lifetime depends

  2. Response of Lithium Polymer Batteries to Mechanical Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Response of Lithium Polymer Batteries to Mechanical Loading Karl Suabedissen1, Christina Peabody2 #12;Outline · Motivation · Battery Structure · Testing and Results · Conclusions #12;Motivation · Lithium polymer batteries are everywhere. · Efforts to create flexible batteries. · Restrictive battery

  3. Battery Manufacturing Processes Improved by Johnson Controls...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Office. The project focused on three major aspects of the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery manufacturing process: reducing process time for battery formation and...

  4. Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  5. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    molten salts as lithium battery electrolyte,” ElectrochimicaFigure 15. Rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Figure 16 showsbattery. It is essential that an ionic liquid – lithium salt

  6. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award February...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Battery Development, System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research (USCAR). It also works directly with industry battery and material suppliers through competitive research and development awards. To learn how batteries are used...

  8. Battery resource assessment. Subtask II. 5. Battery manufacturing capability recycling of battery materials. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pemsler, P.

    1981-02-01

    Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials. Each recycle process has been designed to produce a product material which can be used directly as a raw material by the battery manufacturer. Metal recoverabilities are in the range of 93 to 95% for all processes. In each case, capital and operating costs have been developed for a recycling plant which processes 100,000 electric vehicle batteries per year. These costs have been developed based on material and energy balances, equipment lists, factored installation costs, and manpower estimates. In general, there are no technological barriers for recycling in the Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine and Zinc/Bromine battery systems. The recycling processes are based on essentially conventional, demonstrate technology. The lead times required to build battery recycling plants based on these processes is comparable to that of any other new plant. The total elapsed time required from inception to plant operation is approximately 3 to 5 y. The recycling process for the sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/sulfide battery systems are not based on conventional technology. In particular, mechanical systems for dismantling these batteries must be developed.

  9. Understanding shape entropy through local dense packing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greg van Anders; Daphne Klotsa; N. Khalid Ahmed; Michael Engel; Sharon C. Glotzer

    2014-10-28

    Entropy drives the phase behavior of colloids ranging from dense suspensions of hard spheres or rods to dilute suspensions of hard spheres and depletants. Entropic ordering of anisotropic shapes into complex crystals, liquid crystals, and even quasicrystals has been demonstrated recently in computer simulations and experiments. The ordering of shapes appears to arise from the emergence of directional entropic forces (DEFs) that align neighboring particles, but these forces have been neither rigorously defined nor quantified in generic systems. Here, we show quantitatively that shape drives the phase behavior of systems of anisotropic particles upon crowding through DEFs. We define DEFs in generic systems, and compute them for several hard particle systems. We show that they are on the order of a few kT at the onset of ordering, placing DEFs on par with traditional depletion, van der Waals, and other intrinsic interactions. In experimental systems with these other interactions, we provide direct quantitative evidence that entropic effects of shape also contribute to self-assembly. We use DEFs to draw a distinction between self-assembly and packing behavior. We show that the mechanism that generates directional entropic forces is the maximization of entropy by optimizing local particle packing. We show that this mechanism occurs in a wide class of systems, and we treat, in a unified way, the entropy-driven phase behavior of arbitrary shapes incorporating the well-known works of Kirkwood, Onsager, and Asakura and Oosawa.

  10. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  11. A study of a cooling tower with variable packing heights 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, A. M. M. Farid

    1957-01-01

    and Electronic Relay 17 6. 7 ~ 8. View of the Instrument Panel Racking Arrangement Spacer and Packing Types 23 23 10. Effect of Tower Height on Range/Approach Ratio for Rectangular Packing 35 Effect of Tower Height on Range/Approach Rptio for Circular... - round type packing 33 VI. Average results ? triangular packing with vertex up 34 SYMBOLS ALUB ABB?', 'VIATIO&IS mass air flow rate, pounds per (hour)(unit ground area) h" ent'halpy of saturated ai- at water temperature, Btu per pound of dry air. ha...

  12. Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, Peter C. (Espanola, NM); Rodriguez, Patrick J. (Espanola, NM); Pereyra, Ramiro A. (Medanales, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries.

  13. Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, P.C.; Rodriguez, P.J.; Pereyra, R.A.

    1999-06-29

    Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object is disclosed. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries. 4 figs.

  14. Flow Battery Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServices »First ObservationFast(ER1)Flow Battery

  15. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  16. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Tennessee Knoxville; U. Texas Austin; McGill U; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  17. A Desalination Battery Mauro Pasta,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    A Desalination Battery Mauro Pasta, Colin D. Wessells, Yi Cui,,§ and Fabio La Mantia Information ABSTRACT: Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse

  18. Principles of an Atomtronic Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex A. Zozulya; Dana Z. Anderson

    2013-08-06

    An asymmetric atom trap is investigated as a means to implement a "battery" that supplies ultracold atoms to an atomtronic circuit. The battery model is derived from a scheme for continuous loading of a non-dissipative atom trap proposed by Roos et al.(Europhysics Letters V61, 187 (2003)). The trap is defined by longitudinal and transverse trap frequencies and corresponding trap energy heights. The battery's ability to supply power to a load is evaluated as a function of an input atom flux and power. For given trap parameters and input flux the battery is shown to have a resonantly optimum value of input power. The battery behavior can be cast in terms of an equivalent circuit model; specifically, for fixed input flux and power the battery is modeled in terms of a Th\\'{e}venin equivalent chemical potential and internal resistance. The internal resistance establishes the maximum power that can be supplied to a circuit, the heat that will be generated by the battery, and that noise will be imposed on the circuit. We argue that any means of implementing a battery for atomtronics can be represented by a Th\\'{e}venin equivalent and that its performance will likewise be determined by an internal resistance.

  19. Thin Flexible Lithium Ion Battery Featuring Graphite Paper Based Current Collectors with Enhanced Conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Hang; Tang, Yufeng; Semenikihin, Oleg; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    A flexible, light weight and high conductivity current collector is the key element that enables fabrication of high performance flexible lithium ion battery. Here we report a thin, light weight and flexible lithium ion battery that uses graphite paper enhanced with a nano-sized metallic layers as the current collector, LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 as the cathode and anode materials, and PE membrane soaked in LiPF6 as a separator. Using thin and flexible graphite paper as a substrate for the current collector instead of a rigid and heavy metal foil enables us to demonstrate a very thin Lithium-Ion Battery into ultra-thin (total thickness including encapsulation layers of less than 250 {\\mu}m) that is also light weight and highly flexible.

  20. Zinc-bromine battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellows, R.; Grimes, P.; Malachesky, P.

    1983-01-01

    Some progress in the field of zinc-bromine batteries is reviewed, and a number of successes and some difficulties are related. The direction of work includes, among other areas, testing of parametric and large batteries. The program includes the control of electrode planarity through electrode thickness and electrode support, improved cathode activation coatings to increase and maintain performance near the end of battery capacity, reduced retention of bromine in the battery cell stock at shutdown to lower capacity loss and improve sealing techniques. Projected factory cost should be competitive with lead-acid batteries. Progress has been demonstrated in scale-up and performance, as well as improving the life of the system. (LEW)

  1. Volatile Components from Packing Matrials, Rev. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. A.

    2006-03-01

    An outgassing study was conducted on five packing materials, comprising two experiments. These materials comprised 277-4 borated concrete, Borobond4 concrete, polyethylene bags, silica-filled silicone rubber seals, and silicone foam padding. The purpose was measure the volume of gases which diffuse from packaging materials when sealed in containers. Two heating profiles were used to study the offgassing quantities in a set of accelerated aging tests. It was determined that the concretes contain a large quantity of water. The plastic materials hold much less moisture, with the silicone materials even consuming water, possibly due to the presence of silica filler. Polyethylene tends to degrade as the temperature is elevated and the foam stiffens.

