National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for battery pack assembly

  1. Optimization of blended battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erb, Dylan C. (Dylan Charles)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reviews the traditional battery pack design process for hybrid and electric vehicles, and presents a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm that eases the process of cell selection and pack design, especially ...

  2. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  3. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wordin, John J. (Bingham County, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  4. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pack Design and Optimization Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the...

  5. Fact #823: June 2, 2014 Hybrid Vehicles use more Battery Packs but Plug-in Vehicles use More Battery Capacity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Of the battery packs used for electrified vehicle powertrains in model year 2013, the greatest number went into conventional hybrid vehicles which use battery packs that average about 1.3 kilowatt...

  6. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  7. Fact #823: June 2, 2014 Hybrid Vehicles use more Battery Packs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lower volume, their battery packs are much larger with capacities as high as 85 kWh - a battery offering for the Tesla Model S. Number of Batteries Sold and Battery Capacity Sold...

  8. Design of a Lithium-ion Battery Pack for PHEV Using a Hybrid Optimization Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Design of a Lithium-ion Battery Pack for PHEV Using a Hybrid Optimization Method Nansi Xue1 Abstract This paper outlines a method for optimizing the design of a lithium-ion battery pack for hy- brid, volume or material cost. Keywords: Lithium-ion, Optimization, Hybrid vehicle, Battery pack design

  9. It's getting hot in here : temperature gradients in lithium-ion battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niewood, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A 5 channel, 40A battery cycler was constructed for the purpose of carrying out thermal studies on Lithium-ion battery packs. Boston Power Swing Key 442 battery blocks were tested to determine the magnitude of the temperature ...

  10. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Experimental Validation Development of CellPack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  11. Aalborg Universitet Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Sřren Juhl

    in a e-mobility application. Simulation results demonstrate the technical feasibility of this newlyAalborg Universitet Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs Barreras, R. E. (2014). Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs: A paradigm

  12. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  13. Design and fabrication of retrofit e-bike powertrain and custom lithium-ion battery pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Helena

    2015-01-01

    A chopper-style bicycle was converted to a functional e-bike with electric powertrain, involving a hub motor, a custom power source, and throttle speed control. A custom battery pack was designed to meet system performance ...

  14. Designing Safe Lithium-Ion Battery Packs Using Thermal Abuse Models (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Darcy, E.

    2008-12-01

    NREL and NASA developed a thermal-electrical model that resolves PTC and cell behavior under external shorting, now being used to evaluate safety margins of battery packs for spacesuit applications.

  15. Aalborg Universitet A novel BEV concept based on fixed and swappable li-ion battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    and Control, Robotics and Mechatronics Center German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling, D-82234, Germany Email@fe.up.pt Abstract--In this paper a novel battery electric vehicle (BEV) concept based on a small fixed and a big swappable li-ion battery pack is proposed in order to achieve: longer range, lower initial purchase price

  16. Modular Approach for Continuous Cell-Level Balancing to Improve Performance of Large Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muneed ur Rehman, M.; Evzelman, M.; Hathaway, K.; Zane, R.; Plett, G. L.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Maksimovic, D.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage systems require battery cell balancing circuits to avoid divergence of cell state of charge (SOC). A modular approach based on distributed continuous cell-level control is presented that extends the balancing function to higher level pack performance objectives such as improving power capability and increasing pack lifetime. This is achieved by adding DC-DC converters in parallel with cells and using state estimation and control to autonomously bias individual cell SOC and SOC range, forcing healthier cells to be cycled deeper than weaker cells. The result is a pack with improved degradation characteristics and extended lifetime. The modular architecture and control concepts are developed and hardware results are demonstrated for a 91.2-Wh battery pack consisting of four series Li-ion battery cells and four dual active bridge (DAB) bypass DC-DC converters.

  17. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    packdesignb.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Workshop: Power Electronics and Thermal...

  18. Battery Pack Requirements and Targets Validation FY 2009 DOE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    mechanical and electric drive Achieving battery life cycle net benefits, given low U.S. gasoline prices * Total project funding - 100% DOE funding * FY09 funding 600K Timeline...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2013: A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by LG Chem at 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a high-performance battery pack the company is researching for plug-in electric vehicles.

  20. 2000-01-1556 Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    drive schedules. These life cycle costs include the initial manufacturing cost of components, fuel cost2000-01-1556 Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV John W. McKeever, Sujit defined the peak power ratings for each HEV drive system's electric components: batteries, battery cables

  1. Battery Pack Requirements and Targets Validation FY 2009 DOE Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy and ForestBattery Chargers

  2. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.

    1998-12-15

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode is described. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell. 15 figs.

  3. Frustration and Packing in Curved-Filament Assemblies: From Isometric to Isomorphic Bundles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory M. Grason

    2013-01-21

    Densely-packed bundles of biological filaments (filamentous proteins) are common and critical structural elements in range of biological materials. While most bundles form from intrinsically straight filaments, there are notable examples of protein filaments possessing a natural, or intrinsic, curvature, such as the helical bacterial flagellum. We study the non-linear interplay between thermodynamic preference for dense and regular inter-filament packing and the mechanical preference for uniform filament shape in bundles of helically-curved filaments. Geometric constraints in bundles make perfect inter-filament (constant spacing, or isometric) packing incompatible with perfect intra-filament (constant shape, or isomorphic) packing. As a consequence, we predict that bundle packing exhibits a strong sensitivity to bundle size, evolving from the isometric packing at small radii to an isomorphic packing at large radii. The nature of the transition between these extremal states depends on thermodynamic costs of packing distortion, with packing in elastically-constrained bundles evolving smoothly with size, while packing in osmotically-compressed bundles may exhibit a singular transition from the isometric packing at a finite bundle radius. We consider the equilibrium assembly of bundles in a saturated solution of filaments and show that mechanical cost of isomorphic packing leads to self-limited equilibrium bundle diameters, whose size and range of thermodynamic stability depend both on condensation mechanism, as well as the helical geometry of filaments.

  4. Method of assembling and sealing an alkali metal battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P.E.; Bell, J.E.; Harlow, R.A.; Chase, G.G.

    1983-03-01

    A method of initially assembling and then subsequently hermetically sealing a container portion of an alkali metal battery to a ceramic portion of such a battery is disclosed. Sealing surfaces are formed respectively on a container portion and a ceramic portion of an alkali metal battery. These sealing surfaces are brought into juxtaposition and a material is interposed there between. This interposed material is one which will diffuse into sealing relationship with both the container portion and the ceramic portion of the alkali metal battery at operational temperatures of such a battery. A pressure is applied between these sealing surfaces to cause the interposed material to be brought into intimate physical contact with such juxtaposed surfaces. A temporary sealing material which will provide a seal against a flow of alkali metal battery reactants there through at room temperatures and is applied over the juxtaposed sealing surfaces and material interposed there between. The entire assembly is heated to an operational temperature so that the interposed material diffuses into the container portion and the ceramic portion to form a hermetic seal there between. The pressure applied to the juxtaposed sealing surfaces is maintained in order to ensure the continuation of the hermetic seal. 4 figs.

  5. Method of assembling and sealing an alkali metal battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, Perry E. (Santa Ana, CA); Bell, Jerry E. (Santa Ana, CA); Harlow, Richard A. (Newport Beach, CA); Chase, Gordon G. (San Diego, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A method of initially assembling and then subsequently hermetically sealing a container portion of an alkali metal battery to a ceramic portion of such a battery is disclosed. Sealing surfaces are formed respectively on a container portion and a ceramic portion of an alkali metal battery. These sealing surfaces are brought into juxtaposition and a material is interposed therebetween. This interposed material is one which will diffuse into sealing relationship with both the container portion and the ceramic portion of the alkali metal battery at operational temperatures of such a battery. A pressure is applied between these sealing surfaces to cause the interposed material to be brought into intimate physical contact with such juxtaposed surfaces. A temporary sealing material which will provide a seal against a flow of alkali metal battery reactants therethrough at room temperatures and is applied over the juxtaposed sealing surfaces and material interposed therebetween. The entire assembly is heated to an operational temperature so that the interposed material diffuses into the container portion and the ceramic portion to form a hermetic seal therebetween. The pressure applied to the juxtaposed sealing surfaces is maintained in order to ensure the continuation of the hermetic seal.

  6. Conversion of Russian Defense Enterprises to the production of rechargeable batteries and battery packs. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    This report, prepared by E-Tech, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the International Integration Association of Moscow, Russia. It presents the results of a study which was conducted to assess the economic and technical feasibility of converting the facilities of three Russian defense enterprises to the production of rechargeable batteries and battery packs for sale to the Russian domestic market and to international commercial markets. The three issues that are addressed in the report include: (1) Whether or not a project of this nature can be successful in present-day Russia; (2) Are the Russian enterprises identified for this study are capable of executing the project; and (3) Whether a U.S. company with extensive battery manufacturing experience can carry out a project in Russia. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Introduction; (3) Background; (4) Technical Overview; (5) Market Overview; (6) Project Description; (7) Socioeconomic Benefits; (8) Legal Structure; (9) Appendices.

  7. "Self-assembly of uniform polyhedral silver nanocrystals into densest packings and exotic superlattices"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henzie, Joel; Grunwald, Michael; Widmer-Cooper, Asaph; Geissler, Phillip L.; Yang, Peidong

    2011-03-01

    Understanding how polyhedra pack into extended arrangements is integral to the design and discovery of crystalline materials at all length scales. Much progress has been made in enumerating and characterizing the packing of polyhedral shapes, and the self-assembly of polyhedral nanocrystals into ordered superstructures. However, directing the self-assembly of polyhedral nanocrystals into densest packings requires precise control of particle shape, polydispersity,interactions and driving forces. Here we show with experiment and computer simulation that a range of nanoscale Ag polyhedra can self-assemble into their conjectured densest packings. When passivated with adsorbing polymer, the polyhedra behave as quasi-hard particles and assemble into millimetre-sized three-dimensional supercrystals by sedimentation.We also show, by inducing depletion attraction through excess polymer in solution, that octahedra form an exotic superstructure with complex helical motifs rather than the densest Minkowski lattice. Such large-scale Ag supercrystals may facilitate the design of scalable three-dimensional plasmonic metamaterials for sensing, nanophotonics, and photocatalysis.

  8. Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-499

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2013-10-01

    Under this CRADA NREL will support Creare's project for the Department of Energy entitled 'Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density' which involves the development of an air-flow based cooling product that increases energy density, safety, and reliability of hybrid electric vehicle battery packs.

  9. Integration Issues of Cells into Battery Packs for Plug-in and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Keyser, M.

    2009-05-01

    The main barriers to increased market share of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and commercialization of plug-in HEVs are the cost, safety, and life of lithium ion batteries. Significant effort is being directed to address these issues for lithium ion cells. However, even the best cells may not perform as well when integrated into packs for vehicles because of the environment in which vehicles operate. This paper discusses mechanical, electrical, and thermal integration issues and vehicle interface issues that could impact the cost, life, and safety of the system. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of using many small cells versus a few large cells and using prismatic cells versus cylindrical cells.

  10. Self-Assembled Monolayers on Pt(111): Molecular Packing Structure and Strain Effects Observed by Scanning Tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Self-Assembled Monolayers on Pt(111): Molecular Packing Structure and Strain Effects Observed@uci.edu Abstract: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octanethiol and benzeneethanethiol were deposited on clean Pt° unit cell for the octanethiol SAMs and a 4( 3 × 3)R30° periodicity based on 2 × 2 basic molecular

  11. Braided Bundles and Compact Coils: The Structure and Thermodynamics of Hexagonally-Packed, Chiral Filament Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory M. Grason

    2008-12-16

    Molecular chirality frustrates the two-dimensional assembly of filamentous molecules, a fact that reflects the generic impossibility of imposing a global twisting of layered materials. We explore the consequences of this frustration for hexagonally-ordered assemblies of chiral filaments that are {\\it finite} in lateral dimension. Specifically, we employ a continuum-elastic description of cylindrical bundles of filaments, allowing us to consider the most general resistance to and preference for chiral ordering of the assembly. We explore two distinct mechanisms by which chirality at the molecular scale of the filament frustrates the assembly into aggregates. In the first, chiral interactions between filaments impart an overall twisting of filaments around the central axis of the bundle. In the second, we consider filaments that are inherently helical in structure, imparting a writhing geometry to the central axis. For both mechanisms, we find that a thermodynamically-stable state of dispersed bundles of {\\it finite} width appears close to, but below, the point of bulk filament condensation. The range of thermodynamic stability of dispersed bundles is sensitive only to the elastic cost and preference for chiral filament packing. The self-limited assembly of chiral filaments has particular implications for a large class of biological molecules -- DNA, filamentous proteins, viruses, bacterial flagella -- which are universally chiral and are observed to form compact bundles under a broad range of conditions.

  12. Thermal Characterization and Analysis of A123 Systems Battery Cells, Modules and Packs: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-243

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.

    2012-03-01

    In support of the A123 Systems battery development program with USABC/DOE, NREL provided technical support in thermal characterization, analysis and management of batteries. NREL's effort was part of Energy Storage Project funded by DOE Vehicle Technologies Program. The purpose of this work was for NREL to perform thermal characterization and analysis of A123 Systems cells and modules with the aim for Al23 Systems to improve the thermal performance of their battery cells, modules and packs.

  13. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, Stanley C. (Alameda, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA); Salas-Morales, Juan (Berkeley, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

  14. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

    1995-08-15

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

  15. Thermal Analysis of the Vulnerability of the Spacesuit Battery Design to Short-Circuit Conditions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Chaney, L.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2010-04-22

    NREL researchers created a mathematical model of a full 16p-5s spacesuit battery for NASA that captures electrical/thermal behavior during shorts to assess the vulnerability of the battery to pack-internal (cell-external) shorts. They found that relocating the short from battery pack-external (experimental validation) to pack-internal (modeling study) causes substantial additional heating of cells, which can lead to cell thermal runaway. All three layers of the bank-to-bank separator must fail for the pack-internal short scenario to occur. This finding emphasizes the imperative of battery pack assembly cleanliness. The design is tolerant to pack-internal shorts when stored at 0% state of charge.

  16. Self-Assembly of Virus-Structured High Surface Area Nanomaterials and Their Application as Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Self-Assembly of Virus-Structured High Surface Area Nanomaterials and Their Application as Battery mosaic Virus (TMV) templates. Rod-shaped TMV templates (300 × 18 nm) engineered to encode unique cysteine-fold increase in surface area. Electroless deposition of ionic metals onto surface-assembled virus

  17. Self-Assembled Monolayers of n-Alkanethiols Suppress Hydrogen Evolution and Increase the Efficiency of Rechargeable Iron Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-01-09

    Iron-based rechargeable batteries, because of their low cost, eco-friendliness, and durability, are extremely attractive for large-scale energy storage. A principal challenge in the deployment of these batteries is their relatively low electrical efficiency. The low efficiency is due to parasitic hydrogen evolution that occurs on the iron electrode during charging and idle stand. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that linear alkanethiols are very effective in suppressing hydrogen evolution on alkaline iron battery electrodes. The alkanethiols form self-assembled monolayers on the iron electrodes. The degree of suppression of hydrogen evolution by the alkanethiols was found to be greater than 90%, and the effectiveness of the alkanethiol increased with the chain length. Through steady-state potentiostatic polarization studies and impedance measurements on high-purity iron disk electrodes, we show that the self-assembly of alkanethiols suppressed the parasitic reaction by reducing the interfacial area available for the electrochemical reaction. We have modeled the effect of chain length of the alkanethiol on the surface coverage, charge-transfer resistance, and double-layer capacitance of the interface using a simple model that also yields a value for the interchain interaction energy. We have verified the improvement in charging efficiency resulting from the use of the alkanethiols in practical rechargeable iron battery electrodes. The results of battery tests indicate that alkanethiols yield among the highest faradaic efficiencies reported for the rechargeable iron electrodes, enabling the prospect of a large-scale energy storage solution based on low-cost iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  18. Technical and economic feasibility of a high-temperature self-assembling battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradwell, David (David Johnathon)

    2006-01-01

    A conceptual high-temperature battery system for large-scale grid power applications was proposed, described, and evaluated. Unlike conventional battery technologies whose maximum current rate is constrained by at least ...

