Sample records for battery pack ah

  1. Optimization of blended battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erb, Dylan C. (Dylan Charles)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reviews the traditional battery pack design process for hybrid and electric vehicles, and presents a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm that eases the process of cell selection and pack design, especially ...

  2. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pack Design and Optimization Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the...

  3. LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA 1. Abstract This report introduces how. Battery Pack 1 · Cycle 1 : 2334 mAh · Cycle 2: 2312 mAh #12;LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT 3 · Cycle to handle the Powerizer Li-Ion rechargeable Battery Packs. It will bring reveal battery specifications

  4. Thermal Evaluation of the Honda Insight Battery Pack: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolot, M.D.; Kelly, K.; Keyser, M.; Mihalic, M.; Pesaran, A.; Hieronymus, A.

    2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The hybrid vehicle test efforts at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with a focus on the Honda Insight's battery thermal management system, are presented. The performance of the Insight's high voltage NiMH battery pack was characterized by conducting in-vehicle dynamometer testing at Environmental Testing Corporation's high altitude dynamometer test facility, on-road testing in the Denver area, and out-of-car testing in NREL's Battery Thermal Management Laboratory. It is concluded that performance does vary considerably due to thermal conditions the pack encounters. The performance variations are due to both inherent NiMH characteristics, and the Insight's thermal management system.

  5. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  6. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    piece cost by enabling lower cost automation, shipping, etc. Lower investment (tooling) by commonizing repeating parts Thermal Management Pack Thermal Challenges ...

  7. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CellPack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation Development of CellPack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental...

  8. Battery Pack Requirements and Targets Validation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromofBatteries from Brine Batteries from BrineHardwareID:Pack

  9. Fact #823: June 2, 2014 Hybrid Vehicles use more Battery Packs...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vehicle powertrains in model year 2013, the greatest number went into conventional hybrid vehicles which use battery packs that average about 1.3 kilowatt-hours (kWh). However,...

  10. Designing Safe Lithium-Ion Battery Packs Using Thermal Abuse Models (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Darcy, E.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL and NASA developed a thermal-electrical model that resolves PTC and cell behavior under external shorting, now being used to evaluate safety margins of battery packs for spacesuit applications.

  11. Design of a Lithium-ion Battery Pack for PHEV Using a Hybrid Optimization Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Design of a Lithium-ion Battery Pack for PHEV Using a Hybrid Optimization Method Nansi Xue1 vehicle applications using a hybrid numerical optimization method that combines multiple individual is applied to minimize the mass, volume and material costs. The optimized pack design satisfies the energy

  12. Modular Approach for Continuous Cell-Level Balancing to Improve Performance of Large Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muneed ur Rehman, M.; Evzelman, M.; Hathaway, K.; Zane, R.; Plett, G. L.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Maksimovic, D.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy storage systems require battery cell balancing circuits to avoid divergence of cell state of charge (SOC). A modular approach based on distributed continuous cell-level control is presented that extends the balancing function to higher level pack performance objectives such as improving power capability and increasing pack lifetime. This is achieved by adding DC-DC converters in parallel with cells and using state estimation and control to autonomously bias individual cell SOC and SOC range, forcing healthier cells to be cycled deeper than weaker cells. The result is a pack with improved degradation characteristics and extended lifetime. The modular architecture and control concepts are developed and hardware results are demonstrated for a 91.2-Wh battery pack consisting of four series Li-ion battery cells and four dual active bridge (DAB) bypass DC-DC converters.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2013: A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by LG Chem at 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a high-performance battery pack the company is researching for plug-in electric vehicles.

  14. Battery Pack Requirements and Targets Validation FY 2009 DOE Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromofBatteries from Brine Batteries from BrineHardware

  15. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode is described. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell. 15 figs.

  16. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, Stanley C. (Castro Valley, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell.

  17. Battery Pack Requirements and Targets Validation FY 2009 DOE Vehicle

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s ReplyApplication ofTribal RenewableBattery Chargers |

  18. Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-499

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under this CRADA NREL will support Creare's project for the Department of Energy entitled 'Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density' which involves the development of an air-flow based cooling product that increases energy density, safety, and reliability of hybrid electric vehicle battery packs.