  2. Granular impact and the critical packing state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umbanhowar, Paul; 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.010301

    2010-01-01

    Impact dynamics during collisions of spheres with granular media reveal a pronounced and non-trivial dependence on volume fraction \\phi. Post impact crater morphology identifies the critical packing state \\phi_{cps}, where sheared grains neither dilate nor consolidate, and indicates an associated change in spatial response. Current phenomenological models fail to capture the observed impact force for most \\phi; only near \\phi_{cps} is force separable into additive terms linear in depth and quadratic in velocity. At fixed depth the quadratic drag coefficient decreases (increases) with depth for \\phi \\phi_{cps}). At fixed low velocity, depth dependence of force shows a Janssen-type exponential response with a length scale that decreases with increasing \\phi; and is nearly constant for \\phi > \\phi_{cps}.

  3. Granular impact and the critical packing state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Umbanhowar; Daniel I. Goldman

    2010-07-16

    Impact dynamics during collisions of spheres with granular media reveal a pronounced and non-trivial dependence on volume fraction \\phi. Post impact crater morphology identifies the critical packing state \\phi_{cps}, where sheared grains neither dilate nor consolidate, and indicates an associated change in spatial response. Current phenomenological models fail to capture the observed impact force for most \\phi; only near \\phi_{cps} is force separable into additive terms linear in depth and quadratic in velocity. At fixed depth the quadratic drag coefficient decreases (increases) with depth for \\phi \\phi_{cps}). At fixed low velocity, depth dependence of force shows a Janssen-type exponential response with a length scale that decreases with increasing \\phi; and is nearly constant for \\phi > \\phi_{cps}.

  4. Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Ireland, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-07-15

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  5. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2006-10-01

    Presents the objectives and motivations for a battery thermal management vehicle system design study.

  6. Battery-Powered Digital CMOS Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    1 Page 1 USC Low Power CAD Massoud Pedram Battery-Powered Digital CMOS Design Massoud Pedram Power CAD Massoud Pedram Motivation Extending the battery service life of battery-powered micro in the VLSI circuit Y The battery system is assumed to be an ideal source that delivers a fixed amount

  7. Packed bed reactor for photochemical .sup.196 Hg isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA)

    1992-01-01

    Straight tubes and randomly oriented pieces of tubing having been employed in a photochemical mercury enrichment reactor and have been found to improve the enrichment factor (E) and utilization (U) compared to a non-packed reactor. One preferred embodiment of this system uses a moving bed (via gravity) for random packing.

  8. . AN IMPROVED AND PRACTICAL METHOD OF PACKING FISH FOR TRANSPORTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    = . AN IMPROVED AND PRACTICAL METHOD OF PACKING FISH FOR TRANSPORTATION $- By A. Selling Commissioner to the Danish Government Fisheries Department, London, England Paper presented before the Fourth for pagination #12;AN IMPROVED AND PRACTICAL METHOD OF PACKING FISH FOR TRANSPORTATION. ,JI By A. Stl

  9. Campus Pack Blogs, Wikis & Journals August 2, 2014 Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yorke, James

    Campus Pack Blogs, Wikis & Journals August 2, 2014 Release Campus Pack has introduced a new version Navigation Navigate through the wiki (blog, journal) pages by clicking the "Pages" button in the upper left. All of the pages will be listed. Click the "Add New Page" button to add pages to the blog, wiki

  10. Procedure for Packing Weather Files for DOE-2e 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, K. H.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    -09-03 Procedure for Packing Weather Files for DOE-2e Kee Han Kim Juan-Carlos Baltazar-Cervantes, Ph.D. September 2010 ESL-TR-10-09-03 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1... ................................................................................................................................................. 7 1. OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................................................... 7 2. PROCESS OF PACKING WEATHER DATA FOR DOE-2e SIMULATION ............................... 8 2...

  11. Principles of an Atomtronic Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zozulya, Alex A

    2013-01-01

    An asymmetric atom trap is investigated as a means to implement a "battery" that supplies ultracold atoms to an atomtronic circuit. The battery model is derived from a scheme for continuous loading of a non-dissipative atom trap proposed by Roos et al.(Europhysics Letters V61, 187 (2003)). The trap is defined by longitudinal and transverse trap frequencies and corresponding trap energy heights. The battery's ability to supply power to a load is evaluated as a function of an input atom flux and power. For given trap parameters and input flux the battery is shown to have a resonantly optimum value of input power. The battery behavior can be cast in terms of an equivalent circuit model; specifically, for fixed input flux and power the battery is modeled in terms of a Th\\'{e}venin equivalent chemical potential and internal resistance. The internal resistance establishes the maximum power that can be supplied to a circuit, the heat that will be generated by the battery, and that noise will be imposed on the circui...

  12. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  13. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, S.J.; Liu, M.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1992-11-10

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145 C (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium trifluorate (PEO[sub 8]LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS)[sub n], and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte. 2 figs.

  14. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (2336 California St., Berkeley, CA 94703); Liu, Meilin (1121C Ninth St., #29, Albany, CA 94710); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (910 Acalanes Rd., Lafayette, CA 94549)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145.degree. C. (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium triflate (PEO.sub.8 LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS).sub.n, and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte.

  15. Solid polymer battery electrolyte and reactive metal-water battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    In one implementation, a reactive metal-water battery includes an anode comprising a metal in atomic or alloy form selected from the group consisting of periodic table Group 1A metals, periodic table Group 2A metals and mixtures thereof. The battery includes a cathode comprising water. Such also includes a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a polyphosphazene comprising ligands bonded with a phosphazene polymer backbone. The ligands comprise an aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion and a metal ion carrier portion. The metal ion carrier portion is bonded at one location with the polymer backbone and at another location with the aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion. The invention also contemplates such solid polymer electrolytes use in reactive metal/water batteries, and in any other battery.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    electrode in lithium-ion batteries: AFM study in an ethylenelithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Carbon 1999, 37, 165-batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2001,

  17. Sodium Titanates as Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    Anodes  for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   Marca  M.  Doeff,  dual   intercalation   batteries   based   on   sodium  future   of   sodium  ion  batteries  will  be  discussed  

  18. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    beyondlithiumionb.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries...

  19. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Alloy design for lithium-ion battery anodes. J. Electrochem.advances in lithium ion battery materials. Electrochim. Actamaterials for lithium ion battery. Journal of Nanoparticle

  20. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery,...

  1. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    microdiffraction. Lithium ion batteries have made a greatthose used in lithium-ion batteries. Dynamic potentiometricrechargeable lithium ion batteries consist of many layers of

  2. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Variouselectrodes for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of MaterialsAdvances in Lithium-Ion Batteries (Chapter 4), Kluwer

  3. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    2000). Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles, (ANL/Lithium ion Batteries 2.1.1 Lithium versus Lithium ion Batteries Lithium systems

  4. Developing Next-Gen Batteries With Help From NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries A genomics approach to materials research could speed up advancements in battery performance December...

  5. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project Andrewto evaluate emerging lithium battery technologies for plug-vehicles. By emerging lithium battery chemistries were meant

  6. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    3 2.1.2 Lithium ion Battery2.2 Schematic of lithium ion battery operating principles (be rechargeable. The lithium ion battery is often referred

  7. New imaging capability reveals possible key to extending battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    developed for studying battery failures points to a potential next step in extending lithium ion battery lifetime and capacity, opening a path to wider use of these batteries...

  8. Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties Henderson, Wesley 25 ENERGY STORAGE battery, electrolyte, solvation, ionic association battery, electrolyte,...

  9. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation Neubauer, J. 25 ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY; LITHIUM-ION; STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE; BLAST; BATTERY DEGRADATION;...

  10. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries PolyPlus Battery Company - Berkeley, CA A...