  19. Material and Energy Flows in the Materials Production, Assembly, and End-of-Life Stages of the Automotive Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; Gaines, Linda; Barnes, Matthew; Sullivan, John L.; Wang, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn?O?). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn?O? as the cathode material using Argonne’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  20. Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J.

    2012-06-21

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  1. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team also completed four GM engineering development Buy-Off rides/milestones. The project included numerous engineering vehicle and systems development trips including extreme hot, cold and altitude exposure. The final fuel economy performance demonstrated met the objectives of the PHEV collaborative GM/DOE project. Charge depletion fuel economy of twice that of the non-PHEV model was demonstrated. The project team also designed, developed and tested a high voltage battery module concept that appears to be feasible from a manufacturability, cost and performance standpoint. The project provided important product development and knowledge as well as technological learnings and advancements that include multiple U.S. patent applications.

  2. Formation of Rectangular Packing and One-Dimensional Lines of C60 on 11-Phenoxyundecanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Formation of Rectangular Packing and One-Dimensional Lines of C60 on 11-Phenoxyundecanethiol Self Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois. We discuss the possible causes for the formation of this structure as well as the differences between

  3. An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    , nanostructures have been used in energy storage fields, such as lithium ion batteries (LIBs), due to their high is based on a silicon solar panel and a solid-state lithium battery as the two independent parts, which

  4. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writ

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electrode Architecture-Assembly of Battery Materials and Electrodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Hydro-Québec at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electrode architecture-assembly...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electrode Architecture-Assembly of Battery Materials and Electrodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Hydro Quebec at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electrode architecture-assembly...

  7. LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA 1. Abstract This report introduces how. Battery Pack 1 · Cycle 1 : 2334 mAh · Cycle 2: 2312 mAh #12;LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT 3 · Cycle to handle the Powerizer Li-Ion rechargeable Battery Packs. It will bring reveal battery specifications

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by EC Power at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about evelopment of cell/pack level models...

  9. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  10. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease payments for space to the IDA. A commercial venture is being formed to utilize the LiFeBATT product for consumer use in enabling photovoltaic powered boat lifts. Field tests of the system have proven to be very effective and commercially promising. This venture is expected to result in significant sales within the next six months.

  11. Mechanical characterization of lithium-ion battery micro components for development of homogenized and multilayer material models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Kyle M. (Kyle Mark)

    2014-01-01

    The overall battery research of the Impact and Crashworthiness Laboratory (ICL) at MIT has been focused on understanding the battery's mechanical properties so that individual battery cells and battery packs can be ...

  12. Packed Lunches. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reasonover, Frances L.

    1982-01-01

    puddings; hard cheeses; unopen ed, r~urized process cheese spreads. Jot Group. Canned potted meats, canned meat spreads, canned Vienna sausages, canned luncheon meats, jerky and canned fish such as salmon, sardines, shrimp, tuna; peanut butter and nuts.... Wash your hands before handling the food and clean the working areas and utensils used to prepare it. Also store food properly after it is purchased. Packing Pointers Time Savers Buy fresh fruits that only require washing in prepa ration for lunch...

  13. ORNL, Industry to Collaborate in Advanced Battery Research |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Advanced Battery Research December 30, 2010 ORNL's Jagjit Nanda assembles a lithium ion battery for performance testing within a controlled environment Through new...

  14. A Phenomenological Model of Bulk Force in a Li-Ion Battery Pack and Its Application to State of Charge Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, S; Kim, Y; Siegel, JB; Samad, NA; Stefanopoulou, AG

    2014-09-19

    A phenomenological model of the bulk force exerted by a lithium ion cell during various charge, discharge, and temperature operating conditions is developed. The measured and modeled force resembles the carbon expansion behavior associated with the phase changes during intercalation, as there are ranges of state of charge (SOC) with a gradual force increase and ranges of SOC with very small change in force. The model includes the influence of temperature on the observed force capturing the underlying thermal expansion phenomena. Moreover the model is capable of describing the changes in force during thermal transients, when internal battery heating due to high C-rates or rapid changes in the ambient temperature, which create a mismatch in the temperature of the cell and the holding fixture. It is finally shown that the bulk force model can be very useful for a more accurate and robust SOC estimation based on fusing information from voltage and force (or pressure) measurements. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is not changed in any way and is properly cited. For permission for commercial reuse, please email oa@electrochem.org. All rights reserved.

  15. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  16. Making better batteries with metal oxide & graphene composites

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-31

    Learn how PNNL and Princeton scientists create better materials for batteries, materials that assemble on their own into durable nanocomposites.

  17. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  18. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. 1 of 5 Copyright 2007 Tesla Motors Updated: December 19, 2007 The Tesla Roadster Battery System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    1 of 5 Copyright © 2007 Tesla Motors Updated: December 19, 2007 The Tesla Roadster Battery System This paper provides details about the design of the Tesla Roadster's lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery pack of redundancy and multiple layers of protection in the Tesla Roadster battery pack have culminated in the safest

  20. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    M=Mn, Ni, Co) in Lithium Batteries at 50°C. Electrochem.Electrodes for Lithium Batteries. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82:S CIENCE AND T ECHNOLOGY Batteries: Overview of Battery

  1. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    Challenges in Future Li-Battery Research. Phil Trans. RoyalBatteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes Marca M. Doeffduring cell discharge. Battery-a device consisting of one or

  2. Design and analysis of a battery for a formula electric car

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reineman, Samuel (Samuel Thomas)

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the philosophy and methodology behind the design of the battery pack for MITs 2013 Formula SAE Electric racecar. Functional requirements are established for the pack. An overview of ...

  3. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the original equipment manufacturer. less Authors: Nelson, Paul A. 1 ;...

  4. Virus constructed iron phosphate lithium ion batteries in unmanned aircraft systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolesnikov-Lindsey, Rachel

    FePO? lithium ion batteries that have cathodes constructed by viruses are scaled up in size to examine potential for use as an auxiliary battery in the Raven to power the payload equipment. These batteries are assembled ...

  5. In-Vehicle Testing and Computer Modeling of Electric Vehicle Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    In-Vehicle Testing and Computer Modeling of Electric Vehicle Batteries B. Thomas, W.B. Gu, J.edu Abstract A combined simulation and testing approach has been developed to evaluate battery packs in real accelerates battery development cycle, and enables innovative battery design and optimization. Several

  6. Battery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B; Andrew, Michael G

    2013-08-27

    A battery module includes a plurality of battery cells and a system configured for passing a fluid past at least a portion of the plurality of battery cells in a parallel manner.

  7. Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information...

  8. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    2000) Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles. Report,for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries. J. Power Sources 128:in High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.

  9. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are readylithium ion batteries (i.e. , to lithiate graphite anodes soGraphite Electrodes Due to the Deposition of Manganese Ions on Them in Li-Ion Batteries.

  10. Process For Cutting Polymers Electrolyte Multi-Layer Batteries And Batteries Obtained Thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauthier, Michel (La Prairie, CA); Lessard, Ginette (Longueuil, CA); Dussault, Gaston (St-Benoit-de-Mirabel, CA); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Simoneau, Martin (Montreal, CA); Miller, Alan Paul (Woodbury, MN)

    2003-09-09

    A stacking of battery laminate is prepared, each battery consisting of anode, polymer electrolyte, cathode films and possibly an insulating film, under conditions suitable to constitute a rigid monoblock assembly, in which the films are unitary with one another. The assembly obtained is thereafter cut in predetermined shape by using a mechanical device without macroscopic deformation of the films constituting the assembly and without inducing permanent short circuits. The battery which is obtained after cutting includes at least one end which appears as a uniform cut, the various films constituting the assembly having undergone no macroscopic deformation, the edges of the films of the anode including an electronically insulating passivation film.

  11. Battery life and performance depend strongly on temperature; thus there exists a need for thermal conditioning in plug-in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    ABSTRACT Battery life and performance depend strongly on temperature; thus there exists a need battery life depends on the design of thermal management used as well as the specific battery chemistry of an air cooled plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery pack with cylindrical LiFePO4/graphite cell design

  12. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, Kurt Edward (Avella, PA); Kolsun, George J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  13. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  14. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing EnerDel technology, and helps DOE to evaluate the merits of underlying technology. The successful completion of this program demonstrated the capability of EnerDel battery packs to satisfactorily supply all power and energy requirements of a real-world HEV-Bus drive profile. This program supports green solutions to metropolitan public transportation problems by demonstrating the effectiveness of EnerDel lithium ion batteries for HEV-Bus applications.

  15. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  16. Optimization of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Charging and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misic, Aleksandar

    The goal of this project is to efficiently and safely charge a 5kWh battery pack in 15 minutes. Since the project is still in progress, this report describes experiments on a 56Wh battery. Experiments were performed to ...

  17. Cell Equalization In Battery Stacks Through State Of Charge Estimation Polling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Cell Equalization In Battery Stacks Through State Of Charge Estimation Polling Carmelo Speltino, Anna Stefanopoulou and Giovanni Fiengo Abstract-- Battery packs are charged and discharged as a single battery, therefore it is possible that differences between cells (i.e. chemical characteristics, operating

  18. Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles Hang Qu1 , Oleg Semenikhin2 and Maksim as electrolyte, and it is introduced into the battery after the drawing process. The capacity of a 1 m long fiber battery is measured to be 10 mAh. We also detail assembly and optimization of the electrical circuitry

  19. Professional Training Information Pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    Intending Professional Training Students Year 2 Information Pack #12;- 1 - Applying for a Professional Training Placement To be allowed to do the Professional Training you must have enrolled on one must talk to Dr J. M. Thompson immediately. General introduction to professional training Students

  20. Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallett, William L.H.

    Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Université d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

  1. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    for Li-ion batteries. Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI)-athe formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) onElectrolyte Solutions, Temperatures). Electrochem. and Solid-

  2. KAir Battery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    KAir Battery, from Ohio State University, is commercializing highly energy efficient cost-effective potassium air batteries for use in the electrical stationary storage systems market (ESSS). Beyond, the ESSS market potential applications range from temporary power stations and electric vehicle.

  3. Enumerating rigid sphere packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda C. Holmes-Cerfon

    2015-05-08

    Packing problems, which ask how to arrange a collection of objects in space to meet certain criteria, are important in a great many physical and biological systems, where geometrical arrangements at small scales control behaviour at larger ones. In many systems there is no single, optimal packing that dominates, but rather one must understand the entire set of possible packings. As a step in this direction we enumerate rigid clusters of identical hard spheres for $n\\leq 14$, and clusters with the maximum number of contacts for $n\\leq 19$. A rigid cluster is one that cannot be continuously deformed while maintaining all contacts. This is a nonlinear notion that arises naturally because such clusters are the metastable states when the spheres interact with a short-range potential, as is the case in many nano- or micro-scale systems. We expect these lists are nearly complete, except for a small number of highly singular clusters (linearly floppy but nonlinearly rigid.) The data contains some major geometrical surprises, such as the prevalence of hypostatic clusters: those with less than the $3n-6$ contacts generically necessary for rigidity. We discuss these and several other unusual clusters, whose geometries may shed insight into physical mechanisms, pose mathematical and computational problems, or bring inspiration for designing new materials.

  4. Understanding shape entropy through local dense packing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greg van Anders; Daphne Klotsa; N. Khalid Ahmed; Michael Engel; Sharon C. Glotzer

    2014-10-28

    Entropy drives the phase behavior of colloids ranging from dense suspensions of hard spheres or rods to dilute suspensions of hard spheres and depletants. Entropic ordering of anisotropic shapes into complex crystals, liquid crystals, and even quasicrystals has been demonstrated recently in computer simulations and experiments. The ordering of shapes appears to arise from the emergence of directional entropic forces (DEFs) that align neighboring particles, but these forces have been neither rigorously defined nor quantified in generic systems. Here, we show quantitatively that shape drives the phase behavior of systems of anisotropic particles upon crowding through DEFs. We define DEFs in generic systems, and compute them for several hard particle systems. We show that they are on the order of a few kT at the onset of ordering, placing DEFs on par with traditional depletion, van der Waals, and other intrinsic interactions. In experimental systems with these other interactions, we provide direct quantitative evidence that entropic effects of shape also contribute to self-assembly. We use DEFs to draw a distinction between self-assembly and packing behavior. We show that the mechanism that generates directional entropic forces is the maximization of entropy by optimizing local particle packing. We show that this mechanism occurs in a wide class of systems, and we treat, in a unified way, the entropy-driven phase behavior of arbitrary shapes incorporating the well-known works of Kirkwood, Onsager, and Asakura and Oosawa.

  5. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A. Gallagher, K. G. Bloom, I. Dees, D. W.

    2011-10-20

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on cost and energy density from changes in cell capacity, parallel cell groups, and manufacturing capabilities are easily assessed with the model. New proposed materials may also be examined to translate bench-scale values to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the original equipment manufacturer. The model will be openly distributed to the public in the year 2011. Currently, the calculations are based in a Microsoft{reg_sign} Office Excel spreadsheet. Instructions are provided for use; however, the format is admittedly not user-friendly. A parallel development effort has created an alternate version based on a graphical user-interface that will be more intuitive to some users. The version that is more user-friendly should allow for wider adoption of the model.

  6. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Charger Efficiency Issues with Marine and Recreational Vehicle Battery Chargers Marine and RV battery chargers differ from power tool and small appliance chargers CEC...

  7. Self-assembly of amphiphilic peanut-shaped nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen Whitelam; Stefan A. F. Bon

    2010-02-19

    We use computer simulation to investigate the self-assembly of Janus-like amphiphilic peanut-shaped nanoparticles, finding phases of clusters, bilayers and micelles in accord with ideas of packing familiar from the study of molecular surfactants. However, packing arguments do not explain the hierarchical self-assembly dynamics that we observe, nor the coexistence of bilayers and faceted polyhedra. This coexistence suggests that experimental realizations of our model can achieve multipotent assembly of either of two competing ordered structures.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Simultaneous Electronic and Ionic Conducting Block Copolymers for Lithium Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Shrayesh

    2013-01-01

    were used as the solid electrolyte. The SEO was synthesizedDilemma in Solid Polymer Electrolytes for RechargeableBattery Assembly Solid polymer electrolyte was pressed to

  9. Charge stabilized crystalline colloidal arrays as templates for fabrication of non-close-packed inverted photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asher, Sanford A.

    devices. Thus, much of the recent work in photonic crystal fabrication has utilized colloidal particle self assembly. The utility of colloidal particle self assembly is evident from the photonic crystal colloidal particle self assembly work has emphasized methods that form close-packed photonic crystal

  10. What to Pack for Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Weck, Olivier L.

    De Weck, O.L. “What to Pack for Mars.” Spectrum, IEEE 46.6 (2009): 39. © 2009 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

  11. Convex Optimization Course Welcome Pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    1 NATCOR Convex Optimization Course 23rd ­ 27th June 2014 Welcome Pack This pack contains. ABSTRACT Convex optimization is the fundamental process of optimal decision-making. Although mathematically restrictive, many practical problems may be modelled directly as convex optimization problems. Convex

  12. Undergraduate Offer Pack 2015 2016

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Undergraduate Offer Pack 2015 ­ 2016 #12;#12;Graduate Offer Pack 2015-2016 5 Welcome from the Dean of Undergraduate Studies 5 What you need to do now 6-11 Your Checklist 7 Types of Offer 9 Accepting your Offer 9 Meeting the conditions of your Offer 10 Deferring your Offer 11 Rejecting an Offer 11 Financial

  13. Battery Pack Requirements and Targets Validation FY 2009 DOE...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. es01santini.pdf More Documents &...