  19. 2000-01-1556 Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    2000-01-1556 Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV John W. McKeever, Sujit or voltage level, life cycle costs were calculated based on the components required to execute simulated drive schedules. These life cycle costs include the initial manufacturing cost of components, fuel cost

  20. Integration Issues of Cells into Battery Packs for Plug-in and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Keyser, M.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main barriers to increased market share of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and commercialization of plug-in HEVs are the cost, safety, and life of lithium ion batteries. Significant effort is being directed to address these issues for lithium ion cells. However, even the best cells may not perform as well when integrated into packs for vehicles because of the environment in which vehicles operate. This paper discusses mechanical, electrical, and thermal integration issues and vehicle interface issues that could impact the cost, life, and safety of the system. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of using many small cells versus a few large cells and using prismatic cells versus cylindrical cells.

  1. Preferential induction of the AhR gene battery in HepaRG cells after a single or repeated exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumont, Julie, E-mail: Julie.Dumont@pasteur-lille.fr; Josse, Rozenn, E-mail: Rozenn.Josse@univ-rennes1.fr; Lambert, Carine, E-mail: Carine.Lambert45@gmail.com; Antherieu, Sebastien, E-mail: Sebastien.Antherieu@univ-rennes1.fr; Laurent, Veronique, E-mail: Veronique.Laurent@univ-rennes1.fr; Loyer, Pascal, E-mail: Pascal.Loyer@univ-rennes1.fr; Robin, Marie-Anne, E-mail: Marie-Anne.Robin@inserm.fr; Guillouzo, Andre, E-mail: Andre.Guillouzo@univ-rennes1.f

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are two of the most common heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) produced during cooking of meat, fish and poultry. Both HAA produce different tumor profiles in rodents and are suspected to be carcinogenic in humans. In order to better understand the molecular basis of HAA toxicity, we have analyzed gene expression profiles in the metabolically competent human HepaRG cells using pangenomic oligonucleotide microarrays, after either a single (24-h) or a repeated (28-day) exposure to 10 {mu}M PhIP or MeIQx. The most responsive genes to both HAA were downstream targets of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR): CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 after both time points and CYP1B1 and ALDH3A1 after 28 days. Accordingly, CYP1A1/1A2 induction in HAA-treated HepaRG cells was prevented by chemical inhibition or small interference RNA-mediated down-regulation of the AhR. Consistently, HAA induced activity of the CYP1A1 promoter, which contains a consensus AhR-related xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE). In addition, several other genes exhibited both time-dependent and compound-specific expression changes with, however, a smaller magnitude than previously reported for the prototypical AhR target genes. These changes concerned genes mainly related to cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. In conclusion, these results identify the AhR gene battery as the preferential target of PhIP and MeIQx in HepaRG cells and further support the hypothesis that intake of HAA in diet might increase human cancer risk.

  2. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [165 Ah, 36. 5 Wh/kg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodamer, G.W.; Branca, G.C.; Cash, H.R.; Chrastina, J.R.; Yurick, E.M.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress during the 1979 fiscal year is reported. All the tooling and capital equipment required for the pilot line production has been installed. A limited amount of plate production has been realized. A highly automated and versatile testing facility was established. The fabrication and testing of the initial calculated design is discussed. Cell component adjustments and the trade-offs associated with those changes are presented. Cells are being evaluated at the 3-hour rate. They have a capacity of 165 Ah and an energy density of 36.5 Wh/kg, and have completed 105 cycles to date. Experimental results being pursued under the advanced battery development program to enhance energy density and cycle life are presented. Data on the effects of different electrolyte specific gravity, separators, retainers, paste densities, battery additives and grid alloy composition on battery performance are presented and evaluated. Advanced battery prototype cells are under construction. Quality Assurance activities are summarized. They include monitoring the cell and battery fabrication and testing operations as well as all relevant documentation procedures. 12 figures, 28 tables.

  3. An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 harvest and storage processes. This power pack incorporates a series-wound dye- sensitized solar cell, nanostructures have been widely used in energy harvesting devices, such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs

  4. Thermal Characterization and Analysis of A123 Systems Battery Cells, Modules and Packs: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-243

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the A123 Systems battery development program with USABC/DOE, NREL provided technical support in thermal characterization, analysis and management of batteries. NREL's effort was part of Energy Storage Project funded by DOE Vehicle Technologies Program. The purpose of this work was for NREL to perform thermal characterization and analysis of A123 Systems cells and modules with the aim for Al23 Systems to improve the thermal performance of their battery cells, modules and packs.