  11. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollard, Richard

    2012-01-01

    and J. Newman, Proc. Syrup. Battery Design and Optimization,123, 1364 (1976). Symp, Battery Design and Optimization, S.~ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  12. Psychometric properties of the penn computerized neurocognitive battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, TM; Reise, SP; Gur, RE; Hakonarson, H; Gur, RC; Gur, RC

    2015-01-01

    a computerized neurocognitive battery in children age 8 –21.based neurocog- nitive battery. Therapeutic Hypothermia anda standardized neurocognitive battery. Neuropsychology, 28,

  13. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2015-04-21

    An as-prepared cathode for a secondary battery, the cathode including an alkaline source material including an alkali metal oxide, an alkali metal sulfide, an alkali metal salt, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  14. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Liu, Hansan [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.

  15. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2012-01-01

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  16. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  17. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  18. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  19. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-05-29

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  20. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  1. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Ahmad, P.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.; Smith, K.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.

    2012-05-01

    This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the application of the Battery Ownership Model for strategies for optimal battery use in electric drive vehicles (PEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs).

  2. High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-15

    HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.

  3. Model based control of a coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.M.; Srour, J.M.; Zulli, P. [BHP Research, Mulgrave (Australia). Melbourne Labs.; Cunningham, R.; Hockings, K. [BHP Steel, Pt Kembla, New South Wales (Australia). Coal and Coke Technical Development Group

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a model-based strategy for coke battery control at BHP Steel`s operations in Pt Kembla, Australia. The strategy uses several models describing the battery thermal and coking behavior. A prototype controller has been installed on the Pt Kembla No. 6 Battery (PK6CO). In trials, the new controller has been well accepted by operators and has resulted in a clear improvement in battery thermal stability, with a halving of the standard deviation of average battery temperature. Along with other improvements to that battery`s operations, this implementation has contributed to a 10% decrease in specific battery energy consumption. A number of enhancements to the low level control systems on that battery are currently being undertaken in order to realize further benefits.

  4. Optimal management of batteries in electric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Corey, Garth P. (Albuquerque, NM); Symons, Philip C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

  5. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    optimizing better battery materials. A Battery of Tests for Better Batteries The prosaic battery has often been overlooked as little more than an afterthought in a consumer-driven...

  6. Reduced weight decontamination formulation for neutralization of chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2014-06-03

    A reduced weight DF-200 decontamination formulation that is stable under high temperature storage conditions. The formulation can be pre-packed as an all-dry (i.e., no water) or nearly-dry (i.e., minimal water) three-part kit, with make-up water (the fourth part) being added later in the field at the point of use.

  7. Advanced Models and Controls for Prediction and Extension of Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-01

    Predictive models of capacity and power fade must consider a multiplicity of degradation modes experienced by Li-ion batteries in the automotive environment. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must presently be absorbed by overdesign and excess warranty costs. To reduce these costs and extend life, degradation models are under development that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. The lifetime models provide engineering feedback for cell, pack and system designs and are being incorporated into real-time control strategies.

  8. Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System Combining Batteries and Double

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System Combining Batteries and Double Layer storage for operation. High demands concerning power and energy density, small volume and weight is to combine storage technologies with complementary characteristics as a hybrid energy storage system. Thus

  9. PACKING TRIANGLES ON A SPHERE ISAAC OTTONI WILHELM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, J. Peter

    a more general procedure that we call the Windmill Algorithm for packing equilateral triangles onto a sphere. In Section 4 we prove several facts about the Windmill Algorithm and use those facts to prove

  10. FOR THE RECORD RosettaHoles2: A volumetric packing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, David

    FOR THE RECORD RosettaHoles2: A volumetric packing measure for protein structure refinement volumetric in nature. However, the total cavity volume is not a good dis- criminator between computational

  11. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials...

  12. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01

    commercial Li-ion batteries today use graphite or a mixturein certain primary batteries). Graphite has a potential of

  13. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing...

  14. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    for powering microelectromechanical systems and otherSurvey of battery powered microelectromechanical systems.with battery powered microelectromechanical systems (MEMS),

  15. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01

    battery cathodes for portable electronics (and is even the material used in batteries for the original Tesla

  16. Performance characterization of a packed bed electro-filter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanan, Ajay

    1990-01-01

    PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by A JAY NARAYANAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1990 Major Subject: Safety Engineering PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by AJAY NARAYANAN Approved as to style and content by: John P. Wagn (Ch ' of the Com ittee) Aydin Akgerman (Member) Ri ard B...

  17. Extended abstracts: seventh battery and electrochemical contractors' conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, D.; Hurwitch, J. (comps.)

    1985-11-01

    Seventy-two papers are arranged under the following session headings: EPRI storage program, review of key program activities, sodium/sulfur battery development, advanced battery research (two sessions), flow battery development, sodium/sulfur battery research, systems analysis and technology transfer, performance and testing (two sessions), flow battery research, metal/air batteries, and fuel cells. (DLC)

  18. An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng cycle-life tends to shrink significantly. The capacities of commercial lithium-ion batteries fade by 10 prediction model to estimate the remaining capacity of a Lithium-Ion battery. The proposed analytical model

  19. Energy Storage & Battery | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and additive components for lithium-ion, llithium-air, lithium-sulfur, sodium-ion, and flow batteries. Employing some of the most respected and cited battery researchers in the...

  20. Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award October 15, 2014 -...

  1. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    batteries are leading candidates to play an important role in the transition to a renewableBatteries by William Rodgers Hudson Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry University of California, Berkeley Professor Jeffrey Long, Chair Increasing interest in renewable

  2. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2009-09-14

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  3. A User Programmable Battery Charging System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07

    , have to be replenished or recharged once their energy is depleted. Battery charging systems must perform this replenishment by using very fast and efficient methods to extend battery life and to increase periods between charges. In this regard...

  4. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael

    2013-04-19

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Model for the Graphite Anode in Li-Ion Batteries. Journal ofgraphite Chapters 2-3 have developed a method using ferrocene to characterize the SEI in lithium- ion batteries.

  6. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2010-01-08

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion...

  9. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    experimental data from plastic lithium ion cells. Journal ofelectrolyte additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec-Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of The

  10. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Alternator control for battery charging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  12. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  13. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing development and application of processing and process control for nanocomposite materials for lithium ion batteries

  14. Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL battery thermal modeling and testing work for the DOE Annual Merit Review, May 9, 2011.

  15. Review of flow battery testing at Sandia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, P.C.; Miller, D.W.; Robinson, C.E.; Rodriguez, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating prototype zinc/bromine, Redox, and zinc/ferricyanide flowing electrolyte batteries and cells. This paper will update previous reports of test results of two Exxon zinc/bromine batteries and one NASA Redox iron/chromium battery. Two 60-sq. cm. zinc/ferricyanide cells from Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. are also being evaluated. Performance, life, and operating data will be described for these batteries and cells.

  16. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

    2006-11-01

    Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

  17. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  18. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bockelmann, Thomas R. (Battle Creek, MI); Hope, Mark E. (Marshall, MI); Zou, Zhanjiang (Battle Creek, MI); Kang, Xiaosong (Battle Creek, MI)

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  19. High Performance Anode for Advanced Li Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lake, Carla

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  20. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  1. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  2. Batteries for Vehicular Applications Venkat Srinivasan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    Batteries for Vehicular Applications Venkat Srinivasan Lawrence Berkeley National Lab 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 70R 0108B Berkeley, CA 94720 Abstract. This paper will describe battery technology), and plug-in- hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV). The present status of rechargeable batteries

  3. Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries Frontiers in Materials Science Seminar / Chemistryg g g g g y University at Buffalo ­ The State University of New York (SUNY) Abstract Batteries/SVO batteries. A case study highlighting the rich chemistry and electrochemistry of the Li/SVO system providing

  4. Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program Venkat Srinivasan of the DOE/EERE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program to develop batteries for vehicular applications double the energy density of presently available Li batteries · HEV: low-T operation, cost, and abuse

  5. 0 INFORMATION BATTERIES-FOR BIOTELEMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    A -BIAC 0 INFORMATION MODULE MIO BATTERIES-FOR BIOTELEMETRY AND OTHER APPLICATIONS Prepared by go to the Applications Engineering Department of P. R. Mallory Battery Company for supplying. High vacuum or pressures of 5C00 psi have no detectable effect on mercury batteries. Momentary short

  6. Transparent lithium-ion batteries , Sangmoo Jeongb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Transparent lithium-ion batteries Yuan Yanga , Sangmoo Jeongb , Liangbing Hua , Hui Wua , Seok Woo, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transpar- ent and have to be thick

  7. Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries IMRE GYUK, PROGRAM MANAGER ENERGY STORAGE RESEARCH, DOE Flow 2011Year #12;Flow Battery Research at PNNL and Sandia #12; Iron-containing "MetIL" Redox Couples for Flow Batteries, Sandia Sandia has developed

  8. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  9. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  10. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  11. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2013-04-19

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  12. Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling with Bursty Workloads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    1 Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling with Bursty Workloads Dylan Lexie , Shan Lin, and Jie Wu.wu@temple.edu Abstract--Battery-powered wireless sensor devices need to be charged to provide the desired functionality after deployment. Task or even device failures can occur if the voltage of the battery is low

  13. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  14. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A. Gallagher, K. G. Bloom, I. Dees, D. W.