  14. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in: Statement ofA CommonA DecadePAAA2

  15. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in: Statement ofA CommonA DecadePAAA20

  16. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in: Statement ofA CommonA DecadePAAA201

  17. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization Breakout

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25, 2014TEMPLATE | Tuesday,BreakoutSession

  18. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers | Department ofOctober0032 DOE

  19. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers | Department ofOctober0032 DOE1

  20. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers | Department ofOctober0032 DOE10

  1. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle...

  2. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies 2012 DOE...

  3. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  4. Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-407

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2012-01-01

    Creare was awarded a Phase 1 STTR contract from the US Office of Naval Research, with a seven month period of performance from 6/28/2010 to 1/28/2011. The objectives of the STTR were to determine the feasibility of developing a software package for estimating reliability of battery packs, and develop a user interface to allow the designer to assess the overall impact on battery packs and host platforms for cell-level faults. NREL served as sub-tier partner to Creare, providing battery modeling and battery thermal safety expertise.

  5. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  6. test problem for packing_sumit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chenwang

    2006-07-21

    Test problems of circles in circle packing with constraints and known ... test problems for circles packing problem with the optimal solutions known. That is ...

  7. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freeman, David H. (Potomac, MD); Angeles, Rosalie M. (Germantown, MD); Keller, Suzanne (Rockville, MD)

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  8. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  9. Ball Packings with Periodic Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Connelly; Jeffrey D. Shen; Alexander D. Smith

    2013-01-04

    We call a periodic ball packing in d-dimensional Euclidean space periodically (strictly) jammed with respect to a period lattice if there are no nontrivial motions of the balls that preserve the period (that maintain some period with smaller or equal volume). In particular, we call a packing consistently periodically (strictly) jammed if it is periodically (strictly) jammed on every one of its periods. After extending a well-known bar framework and stress condition to strict jamming, we prove that a packing with period Lambda is consistently strictly jammed if and only if it is strictly jammed with respect to Lambda and consistently periodically jammed. We next extend a result about rigid unit mode spectra in crystallography to characterize periodic jamming on sublattices. After that, we prove that there are finitely many strictly jammed packings of m unit balls and other similar results. An interesting example shows that the size of the first sublattice on which a packing is first periodically unjammed is not bounded. Finally, we find an example of a consistently periodically jammed packing of low density \\delta = \\frac{4 \\pi}{6 \\sqrt{3} + 11} + \\epsilon ~ 0.59, where \\epsilon is an arbitrarily small positive number. Throughout the paper, the statements for the closely related notions of periodic infinitesimal rigidity and affine infinitesimal rigidity for tensegrity frameworks are also given.

  10. Automating Personalized Battery Management on Smartphones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falaki, Mohamamd Hossein

    2012-01-01

    3 Automating Battery Management . . . . . . .122 Battery Goal Setting UI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Power and Battery Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  11. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  12. Piezonuclear battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bongianni, Wayne L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  13. Hydrophobically-Driven Self-Assembly: A Geometric Packing Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    4, 2003 ABSTRACT We present a new approach to the problem of finding the minimum-energy structures which have served as guides in designing new nanoscale-structured materials. Significant progress has been made in synthesizing a variety of new materials based on the so-called "bottom-up" ap- proach

  14. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sally Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the standard lead-acid unit experienced significant degradation after only 6,273 cycles. The high-carbon, ALABC battery manufactured in Project C3 also was tested under the advanced HEV schedule. Its performance was significantly better than the standard lead-acid unit, but was still inferior compared with the UltraBattery. The batteries supplied by Exide as part of the C3 Project performed well under the HEV screening test, especially at high temperatures. The results suggest that higher operating temperatures may improve the performance of lead-acid-based technologies operated under HEV conditions—it is recommended that life studies be conducted on these technologies under such conditions.

  15. NREL-Led Team Improves and Accelerates Battery Design (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is leading some of the best minds from U.S. auto manufacturers, battery developers, and automotive simulation tool developers in a $20 million project to accelerate the development of battery packs and thus the wider adoption of electric-drive vehicles. The Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) collaboration is developing sophisticated software tools to help improve and accelerate battery design and boost the performance and consumer appeal of electric-drive vehicles with the ultimate goal of diminishing petroleum consumption and polluting emissions.

  16. Microfabricated packed gas chromatographic column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kottenstette, Richard; Matzke, Carolyn M.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-12-16

    A new class of miniaturized gas chromatographic columns has been invented. These chromatographic columns are formed using conventional micromachining techniques, and allow packed columns having lengths on the order of a meter to be fabricated with a footprint on the order of a square centimeter.

  17. RECHARGEABLE HIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2014-01-01

    F. Eshman, High-Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleS. Sudar, High Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleHIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES Elton J. Cairns January 1981 TWO-

  18. Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, David Tunmin

    2012-01-01

    Xiangyun Song helped me with battery experiments. I want toMesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators by DavidMesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators by David

  19. California Lithium Battery, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California Lithium Battery (CaLBattery), based in Los Angeles, California, is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined with other advanced battery materials, it could effectively lower battery life cycle cost by up to 70 percent. Over the next year, CALBattery will be working with Argonne National Laboratory to combine their patented silicon-graphene anode material process together with other advanced ANL cathode and electrolyte battery materials.

  20. Adhesive Loose Packings of Small Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenwei Liu; Shuiqing Li; Adrian Baule; Hernán A. Makse

    2014-10-08

    We explore adhesive loose packings of dry small spherical particles of micrometer size using 3D discrete-element simulations with adhesive contact mechanics. A dimensionless adhesion parameter ($Ad$) successfully combines the effects of particle velocities, sizes and the work of adhesion, identifying a universal regime of adhesive packings for $Ad>1$. The structural properties of the packings in this regime are well described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function that includes correlations between bulk and contact spheres. Our theoretical and numerical results predict: (i) An equation of state for adhesive loose packings that appears as a continuation from the frictionless random close packing (RCP) point in the jamming phase diagram; (ii) The existence of a maximal loose packing point at the coordination number $Z=2$ and packing fraction $\\phi=1/2^{3}$. Our results highlight that adhesion leads to a universal packing regime at packing fractions much smaller than the random loose packing, which can be described within a statistical mechanical framework. We present a general phase diagram of jammed matter comprising frictionless, frictional, adhesive as well as non-spherical particles, providing a classification of packings in terms of their continuation from the spherical frictionless RCP.

  1. Katech (Lithium Polymer) 4-Passenger NEV - Range and Battery Testing Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) received a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) from the Korea Automotive Technology Institute (KATECH) for vehicle and battery characterization testing. The KATECH NEV (called the Invita) was equipped with a lithium polymer battery pack from Kokam Engineering. The Invita was to be baseline performance tested by AVTA’s testing partner, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA), at ETA’s contract testing facilities and test track in Phoenix, Arizona, to AVTA’s NEVAmerica testing specifications and procedures. Before and during initial constant speed range testing, the Invita battery pack experienced cell failures, and the onboard charger failed. A Kokamsupplied off-board charger was used in place of the onboard charger to successfully perform a constant speed range test on the Invita. The Invita traveled a total of 47.9 miles in 1 hour 47 minutes, consuming 91.3 amp-hours and 6.19 kilowatt-hours. The Kokam Engineering lithium polymer battery was also scheduled for battery pack characterization testing, including the C/3 energy capacity, dynamic stress, and peak power tests. Testing was stopped during the initial C/3 energy capacity test, however, because the battery pack failed to withstand cycling without cell failures. After the third discharge/charge sequence was completed, it was discovered that Cell 6 had failed, with a voltage reading of 0.5 volts. Cell 6 was replaced, and the testing sequence was restarted. After the second discharge/charge sequence was complete, it was discovered that Cell 1 had failed, with its voltage reading 0.2 volts. At this point it was decided to stop all battery pack testing. During the discharge cycles, the battery pack supplied 102.21, 94.34, and 96.05 amp-hours consecutively before Cell 6 failed. After replacing Cell 6, the battery pack supplied 98.34 and 98.11 amp-hours before Cell 1 failed. The Idaho National Laboratory managed these testing activities for the AVTA, as part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  2. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  3. C Battery Corral 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    reliability. The total consumption of lead-acid batteries in the United States reported in 2008 is $2.9 billion per year and is growing at an annual rate of 8%. The utilization of Lithium-ion battery is growing rapidly. The possibility of lithium-ion... Energy Storage Parameters ............................................................................ 25 Table 2 Case I Cost Comparison ................................................................................ 27 Table 3 PHEV Battery...

  4. battery, map parcel, med

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    Attic *** book teachest Servant dictionary scarf [11] Winery demijohn battery, map AuntLair X] EastAnnex battery[4] Cupboard2 [2] mask DeadEnd rucksack AlisonWriting [16] TinyBalcony [17] gold key. [2] Need new torch battery (see [4]) to enter. Then get painting. [3] To please aunt, must move

  5. Servant dictionary battery, map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    Attic *** book teachest Servant dictionary scarf [11] Winery demijohn battery, map AuntLair X] EastAnnex battery[4] Cupboard2 [2] mask DeadEnd rucksack AlisonWriting [16] TinyBalcony [17] gold key. [2] Need new torch battery (see [4]) to enter. Then get painting. [3] To please aunt, must move

  6. A Look Inside SLAC's Battery Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Seh, Zhi

    2014-07-17

    In this video, Stanford materials science and engineering graduate student Zhi Wei Seh shows how he prepares battery materials in SLAC's energy storage laboratory, assembles dime-sized prototype "coin cells" and then tests them to see how many charge-discharge cycles they can endure without losing their ability to hold a charge. Results to date have already set records: After 1,000 cycles, they retain 70 percent of their original charge.

  7. A Look Inside SLAC's Battery Lab

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wei Seh, Zhi

    2014-07-21

    In this video, Stanford materials science and engineering graduate student Zhi Wei Seh shows how he prepares battery materials in SLAC's energy storage laboratory, assembles dime-sized prototype "coin cells" and then tests them to see how many charge-discharge cycles they can endure without losing their ability to hold a charge. Results to date have already set records: After 1,000 cycles, they retain 70 percent of their original charge.

  8. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, T.S.H.; Keller, D.G.; MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-05-12

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be over coated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance. 1 fig.

  9. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, Terry Song-Hsing (Midlothian, VA); Keller, David Gerard (Baltimore, MD); MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD)

    1998-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be overcoated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance.

  10. Accelerating Design of Batteries Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2010-11-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  11. The Packing of Granular Polymer Chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Ling-Nan; Cheng, Xiang; Rivers, Mark L.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nagel, Sidney R.; UC

    2009-12-01

    Rigid particles pack into structures, such as sand dunes on the beach, whose overall stability is determined by the average number of contacts between particles. However, when packing spatially extended objects with flexible shapes, additional concepts must be invoked to understand the stability of the resulting structure. Here, we examine the disordered packing of chains constructed out of flexibly connected hard spheres. Using x-ray tomography, we find that long chains pack into a low-density structure whose mechanical rigidity is mainly provided by the backbone. On compaction, randomly oriented, semi-rigid loops form along the chain, and the packing of chains can be understood as the jamming of these elements. Finally, we uncover close similarities between the packing of chains and the glass transition in polymers.

  12. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-01-01

    on New Sealed Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors, B.10. S. Hossain, in Handbook of Batteries, Second Edition, D.Workshop on Advanced Batteries (Lithium Batteries), February

  13. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    of a Rechargeable Lithium Battery," J. Power Sources, 24,Wada, "Rechargeable Lithium Battery Based on Pyrolytic Car-Li-Ion Battery," Lithium Battery Symposium, Electrochemical

  14. Collecting battery data with Open Battery Gareth L. Jones1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imperial College, London

    Collecting battery data with Open Battery Gareth L. Jones1 and Peter G. Harrison2 1,2 Imperial present Open Battery, a tool for collecting data on mobile phone battery usage, describe the data we have a useful tool in future work to describe mobile phone battery traces. 1998 ACM Subject Classification D.4

  15. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries (Management Publication)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  16. Remote Control Inserting the batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Top View Rear View Inserting the batteries 1 3Press in on the arrow mark and slide in the direction of the arrow to remove the battery cover. 2 Insert two AA size batteries, making sure their polarities match the and marks inside the battery compartment. Insert the side tabs of the battery cover into their slots

  17. New value packing technology extends service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.; Jackson, R. (Fisher Controls International, Inc., Marshalltown, IA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    New packing techniques can extend packing life and retain low stem leakage. The HPI can use these designs to avoid mandatory monitoring and repair schedules for valves that exceed the 500-ppm emission threshold. New EPA leakage limits will enforce monitoring and maintenance programs if more than 2% of the facility's valves exceed this limit. Because valves are dynamic, their control actions are prone to leakage. Also, the best fire-resistant packing material, graphite, has inherent deficiencies such as high compression stress and a high-friction coefficient that shortens its service life. Four basic principles overcome graphite packing's shortcomings for control valve applications. Examples show how these criteria improve sliding stem and rotary valve performance. Incorporating these principles into valve-packing designs can ensure long, low-maintenance service life, and the added benefit of low leakage. Graphite is a very important packing material for the HPI. Unlike fluoropolymer (e.g., PTFE) packing, graphite can tolerate high process temperature without decomposing or losing its sealing properties. More importantly, graphite packing is fire safe. It can survive a fire without a catastrophic failure that could add more flammable materials.

  18. How to Pack Microfossils By Skip Lyles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    are the materials that we will be using to pack this roll of slides: raw bedding cotton 6" x 4" empty Kodak box materials that you're going to need are flexible corrugated cardboard and masking tape. Here we'll show you how to pack microfossils step-by-step using only these two materials. Step 1: Here are the materials

  19. Application pack for funding commencing in 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kheifets, Anatoli

    Application pack for funding commencing in 2012 GROUP OF EIGHT AUSTRALIA­GERMANY JOINT RESEARCH COOPERATION SCHEME #12;PAGE 2 OF 9GROUP OF EIGHT AUSTRALIA­GERMANY JOINT RESEARCH COOPERATION SCHEME © GROUP OF EIGHT Application pack for funding commencing in 2012 ABOUT THE GROUP OF EIGHT AUSTRALIA­GERMANY JOINT

  20. Graduate Offer Pack 2 University College Dublin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graduate Offer Pack 2015-2016 #12;2 University College Dublin #12;Graduate Offer Pack 2015-2016 3 Welcome from the Dean of Graduate Studies 5 What you need to do now 6-11 Your Checklist 7 Types of Offer 9 Accepting your Offer 9 Meeting the conditions of your Offer 10 Deferring your Offer 11 Rejecting an Offer 11

  1. Battery driven 8 channel pulse height analyzer with compact, single gamma-peak display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Piper, Thomas C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    The invention comprises a hand-held wand including an l.e.d. display and a aI photomultiplier tube encased in lead or other suitable gamma shielding material, and an electronics and battery back-pack package connected to the wand.

  2. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetter, Roman; Herrmann, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists, biologists and materials engineers alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, however. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, self-similar structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  3. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Vetter; Falk K. Wittel; Hans J. Herrmann

    2015-04-03

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists, biologists and materials engineers alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, however. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, self-similar structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  4. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubblesmore »shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.« less

  5. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  6. Lithium battery management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  7. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The model development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.

  8. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01

    P. C. Butler, "Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles andIntroduction," in Hnadbook of Batteries, 3rd Edition, D.T. B. Reddy, Handbook of Batteries, 2002). [67] R. Zito, US

  9. Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, David Tunmin

    2012-01-01

    L. C. , R. , Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles. Inpast two decades, lithium-ion batteries have emerged as anMore recently, lithium-ion batteries have been employed in

  10. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01

    of a Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery to Maintain Power Quality,"Fuel System Using Redox Flow Battery," ed: WO Patentand D. B. Hickey, "Redox Flow Battery System for Distributed

  11. Packing TRU Waste Containers Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Packing TRU Waste Containers Design Packing TRU Waste Containers Design This document was used to determine facts and conditions during the Department of Energy Accident...