  5. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, Stanley C. (Alameda, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA); Salas-Morales, Juan (Berkeley, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

  6. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

    1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

  7. Battery Pack Requirements and Targets Validation FY 2009 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromofBatteries from Brine Batteries from BrineHardwareID:

  8. Abstract--Battery packs for most applications are series strings of electrochemical cells. Due to manufacturing variations,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    . For example, a 12 V lead-acid battery is composed of six individual cells in series. Other secondary battery battery users are aware that SOC balance is necessary, particularly for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) and lithium-ion types [1-7]. For flooded lead-acid batteries, at least in low voltage strings, overcharge

  9. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease payments for space to the IDA. A commercial venture is being formed to utilize the LiFeBATT product for consumer use in enabling photovoltaic powered boat lifts. Field tests of the system have proven to be very effective and commercially promising. This venture is expected to result in significant sales within the next six months.

  10. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writ

  11. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No, author

    2013-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team also completed four GM engineering development Buy-Off rides/milestones. The project included numerous engineering vehicle and systems development trips including extreme hot, cold and altitude exposure. The final fuel economy performance demonstrated met the objectives of the PHEV collaborative GM/DOE project. Charge depletion fuel economy of twice that of the non-PHEV model was demonstrated. The project team also designed, developed and tested a high voltage battery module concept that appears to be feasible from a manufacturability, cost and performance standpoint. The project provided important product development and knowledge as well as technological learnings and advancements that include multiple U.S. patent applications.

  12. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    battery-grade DMC (Novolyte, packed and sealed in Kapton under Ar atmosphere. Electrochemical characterization

  13. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    initial and life cycle costs of the battery. As indicatedbattery chemistries have the potential for longer cycle life which on a life cycle costLife cycle data for the Altairnano 50Ah cell (Altairnano data) Battery cost

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by EC Power at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about evelopment of cell/pack level models...

  15. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  16. California Lithium Battery, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Systems and CALiB Power. US production of this advanced Very Large Format (400Ah+) si-graphene LI-ion battery is scheduled to start in California in 2014. Plans are to produce the...

  17. Mechanical characterization of lithium-ion battery micro components for development of homogenized and multilayer material models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Kyle M. (Kyle Mark)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall battery research of the Impact and Crashworthiness Laboratory (ICL) at MIT has been focused on understanding the battery's mechanical properties so that individual battery cells and battery packs can be ...

  18. A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes Nian Liu1 lithium-ion batteries and in more recent Li­O2 and Li­S batteries as a replacement for the dendrite to the level of commercial lithium-ion batteries (3.7 mAh cm22 ). Particle fracture and loss of electrical

  19. Packed Lunches.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reasonover, Frances L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and digestion is easily upset, so plan light and easily digested foods. Because the body loses a lot of fluid in an effort to stay cool, drink plenty of water. A thermos of lemonade, iced tea with lemon or some other fruit drink is particularly refreshing... precautions used with paper bags. Another packing container is an insulated bag. In this case, frozen water in plastic cartons or reuseable ice packs can be used to keep food cold until lunchtime. Or, use thermos bottles to keep foods hot or cold. Small...

  20. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung, E-mail: hkiee3@konkuk.ac.kr [School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hosik [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jaewook [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 300 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 300 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer ?-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719?mAh?g{sup ?1}/2032?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, much greater than the values of ?372?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?818?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, ?1117?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?1589?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, and ?744?mAh?g{sup ?1} for graphite, graphynes, and ?-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer ?-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  1. Ah

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling Corp -KWatertown Arsenal'.I Y.it !D;rC. 1.'_I

  2. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M=Mn, Ni, Co) in Lithium Batteries at 50°C. Electrochem.Electrodes for Lithium Batteries. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82:S CIENCE AND T ECHNOLOGY Batteries: Overview of Battery

  3. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - 124B Employees - 210,000 LG Group at a Glance ABSEP NCCPolyolefin PVCRubber Acrylate LCD Polarizer LCD Glass OLED Materials Color Filter...

  4. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    confidential, or otherwise restricted information" ABSEP NCCPolyolefin PVCRubber Acrylate LCD Polarizer LCD Glass OLED Materials Color Filter...

  5. Battery Pack Requirements and Targets Validation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in the U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet. MIT LFEE-2007 03 RP. 14 According to the Only MIT Simulation Test, a 35% Reduction in PHEV Power Causes a Drop of Fuel Saved of Only 10%...