    2011-10-20

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on cost and energy density from changes in cell capacity, parallel cell groups, and manufacturing capabilities are easily assessed with the model. New proposed materials may also be examined to translate bench-scale values to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the original equipment manufacturer. The model will be openly distributed to the public in the year 2011. Currently, the calculations are based in a Microsoft{reg_sign} Office Excel spreadsheet. Instructions are provided for use; however, the format is admittedly not user-friendly. A parallel development effort has created an alternate version based on a graphical user-interface that will be more intuitive to some users. The version that is more user-friendly should allow for wider adoption of the model.

  15. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  16. Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriksen, G.L.

    1993-08-01

    A technology assessment is given for electric batteries with potential for use in electric powered vehicles. Parameters considered include: specific energy, specific power, energy density, power density, cycle life, service life, recharge time, and selling price. Near term batteries include: nickel/cadmium and lead-acid batteries. Mid term batteries include: sodium/sulfur, sodium/nickel chloride, nickel/metal hydride, zinc/air, zinc/bromine, and nickel/iron systems. Long term batteries include: lithium/iron disulfide and lithium- polymer systems. Performance and life testing data for these systems are discussed. (GHH)

  17. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  18. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  19. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    as cathode materials for lithium ion battery. ElectrochimicaCapacity, High Rate Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Utilizinghours. 1.4 Lithium Ion Batteries Lithium battery technology

  20. Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 and 27,000 Wh per liter.

  1. Lithium-Air Battery: High Performance Cathodes for Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-01

    BEEST Project: Researchers at Missouri S&T are developing an affordable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery that could enable an EV to travel up to 350 miles on a single charge. Today’s EVs run on Li-Ion batteries, which are expensive and suffer from low energy density compared with gasoline. This new Li-Air battery could perform as well as gasoline and store 3 times more energy than current Li-Ion batteries. A Li-Air battery uses an air cathode to breathe oxygen into the battery from the surrounding air, like a human lung. The oxygen and lithium react in the battery to produce electricity. Current Li-Air batteries are limited by the rate at which they can draw oxygen from the air. The team is designing a battery using hierarchical electrode structures to enhance air breathing and effective catalysts to accelerate electricity production.

  2. Models for Metal Hydride Particle Shape, Packing, and Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyle C. Smith; Timothy S. Fisher

    2012-05-04

    A multiphysics modeling approach for heat conduction in metal hydride powders is presented, including particle shape distribution, size distribution, granular packing structure, and effective thermal conductivity. A statistical geometric model is presented that replicates features of particle size and shape distributions observed experimentally that result from cyclic hydride decreptitation. The quasi-static dense packing of a sample set of these particles is simulated via energy-based structural optimization methods. These particles jam (i.e., solidify) at a density (solid volume fraction) of 0.665+/-0.015 - higher than prior experimental estimates. Effective thermal conductivity of the jammed system is simulated and found to follow the behavior predicted by granular effective medium theory. Finally, a theory is presented that links the properties of bi-porous cohesive powders to the present systems based on recent experimental observations of jammed packings of fine powder. This theory produces quantitative experimental agreement with metal hydride powders of various compositions.

  3. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  4. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2014-10-28

    Method of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electrolytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  5. AVTA: Battery Testing- DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report describes DC fast charging's effects on plug-in electric vehicle batteries. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  6. Online Prediction of Battery Lifetime for Embedded and Mobile Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krintz, Chandra

    Online Prediction of Battery Lifetime for Embedded and Mobile Devices Ye Wen, Rich Wolski, and compare it to two similar battery prediction technologies: ACPI and Smart Battery. We employ twenty is a critical resource for battery-powered embedded systems and mobile devices. As such, battery life must

  7. A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daigle, Matthew

    A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers Matthew Daigle NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA 94035 chetan.s.kulkarni@nasa.gov Abstract--Batteries have seen an increased use source. An important aspect of using batteries in such contexts is battery health monitoring. Batteries

  8. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  9. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  10. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  11. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraft, H.; Ledjeff, K.

    1984-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive the discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  12. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraft, Helmut (Liederbach, DE); Ledjeff, Konstantin (Bad Krozingen, DE)

    1985-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive he discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  13. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B

    2014-02-04

    A battery system includes a platform having an aperture formed therethrough, a flexible member having a generally planar configuration and extending across the aperture, wherein a portion of the flexible member is coextensive with the aperture, a cell provided adjacent the platform, and a sensor coupled to the flexible member and positioned proximate the cell. The sensor is configured to detect a temperature of the cell.

  14. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  15. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  16. Charging a Battery-Powered Device with a Fiber-Optically Connected Photonic Power System for Achieving High-Voltage Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizon, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gioria, Jack G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Snyder, Hans R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a system to provide isolated power to the cathode-subsystem electronics of an x-ray tube. These components are located at the cathode potential of several hundred kilovolts, requiring a supply of power isolated from this high voltage. In this design a fiber-optically connected photonic power system (PPS) is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack, which will subsequently supply power to the cathode-subsystem electronics. The suitability of the commercially available JDSU PPS for this application is evaluated. The output of the ppe converter is characterized. The technical aspects of its use for charging a variety of Li-Ion batteries are discussed. Battery charge protection requirements and safety concerns are also addressed.

  17. Hydrogen Bonding Increases Packing Density in the Protein Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Bonding Increases Packing Density in the Protein Interior David Schell,1,2 Jerry Tsai,1 J System Health Science Center, College Station, Texas 77843-1114 ABSTRACT The contribution of hydrogen to the stability, but experimental studies show that bury- ing polar groups, especially those that are hydrogen

  18. FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE GridPACK: Grid Parallel Advanced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE GridPACK: Grid Parallel Advanced Computational Kernels OBJECTIVE The U Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (509) 375-3899 bruce.palmer@pnnl.gov ABOUT FPGI The Future Power and ensure a more secure, efficient and reliable future grid. Building on the Electricity Infrastructure

  19. Geometry and Optimal Packing of Twisted Columns and Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory M. Grason

    2015-01-30

    This review presents recent progress in understanding constraints and consequences of close-packing geometry of filamentous or columnar materials possessing non-trivial textures, focusing in particular on the common motifs of twisted and toroidal structures. The mathematical framework is presented that relates spacing between line-like, filamentous elements to their backbone orientations, highlighting the explicit connection between the inter-filament {\\it metric} properties and the geometry of non-Euclidean surfaces. The consequences of the hidden connection between packing in twisted filament bundles and packing on positively curved surfaces, like the Thomson problem, are demonstrated for the defect-riddled ground states of physical models of twisted filament bundles. The connection between the "ideal" geometry of {\\it fibrations} of curved three-dimensional space, including the Hopf fibration, and the non-Euclidean constraints of filament packing in twisted and toroidal bundles is presented, with a focus on the broader dependence of metric geometry on the simultaneous twisting and folded of multi-filament bundles.