  12. Method of forming and starting a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paquette, David G. (Costa Mesa, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method of forming a sodium sulfur battery and of starting the reactive capability of that battery when heated to a temperature suitable for battery operation is disclosed. An anodic reaction zone is constructed in a manner that sodium is hermetically sealed therein, part of the hermetic seal including fusible material which closes up openings through the container of the anodic reaction zone. The hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is assembled under normal atmospheric conditions with a suitable cathodic reaction zone and a cation-permeable barrier. When the entire battery is heated to an operational temperature, the fusible material of the hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is fused, thereby allowing molten sodium to flow from the anodic reaction zone into reactive engagement with the cation-permeable barrier.

  13. Friction welded battery component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, G.K.; Zagrodnik, J.P.

    1990-07-31

    This patent describes a battery component for use in a flow battery containing fluid electrolyte. It comprises: first and second bond ribs disposed on opposite sides of and defining a channel and respective primary flash traps disposed adjacent the bond ribs opposite the channel.

  14. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  15. Storage battery systems analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Storage Battery Systems Analysis supports the battery Exploratory Technology Development and Testing Project with technical and economic analysis of battery systems in various end-use applications. Computer modeling and simulation techniques are used in the analyses. Analysis objectives are achieved through both in-house efforts and outside contracts. In-house studies during FY82 included a study of the relationship between storage battery system reliability and cost, through cost-of-investment and cost-of-service interruption inputs; revision and update of the SOLSTOR computer code in standard FORTRAN 77 form; parametric studies of residential stand-alone photovoltaic systems using the SOLSTOR code; simulation of wind turbine collector/storage battery systems for the community of Kalaupapa, Molokai, Hawaii.

  16. A Novel Integrated Magnetic Structure Based DC/DC Converter for Hybrid Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on a novel actively controlled hybrid magnetic battery/ultracapacitor based energy storage system (ESS) for vehicular propulsion systems. A stand-alone battery system might not be sufficient to satisfy peak power demand and transient load variations in hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV, PHEV). Active battery/ultracapacitor hybrid ESS provides a better solution in terms of efficient power management and control flexibility. Moreover, the voltage of the battery pack can be selected to be different than that of the ultracapacitor, which will result in flexibility of design as well as cost and size reduction of the battery pack. In addition, the ultracapacitor bank can supply or recapture a large burst of power and it can be used with high C-rates. Hence, the battery is not subjected to supply peak and sharp power variations, and the stress on the battery will be reduced and the battery lifetime would be increased. Utilizing ultracapacitor results in effective capturing of the braking energy, especially in sudden braking conditions.

  17. Nanomaterials for Fuel cells, Batteries, and Supercapacitors Flow Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Indranath

    Nanomaterials for Fuel cells, Batteries, and Supercapacitors Flow Batteries 1. Shao Y, X Wang, MH storage in vanadium redox flow batteries." Journal of Power Sources 195(13):4375-4379. 2. Shao Y, MH nanotube electrodes for redox flow batteries." Electrochemistry Communications 11(10):2064-2067. doi:10

  18. Process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-06-30

    A polymer bonded sheet product is described suitable for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. A porous electrode sheet is impregnated with a solid polymer electrolyte, so as to diffuse into the pores of the electrode. The composite is allowed to cool, and the electrolyte is entrapped in the porous electrode. The sheet products composed have the solid polymer electrolyte composition diffused into the active electrode material by melt-application of the solid polymer electrolyte composition into the porous electrode material sheet. The solid polymer electrolyte is maintained at a temperature that allows for rapid diffusion into the pores of the electrode. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are formed on current collectors and can be coated with solid polymer electrolyte prior to battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte coating has low resistance. 1 fig.

  19. Process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD)

    1998-01-01

    A polymer bonded sheet product suitable for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. A porous electrode sheet is impregnated with a solid polymer electrolyte, so as to diffuse into the pores of the electrode. The composite is allowed to cool, and the electrolyte is entrapped in the porous electrode. The sheet products composed have the solid polymer electrolyte composition diffused into the active electrode material by melt-application of the solid polymer electrolyte composition into the porous electrode material sheet. The solid polymer electrolyte is maintained at a temperature that allows for rapid diffusion into the pores of the electrode. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are formed on current collectors and can be coated with solid polymer electrolyte prior to battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte coating has low resistance.

  20. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, T.J.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-09-08

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques. 3 figs.

  1. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Holdren, Jr., George R. (Kennewick, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

  2. Beta dose distribution for randomly packed microspheres 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urashkin, Alexander

    2007-04-25

    of radiation dose distribution when utilizing this technique. This study focuses on random packing of microspheres and seeks to determine dose distributions for specific cases. The Monte Carlo Neutral Particle code (MCNP) developed by Los Alamos National...

  3. Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, David Tunmin

    2012-01-01

    image. Chapter 2 – Relationship Between Morphology and Conductivity of Block- Copolymer Based Battery

  4. Hinge assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandergriff, D.H.

    1999-08-31

    A hinge assembly is disclosed having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf. 8 figs.

  5. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  6. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  7. Polymeric battery separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchak, R. J.; Schenk, W. N.

    1985-06-11

    Configurations of cross-linked or vulcanized amphophilic or quaternized block copolymer of haloalkyl epoxides and hydroxyl terminated alkadiene polymers are useful as battery separators in both primary and secondary batteries, particularly nickel-zinc batteries. The quaternized block copolymers are prepared by polymerizing a haloalkyl epoxide in the presence of a hydroxyl terminated 1,3-alkadiene to form a block copolymer that is then reacted with an amine to form the quaternized or amphophilic block copolymer that is then cured or cross-linked with sulfur, polyamines, metal oxides, organic peroxides and the like.

  8. Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report1538-1950 TimelineUtility-Scale SolarV-Site AssemblyValueBattery

  9. Method of making a unitized electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niksa, M.J.; Pohto, G.R.; Lakatos, L.K.; Wheeler, D.J.; Solomon, F.; Niksa, A.J.; Schue, T.J.; Genodman, Y.; Turk, T.R.; Hagel, D.P.

    1988-12-06

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom. 6 figs.

  10. Latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frederickson, J.R.; Harper, W.H.; Perez, R.

    1984-08-17

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing. 2 figs.

  11. SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract -This paper proposes new solar battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract - This paper proposes new solar battery chargers for NiMH batteries. Used with portable solar panels, existing charge control methods are shown of consumer portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, and flexible and have been

  12. Recycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, and alkaline batteries. All batteries need to be sorted by battery type. Each battery type must be accumulated in a clearly labeled receptacle to identify the acceptable battery type. Batteries can be dropped off

  13. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   One   of   the   challenges  of   sodium   ion   batteries   is   identification   of  for   use   in   batteries.   Our   recent   work   has  

  14. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Secondary Lithium Batteries. Journal of the Electrochemicalin Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Overcharge Protection.G. M. in Handbook of Batteries (eds Linden, D. & Reddy, T.

  15. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gabano, Ed. , Lithium Batteries, Academic Press, New York,K. V. Kordesch, "Primary Batteries 1951-1976," J. Elec- n ~.Rechargeable Lithium Batteries," J. Electrochem. Soc. , [20

  16. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414, 359-367 (lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionics 135,electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materials

  17. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca

    2014-01-01

    Company-v3832/Lithium-Ion-Batteries- Outlook-Alternative-Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Marca M. Doeff * , Jordirechargeable sodium ion batteries, particularly for large-

  18. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Anodes for Aluminum-Air Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.Anodes for Aluminum-Air Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.ALLOYS FOR ALUMINUM AIR BATTERIES. J. Electrochem. Soc.

  19. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    their use in lithium-ion batteries. However, applications atresponse of lithium rechargeable batteries,” Journal of therechargeable lithium batteries (Preliminary report, Sept.

  20. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Identification of a suitabledevelopment of sodium ion batteries, because graphite, theanode for lithium ion batteries, does not undergo sodium

  1. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Dual Intercalation Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    for Dual Intercalation Batteries Lithium supply securityinterest in sodium-ion batteries. These devices operate muchsodium-ion or lithium-ion batteries that utilize them as

  2. Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Battery Basics November 22, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Vehicle Battery Basics Batteries are essential for electric drive technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles...

  3. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery charging and discharging. Researchers first charged commercial-grade battery cells to 50% full in 30 minutes, mimicking real world conditions. Then, the battery cell...

  4. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vanpuzzling mysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book beginssuch importance to lithium ion batteries one is amazed that

  5. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionicselectrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materialsand side reactions in lithium-ion batteries. Journal of the

  6. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec- trochemistryOptimization of Lithium-Ion Batteries PhD thesis (Universityfor Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries. Journal of The

  7. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    K. M. Directions in secondary lithium battery research-and-runaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journalrunaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journal

  8. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene Carbonate for Lithium Ion Battery Use. Journal oflithium atoms in lithium-ion battery electrolyte. Chemicalcapacity fading of a lithium-ion battery cycled at elevated

  9. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  10. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks...

  11. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  12. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  13. Furnace assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  14. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiser, Eric [The German Engineering Federation (VDMA), Battery Production Industry Group, Lyoner Str. 18, 60528 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  15. Accelerating Development of EV Batteries Through Computer-Aided Engineering (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Program has launched the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) project to work with national labs, industry and software venders to develop sophisticated software. As coordinator, NREL has teamed with a number of companies to help improve and accelerate battery design and production. This presentation provides an overview of CAEBAT, including its predictive computer simulation of Li-ion batteries known as the Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) model framework. MSMD's modular, flexible architecture connects the physics of battery charge/discharge processes, thermal control, safety and reliability in a computationally efficient manner. This allows independent development of submodels at the cell and pack levels.

  16. Method for packed column separations and purifications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, David A. (Richland, WA); Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J. (Richland, WA); Brockman, Fred J. (Kennewick, WA); Chandler, Darrell P. (Richland, WA)

    2006-08-15

    The invention encompasses a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber. A mixture of a fluid and a matrix material are introduced through a column chamber inlet so that the matrix material is packed within a column chamber to form a packed column. The column chamber having the column chamber inlet or first port for receiving the mixture further has an outlet port and an actuator port. The outlet port is partially closed for capturing the matrix material and permitting the fluid to flow therepast by rotating relative one to the other of a rod placed in the actuator port. Further rotation relative one to the other of the rod and the column chamber opens the outlet and permits the matrix material and the fluid to flow therethrough thereby unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber.

  17. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,lithium ion batteries. The chapter on aging summarizes the effects of the chemistry on the battery

  18. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of TheSalts Formed on the Lithium-Ion Battery Negative Electrodeion batteries In a lithium ion battery, positively charged

  19. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    polymer battery, lithium-ion batteries, and lithium-basedElectrolyte For Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries," LithiumK. Ozawa, "Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries with LiCo0 and

  20. Nickel coated aluminum battery cell tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bucchi, Robert S.; Casoli, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Nicotina, Joseph

    2014-07-29

    A battery cell tab is described. The battery cell tab is anodized on one end and has a metal coating on the other end. Battery cells and methods of making battery cell tabs are also described.

  1. New sealed rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, B.M. ); Dowgiallo, E. ); Halpert, G. ); Matsuda, Y. ); Takehara, Z.I. )

    1993-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: supercapacitors; nickel-metal hydride batteries; lithium polymer batteries; lithium/carbon batteries; cathode materials; and lithium batteries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers of this conference.

  2. Testimonials- Partnerships in Battery Technologies- CalBattery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Phil Roberts, CEO and Founder of California Lithium Battery (CalBattery), describes the new growth and development that was possible through partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Sensor assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  4. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,

  5. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  6. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, Thomas J. (Aurora, CO); Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO); Baer, Jose T. (Gaviota, CA); Swan, David H. (Monrovia, CA)

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  7. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO)

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  8. Recovery Act - Demonstration of Sodium Ion Battery for Grid Level Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiley, Ted; Whitacre, Jay; Eshoo, Michael; Noland, James; Campbell, Williams; Spears, Christopher

    2012-08-31

    Aquion Energy received a $5.179 million cooperative research agreement under the Department of Energyâ??s Smart Grid Demonstration Program â?? Demonstration of Promising Energy Storage Technologies (Program Area 2.5) of FOA DE-FOE-0000036. The main objective of this project was to demonstrate Aquionâ??s low cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature sodium ion energy storage device. The centerpiece of the technology is a novel hybrid energy storage chemistry that has been proven in a laboratory environment. The objective was to translate these groundbreaking results from the small-batch, small-cell test environment to the pilot scale to enable significant numbers of multiple ampere-hour cells to be manufactured and assembled into test batteries. Aquion developed a proof of concept demonstration unit that showed similar performance and major cost improvement over existing technologies. Beyond minimizing cell and system cost, Aquion built a technology that is safe, environmentally benign and durable over many thousands of cycles as used in a variety of grid support roles. As outlined in the Program documents, the original goals of the project were to demonstrate a unit that: 1. Has a projected capital cost of less than $250/kWh at the pack level 2. A deep discharge cycle life of > 10,000 cycles 3. A volumetric energy density of >20 kWh/m3 4. Projected calendar life of over 10 years 5. A device that contains no hazardous materials and retains best in class safety characteristics. Through the course of this project Aquion developed its aqueous electrolyte electrochemical energy storage device to the point where large demonstration units (> 10 kWh) were able to function in grid-supporting functions detailed by their collaborators. Aquionâ??s final deliverable was an ~15 kWh system that has the ability to perform medium to long duration (> 2 hours) charge and discharge functions approaching 95% DC-DC efficiency. The system has functioned, and continues to function as predicted with no indication that it will not tolerate well beyond 10 calendar years and 10,000 cycles. It has been in continuous operation for more than 1 year with 1,000 cycles (of varying depth of discharge, including 100% depth of discharge) and no identifiable degradation to the system. The final thick electrode cell structure has shown an energy density of 25 kWh/m3 at a five hour (or greater) discharge time. The primary chemistry has remained non-toxic, containing no acids or other corrosive chemicals, and the battery units have passed numerous safety tests, including flame resistance testing. These tests have verified the claim that the device is safe to use and contains no hazardous materials. Current projections show costs at the pack level to offer best in class value and are competitive with lead-acid batteries, factoring in LCOE.

  9. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  10. Circulating current battery heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  11. Mechanical design of flow batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Brandon J. (Brandon James)

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the design of low-cost, high-efficiency flow batteries. Researchers are searching for next-generation battery materials, and this thesis presents a systems analysis encompassing ...

  12. Module: Material Structure Focus: Crystal Packing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowley, Clarence W.

    ) and body centered cubic. Materials: Styrofoam Balls (20) Smaller Styrofoam Ball Round Toothpicks (16-258-5598 Teacher Notes: After a short review of crystal packing, have the students take 4 Styrofoam balls the students take 8 Styrofoam balls and attach them using toothpick so that they form 2 -4 ball diamond shape

  13. Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunawardena, Arunika

    Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats B A C K G R O U DN C H E C K ! Habitat, Food, Water. Disease,predation,pollution, accidents and climatic conditions are among other limiting factors which can affect an animal's ability to meet its needs. This section will look further into the impact of Climate

  14. Safe battery solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Delmastro, Joseph R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  15. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boling, Brian E. (Sugar Land, TX)

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  16. Flow Batteries A Historical Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flow Batteries A Historical Perspective Robert F. Savinell Case Western Reserve University Department of Chemical Engineering DOE Flow Battery Workshop March 2012 #12;2 OUTLINE ·The first flow cell? ·Review articles- documented progress ·Early NASA Work- some learning ·Fuel Cell and Flow Battery

  17. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated ...

  18. Copyright Office of Information Technology, University of Maryland Campus Pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yorke, James

    Copyright © Office of Information Technology, University of Maryland Campus Pack Blogs of Maryland College Park Spring 2015 #12;#12;1 Contents Introduction to Campus Pack Blogs Blog, Wiki, or Journal to an ELMS Course Space......................................... 3

  19. Shingle assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2007-02-20

    A barrier, such as a PV module, is secured to a base by a support to create a shingle assembly with a venting region defined between the barrier and base for temperature regulation. The first edge of one base may be interengageable with the second edge of an adjacent base to be capable of resisting first and second disengaging forces oriented perpendicular to the edges and along planes oriented parallel to and perpendicular to the base. A deflector may be used to help reduce wind uplift forces.