  6. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  7. Experimental identification and validation of an electrochemical model of a Lithium-Ion Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Experimental identification and validation of an electrochemical model of a Lithium-Ion Battery an experimental parameter iden- tification and validation for an electrochemical lithium-ion battery model. The identification procedure is based on experimental data collected from a 6.8 Ah lithium-ion battery during charge

  8. Hard templating synthesis of mesoporous and nanowire SnO2 lithium battery anode materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Hard templating synthesis of mesoporous and nanowire SnO2 lithium battery anode materials Hyesun materials for lithium batteries were prepared using KIT-6 and SBA-15 SiO2 templates as an anode material for lithium batteries due to its high capacity (>600 mAh gŔ1 ) compared with graphite

  9. Approximating semidefinite packing programs ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we define semidefinite packing programs and describe an ... Semidefinite packing programs arise in many applications such as semidefinite.

  10. Design and analysis of a battery for a formula electric car

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reineman, Samuel (Samuel Thomas)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to present the philosophy and methodology behind the design of the battery pack for MITs 2013 Formula SAE Electric racecar. Functional requirements are established for the pack. An overview of ...

  11. Identification of Dominant Mechanisms for Capacity Fade of Lithium-Ion Batteries Nancy A. Burns*, Ruthvik Basavaraj**, Venkatasailanathan Ramadesigan***, Folarin Latinwo**, Ravi N. Methekar***,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Identification of Dominant Mechanisms for Capacity Fade of Lithium-Ion Batteries Nancy A. Burns- + 6C LixC6 Lithium-ion battery, chemistry and reactions Electric motor Engine Fuel tank Electric candidate for high-power/high-energy secondary batteries and commercial batteries of up to 75 Ah have been

  12. Battery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B; Andrew, Michael G

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery module includes a plurality of battery cells and a system configured for passing a fluid past at least a portion of the plurality of battery cells in a parallel manner.

  13. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M=Mn, Ni, Co) in Lithium Batteries at 50°C. Electrochem.Spinel Electrodes for Lithium Batteries. J. Am. Ceram. Soc.for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. J. Power Sources 54:

  14. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are readylithium ion batteries (i.e. , to lithiate graphite anodes soGraphite Electrodes Due to the Deposition of Manganese Ions on Them in Li-Ion Batteries.

  15. Monomer-Capped Tin Metal Nanoparticles for Anode Materials in Lithium Secondary Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Monomer-Capped Tin Metal Nanoparticles for Anode Materials in Lithium Secondary Batteries Mijung Graphite can store 372 mAh/g corresponding to LiC6, and tin can store 970 mAh/g corresponding to Li4.4Sn close to graphite. The reason for failure is believed to be the inhomogeneous volume expansion

  16. High-Capacity Micrometer-Sized Li2S Particles as Cathode Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Lithium-Ion Batteries Yuan Yang, Guangyuan Zheng, Sumohan Misra,§ Johanna Nelson,§ Michael F. Toney for lithium metal-free rechargeable batteries. It has a theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh/g, which is nearly 1 as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high specific energy. INTRODUCTION

  17. Advanced Vehicle Testing - Beginning-of-Test Battery Testing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2.5 V Thermal Mgmt.: Passive, Vacuum-Sealed Unit Pack Weight: 294 kg BATTERY LABORATORY TEST RESULTS SUMMARY Vehicle Mileage and Testing Date Vehicle Odometer: 6,696 mi Date of...

  18. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing EnerDel technology, and helps DOE to evaluate the merits of underlying technology. The successful completion of this program demonstrated the capability of EnerDel battery packs to satisfactorily supply all power and energy requirements of a real-world HEV-Bus drive profile. This program supports green solutions to metropolitan public transportation problems by demonstrating the effectiveness of EnerDel lithium ion batteries for HEV-Bus applications.

  19. Optimization of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Charging and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misic, Aleksandar

    The goal of this project is to efficiently and safely charge a 5kWh battery pack in 15 minutes. Since the project is still in progress, this report describes experiments on a 56Wh battery. Experiments were performed to ...

  20. Journal of Power Sources 160 (2006) 662673 Power and thermal characterization of a lithium-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Power Sources 160 (2006) 662­673 Power and thermal characterization of a lithium-ion battery pack for hybrid-electric vehicles Kandler Smith, Chao-Yang Wang Electrochemical Engine Center-electric vehicle (HEV) battery pack. Depleted/saturated active material Li surface concentrations in the negative

  1. AH Bolte A S | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergySulfonate asAEEOpenOpen EnergyAGL EnergyAH Bolte

  2. Safety Hazards of Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety Hazards of Batteries Battery technology is at the heart of much of our technological revolution. One of the most prevalent rechargeable batteries in use today is the...