  20. Synopsis: Repulsion Helps Virus Pack DNA APS/Joan Tycko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Douglas E.

    Synopsis: Repulsion Helps Virus Pack DNA APS/Joan Tycko Repulsive DNA-DNA Interactions Accelerate, and Douglas E. Smith Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 248101 (2014) Published June 17, 2014 Featured in Physics Editors reported in Physical Review Letters show that, surprisingly, switching the DNA self-interaction from

  1. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  2. Capacity fade analysis of a battery/super capacitor hybrid and a battery under pulse loads full cell studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Capacity fade analysis of a battery/super capacitor hybrid and a battery under pulse loads ­ full ion battery-super capacitor hybrid system is preferred over a lithium ion battery for higher rates ion battery ($100 W/kg). Also, since the inter- nal resistance of the super capacitor is smaller than

  3. Fuzzy Logic-Based Smart Battery State-of-Charge (SOC) Monitor for SLI Batteries Pritpal Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Pritpal

    1 Fuzzy Logic-Based Smart Battery State-of-Charge (SOC) Monitor for SLI Batteries Pritpal Singh. Monitoring and charge control of these batteries can be improved by using the concept of a smart battery system (SBS). In the present work, a smart battery monitor has been designed and manufactured

  4. Batteries for Large Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L.

    2011-07-15

    In recent years, with the deployment of renewable energy sources, advances in electrified transportation, and development in smart grids, the markets for large-scale stationary energy storage have grown rapidly. Electrochemical energy storage methods are strong candidate solutions due to their high energy density, flexibility, and scalability. This review provides an overview of mature and emerging technologies for secondary and redox flow batteries. New developments in the chemistry of secondary and flow batteries as well as regenerative fuel cells are also considered. Advantages and disadvantages of current and prospective electrochemical energy storage options are discussed. The most promising technologies in the short term are high-temperature sodium batteries with ?”-alumina electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries, and flow batteries. Regenerative fuel cells and lithium metal batteries with high energy density require further research to become practical.

  5. Local analysis of the history dependence in tetrahedra packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Nirmal Thyagu; Max Neudecker; Matthias Schröter

    2015-01-19

    The mechanical properties of a granular sample can depend on the way the packing was prepared. However, the variables which store this information are often unknown. Here we present an X-ray tomography study of tetrahedra packings prepared with three different tapping strengths. Our main result is that the relative contribution of the three different contact types possible between tetrahedra -- face-to-face (F2F), edge-to-face (E2F), and point contacts -- is one variable which stores the preparation history. We show this by preparing pairs of packings that differ either in their bulk volume fraction $\\phi_{global}$ or in their number of mechanical constraints per particle $C$, where $C$ is determined from all three contact types which each fix a different amount of constraints. For the pairs with the same $\\phi_{global}$ the number of E2F and point contacts varies with preparation, while the number of F2F contacts stays constant. For the iso-constraint packings the relative contribution of all three contact types stays the same. We then perform a local analysis of the contact distribution by grouping the particles together according to their individual volume fraction $\\phi_{local}$ computed from a Voronoi tessellation. We find that the probability distribution of $\\phi_{local}$ depends only on $\\phi_{global}$, not on $C$. The number of F2F and E2F contacts increases in all experiments with $\\phi_{local}$; the number of point contacts, while always being the largest, decreases with $\\phi_{local}$. However, only the number of F2F contacts can be described by an universal function of $\\phi_{local}$. This behavior differs from spheres and ellipsoids and posses a significant constraint for any mean-field approach to tetrahedra packings.

  6. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  7. NO. REV. NO. LSPE THERMAL BATTERY TEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    NO. REV. NO. ATM 1086 LSPE THERMAL BATTERY TEST PAGE 1 OF DATE 2/25/72 Prepared by @c!_.e,~.~ ~P. Weir Approved by ~~---:J L. Lewis 5 #12;KC::Y, NO. LSPE THERMAL BATTERY TEST ATM 1086 2 PAGE OF DATE 2-52-72 Introduction The purpose of this ATM is to document the results of a Thermal Battery test for the Lunar Seismic

  8. Piston ring pack design effects on production spark ignition engine oil consumption : a simulation analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senzer, Eric B

    2007-01-01

    One of the most significant contributors to an engine's total oil consumption is the piston ring-pack. As a result, optimization of the ring pack is becoming more important for engine manufacturers and lubricant suppliers. ...

  9. Effects of lubricant viscosity and surface texturing on ring-pack performance in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takata, Rosalind (Rosalind Kazuko), 1978-

    2006-01-01

    The piston ring-pack contributes approximately 25% of the mechanical losses in an internal combustion engine. Both lubricant viscosity and surface texturing were investigated in an effort to reduce this ring-pack friction ...

  10. Modeling the lubrication of the piston ring pack in internal combustion engines using the deterministic method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Haijie

    2011-01-01

    Piston ring packs are used in internal combustion engines to seal both the high pressure gas in the combustion chamber and the lubricant oil in the crank case. The interaction between the piston ring pack and the cylinder ...

  11. The effect of surface finish on piston ring-pack performance in advanced reciprocating engine systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jocsak, Jeffrey (Jeffrey Alan)

    2005-01-01

    Frictional losses in the piston ring-pack of an engine account for approximately 20% of the total frictional losses within an engine. Methods of surface texture optimization were investigated to reduce piston ring-pack ...

  12. Real Time (20 Second) Data Base Single Loop (Packed into 3 bytes)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Data Base Single Loop (Packed into 3 bytes) ------------------------------------------- Data Element;------------------------------------------------------------------------- --- Real Time (20 Second) Data Base Station (Packed into 3 bytes Loops | 3 | [0]|Data Present, 0=No Data | |Scan Cnt| 11 | [0]|

  13. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Replacing lithium with other metals with multiple charges could greatly increase battery capacity. But first researchers need to understand how to keep multiply charged...

  14. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    to 1) - a New Cathode Material for Batteries of High- Energyefforts to develop new high-energy materials such as silicon

  15. Washington: Battery Manufacturer Brings Material Production Home...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    batteries enable electric drive vehicles to consume less petroleum and produce less pollution than conventional vehicles. At full capacity, the EnerG2 plant will produce enough...

  16. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the porous electrode. Using the STXM lithium maps and the high-resolution TEM images, researchers found that LFP battery particles do not charge simultaneously....

  17. Ultracapacitors and Batteries in Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Zolot, M.; Sprik, S.

    2005-08-01

    Using an ultracapacitor in conjunction with a battery in a hybrid vehicle combines the power performance of the former with the greater energy storage capability of the latter.

  18. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    abuse tolerant lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is an important step in electrifying the drive train and facilitating widespread adoption of HEVs and PHEVs. Nanocomposite...

  19. Advanced Battery Materials Characterization: Success stories...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Advanced Battery Materials Characterization: Success stories from the High Temperature Materials...

  20. Redox shuttle additives for overcharge protection in lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Ross Jr., P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Protection in Lithium Batteries”, T. J. Richardson* and P.PROTECTION IN LITHIUM BATTERIES T. J. Richardson* and P. N.in lithium and lithium ion batteries are now available. The

  1. Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    higher power density batteries have reduced energy density,2008 UCD-ITS-WP-09-02 Are batteries ready for plug-in hybridprograms mischaracterize the batteries needed to start

  2. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01

    T. , Tozawa, K. Prog. Batteries Solar Cells 1990, 9, 209. E.Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vechicles. ” Center forin Solids: Solid State Batteries and Devices, Ed. by W. vn

  3. Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2010-01-01

    237–253. Burke, A. , 2007. Batteries and ultracapacitors forresults with lithium-ion batteries. In: Proceedings (CD)locate/tranpol Are batteries ready for plug-in hybrid

  4. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,for lithium rechargeable batteries. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.anodes for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem. A 1,

  5. Are batteries ready for plug-in hybrid buyers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.; Burke, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    higher power density batteries have reduced energy density,2008 UCD-ITS-WP-09-02 Are batteries ready for plug-in hybridprograms mischaracterize the batteries needed to start

  6. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles, (ANL/ESD- 42) .Linden, D. , Handbook of Batteries, McGraw-Hill Companies,2012). Lithium Use in Batteries, U.S. Geological Survey (

  7. Automated Battery Swap and Recharge to Enable Persistent UAV Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toksoz, Tuna

    This paper introduces a hardware platform for automated battery changing and charging for multiple UAV agents. The automated station holds a bu er of 8 batteries in a novel dual-drum structure that enables a "hot" battery ...