  20. Pushrod assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, J.D.

    1984-03-30

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved is described. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing magnet away from the carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  1. Dump assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldmann, L.H.

    1984-12-06

    This is a claim for a dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough. 4 figs.

  2. Pushrod assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Jerry D. (Kennewick, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing said magnet away from said carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  3. Self-Assembly and Self-Metallization of Porphyrin Nanosheets Zhongchun Wang, Zhiyong Li, Craig J. Medforth, and John A. Shelnutt*,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A.

    attractive building blocks for self-assembly because the intimate packing of these aromatic macrocycles can obtained using chilled water (4 °C) (data not shown). Methanol could also be used as the porphyrin solvent

  4. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  5. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and Manufactur...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond...

  6. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, James H. (New Baltimore, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  7. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, Gerald K. (Cedarburg, WI); Andrew, Michael G. (Wauwatosa, WI); Eskra, Michael D. (Fredonia, WI)

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  8. Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works to Cut Battery Costs in Half Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works to Cut Battery Costs in Half...

  9. Thermocouple assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thermos, Anthony Constantine (Greer, SC); Rahal, Fadi Elias (Easley, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

  10. Swivel assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael; Bradford, Kline; Rawle, Michael; Bartholomew, David B.; McPherson, James

    2007-03-20

    A swivel assembly for a downhole tool string comprises a first and second coaxial housing cooperatively arranged. The first housing comprises a first transmission element in communication with surface equipment. The second housing comprises a second transmission element in communication with the first transmission element. The second housing further comprises a third transmission element adapted for communication with a network integrated into the downhole tool string. The second housing may be rotational and adapted to transmit a signal between the downhole network and the first housing. Electronic circuitry is in communication with at least one of the transmission elements. The electronic circuitry may be externally mounted to the first or second housing. Further, the electronic circuitry may be internally mounted in the second housing. The electronic circuitry may be disposed in a recess in either first or second housing of the swivel.

  11. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reg W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dial, Ralph E. (Concord, TN); Finnell, Wilber K. R. (Kingston, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocuple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  12. Design rules for the self-assembly of a protein crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Haxton; Stephen Whitelam

    2011-10-25

    Theories of protein crystallization based on spheres that form close-packed crystals predict optimal assembly within a `slot' of second virial coefficients and enhanced assembly near the metastable liquid-vapor critical point. However, most protein crystals are open structures stabilized by anisotropic interactions. Here, we use theory and simulation to show that assembly of one such structure is not predicted by the second virial coefficient or enhanced by the critical point. Instead, good assembly requires that the thermodynamic driving force be on the order of the thermal energy and that interactions be made as nonspecific as possible without promoting liquid-vapor phase separation.

  13. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eidler, Phillip

    1999-07-01

    The Zinc/Bromine Load-Leveling Battery Development contract (No. 40-8965) was partitioned at the outset into two phases of equal length. Phase 1 started in September 1990 and continued through December 1991. In Phase 1, zinc/bromine battery technology was to be advanced to the point that it would be clear that the technology was viable and would be an appropriate choice for electric utilities wishing to establish stationary energy-storage facilities. Criteria were established that addressed most of the concerns that had been observed in the previous development efforts. The performances of 8-cell and 100-cell laboratory batteries demonstrated that the criteria were met or exceeded. In Phase 2, 100-kWh batteries will be built and demonstrated, and a conceptual design for a load-leveling plant will be presented. At the same time, work will continue to identify improved assembly techniques and operating conditions. This report details the results of the efforts carried out in Phase 1. The highlights are: (1) Four 1-kWh stacks achieved over 100 cycles, One l-kWh stack achieved over 200 cycles, One 1-kWh stack achieved over 300 cycles; (2) Less than 10% degradation in performance occurred in the four stacks that achieved over 100 cycles; (3) The battery used for the zinc loading investigation exhibited virtually no loss in performance for loadings up to 130 mAh/cm{sup 2}; (4) Charge-current densities of 50 ma/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in minicells; (5) Fourteen consecutive no-strip cycles have been conducted on the stack with 300+ cycles; (6) A mass and energy balance spreadsheet that describes battery operation was completed; (7) Materials research has continued to provide improvements in the electrode, activation layer, and separator; and (8) A battery made of two 50-cell stacks (15 kWh) was produced and delivered to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for testing. The most critical development was the ability to assemble a battery stack that remained leak free. The task of sealing the battery stack using vibration welding has undergone significant improvement resulting in a viable production process. Through several design iterations, a solid technology base for larger battery stack designs was established. Internal stack stresses can now be modeled, in addition to fluid velocity and fluid pressure distribution, through the use of a finite element analysis computer program. Additionally, the Johnson Controls Battery Group, Inc. (JCBGI) proprietary FORTRAN model has been improved significantly, enabling accurate performance predictions. This modeling was used to improve the integrity and performance of the battery stacks, and should be instrumental in reducing the turnaround time from concept to assembly.

  14. A Lighting Solution using Discarded Laptop Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    UrJar A Lighting Solution using Discarded Laptop Batteries Vikas Chandan vchanda4@in.ibm.com IBM year 3 #12;Li-Ion Batteries Li-Ion batteries power laptops, tablets and phones, form a key constituent of e-waste IBM India produced ~10 tons of discarded laptop batteries (2013) Recycling Li-Ion batteries

  15. High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun , Jiung Cho, James H. Pikul, William P. King storage Secondary batteries High energy density High power density Lithium ion battery 3D battery of rechargeable (second- ary) batteries, as this is critical for most applications. As the penetration

  16. Preliminary Design of a Smart Battery Controller for SLI Batteries Xiquan Wang and Pritpal Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Pritpal

    Preliminary Design of a Smart Battery Controller for SLI Batteries Xiquan Wang and Pritpal Singh Automotive start, light, ignition (SLI) lead acid batteries are prone to capacity loss due to low of these batteries can be improved by using the concept of a smart battery system (SBS). In a SBS, battery data from

  17. An Interleaved Dual-Battery Power Supply for Battery-Operated Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    An Interleaved Dual-Battery Power Supply for Battery-Operated Electronics QingQing Wu,Wu, Qinru VoltageAnalysis of Optimal Supply Voltage Design of Interleaved DualDesign of Interleaved Dual--Battery PowerBattery Power SupplySupply ConclusionsConclusions #12;Batteries in Mobile/Portable ElectronicsBatteries

  18. Tools for Designing Thermal Management of Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature has a significant impact on life, performance, and safety of lithium-ion battery technology, which is expected to be the energy storage of choice for electric drive vehicles (xEVs). High temperatures degrade Li-ion cells faster while low temperatures reduce power and energy capabilities that could have cost, reliability, range, or drivability implications. Thermal management of battery packs in xEVs is essential to keep the cells in the desired temperature range and also reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations, both of which impact life and performance. The value that the battery thermal management system provides in reducing battery life and improving performance outweighs its additional cost and complexity. Tools that are essential for thermal management of batteries are infrared thermal imaging, isothermal calorimetry, thermal conductivity meter and computer-aided thermal analysis design software. This presentation provides details of these tools that NREL has used and we believe are needed to design right-sized battery thermal management systems.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: A 12V Start-Stop Li Polymer Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by LG Chem Power at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about A 12V start-stop Li polymer...

  20. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen andExperimental

  1. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  2. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vantolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission andmysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book begins with an

  3. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery...

  4. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    their use in lithium-ion batteries. However, applications atfor use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities andFor rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, we require that any

  5. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    in High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybridas Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Chem. Mater. 2011,seen in magnesium or lithium ion batteries would operate at

  6. Advanced battery modeling using neural networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arikara, Muralidharan Pushpakam

    1993-01-01

    battery models are available today that can accurately predict the performance of the battery system. This thesis presents a modeling technique for batteries employing neural networks. The advantage of using neural networks is that the effect of any...

  7. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    simulate those in a lithium battery. Chapter 3 TransientModel for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of TheRole in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrochemistry.

  8. Latching relay switch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duimstra, Frederick A. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  9. Energy transport in jammed sphere packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning Xu; Vincenzo Vitelli; Matthieu Wyart; Andrea J. Liu; Sidney R. Nagel

    2008-11-17

    We calculate the normal modes of vibration in jammed sphere packings to obtain the energy diffusivity, a spectral measure of transport. At the boson peak frequency, we find an Ioffe-Regel crossover from a diffusivity that drops rapidly with frequency to one that is nearly frequency-independent. This crossover frequency shifts to zero as the system is decompressed towards the jamming transition, providing unambiguous evidence of a regime in frequency of nearly constant diffusivity. Such a regime, postulated to exist in glasses to explain the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity, therefore appears to arise from properties of the jamming transition.

  10. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chi, John W. H. (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  11. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Knight, R.C.; Precechtel, D.R.; Smith, B.G.

    1985-09-09

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  12. Battery-Aware Power Management Based on Markovian Decision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Dynamic Power Management 101 ! Motivation and principle of operation " Rationale: Power and Smart BatteriesBattery Characteristics and Smart Batteries ! Nonlinear characteristics of batteries " Rate capacity effect # The total energy capacity that a battery can deliver during its lifetime depends

  13. Response of Lithium Polymer Batteries to Mechanical Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Response of Lithium Polymer Batteries to Mechanical Loading Karl Suabedissen1, Christina Peabody2 #12;Outline · Motivation · Battery Structure · Testing and Results · Conclusions #12;Motivation · Lithium polymer batteries are everywhere. · Efforts to create flexible batteries. · Restrictive battery

  14. Battery Manufacturing Processes Improved by Johnson Controls...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Office. The project focused on three major aspects of the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery manufacturing process: reducing process time for battery formation and...

  15. Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  16. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    molten salts as lithium battery electrolyte,” ElectrochimicaFigure 15. Rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Figure 16 showsbattery. It is essential that an ionic liquid – lithium salt

  17. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award February...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Battery Development, System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research (USCAR). It also works directly with industry battery and material suppliers through competitive research and development awards. To learn how batteries are used...

  19. Battery resource assessment. Subtask II. 5. Battery manufacturing capability recycling of battery materials. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pemsler, P.

    1981-02-01

    Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials. Each recycle process has been designed to produce a product material which can be used directly as a raw material by the battery manufacturer. Metal recoverabilities are in the range of 93 to 95% for all processes. In each case, capital and operating costs have been developed for a recycling plant which processes 100,000 electric vehicle batteries per year. These costs have been developed based on material and energy balances, equipment lists, factored installation costs, and manpower estimates. In general, there are no technological barriers for recycling in the Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine and Zinc/Bromine battery systems. The recycling processes are based on essentially conventional, demonstrate technology. The lead times required to build battery recycling plants based on these processes is comparable to that of any other new plant. The total elapsed time required from inception to plant operation is approximately 3 to 5 y. The recycling process for the sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/sulfide battery systems are not based on conventional technology. In particular, mechanical systems for dismantling these batteries must be developed.

  20. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  1. A study of a cooling tower with variable packing heights 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, A. M. M. Farid

    1957-01-01

    and Electronic Relay 17 6. 7 ~ 8. View of the Instrument Panel Racking Arrangement Spacer and Packing Types 23 23 10. Effect of Tower Height on Range/Approach Ratio for Rectangular Packing 35 Effect of Tower Height on Range/Approach Rptio for Circular... - round type packing 33 VI. Average results ? triangular packing with vertex up 34 SYMBOLS ALUB ABB?', 'VIATIO&IS mass air flow rate, pounds per (hour)(unit ground area) h" ent'halpy of saturated ai- at water temperature, Btu per pound of dry air. ha...

  2. Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, Peter C. (Espanola, NM); Rodriguez, Patrick J. (Espanola, NM); Pereyra, Ramiro A. (Medanales, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries.

  3. Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, P.C.; Rodriguez, P.J.; Pereyra, R.A.

    1999-06-29

    Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object is disclosed. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries. 4 figs.

  4. Flow Battery Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServices »First ObservationFast(ER1)Flow Battery

  5. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  6. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Tennessee Knoxville; U. Texas Austin; McGill U; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  7. A Desalination Battery Mauro Pasta,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    A Desalination Battery Mauro Pasta, Colin D. Wessells, Yi Cui,,§ and Fabio La Mantia Information ABSTRACT: Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse

  8. Principles of an Atomtronic Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex A. Zozulya; Dana Z. Anderson

    2013-08-06

    An asymmetric atom trap is investigated as a means to implement a "battery" that supplies ultracold atoms to an atomtronic circuit. The battery model is derived from a scheme for continuous loading of a non-dissipative atom trap proposed by Roos et al.(Europhysics Letters V61, 187 (2003)). The trap is defined by longitudinal and transverse trap frequencies and corresponding trap energy heights. The battery's ability to supply power to a load is evaluated as a function of an input atom flux and power. For given trap parameters and input flux the battery is shown to have a resonantly optimum value of input power. The battery behavior can be cast in terms of an equivalent circuit model; specifically, for fixed input flux and power the battery is modeled in terms of a Th\\'{e}venin equivalent chemical potential and internal resistance. The internal resistance establishes the maximum power that can be supplied to a circuit, the heat that will be generated by the battery, and that noise will be imposed on the circuit. We argue that any means of implementing a battery for atomtronics can be represented by a Th\\'{e}venin equivalent and that its performance will likewise be determined by an internal resistance.

  9. Virus Assemblies as Templates for Nanocircuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James N Culver; Michael T Harris

    2011-08-31

    The goals of this project were directed at the identification and characterization of bio-mineralization processes and patterning methods for the development of nano scale materials and structures with novel energy and conductive traits. This project utilized a simple plant virus as a model template to investigate methods to attach and coat metals and other inorganic compounds onto biologically based nanotemplates. Accomplishments include: the development of robust biological nanotemplates with enhanced inorganic coating activities; novel coating strategies that allow for the deposition of a continuous inorganic layer onto a bio-nanotemplate even in the absence of a reducing agent; three-dimensional patterning methods for the assemble of nano-featured high aspect ratio surfaces and the demonstrated use of these surfaces in enhancing battery and energy storage applications. Combined results from this project have significantly advanced our understanding and ability to utilize the unique self-assembly properties of biologically based molecules to produce novel materials at the nanoscale level.

  10. Zinc-bromine battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellows, R.; Grimes, P.; Malachesky, P.

    1983-01-01

    Some progress in the field of zinc-bromine batteries is reviewed, and a number of successes and some difficulties are related. The direction of work includes, among other areas, testing of parametric and large batteries. The program includes the control of electrode planarity through electrode thickness and electrode support, improved cathode activation coatings to increase and maintain performance near the end of battery capacity, reduced retention of bromine in the battery cell stock at shutdown to lower capacity loss and improve sealing techniques. Projected factory cost should be competitive with lead-acid batteries. Progress has been demonstrated in scale-up and performance, as well as improving the life of the system. (LEW)

  11. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  12. Volatile Components from Packing Matrials, Rev. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. A.

    2006-03-01

    An outgassing study was conducted on five packing materials, comprising two experiments. These materials comprised 277-4 borated concrete, Borobond4 concrete, polyethylene bags, silica-filled silicone rubber seals, and silicone foam padding. The purpose was measure the volume of gases which diffuse from packaging materials when sealed in containers. Two heating profiles were used to study the offgassing quantities in a set of accelerated aging tests. It was determined that the concretes contain a large quantity of water. The plastic materials hold much less moisture, with the silicone materials even consuming water, possibly due to the presence of silica filler. Polyethylene tends to degrade as the temperature is elevated and the foam stiffens.