  3. Solid Electrolyte Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Present Li-ion Batteries Insertion compounds have limited capacity Li Air batteries are inefficient if used for electrical energy storage Li S batteries have too...

  4. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program has progressed to the stage of evaluating full-sized (220 Ah) cells, multicell modules, and 22 kWh batteries. Nickel electrodes that display stable capacities of up to 24 Ah/plate (at C/3 drain rate) at design thickness (2.5 mm) in tests at 200/sup +/ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are also delivering 24 Ah/plate (at C/3) at target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron plates are displaying capacity stability for 300/sup +/ test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Best finished cells are delivering 57 to 63 Wh/kg at C/3, based on cell weights of the finished cells, and in the actual designed cell volume. 6-cell module (6-1) performance has demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 53 WH/kg at the C/3 drain rate. This module is now being evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory. The 2 x 4 battery has been constructed, tested, and delivered for engineering test and evaluation. The battery delivered 22.5 kWh, as required (199 Ah discharge at 113 V-bar) at the C/3 drain rate. The battery has performed satisfactorily under dynamometer and constant current drain tests. Some cell problems, related to construction, necessitated changing 3 modules, but the battery is now ready for further testing. Reduction in nickel plate swelling (and concurrent stack electrolyte starvation), to improve cycling, is one area of major effort to reach the final battery objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes are showing promise in initial full-size cell tests and will continue to be evaluated in finished cells, along with other technology advancements. 30 figures, 14 tables.

  5. Professional Training Information Pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    Intending Professional Training Students Year 2 Information Pack #12;- 1 - Applying for a Professional Training Placement To be allowed to do the Professional Training you must have enrolled on one must talk to Dr J. M. Thompson immediately. General introduction to professional training Students

  6. Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallett, William L.H.

    Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Université d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

  7. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    battery configuration. Lead-acid batteries do not shuttleincluding lead-acid, nickel-based, and lithium-ion batteries

  8. Enumerating rigid sphere packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda C. Holmes-Cerfon

    2015-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Packing problems, which ask how to arrange a collection of objects in space to meet certain criteria, are important in a great many physical and biological systems, where geometrical arrangements at small scales control behaviour at larger ones. In many systems there is no single, optimal packing that dominates, but rather one must understand the entire set of possible packings. As a step in this direction we enumerate rigid clusters of identical hard spheres for $n\\leq 14$, and clusters with the maximum number of contacts for $n\\leq 19$. A rigid cluster is one that cannot be continuously deformed while maintaining all contacts. This is a nonlinear notion that arises naturally because such clusters are the metastable states when the spheres interact with a short-range potential, as is the case in many nano- or micro-scale systems. We expect these lists are nearly complete, except for a small number of highly singular clusters (linearly floppy but nonlinearly rigid.) The data contains some major geometrical surprises, such as the prevalence of hypostatic clusters: those with less than the $3n-6$ contacts generically necessary for rigidity. We discuss these and several other unusual clusters, whose geometries may shed insight into physical mechanisms, pose mathematical and computational problems, or bring inspiration for designing new materials.

  9. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  10. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  11. Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-407

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Creare was awarded a Phase 1 STTR contract from the US Office of Naval Research, with a seven month period of performance from 6/28/2010 to 1/28/2011. The objectives of the STTR were to determine the feasibility of developing a software package for estimating reliability of battery packs, and develop a user interface to allow the designer to assess the overall impact on battery packs and host platforms for cell-level faults. NREL served as sub-tier partner to Creare, providing battery modeling and battery thermal safety expertise.

  12. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization Breakout

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6: RecordJune 20,in the101ESPCProject

  13. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologiesNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTALnaturalGENII2 DOE Hydrogen and

  14. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologiesNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTALnaturalGENII2 DOE Hydrogen and1

  15. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologiesNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTALnaturalGENII2 DOE Hydrogen

  16. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Pack Design and Optimization Breakout

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA :Work4/11 ENVIROISSUES ESF 12 EventsANBreakoutSession

  17. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHEEnergyReliability2015GrossA Few Simple Steps2 DOE Hydrogen

  18. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHEEnergyReliability2015GrossA Few Simple Steps2 DOE

  19. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHEEnergyReliability2015GrossA Few Simple Steps2 DOE1 DOE

  20. Thermal characteristics of air flow cooling in the lithium ion batteries experimental chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukhanin A.; Rohatgi U.; Belyaev, A.; Fedorchenko, D.; Khazhmuradov, M.; Lukhanin, O; Rudychev, I.