  8. Model Reformulation and Design of Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    987 94 Model Reformulation and Design of Lithium-ion Batteries V.R. Subramanian1,*, V. Boovaragavan Prediction......................................997 Optimal Design of Lithium-ion Batteries Lithium-ion batteries, product design, Bayesian estimation, Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation

  9. Nonlinear Predictive Energy Management of Residential Buildings with Photovoltaics & Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chao; Sun, Fengchun; Moura, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    system and second-life lithium-ion battery energy storage. Atrade-off between lithium-ion battery aging and economicIncorporating an empirical lithium-ion battery capacity loss

  10. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    silicon nanowires for lithium ion battery anode with longfor high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes. Appl. Phys.as the anode for a lithium-ion battery with high coulombic

  11. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart...

  12. Team Led by Argonne National Lab Selected as DOE's Batteries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building a Better Battery for Vehicles and the Grid New Battery Design Could Help Solar and Wind Power the Grid New Battery Design Could Help Solar and Wind Power the Grid...

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    1/3 O 2 for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sourcesof LiFePO4 based lithium ion batteries. Mater. Lett. 2007,negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries: AFM study in an

  14. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem.cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem.

  15. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode Jun Liu,Modeling of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power SourcesBehavior of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources

  16. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Alloy design for lithium-ion battery anodes. J. Electrochem.advances in lithium ion battery materials. Electrochim. ActaO 2 cathode material for lithium ion battery: Dependence of

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries: AFM study in anJ. R. , Alloy design for lithium-ion battery anodes. J.Carbon materials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

  18. Benefits of battery-uItracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ian C., S.M. (Ian Charles). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the benefits of battery and battery-ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESSs) in pulsed-load applications. It investigates and quantifies the benefits of the hybrid ESS over its battery-only ...

  19. A Bayesian nonparametric approach to modeling battery health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doshi-Velez, Finale P.

    The batteries of many consumer products are both a substantial portion of the product's cost and commonly a first point of failure. Accurately predicting remaining battery life can lower costs by reducing unnecessary battery ...

  20. Battery Lifetime-Aware Automotive Climate Control for Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    Battery Lifetime-Aware Automotive Climate Control for Electric Vehicles Korosh Vatanparvar) optimization involves stringent con- straints on driving range and battery lifetime. Sophisticated embedded systems and huge number of computing resources have enabled re- searchers to implement advanced Battery

  1. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources 2006, 163,of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources 2008, 180,Up of a Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources 2009,

  2. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime: Applications in Design and Health Management (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Jun, M.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation discusses models for battery reliability and lifetime and the Battery Ownership Model.

  3. Savings Potential of ENERGY STAR(R) External Power Adapters and Battery Chargers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, Carrie; Korn, David; Sanchez, Marla

    2007-01-01

    than converted into useful energy. Battery charging systemscharging – directly useful energy or “battery energy”) –

  4. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Capacity, High Rate Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Utilizingas cathode materials for lithium ion battery. Electrochimica

  5. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The program has progressed to the stage of evaluating full-sized (220 Ah) cells, multicell modules, and 22 kWh batteries. Nickel electrodes that display stable capacities of up to 24 Ah/plate (at C/3 drain rate) at design thickness (2.5 mm) in tests at 200/sup +/ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are also delivering 24 Ah/plate (at C/3) at target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron plates are displaying capacity stability for 300/sup +/ test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Best finished cells are delivering 57 to 63 Wh/kg at C/3, based on cell weights of the finished cells, and in the actual designed cell volume. 6-cell module (6-1) performance has demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 53 WH/kg at the C/3 drain rate. This module is now being evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory. The 2 x 4 battery has been constructed, tested, and delivered for engineering test and evaluation. The battery delivered 22.5 kWh, as required (199 Ah discharge at 113 V-bar) at the C/3 drain rate. The battery has performed satisfactorily under dynamometer and constant current drain tests. Some cell problems, related to construction, necessitated changing 3 modules, but the battery is now ready for further testing. Reduction in nickel plate swelling (and concurrent stack electrolyte starvation), to improve cycling, is one area of major effort to reach the final battery objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes are showing promise in initial full-size cell tests and will continue to be evaluated in finished cells, along with other technology advancements. 30 figures, 14 tables.

  6. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev

    2009-07-15

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  7. Lithium Polymer (LiPo) Battery Usage Lithium polymer batteries are now being widely used in hobby and UAV applications. They work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Lithium Polymer (LiPo) Battery Usage 1 Lithium polymer batteries are now being widely used in hobby nickel metal and ni-cad batteries. But with this increase in battery life come potential hazards. Use batteries with a battery charger specifically designed for lithium polymer batteries. As an example, you

  8. Computer modeling approach for microsphere-packed bone scaffold Pallavi Lal, Wei Sun*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Wei

    bone graft [5,6], for structural and human cellular assessment of scaffolds for bone repair [7 modeling approach for constructing a three-dimensional microsphere-packed bone graft structure is presented packing model to determine the number of microspheres packed in a synthesized bone graft. The pore size

  9. Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, Gareth

    Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations H.E. Johnson1 , R.J. Merry, M.K. THEODOROU AND G.W. GRIFFITH. 2004. Aims: To determine the utility of vacuum-packed polythene (as assessed by pH measurement) occurred in glass tube and vacuum-packed silos over a 35-day period

  10. Estimates of the optimal density of sphere packings in high dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    though existing upper bounds suggest that such improve­ ment should be possible. Using a statistical in digital communications and storage. 12 Physicists have investigated sphere packings in high dimensions theory. 4,5,12,16,17 The packing density or simply density #1; of a sphere packing is the fraction

  11. QccPack: An open-source software library for quantization, compression, and coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowler, James E.

    -message routines. All QccPack functionality is accessible via library calls; additionally, many utility programsPack Web page, is published under the terms of the GNU General Public License and the GNU Library GeneralQccPack: An open-source software library for quantization, compression, and coding James E. Fowler

  12. QccPack: An Open-Source Software Library for Quantization, Compression, and Coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowler, James E.

    Pack functionality is accessible via library calls; additionally, many utility programs provide command-line accessPack software package is published under the terms of the GNU General Public License and the GNU Library GeneralQccPack: An Open-Source Software Library for Quantization, Compression, and Coding James E. Fowler

  13. Frustration and Packing in Curved-Filament Assemblies: From Isometric to Isomorphic Bundles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory M. Grason

    2013-01-21

    Densely-packed bundles of biological filaments (filamentous proteins) are common and critical structural elements in range of biological materials. While most bundles form from intrinsically straight filaments, there are notable examples of protein filaments possessing a natural, or intrinsic, curvature, such as the helical bacterial flagellum. We study the non-linear interplay between thermodynamic preference for dense and regular inter-filament packing and the mechanical preference for uniform filament shape in bundles of helically-curved filaments. Geometric constraints in bundles make perfect inter-filament (constant spacing, or isometric) packing incompatible with perfect intra-filament (constant shape, or isomorphic) packing. As a consequence, we predict that bundle packing exhibits a strong sensitivity to bundle size, evolving from the isometric packing at small radii to an isomorphic packing at large radii. The nature of the transition between these extremal states depends on thermodynamic costs of packing distortion, with packing in elastically-constrained bundles evolving smoothly with size, while packing in osmotically-compressed bundles may exhibit a singular transition from the isometric packing at a finite bundle radius. We consider the equilibrium assembly of bundles in a saturated solution of filaments and show that mechanical cost of isomorphic packing leads to self-limited equilibrium bundle diameters, whose size and range of thermodynamic stability depend both on condensation mechanism, as well as the helical geometry of filaments.