  13. Granular impact and the critical packing state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umbanhowar, Paul; 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.010301

    2010-01-01

    Impact dynamics during collisions of spheres with granular media reveal a pronounced and non-trivial dependence on volume fraction \\phi. Post impact crater morphology identifies the critical packing state \\phi_{cps}, where sheared grains neither dilate nor consolidate, and indicates an associated change in spatial response. Current phenomenological models fail to capture the observed impact force for most \\phi; only near \\phi_{cps} is force separable into additive terms linear in depth and quadratic in velocity. At fixed depth the quadratic drag coefficient decreases (increases) with depth for \\phi \\phi_{cps}). At fixed low velocity, depth dependence of force shows a Janssen-type exponential response with a length scale that decreases with increasing \\phi; and is nearly constant for \\phi > \\phi_{cps}.

  14. Granular impact and the critical packing state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Umbanhowar; Daniel I. Goldman

    2010-07-16

    Impact dynamics during collisions of spheres with granular media reveal a pronounced and non-trivial dependence on volume fraction \\phi. Post impact crater morphology identifies the critical packing state \\phi_{cps}, where sheared grains neither dilate nor consolidate, and indicates an associated change in spatial response. Current phenomenological models fail to capture the observed impact force for most \\phi; only near \\phi_{cps} is force separable into additive terms linear in depth and quadratic in velocity. At fixed depth the quadratic drag coefficient decreases (increases) with depth for \\phi \\phi_{cps}). At fixed low velocity, depth dependence of force shows a Janssen-type exponential response with a length scale that decreases with increasing \\phi; and is nearly constant for \\phi > \\phi_{cps}.

  15. Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Ireland, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-07-15

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  16. Structural simulations of nanomaterials self-assembled from ionic macrocycles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Swol, Frank B.; Medforth, Craig John

    2010-10-01

    Recent research at Sandia has discovered a new class of organic binary ionic solids with tunable optical, electronic, and photochemical properties. These nanomaterials, consisting of a novel class of organic binary ionic solids, are currently being developed at Sandia for applications in batteries, supercapacitors, and solar energy technologies. They are composed of self-assembled oligomeric arrays of very large anions and large cations, but their crucial internal arrangement is thus far unknown. This report describes (a) the development of a relevant model of nonconvex particles decorated with ions interacting through short-ranged Yukawa potentials, and (b) the results of initial Monte Carlo simulations of the self-assembly binary ionic solids.

  17. Battery Model for Embedded Systems , Gaurav Singhal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navet, Nicolas

    in design of mobile embedded sys- tems today is the battery lifetime for a given size and weight in the energy densities of the battery technologies, estimating the lifetime and energy delivered by the battery applications. Stochastic battery models [6, 8] have also been proposed which are faster than to the PDE model

  18. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2006-10-01

    Presents the objectives and motivations for a battery thermal management vehicle system design study.

  19. Battery-Powered Digital CMOS Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    1 Page 1 USC Low Power CAD Massoud Pedram Battery-Powered Digital CMOS Design Massoud Pedram Power CAD Massoud Pedram Motivation Extending the battery service life of battery-powered micro in the VLSI circuit Y The battery system is assumed to be an ideal source that delivers a fixed amount

  20. Packed bed reactor for photochemical .sup.196 Hg isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA)

    1992-01-01

    Straight tubes and randomly oriented pieces of tubing having been employed in a photochemical mercury enrichment reactor and have been found to improve the enrichment factor (E) and utilization (U) compared to a non-packed reactor. One preferred embodiment of this system uses a moving bed (via gravity) for random packing.

  1. . AN IMPROVED AND PRACTICAL METHOD OF PACKING FISH FOR TRANSPORTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    = . AN IMPROVED AND PRACTICAL METHOD OF PACKING FISH FOR TRANSPORTATION $- By A. Selling Commissioner to the Danish Government Fisheries Department, London, England Paper presented before the Fourth for pagination #12;AN IMPROVED AND PRACTICAL METHOD OF PACKING FISH FOR TRANSPORTATION. ,JI By A. Stl

  2. Campus Pack Blogs, Wikis & Journals August 2, 2014 Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yorke, James

    Campus Pack Blogs, Wikis & Journals August 2, 2014 Release Campus Pack has introduced a new version Navigation Navigate through the wiki (blog, journal) pages by clicking the "Pages" button in the upper left. All of the pages will be listed. Click the "Add New Page" button to add pages to the blog, wiki

  3. Procedure for Packing Weather Files for DOE-2e 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, K. H.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    -09-03 Procedure for Packing Weather Files for DOE-2e Kee Han Kim Juan-Carlos Baltazar-Cervantes, Ph.D. September 2010 ESL-TR-10-09-03 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1... ................................................................................................................................................. 7 1. OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................................................... 7 2. PROCESS OF PACKING WEATHER DATA FOR DOE-2e SIMULATION ............................... 8 2...

  4. Principles of an Atomtronic Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zozulya, Alex A

    2013-01-01

    An asymmetric atom trap is investigated as a means to implement a "battery" that supplies ultracold atoms to an atomtronic circuit. The battery model is derived from a scheme for continuous loading of a non-dissipative atom trap proposed by Roos et al.(Europhysics Letters V61, 187 (2003)). The trap is defined by longitudinal and transverse trap frequencies and corresponding trap energy heights. The battery's ability to supply power to a load is evaluated as a function of an input atom flux and power. For given trap parameters and input flux the battery is shown to have a resonantly optimum value of input power. The battery behavior can be cast in terms of an equivalent circuit model; specifically, for fixed input flux and power the battery is modeled in terms of a Th\\'{e}venin equivalent chemical potential and internal resistance. The internal resistance establishes the maximum power that can be supplied to a circuit, the heat that will be generated by the battery, and that noise will be imposed on the circui...

  5. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  6. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, S.J.; Liu, M.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1992-11-10

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145 C (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium trifluorate (PEO[sub 8]LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS)[sub n], and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte. 2 figs.

  7. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (2336 California St., Berkeley, CA 94703); Liu, Meilin (1121C Ninth St., #29, Albany, CA 94710); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (910 Acalanes Rd., Lafayette, CA 94549)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145.degree. C. (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium triflate (PEO.sub.8 LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS).sub.n, and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte.

  8. Solid polymer battery electrolyte and reactive metal-water battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    In one implementation, a reactive metal-water battery includes an anode comprising a metal in atomic or alloy form selected from the group consisting of periodic table Group 1A metals, periodic table Group 2A metals and mixtures thereof. The battery includes a cathode comprising water. Such also includes a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a polyphosphazene comprising ligands bonded with a phosphazene polymer backbone. The ligands comprise an aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion and a metal ion carrier portion. The metal ion carrier portion is bonded at one location with the polymer backbone and at another location with the aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion. The invention also contemplates such solid polymer electrolytes use in reactive metal/water batteries, and in any other battery.

  9. Design and cost analysis of a 20-kWh bipolar zinc-bromine battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einstein, H.; Bellows, R.J.; Grimes, P.; Kantner, E.; Malachesky, P.; Newby, K.

    1981-01-01

    Zinc-Bromine secondary batteries are attractive systems for electric vehicles and energy storage (off-peak and photovoltaic) applications because of low cost raw materials, relatively high energy density, and ambient temperature operation. Exxon's approach to the system uses conductive carbon plastic electrodes in a bipolar configuration, separable bromine complexes, and selective membranes in a circulating electrolyte design. The 20 kWh battery design consists of two 10 kWh battery stacks placed back-to-back with a common center electrolyte feed block. Each of the two battery stacks consists of 78 cells for a system voltage of 120 volt output. Active electrode area per electrode is 12 dm/sup 2/. Cell-to-cell spacing is 0.25 cm. The two-stack module is assembled over a tray serving as a cover for the plastic electrolyte reservoir. Unit cells are comprised of alternating bipolar electrodes and separator assemblies. For various applications, accessories and controls are built into the system. The projected battery factory price of $28./kWh is discussed, along with the manufacturing, materials, and labor costs.

  10. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  11. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen (Palo Alto, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  12. Soft, and all-solid lithium battery using thermoplastic ionic electrolytes: progress towards drawn/extruded fiber battery for electronic textiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Here we developed a flexible and stretchable battery composed of strain free LiFePO4 cathodes, Li4Ti5O10 anode and solid poly ethylene oxide (PEO) based solid electrolyte, which might be used in smart textile field as an efficient energy storage source. Consequently, this invention is the key step towards the development of the wearable electronic textile. The core technical innovation involves the fabrication of electrodes, electrolytes materials into one flexible and stretchable film, which have the potential to be drawn or cut as fiber battery. Thus it has a potential advantage in that unique configuration can be devised and constructed with other electronic textile components. Within this paper, there are two aspects that we have investigated: 1) making composites of cathode/anode material with optimized ratio of conducting carbon and polymer binder material, 2) assemble the cathode, anode and polymer electrolytes layers together, measure the recycle performance of this film battery and test the reversibi...

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    electrode in lithium-ion batteries: AFM study in an ethylenelithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Carbon 1999, 37, 165-batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2001,

  14. Sodium Titanates as Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    Anodes  for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   Marca  M.  Doeff,  dual   intercalation   batteries   based   on   sodium  future   of   sodium  ion  batteries  will  be  discussed  

  15. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    beyondlithiumionb.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries...

  16. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Alloy design for lithium-ion battery anodes. J. Electrochem.advances in lithium ion battery materials. Electrochim. Actamaterials for lithium ion battery. Journal of Nanoparticle

  17. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery,...

  18. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    microdiffraction. Lithium ion batteries have made a greatthose used in lithium-ion batteries. Dynamic potentiometricrechargeable lithium ion batteries consist of many layers of

  19. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Variouselectrodes for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of MaterialsAdvances in Lithium-Ion Batteries (Chapter 4), Kluwer

  20. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    2000). Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles, (ANL/Lithium ion Batteries 2.1.1 Lithium versus Lithium ion Batteries Lithium systems

  1. Developing Next-Gen Batteries With Help From NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries A genomics approach to materials research could speed up advancements in battery performance December...

  2. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project Andrewto evaluate emerging lithium battery technologies for plug-vehicles. By emerging lithium battery chemistries were meant

  3. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    3 2.1.2 Lithium ion Battery2.2 Schematic of lithium ion battery operating principles (be rechargeable. The lithium ion battery is often referred

  4. New imaging capability reveals possible key to extending battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    developed for studying battery failures points to a potential next step in extending lithium ion battery lifetime and capacity, opening a path to wider use of these batteries...

  5. Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties Henderson, Wesley 25 ENERGY STORAGE battery, electrolyte, solvation, ionic association battery, electrolyte,...

  6. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation Neubauer, J. 25 ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY; LITHIUM-ION; STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE; BLAST; BATTERY DEGRADATION;...

  7. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries PolyPlus Battery Company - Berkeley, CA A...

  8. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollard, Richard

    2012-01-01

    and J. Newman, Proc. Syrup. Battery Design and Optimization,123, 1364 (1976). Symp, Battery Design and Optimization, S.~ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  9. Psychometric properties of the penn computerized neurocognitive battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, TM; Reise, SP; Gur, RE; Hakonarson, H; Gur, RC; Gur, RC

    2015-01-01

    a computerized neurocognitive battery in children age 8 –21.based neurocog- nitive battery. Therapeutic Hypothermia anda standardized neurocognitive battery. Neuropsychology, 28,

  10. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David H. (Redondo Beach, CA)

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  11. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2015-04-21

    An as-prepared cathode for a secondary battery, the cathode including an alkaline source material including an alkali metal oxide, an alkali metal sulfide, an alkali metal salt, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  12. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Liu, Hansan [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.

  13. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2012-01-01

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  14. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  15. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  16. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  17. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-05-29

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  18. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  19. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Ahmad, P.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.; Smith, K.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.

    2012-05-01

    This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the application of the Battery Ownership Model for strategies for optimal battery use in electric drive vehicles (PEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs).

  20. Model based control of a coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.M.; Srour, J.M.; Zulli, P. [BHP Research, Mulgrave (Australia). Melbourne Labs.; Cunningham, R.; Hockings, K. [BHP Steel, Pt Kembla, New South Wales (Australia). Coal and Coke Technical Development Group

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a model-based strategy for coke battery control at BHP Steel`s operations in Pt Kembla, Australia. The strategy uses several models describing the battery thermal and coking behavior. A prototype controller has been installed on the Pt Kembla No. 6 Battery (PK6CO). In trials, the new controller has been well accepted by operators and has resulted in a clear improvement in battery thermal stability, with a halving of the standard deviation of average battery temperature. Along with other improvements to that battery`s operations, this implementation has contributed to a 10% decrease in specific battery energy consumption. A number of enhancements to the low level control systems on that battery are currently being undertaken in order to realize further benefits.

  1. Optimal management of batteries in electric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Corey, Garth P. (Albuquerque, NM); Symons, Philip C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

  2. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    optimizing better battery materials. A Battery of Tests for Better Batteries The prosaic battery has often been overlooked as little more than an afterthought in a consumer-driven...

  3. Advanced Models and Controls for Prediction and Extension of Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-01

    Predictive models of capacity and power fade must consider a multiplicity of degradation modes experienced by Li-ion batteries in the automotive environment. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must presently be absorbed by overdesign and excess warranty costs. To reduce these costs and extend life, degradation models are under development that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. The lifetime models provide engineering feedback for cell, pack and system designs and are being incorporated into real-time control strategies.

  4. PACKING TRIANGLES ON A SPHERE ISAAC OTTONI WILHELM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, J. Peter

    a more general procedure that we call the Windmill Algorithm for packing equilateral triangles onto a sphere. In Section 4 we prove several facts about the Windmill Algorithm and use those facts to prove

  5. FOR THE RECORD RosettaHoles2: A volumetric packing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, David

    FOR THE RECORD RosettaHoles2: A volumetric packing measure for protein structure refinement volumetric in nature. However, the total cavity volume is not a good dis- criminator between computational

  6. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials...

  7. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01

    commercial Li-ion batteries today use graphite or a mixturein certain primary batteries). Graphite has a potential of

  8. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing...

  9. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    for powering microelectromechanical systems and otherSurvey of battery powered microelectromechanical systems.with battery powered microelectromechanical systems (MEMS),

  10. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01

    battery cathodes for portable electronics (and is even the material used in batteries for the original Tesla

  11. Performance characterization of a packed bed electro-filter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanan, Ajay

    1990-01-01

    PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by A JAY NARAYANAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1990 Major Subject: Safety Engineering PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by AJAY NARAYANAN Approved as to style and content by: John P. Wagn (Ch ' of the Com ittee) Aydin Akgerman (Member) Ri ard B...

  12. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  13. Public Assembly Buildings

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    as "primary energy," which includes the energy consumed during the generation and transmission of electricity. Public assembly buildings used 577 trillion Btu of primary...

  14. Extended abstracts: seventh battery and electrochemical contractors' conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, D.; Hurwitch, J. (comps.)

    1985-11-01

    Seventy-two papers are arranged under the following session headings: EPRI storage program, review of key program activities, sodium/sulfur battery development, advanced battery research (two sessions), flow battery development, sodium/sulfur battery research, systems analysis and technology transfer, performance and testing (two sessions), flow battery research, metal/air batteries, and fuel cells. (DLC)

  15. An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng cycle-life tends to shrink significantly. The capacities of commercial lithium-ion batteries fade by 10 prediction model to estimate the remaining capacity of a Lithium-Ion battery. The proposed analytical model

  16. Energy Storage & Battery | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and additive components for lithium-ion, llithium-air, lithium-sulfur, sodium-ion, and flow batteries. Employing some of the most respected and cited battery researchers in the...

  17. Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award October 15, 2014 -...

  18. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    batteries are leading candidates to play an important role in the transition to a renewableBatteries by William Rodgers Hudson Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry University of California, Berkeley Professor Jeffrey Long, Chair Increasing interest in renewable

  19. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2009-09-14

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  20. A User Programmable Battery Charging System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07

    , have to be replenished or recharged once their energy is depleted. Battery charging systems must perform this replenishment by using very fast and efficient methods to extend battery life and to increase periods between charges. In this regard...

  1. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael

    2013-04-19

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Model for the Graphite Anode in Li-Ion Batteries. Journal ofgraphite Chapters 2-3 have developed a method using ferrocene to characterize the SEI in lithium- ion batteries.

  3. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2010-01-08

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion...

  6. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    experimental data from plastic lithium ion cells. Journal ofelectrolyte additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec-Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of The

  7. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Alternator control for battery charging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  9. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  10. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing development and application of processing and process control for nanocomposite materials for lithium ion batteries

  11. Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL battery thermal modeling and testing work for the DOE Annual Merit Review, May 9, 2011.

  12. Review of flow battery testing at Sandia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, P.C.; Miller, D.W.; Robinson, C.E.; Rodriguez, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating prototype zinc/bromine, Redox, and zinc/ferricyanide flowing electrolyte batteries and cells. This paper will update previous reports of test results of two Exxon zinc/bromine batteries and one NASA Redox iron/chromium battery. Two 60-sq. cm. zinc/ferricyanide cells from Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. are also being evaluated. Performance, life, and operating data will be described for these batteries and cells.

  13. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

    2006-11-01

    Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

  14. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  15. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bockelmann, Thomas R. (Battle Creek, MI); Hope, Mark E. (Marshall, MI); Zou, Zhanjiang (Battle Creek, MI); Kang, Xiaosong (Battle Creek, MI)

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  16. Inert gas rejection device for zinc-halogen battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Michael J. (Sterling Heights, MI); Arendell, Mark W. (Warren, MI)

    1981-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for separating chlorine gas from other (foreign) gases, having an anode, a cathode assembly, an aqueous electrolyte, a housing, and a constant voltage power supply. The cathode assembly is generally comprised of a dense graphite electrode having a winding channel formed in the face opposing the anode, a gas impermeable (but liquid permeable) membrane sealed into the side of the cathode electrode over the channel, and a packing of graphite particles contained in the channel of the cathode electrode. The housing separates and parallelly aligns the anode and cathode assembly, and provides a hermetic seal for the cell. In operation, a stream of chlorine and foreign gases enters the cell at the beginning of the cathode electrode channel. The chlorine gas is dissolved into the electrolyte and electrochemically reduced into chloride ions. The chloride ions disfuse through the gas impermeable membrane, and are electrochemically oxidized at the anode into purified chlorine gas. The foreign gases do not participate in the above electrochemical reactions, and are vented from the cell at the end of the cathode electrode channel.

  17. A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-28

    The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

  18. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  19. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  20. Batteries for Vehicular Applications Venkat Srinivasan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    Batteries for Vehicular Applications Venkat Srinivasan Lawrence Berkeley National Lab 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 70R 0108B Berkeley, CA 94720 Abstract. This paper will describe battery technology), and plug-in- hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV). The present status of rechargeable batteries

  1. Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries Frontiers in Materials Science Seminar / Chemistryg g g g g y University at Buffalo ­ The State University of New York (SUNY) Abstract Batteries/SVO batteries. A case study highlighting the rich chemistry and electrochemistry of the Li/SVO system providing

  2. Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program Venkat Srinivasan of the DOE/EERE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program to develop batteries for vehicular applications double the energy density of presently available Li batteries · HEV: low-T operation, cost, and abuse

  3. 0 INFORMATION BATTERIES-FOR BIOTELEMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    A -BIAC 0 INFORMATION MODULE MIO BATTERIES-FOR BIOTELEMETRY AND OTHER APPLICATIONS Prepared by go to the Applications Engineering Department of P. R. Mallory Battery Company for supplying. High vacuum or pressures of 5C00 psi have no detectable effect on mercury batteries. Momentary short

  4. Transparent lithium-ion batteries , Sangmoo Jeongb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Transparent lithium-ion batteries Yuan Yanga , Sangmoo Jeongb , Liangbing Hua , Hui Wua , Seok Woo, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transpar- ent and have to be thick

  5. Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries IMRE GYUK, PROGRAM MANAGER ENERGY STORAGE RESEARCH, DOE Flow 2011Year #12;Flow Battery Research at PNNL and Sandia #12; Iron-containing "MetIL" Redox Couples for Flow Batteries, Sandia Sandia has developed

  6. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  7. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  8. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  9. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2013-04-19

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  10. Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling with Bursty Workloads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    1 Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling with Bursty Workloads Dylan Lexie , Shan Lin, and Jie Wu.wu@temple.edu Abstract--Battery-powered wireless sensor devices need to be charged to provide the desired functionality after deployment. Task or even device failures can occur if the voltage of the battery is low

  11. Real-time studies of battery electrochemical reactions inside a transmission electron microscope.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Kevin; Hudak, Nicholas S.; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaohua H.; Fan, Hongyou; Subramanian, Arunkumar; Shaw, Michael J.; Sullivan, John Patrick; Huang, Jian Yu

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of new experimental capabilities and ab initio modeling for real-time studies of Li-ion battery electrochemical reactions. We developed three capabilities for in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies: a capability that uses a nanomanipulator inside the TEM to assemble electrochemical cells with ionic liquid or solid state electrolytes, a capability that uses on-chip assembly of battery components on to TEM-compatible multi-electrode arrays, and a capability that uses a TEM-compatible sealed electrochemical cell that we developed for performing in-situ TEM using volatile battery electrolytes. These capabilities were used to understand lithiation mechanisms in nanoscale battery materials, including SnO{sub 2}, Si, Ge, Al, ZnO, and MnO{sub 2}. The modeling approaches used ab initio molecular dynamics to understand early stages of ethylene carbonate reduction on lithiated-graphite and lithium surfaces and constrained density functional theory to understand ethylene carbonate reduction on passivated electrode surfaces.

  12. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  13. High speed door assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shapiro, C.

    1993-04-27

    A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  14. High speed door assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Carolyn (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    A high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  15. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  16. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  17. Automated Assembly Using Feature Localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Steven Jeffrey

    1986-12-01

    Automated assembly of mechanical devices is studies by researching methods of operating assembly equipment in a variable manner; that is, systems which may be configured to perform many different assembly operations ...

  18. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  19. Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriksen, G.L.

    1993-08-01

    A technology assessment is given for electric batteries with potential for use in electric powered vehicles. Parameters considered include: specific energy, specific power, energy density, power density, cycle life, service life, recharge time, and selling price. Near term batteries include: nickel/cadmium and lead-acid batteries. Mid term batteries include: sodium/sulfur, sodium/nickel chloride, nickel/metal hydride, zinc/air, zinc/bromine, and nickel/iron systems. Long term batteries include: lithium/iron disulfide and lithium- polymer systems. Performance and life testing data for these systems are discussed. (GHH)

  20. CAD Assemblies Academic Resource Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    Desk Inventor, which is free to students #12;Why are Assemblies Important? Assemblies are collections of parts for the Inventor software Prepared by Adin Goings #12;

  1. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  2. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    as cathode materials for lithium ion battery. ElectrochimicaCapacity, High Rate Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Utilizinghours. 1.4 Lithium Ion Batteries Lithium battery technology

  3. Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 and 27,000 Wh per liter.

  4. Lithium-Air Battery: High Performance Cathodes for Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-01

    BEEST Project: Researchers at Missouri S&T are developing an affordable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery that could enable an EV to travel up to 350 miles on a single charge. Today’s EVs run on Li-Ion batteries, which are expensive and suffer from low energy density compared with gasoline. This new Li-Air battery could perform as well as gasoline and store 3 times more energy than current Li-Ion batteries. A Li-Air battery uses an air cathode to breathe oxygen into the battery from the surrounding air, like a human lung. The oxygen and lithium react in the battery to produce electricity. Current Li-Air batteries are limited by the rate at which they can draw oxygen from the air. The team is designing a battery using hierarchical electrode structures to enhance air breathing and effective catalysts to accelerate electricity production.

  5. DC source assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  6. Models for Metal Hydride Particle Shape, Packing, and Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyle C. Smith; Timothy S. Fisher

    2012-05-04

    A multiphysics modeling approach for heat conduction in metal hydride powders is presented, including particle shape distribution, size distribution, granular packing structure, and effective thermal conductivity. A statistical geometric model is presented that replicates features of particle size and shape distributions observed experimentally that result from cyclic hydride decreptitation. The quasi-static dense packing of a sample set of these particles is simulated via energy-based structural optimization methods. These particles jam (i.e., solidify) at a density (solid volume fraction) of 0.665+/-0.015 - higher than prior experimental estimates. Effective thermal conductivity of the jammed system is simulated and found to follow the behavior predicted by granular effective medium theory. Finally, a theory is presented that links the properties of bi-porous cohesive powders to the present systems based on recent experimental observations of jammed packings of fine powder. This theory produces quantitative experimental agreement with metal hydride powders of various compositions.

  7. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  8. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2014-10-28

    Method of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electrolytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  9. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  10. Core assembly storage structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Charles E. (Northridge, CA); Brunings, Jay E. (Chatsworth, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  11. Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Jeff

    2010-06-03

    Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  12. Magnetic assisted statistical assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Diana I

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a process using magnetic forces to assemble micro-components into recesses on silicon based integrated circuits. Patterned SmCo magnetic thin films at the bottom of recesses are ...

  13. Swipe transfer assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, Robert M. (Blackfoot, ID); Mills, William C. (McKeesport, PA)

    1992-01-01

    The swipe transfer assembly is a mechanical assembly which is used in conjunction with glove boxes and other sealed containments. It is used to pass small samples into or out of glove boxes without an open breach of the containment, and includes a rotational cylinder inside a fixed cylinder, the inside cylinder being rotatable through an arc of approximately 240.degree. relative to the outer cylinder. An offset of 120.degree. from end to end allows only one port to be opened at a time. The assembly is made of stainless steel or aluminum and clear acrylic plastic to enable visual observation. The assembly allows transfer of swipes and smears from radiological and other specially controlled environments.

  14. AVTA: Battery Testing- DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report describes DC fast charging's effects on plug-in electric vehicle batteries. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  15. Recuperator assembly and procedures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Yungmo; McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D.

    2006-06-27

    A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

  16. Recuperator assembly and procedures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Yungmo (La Canada Flintridge, CA); McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D. (Westlake Village, CA)

    2008-08-26

    A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

  17. Hydrodynamically-driven colloidal assembly in the thin-film entrainment regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos E. Colosqui; Jeffrey F. Morris; Howard A. Stone

    2012-10-01

    We study numerically the hydrodynamics of dip coating from a suspension and report a mechanism for colloidal assembly and pattern formation on smooth and uniform substrates. Below a critical withdrawal speed of the substrate, capillary forces required to deform the meniscus prevent colloidal particles from entering the coating film. Capillary forces are overcome by hydrodynamic drag only after a minimum number of particles organize in a close-packed formation within the meniscus. Once within the film, the formed assembly moves at nearly the withdrawal speed and rapidly separates from the next assembly. The interplay between hydrodynamic and capillary forces can thus produce periodic and regular structures within the curved meniscus that extends below the withdrawn film. The hydrodynamically-driven assembly documented here is consistent with stripe pattern formations observed experimentally in the so-called thin-film entrainment regime.

  18. Online Prediction of Battery Lifetime for Embedded and Mobile Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krintz, Chandra

    Online Prediction of Battery Lifetime for Embedded and Mobile Devices Ye Wen, Rich Wolski, and compare it to two similar battery prediction technologies: ACPI and Smart Battery. We employ twenty is a critical resource for battery-powered embedded systems and mobile devices. As such, battery life must

  19. A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daigle, Matthew

    A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers Matthew Daigle NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA 94035 chetan.s.kulkarni@nasa.gov Abstract--Batteries have seen an increased use source. An important aspect of using batteries in such contexts is battery health monitoring. Batteries

  20. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  1. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraft, H.; Ledjeff, K.

    1984-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive the discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  2. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraft, Helmut (Liederbach, DE); Ledjeff, Konstantin (Bad Krozingen, DE)

    1985-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive he discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  3. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B

    2014-02-04

    A battery system includes a platform having an aperture formed therethrough, a flexible member having a generally planar configuration and extending across the aperture, wherein a portion of the flexible member is coextensive with the aperture, a cell provided adjacent the platform, and a sensor coupled to the flexible member and positioned proximate the cell. The sensor is configured to detect a temperature of the cell.

  4. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  5. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  6. Charging a Battery-Powered Device with a Fiber-Optically Connected Photonic Power System for Achieving High-Voltage Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizon, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gioria, Jack G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Snyder, Hans R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a system to provide isolated power to the cathode-subsystem electronics of an x-ray tube. These components are located at the cathode potential of several hundred kilovolts, requiring a supply of power isolated from this high voltage. In this design a fiber-optically connected photonic power system (PPS) is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack, which will subsequently supply power to the cathode-subsystem electronics. The suitability of the commercially available JDSU PPS for this application is evaluated. The output of the ppe converter is characterized. The technical aspects of its use for charging a variety of Li-Ion batteries are discussed. Battery charge protection requirements and safety concerns are also addressed.

  7. Hydrogen Bonding Increases Packing Density in the Protein Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Bonding Increases Packing Density in the Protein Interior David Schell,1,2 Jerry Tsai,1 J System Health Science Center, College Station, Texas 77843-1114 ABSTRACT The contribution of hydrogen to the stability, but experimental studies show that bury- ing polar groups, especially those that are hydrogen

  8. FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE GridPACK: Grid Parallel Advanced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE GridPACK: Grid Parallel Advanced Computational Kernels OBJECTIVE The U Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (509) 375-3899 bruce.palmer@pnnl.gov ABOUT FPGI The Future Power and ensure a more secure, efficient and reliable future grid. Building on the Electricity Infrastructure

  9. Geometry and Optimal Packing of Twisted Columns and Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory M. Grason

    2015-01-30

    This review presents recent progress in understanding constraints and consequences of close-packing geometry of filamentous or columnar materials possessing non-trivial textures, focusing in particular on the common motifs of twisted and toroidal structures. The mathematical framework is presented that relates spacing between line-like, filamentous elements to their backbone orientations, highlighting the explicit connection between the inter-filament {\\it metric} properties and the geometry of non-Euclidean surfaces. The consequences of the hidden connection between packing in twisted filament bundles and packing on positively curved surfaces, like the Thomson problem, are demonstrated for the defect-riddled ground states of physical models of twisted filament bundles. The connection between the "ideal" geometry of {\\it fibrations} of curved three-dimensional space, including the Hopf fibration, and the non-Euclidean constraints of filament packing in twisted and toroidal bundles is presented, with a focus on the broader dependence of metric geometry on the simultaneous twisting and folded of multi-filament bundles.

  10. Synopsis: Repulsion Helps Virus Pack DNA APS/Joan Tycko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Douglas E.

    Synopsis: Repulsion Helps Virus Pack DNA APS/Joan Tycko Repulsive DNA-DNA Interactions Accelerate, and Douglas E. Smith Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 248101 (2014) Published June 17, 2014 Featured in Physics Editors reported in Physical Review Letters show that, surprisingly, switching the DNA self-interaction from

  11. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  12. Capacity fade analysis of a battery/super capacitor hybrid and a battery under pulse loads full cell studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Capacity fade analysis of a battery/super capacitor hybrid and a battery under pulse loads ­ full ion battery-super capacitor hybrid system is preferred over a lithium ion battery for higher rates ion battery ($100 W/kg). Also, since the inter- nal resistance of the super capacitor is smaller than

  13. Fuzzy Logic-Based Smart Battery State-of-Charge (SOC) Monitor for SLI Batteries Pritpal Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Pritpal

    1 Fuzzy Logic-Based Smart Battery State-of-Charge (SOC) Monitor for SLI Batteries Pritpal Singh. Monitoring and charge control of these batteries can be improved by using the concept of a smart battery system (SBS). In the present work, a smart battery monitor has been designed and manufactured

  14. Batteries for Large Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L.

    2011-07-15

    In recent years, with the deployment of renewable energy sources, advances in electrified transportation, and development in smart grids, the markets for large-scale stationary energy storage have grown rapidly. Electrochemical energy storage methods are strong candidate solutions due to their high energy density, flexibility, and scalability. This review provides an overview of mature and emerging technologies for secondary and redox flow batteries. New developments in the chemistry of secondary and flow batteries as well as regenerative fuel cells are also considered. Advantages and disadvantages of current and prospective electrochemical energy storage options are discussed. The most promising technologies in the short term are high-temperature sodium batteries with ?”-alumina electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries, and flow batteries. Regenerative fuel cells and lithium metal batteries with high energy density require further research to become practical.