  14. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths Some...

  15. Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed: Solar Energy Capture...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture in chemical form makes it storable and transportable January 11, 2011 | Tags: Chemistry,...

  16. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell...

  17. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in...

  18. Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Authors:...

  19. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  20. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries nanocompositematerialsliion.pdf More Documents & Publications Progress of DOE...

  1. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing...

  2. GE Uses DOE Advanced Light Sources to Develop Revolutionary Battery...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    chemistry of an actual commercial battery while charging and discharging in real time. Additional studies of battery cross-sections at APS helped engineers further...

  3. The Science of Battery Degradation. Sullivan, John P; Fenton...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery...

  4. Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012) | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Batteries (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage Program is funding research to further develop a novel planar design for...

  5. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  6. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage...

  7. Electrolyte Genome Could Be Battery Game-Changer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Be Battery Game-Changer Electrolyte Genome Could Be Battery Game-Changer The Materials Project screens molecules to accelerate electrolyte discovery April 15, 2015 Julie Chao,...

  8. KAir Battery Wins Southwest Regional Clean Energy Business Plan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KAir Battery Wins Southwest Regional Clean Energy Business Plan Competition KAir Battery Wins Southwest Regional Clean Energy Business Plan Competition April 18, 2014 - 12:05pm...

  9. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  10. Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active Cathode Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting...

  11. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Powersilicon nanowires for lithium ion battery anode with longal. High-performance lithium-ion anodes using a hierarchical

  12. ORNL, Industry to Collaborate in Advanced Battery Research |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Advanced Battery Research December 30, 2010 ORNL's Jagjit Nanda assembles a lithium ion battery for performance testing within a controlled environment Through new...

  13. Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries September 9, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov...

  14. How Can We Enable EV Battery Recycling? | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Can We Enable EV Battery Recycling? Title How Can We Enable EV Battery Recycling? Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2015 Authors Gaines, LL Abstract...

  15. Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Title Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2013...

  16. The Future of Automobile Battery Recycling | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Future of Automobile Battery Recycling Title The Future of Automobile Battery Recycling Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2014 Authors Gaines, LL Abstract...

  17. Enabling Future Li-Ion Battery Recycling | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future Li-Ion Battery Recycling Title Enabling Future Li-Ion Battery Recycling Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2014 Authors Gaines, LL Abstract Presentation made...

  18. Battery Cathode Developed by Argonne Powers Plug-in Electric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacities than conventional cathode materials, resulting in batteries with higher energy density. Because the batteries can store more energy, manufacturers can either use...

  19. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    for powering microelectromechanical systems and otherSurvey of battery powered microelectromechanical systems.battery powered microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), it is

  20. High power bipolar battery/cells with enhanced overcharge tolerance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A cell or battery of cells having improved overcharge tolerance and increased power capability, and methods for the construction of such cells or batteries, via electrolyte modification.

  1. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25 ENERGY STORAGE We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have...

  2. Energy Storage - Summary of the FY 2005 Batteries for Advanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Research Program Annual Review Energy Storage - Summary of the FY 2005 Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies...

  3. Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy...

  4. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  5. Development of Computer-Aided Design Tools for Automotive Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT)...

  6. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  7. USABC Development of Advanced High-Performance Batteries for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries for EV Applications USABC Development of Advanced High-Performance Batteries for EV Applications 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  8. Overview and Progress of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Activity Overview and Progress of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Activity 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

  9. In situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High Energy Density Li-Air Batteries 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  10. In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High Energy Density Li-Air Batteries 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  11. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques 2011 DOE...

  12. Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in North Carolina Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in North Carolina July 26, 2011 -...

  13. Diagnostic and Prognostic Analysis of Battery Performance & Aging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Prognostic Analysis of Battery Performance & Aging based on Kinetic and Thermodynamic Principles Diagnostic and Prognostic Analysis of Battery Performance & Aging based on...

  14. Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D Program...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D Program Argonne's Materials Engineering Research Facility (MERF) supports the laboratory's Advanced Battery Materials...

  15. 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 2. Applied Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2. Applied Battery Research 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 2. Applied Battery Research DOE Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review 2008meritreview2.pdf More...

  16. HP Ex Parte Memo on Proposed Rulemaking for Battery Chargers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HP Ex Parte Memo on Proposed Rulemaking for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies HP Ex Parte Memo on Proposed Rulemaking for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies...

  17. International Battery Presentation - Keeping The Lights On: Smart...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    International Battery Presentation - Keeping The Lights On: Smart Storage for a Smart Grid (July 12, 2011) International Battery Presentation - Keeping The Lights On: Smart Storage...

  18. Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Title Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Publication Type Miscellaneous Year of Publication 2014...

  19. Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design Activity Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design Activity 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  20. 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 3. Battery Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3. Battery Development, Testing, Simulation, Analysis 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 3. Battery Development, Testing, Simulation, Analysis DOE Vehicle Technologies...

  1. Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed (EDAB...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vss033carlson2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed (EDAB) Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components...

  2. Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    PHEV from which those battery requirements flow. The circlesbattery technologies do not meet the requirements that flowflow from them. In summary, policymakers, automakers, battery

  3. Are batteries ready for plug-in hybrid buyers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.; Burke, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    PHEV from which those battery requirements flow. The circlesbattery technologies do not meet the requirements that flowflow from them. In summary, policymakers, automakers, battery

  4. Abstract--Battery packs for most applications are series strings of electrochemical cells. Due to manufacturing variations,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    , such as electric vehicles, uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs), and off-grid solar energy systems, call

  5. Prospects for Reducing the Processing Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood III, David L; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  6. Fault-tolerant battery system employing intra-battery network architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Chen, Kenneth W. (Fair Oaks, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A distributed energy storing system employing a communications network is disclosed. A distributed battery system includes a number of energy storing modules, each of which includes a processor and communications interface. In a network mode of operation, a battery computer communicates with each of the module processors over an intra-battery network and cooperates with individual module processors to coordinate module monitoring and control operations. The battery computer monitors a number of battery and module conditions, including the potential and current state of the battery and individual modules, and the conditions of the battery's thermal management system. An over-discharge protection system, equalization adjustment system, and communications system are also controlled by the battery computer. The battery computer logs and reports various status data on battery level conditions which may be reported to a separate system platform computer. A module transitions to a stand-alone mode of operation if the module detects an absence of communication connectivity with the battery computer. A module which operates in a stand-alone mode performs various monitoring and control functions locally within the module to ensure safe and continued operation.

  7. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01

    Electrode for Sodium Ion Batteries. Chemistry of Materialsnickel fluoride in Li ion batteries. Electrochimica Actafor advanced lithium ion batteries. Materials Science and

  8. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01

    for advanced lithium ion batteries. Materials Science andin high voltage lithium ion batteries: A joint experimentalof rechargeable lithium-ion batteries after prolonged

  9. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  10. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kepler, Keith D. (Mountain View, CA); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  11. Self-Charging Battery Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yager, Eric

    2007-07-25

    In March 2006, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was formed between Fauton Tech, Inc. and INL to develop a prototype for a commercial application that incorporates some INL-developed Intellectual Properties (IP). This report presents the results of the work performed at INL during Phase 1. The objective of Phase 1 was to construct a prototype battery in a “D” cell form factor, determine optimized internal components for a baseline configuration using a standard coil design, perform a series of tests on the baseline configuration, and document the test results in a logbook.