  15. Local analysis of the history dependence in tetrahedra packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Nirmal Thyagu; Max Neudecker; Matthias Schröter

    2015-01-19

    The mechanical properties of a granular sample can depend on the way the packing was prepared. However, the variables which store this information are often unknown. Here we present an X-ray tomography study of tetrahedra packings prepared with three different tapping strengths. Our main result is that the relative contribution of the three different contact types possible between tetrahedra -- face-to-face (F2F), edge-to-face (E2F), and point contacts -- is one variable which stores the preparation history. We show this by preparing pairs of packings that differ either in their bulk volume fraction $\\phi_{global}$ or in their number of mechanical constraints per particle $C$, where $C$ is determined from all three contact types which each fix a different amount of constraints. For the pairs with the same $\\phi_{global}$ the number of E2F and point contacts varies with preparation, while the number of F2F contacts stays constant. For the iso-constraint packings the relative contribution of all three contact types stays the same. We then perform a local analysis of the contact distribution by grouping the particles together according to their individual volume fraction $\\phi_{local}$ computed from a Voronoi tessellation. We find that the probability distribution of $\\phi_{local}$ depends only on $\\phi_{global}$, not on $C$. The number of F2F and E2F contacts increases in all experiments with $\\phi_{local}$; the number of point contacts, while always being the largest, decreases with $\\phi_{local}$. However, only the number of F2F contacts can be described by an universal function of $\\phi_{local}$. This behavior differs from spheres and ellipsoids and posses a significant constraint for any mean-field approach to tetrahedra packings.

  16. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  17. NO. REV. NO. LSPE THERMAL BATTERY TEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    NO. REV. NO. ATM 1086 LSPE THERMAL BATTERY TEST PAGE 1 OF DATE 2/25/72 Prepared by @c!_.e,~.~ ~P. Weir Approved by ~~---:J L. Lewis 5 #12;KC::Y, NO. LSPE THERMAL BATTERY TEST ATM 1086 2 PAGE OF DATE 2-52-72 Introduction The purpose of this ATM is to document the results of a Thermal Battery test for the Lunar Seismic

  18. Piston ring pack design effects on production spark ignition engine oil consumption : a simulation analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senzer, Eric B

    2007-01-01

    One of the most significant contributors to an engine's total oil consumption is the piston ring-pack. As a result, optimization of the ring pack is becoming more important for engine manufacturers and lubricant suppliers. ...

  19. Effects of lubricant viscosity and surface texturing on ring-pack performance in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takata, Rosalind (Rosalind Kazuko), 1978-

    2006-01-01

    The piston ring-pack contributes approximately 25% of the mechanical losses in an internal combustion engine. Both lubricant viscosity and surface texturing were investigated in an effort to reduce this ring-pack friction ...

  20. Modeling the lubrication of the piston ring pack in internal combustion engines using the deterministic method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Haijie

    2011-01-01

    Piston ring packs are used in internal combustion engines to seal both the high pressure gas in the combustion chamber and the lubricant oil in the crank case. The interaction between the piston ring pack and the cylinder ...

  1. The effect of surface finish on piston ring-pack performance in advanced reciprocating engine systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jocsak, Jeffrey (Jeffrey Alan)

    2005-01-01

    Frictional losses in the piston ring-pack of an engine account for approximately 20% of the total frictional losses within an engine. Methods of surface texture optimization were investigated to reduce piston ring-pack ...

  2. Real Time (20 Second) Data Base Single Loop (Packed into 3 bytes)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Data Base Single Loop (Packed into 3 bytes) ------------------------------------------- Data Element;------------------------------------------------------------------------- --- Real Time (20 Second) Data Base Station (Packed into 3 bytes Loops | 3 | [0]|Data Present, 0=No Data | |Scan Cnt| 11 | [0]|

  3. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Replacing lithium with other metals with multiple charges could greatly increase battery capacity. But first researchers need to understand how to keep multiply charged...

  4. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    to 1) - a New Cathode Material for Batteries of High- Energyefforts to develop new high-energy materials such as silicon

  5. Washington: Battery Manufacturer Brings Material Production Home...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    batteries enable electric drive vehicles to consume less petroleum and produce less pollution than conventional vehicles. At full capacity, the EnerG2 plant will produce enough...

  6. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the porous electrode. Using the STXM lithium maps and the high-resolution TEM images, researchers found that LFP battery particles do not charge simultaneously....

  7. Ultracapacitors and Batteries in Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Zolot, M.; Sprik, S.

    2005-08-01

    Using an ultracapacitor in conjunction with a battery in a hybrid vehicle combines the power performance of the former with the greater energy storage capability of the latter.

  8. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    abuse tolerant lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is an important step in electrifying the drive train and facilitating widespread adoption of HEVs and PHEVs. Nanocomposite...

  9. Advanced Battery Materials Characterization: Success stories...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Advanced Battery Materials Characterization: Success stories from the High Temperature Materials...

  10. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Harry L. (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  11. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  12. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  13. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Haynes, H.B.

    1999-05-11

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity is disclosed. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras. 17 figs.

  14. Redox shuttle additives for overcharge protection in lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Ross Jr., P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Protection in Lithium Batteries”, T. J. Richardson* and P.PROTECTION IN LITHIUM BATTERIES T. J. Richardson* and P. N.in lithium and lithium ion batteries are now available. The

  15. Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    higher power density batteries have reduced energy density,2008 UCD-ITS-WP-09-02 Are batteries ready for plug-in hybridprograms mischaracterize the batteries needed to start

  16. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01

    T. , Tozawa, K. Prog. Batteries Solar Cells 1990, 9, 209. E.Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vechicles. ” Center forin Solids: Solid State Batteries and Devices, Ed. by W. vn

  17. Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2010-01-01

    237–253. Burke, A. , 2007. Batteries and ultracapacitors forresults with lithium-ion batteries. In: Proceedings (CD)locate/tranpol Are batteries ready for plug-in hybrid

  18. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,for lithium rechargeable batteries. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.anodes for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem. A 1,

  19. Are batteries ready for plug-in hybrid buyers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.; Burke, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    higher power density batteries have reduced energy density,2008 UCD-ITS-WP-09-02 Are batteries ready for plug-in hybridprograms mischaracterize the batteries needed to start

  20. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles, (ANL/ESD- 42) .Linden, D. , Handbook of Batteries, McGraw-Hill Companies,2012). Lithium Use in Batteries, U.S. Geological Survey (

  1. Automated Battery Swap and Recharge to Enable Persistent UAV Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toksoz, Tuna

    This paper introduces a hardware platform for automated battery changing and charging for multiple UAV agents. The automated station holds a bu er of 8 batteries in a novel dual-drum structure that enables a "hot" battery ...

  2. Model Reformulation and Design of Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    987 94 Model Reformulation and Design of Lithium-ion Batteries V.R. Subramanian1,*, V. Boovaragavan Prediction......................................997 Optimal Design of Lithium-ion Batteries Lithium-ion batteries, product design, Bayesian estimation, Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation

  3. Nonlinear Predictive Energy Management of Residential Buildings with Photovoltaics & Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chao; Sun, Fengchun; Moura, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    system and second-life lithium-ion battery energy storage. Atrade-off between lithium-ion battery aging and economicIncorporating an empirical lithium-ion battery capacity loss

  4. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    silicon nanowires for lithium ion battery anode with longfor high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes. Appl. Phys.as the anode for a lithium-ion battery with high coulombic

  5. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart...

  6. Team Led by Argonne National Lab Selected as DOE's Batteries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building a Better Battery for Vehicles and the Grid New Battery Design Could Help Solar and Wind Power the Grid New Battery Design Could Help Solar and Wind Power the Grid...

  7. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    1/3 O 2 for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sourcesof LiFePO4 based lithium ion batteries. Mater. Lett. 2007,negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries: AFM study in an

  8. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem.cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem.

  9. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode Jun Liu,Modeling of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power SourcesBehavior of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Alloy design for lithium-ion battery anodes. J. Electrochem.advances in lithium ion battery materials. Electrochim. ActaO 2 cathode material for lithium ion battery: Dependence of

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries: AFM study in anJ. R. , Alloy design for lithium-ion battery anodes. J.Carbon materials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

  12. Benefits of battery-uItracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ian C., S.M. (Ian Charles). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the benefits of battery and battery-ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESSs) in pulsed-load applications. It investigates and quantifies the benefits of the hybrid ESS over its battery-only ...

  13. A Bayesian nonparametric approach to modeling battery health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doshi-Velez, Finale P.

    The batteries of many consumer products are both a substantial portion of the product's cost and commonly a first point of failure. Accurately predicting remaining battery life can lower costs by reducing unnecessary battery ...

  14. Battery Lifetime-Aware Automotive Climate Control for Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    Battery Lifetime-Aware Automotive Climate Control for Electric Vehicles Korosh Vatanparvar) optimization involves stringent con- straints on driving range and battery lifetime. Sophisticated embedded systems and huge number of computing resources have enabled re- searchers to implement advanced Battery

  15. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources 2006, 163,of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources 2008, 180,Up of a Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources 2009,

  16. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime: Applications in Design and Health Management (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Jun, M.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation discusses models for battery reliability and lifetime and the Battery Ownership Model.

  17. Savings Potential of ENERGY STAR(R) External Power Adapters and Battery Chargers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, Carrie; Korn, David; Sanchez, Marla

    2007-01-01

    than converted into useful energy. Battery charging systemscharging – directly useful energy or “battery energy”) –

  18. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Capacity, High Rate Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Utilizingas cathode materials for lithium ion battery. Electrochimica

  19. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  20. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev

    2009-07-15

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  1. Power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jeremy B. (Torrance, CA); Newson, Steve (Redondo Beach, CA)

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  2. Supported PV module assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  3. Lithium Polymer (LiPo) Battery Usage Lithium polymer batteries are now being widely used in hobby and UAV applications. They work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Lithium Polymer (LiPo) Battery Usage 1 Lithium polymer batteries are now being widely used in hobby nickel metal and ni-cad batteries. But with this increase in battery life come potential hazards. Use batteries with a battery charger specifically designed for lithium polymer batteries. As an example, you

  4. Computer modeling approach for microsphere-packed bone scaffold Pallavi Lal, Wei Sun*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Wei

    bone graft [5,6], for structural and human cellular assessment of scaffolds for bone repair [7 modeling approach for constructing a three-dimensional microsphere-packed bone graft structure is presented packing model to determine the number of microspheres packed in a synthesized bone graft. The pore size

  5. Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, Gareth

    Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations H.E. Johnson1 , R.J. Merry, M.K. THEODOROU AND G.W. GRIFFITH. 2004. Aims: To determine the utility of vacuum-packed polythene (as assessed by pH measurement) occurred in glass tube and vacuum-packed silos over a 35-day period

  6. Estimates of the optimal density of sphere packings in high dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    though existing upper bounds suggest that such improve­ ment should be possible. Using a statistical in digital communications and storage. 12 Physicists have investigated sphere packings in high dimensions theory. 4,5,12,16,17 The packing density or simply density #1; of a sphere packing is the fraction

  7. QccPack: An open-source software library for quantization, compression, and coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowler, James E.

    -message routines. All QccPack functionality is accessible via library calls; additionally, many utility programsPack Web page, is published under the terms of the GNU General Public License and the GNU Library GeneralQccPack: An open-source software library for quantization, compression, and coding James E. Fowler

  8. QccPack: An Open-Source Software Library for Quantization, Compression, and Coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowler, James E.

    Pack functionality is accessible via library calls; additionally, many utility programs provide command-line accessPack software package is published under the terms of the GNU General Public License and the GNU Library GeneralQccPack: An Open-Source Software Library for Quantization, Compression, and Coding James E. Fowler

  9. Low inductance connector assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann; Carlson, Douglas S

    2013-07-09

    A busbar connector assembly for coupling first and second terminals on a two-terminal device to first and second contacts on a power module is provided. The first terminal resides proximate the first contact and the second terminal resides proximate the second contact. The assembly comprises a first bridge having a first end configured to be electrically coupled to the first terminal, and a second end configured to be electrically coupled to the second contact, and a second bridge substantially overlapping the first bridge and having a first end electrically coupled to the first contact, and a second end electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  10. Self assembling proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeates, Todd O.; Padilla, Jennifer; Colovos, Chris

    2004-06-29

    Novel fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into regular structures, as well as nucleic acids encoding the same, are provided. The subject fusion proteins comprise at least two oligomerization domains rigidly linked together, e.g. through an alpha helical linking group. Also provided are regular structures comprising a plurality of self-assembled fusion proteins of the subject invention, and methods for producing the same. The subject fusion proteins find use in the preparation of a variety of nanostructures, where such structures include: cages, shells, double-layer rings, two-dimensional layers, three-dimensional crystals, filaments, and tubes.

  11. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths Some...

  12. Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed: Solar Energy Capture...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture in chemical form makes it storable and transportable January 11, 2011 | Tags: Chemistry,...

  13. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell...

  14. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in...

  15. Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Authors:...

  16. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  17. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries nanocompositematerialsliion.pdf More Documents & Publications Progress of DOE...

  18. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing...

  19. GE Uses DOE Advanced Light Sources to Develop Revolutionary Battery...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    chemistry of an actual commercial battery while charging and discharging in real time. Additional studies of battery cross-sections at APS helped engineers further...

  20. The Science of Battery Degradation. Sullivan, John P; Fenton...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery...

  1. Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012) | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Batteries (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage Program is funding research to further develop a novel planar design for...

  2. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  3. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage...

  4. Electrolyte Genome Could Be Battery Game-Changer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Be Battery Game-Changer Electrolyte Genome Could Be Battery Game-Changer The Materials Project screens molecules to accelerate electrolyte discovery April 15, 2015 Julie Chao,...

  5. KAir Battery Wins Southwest Regional Clean Energy Business Plan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KAir Battery Wins Southwest Regional Clean Energy Business Plan Competition KAir Battery Wins Southwest Regional Clean Energy Business Plan Competition April 18, 2014 - 12:05pm...

  6. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  7. Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active Cathode Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting...

  8. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Powersilicon nanowires for lithium ion battery anode with longal. High-performance lithium-ion anodes using a hierarchical

  9. Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries September 9, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov...

  10. How Can We Enable EV Battery Recycling? | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Can We Enable EV Battery Recycling? Title How Can We Enable EV Battery Recycling? Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2015 Authors Gaines, LL Abstract...

  11. Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Title Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2013...

  12. The Future of Automobile Battery Recycling | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Future of Automobile Battery Recycling Title The Future of Automobile Battery Recycling Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2014 Authors Gaines, LL Abstract...

  13. Enabling Future Li-Ion Battery Recycling | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future Li-Ion Battery Recycling Title Enabling Future Li-Ion Battery Recycling Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2014 Authors Gaines, LL Abstract Presentation made...

  14. Battery Cathode Developed by Argonne Powers Plug-in Electric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capacities than conventional cathode materials, resulting in batteries with higher energy density. Because the batteries can store more energy, manufacturers can either use...

  15. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    for powering microelectromechanical systems and otherSurvey of battery powered microelectromechanical systems.battery powered microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), it is

  16. High power bipolar battery/cells with enhanced overcharge tolerance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A cell or battery of cells having improved overcharge tolerance and increased power capability, and methods for the construction of such cells or batteries, via electrolyte modification.

  17. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25 ENERGY STORAGE We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have...

  18. Energy Storage - Summary of the FY 2005 Batteries for Advanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Research Program Annual Review Energy Storage - Summary of the FY 2005 Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies...

  19. Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy...

  20. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...