  12. Battery Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC Jump to:Greece:Bajo en Carbono, MexicoBanhamOil HomeBattery

  13. Sandia Energy - Battery Calorimetry Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni >ScientificApplied TurbulentAssessmentBattery

  14. Alloys of clathrate allotropes for rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Candace K; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai S

    2014-12-09

    The present disclosure is directed at an electrode for a battery wherein the electrode comprises clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin. In method form, the present disclosure is directed at methods of forming clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin which methods lead to the formation of empty cage structures suitable for use as electrodes in rechargeable type batteries.

  15. Close-packed array of light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Simpson, John T.

    2013-04-09

    A close-packed array of light emitting diodes includes a nonconductive substrate having a plurality of elongate channels extending therethrough from a first side to a second side, where each of the elongate channels in at least a portion of the substrate includes a conductive rod therein. The conductive rods have a density over the substrate of at least about 1,000 rods per square centimeter and include first conductive rods and second conductive rods. The close-packed array further includes a plurality of light emitting diodes on the first side of the substrate, where each light emitting diode is in physical contact with at least one first conductive rod and in electrical contact with at least one second conductive rod.

  16. State of charge indicators for a battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to state of charge indicators for a battery. One aspect of the present invention utilizes expansion and contraction displacements of an electrode plate of a battery to gauge the state of charge in the battery. One embodiment of a battery of the present invention includes an anodic plate; a cathodic plate; an electrolyte in contact with the anodic and cathodic plates; plural terminals individually coupled with one of the anodic and cathodic plates; a separator intermediate the anodic and cathodic plates; an indicator configured to indicate an energy level of the battery responsive to movement of the separator; and a casing configured to house the anodic and cathodic plates, electrolyte, and separator.

  17. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  18. The Internal Resistance of a Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singal, Ashok K

    2013-01-01

    The standard exposition of the internal resistance of a battery, as given in the undergraduate text-books, is lacking in proper physics. The battery has a tendency to maintain the electric potential difference across its terminals equal to its chemical potential, and in an open circuit, when no electric current flows, these two do match. However in a closed circuit, a drop in electric potential across the battery terminals is inevitable for a steady flow of electric current throughout the circuit, because the chemical reactions driving the electric current within the battery can proceed only if the electric potential at its terminals differs from the chemical potential. It is shown that for small voltage changes, the current passing through the battery is linearly proportional to the change in potential from the open-circuit value (i.e., its chemical potential), giving rise to a semblance of an internal resistance in series with the external resistance.

  19. Multi-cell storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brohm, Thomas (Hattersheim, DE); Bottcher, Friedhelm (Kelkheim, DE)

    2000-01-01

    A multi-cell storage battery, in particular to a lithium storage battery, which contains a temperature control device and in which groups of one or more individual cells arranged alongside one another are separated from one another by a thermally insulating solid layer whose coefficient of thermal conductivity lies between 0.01 and 0.2 W/(m*K), the thermal resistance of the solid layer being greater by at least a factor .lambda. than the thermal resistance of the individual cell. The individual cell is connected, at least in a region free of insulating material, to a heat exchanger, the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger in the direction toward the neighboring cell being selected to be greater by at least a factor .lambda. than the thermal resistance of the individual cell and, in addition, the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger toward the temperature control medium being selected to be smaller by at least a factor of about 10 than the thermal resistance of the individual cell, and .lambda. being the ratio of the energy content of the individual cell to the amount of energy that is needed to trigger a thermally induced cell failure at a defined upper operating temperature limit.

  20. Bayesian locally weighted online learning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edakunni, Narayanan U.

    2010-01-01

    Locally weighted regression is a non-parametric technique of regression that is capable of coping with non-stationarity of the input distribution. Online algorithms like Receptive FieldWeighted Regression and Locally ...

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    into the battery market. Therefore the standard carbonaceouselectric vehicle demand market in our modern life, the

  2. Mechanical Properties of Lithium-Ion Battery Separator Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Mechanical Properties of Lithium-Ion Battery Separator Materials Patrick Sinko B.S. Materials and motivation ­ Why study lithium-ion batteries? ­ Lithium-ion battery fundamentals ­ Why study the mechanical behaviors in lithium-ion batteries? · Current work ­ Mechanical behaviors the separator ­ How do we test

  3. Zinc-bromine batteries for bulk energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellows, R.J.; Elspass, C.; Einstein, H.; Grimes, P.; Kantner, E.; Malachesky, P.; Newby, K.

    1983-01-01

    The design, testing, operation, and state of development of zinc-bromine batteries are discussed. (LEW)

  4. U.S. Battery R&D Progress and Plans

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improvement Failure Mitigation Advanced Battery Development Performance Optimization Cost Reduction Cell Design & Electrochemistry Optimization Power & Capacity...

  5. AN EXPLORATION INTO BATTERY CHEMISTRY IONIC FLOW, INTERCALATION AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    AN EXPLORATION INTO BATTERY CHEMISTRY IONIC FLOW, INTERCALATION AND CRYSTAL LATTICES JAKE GARCIA ALLA ZAMARAYEVA ADVISOR: DAN STEINGART #12;A PROBLEM IN SOCIETY! · The energy problem · Batteries-cost and environmentally friendly battery? #12;BACKGROUND · Different Common Battery types: Galvanic "Wet" Cell Dry Cell

  6. Resistive companion battery modeling for electric circuit simulations , R. Dougalb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resistive companion battery modeling for electric circuit simulations B. Wua , R. Dougalb , R be achieved based on RC models. In this study, the construction of RC battery models is investigated. A general battery model and a nickel±metal hydride cell model have been built. Simulations of RC battery

  7. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    photovoltaic systems with battery storages control based onthat the energy stored in the battery is bounded withinthe capacity of the battery. Eq. 3b constrains the battery

  8. VolPack: A Volume Rendering Library This chapter describes the design of an experimental software library called VolPack. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    library based on user­defined callback functions for shading and classification. Alterna­ tivelyChapter 8 VolPack: A Volume Rendering Library This chapter describes the design of an experimental software library called VolPack. The library provides a high­performance implementation of the algorithms

  9. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-09-25

    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles (EV), including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electrical vehicles. With the increasing demand on devices of high energy densities (>500 Wh/kg) , new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB also attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performances of these energy storage systems depend not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performances characteristics of batteries often have conflict requirements on the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflict requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li-O2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate 1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and 2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties, prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime.

  10. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  11. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  12. On 2-coverings and 2-packings of laminar families J. Cheriyan T. Jordan y R. Ravi z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheriyan, Joseph

    On 2-coverings and 2-packings of laminar families J. Cheriyan T. Jordan y R. Ravi z January 24: laminar family of subsets, 1-covers, 2-covers, 1-packings, 2-packings, NP-hard, approximation algorithm grant CCR{9625297. 1 #12;1 Introduction Coverings and packings of laminar families by edges Let H

  13. Table of Contents: Entropy difference between the face-centred cubic and hexagonal close-packed crystal structures.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    -packed crystal structures. Silurian hydrothermal-vent community from the southern Urals, Russia. Abstract Recent

  14. New ORNL electric vehicle technology packs more punch in smaller...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and tolerance; lighter weight, enabling more compact systems; and higher power density. Additive manufacturing helped researchers explore complex geometries, increase power...

  15. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  16. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson (Malvern, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power.

  17. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, R.D.; DeDoncker, R.W.A.A.

    1998-01-20

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power. 8 figs.

  18. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01

    graphite negative electrode for lithium-ion batteries.batteries. The Na anode materials must not be overlooked since graphite-

  19. Redox Flow Batteries: An Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalamala, Babu R.; Soundappan, Thiagarajan; Fisher, Graham R.; Anstey, Mitchell A.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Perry, Mike L.

    2014-10-01

    Redox flow batteries are well suited to provide modular and scalable energy storage systems for a wide range of energy storage applications. In this paper, we review the development of redox flow battery technology including recent advances in new redox active materials and systems. We discuss cost, performance, and reliability metrics that are critical for deployment of large flow battery systems. The technology, while relatively young, has the potential for significant improvement through reduced materials costs, improved energy and power efficiency, and significant reduction in the overall system cost.

  20. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.