    2012-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery pack prototype has been designed and built to evaluate various air cooling concepts for the thermal management of Li-ion batteries. The heat generation from the Li-Ion batteries was simulated with electrical heat generation devices with the same dimensions as the Li-Ion battery (200 mm x 150 mm x 12 mm). Each battery simulator generates up to 15W of heat. There are 20 temperature probes placed uniformly on the surface of the battery simulator, which can measure temperatures in the range from -40 C to +120 C. The prototype for the pack has up to 100 battery simulators and temperature probes are recorder using a PC based DAQ system. We can measure the average surface temperature of the simulator, temperature distribution on each surface and temperature distributions in the pack. The pack which holds the battery simulators is built as a crate, with adjustable gap (varies from 2mm to 5mm) between the simulators for air flow channel studies. The total system flow rate and the inlet flow temperature are controlled during the test. The cooling channel with various heat transfer enhancing devices can be installed between the simulators to investigate the cooling performance. The prototype was designed to configure the number of cooling channels from one to hundred Li-ion battery simulators. The pack is thermally isolated which prevents heat transfer from the pack to the surroundings. The flow device can provide the air flow rate in the gap of up to 5m/s velocity and air temperature in the range from -30 C to +50 C. Test results are compared with computational modeling of the test configurations. The present test set up will be used for future tests for developing and validating new cooling concepts such as surface conditions or heat pipes.

  1. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  2. battery materials | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery materials battery materials Leads No leads are available at this time. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations. Abstract: The...

  3. Chemically Bonded Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid as a High Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail; Hu, Shilin; Yi, Ran; Tang, Duihai; Walter, Timothy; Regula, Michael; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wang, Donghai

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries are of great interest for high-energy-density energy storage systems because of low-cost, natural abundance of sodium. Here, we report a novel graphene nanosheets-wrapped phosphorus composite as an anode for high performance sodium-ion batteries though a facile ball-milling of red phosphorus and graphene nanosheets. Not only can the graphene nanosheets significantly improve the electrical conductivity, but they also serve as a buffer layer to accommodate the large volume change of phosphorus in the charge-discharge process. As a result, the graphene wrapped phosphorus composite anode delivers a high reversible capacity of 2077 mAh/g with excellent cycling stability (1700 mAh/g after 60 cycles) and high Coulombic efficiency (>98%). This simple synthesis approach and unique nanostructure can potentially extend to other electrode materials with unstable solid electrolyte interphases in sodium-ion batteries.

  4. Convex Optimization Course Welcome Pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    1 NATCOR Convex Optimization Course 23rd ­ 27th June 2014 Welcome Pack This pack contains. ABSTRACT Convex optimization is the fundamental process of optimal decision-making. Although mathematically restrictive, many practical problems may be modelled directly as convex optimization problems. Convex

  5. 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid - vin 3539 Advanced Vehicle Testing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pack Capacity: 5.3 Ah Cooling: ActiveCabin Air Pack Weight: 96 lb BATTERY LABORATORY TEST RESULTS SUMMARY Vehicle Mileage and Testing Date Vehicle Odometer: 5,730 mi Date of...

  6. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity...

  7. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  8. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wordin, John J. (Bingham County, ID)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  9. NREL: Energy Storage - Battery Ownership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    publications. Updating United States Advanced Battery Consortium and Department of Energy Battery Technology Targets for Battery Electric Vehicles Sensitivity of Plug-In Hybrid...

  10. RECHARGEABLE HIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. Eshman, High-Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleS. Sudar, High Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleHIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES Elton J. Cairns January 1981 TWO-

  11. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freeman, David H. (Potomac, MD); Angeles, Rosalie M. (Germantown, MD); Keller, Suzanne (Rockville, MD)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  12. A techno-economic analysis and optimization of Li-ion batteries for light-duty passenger vehicle electrification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    September 2014 Keywords: Electric vehicle Lithium-ion battery Battery design Production cost Electrode in addressing oil dependency, global warming, and air pollution in the United States. We investigate the role for minimum cost. Economies of scale are reached quickly at ~200e300 MWh annual production. Small-pack PHEV

  13. NREL-Led Team Improves and Accelerates Battery Design (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is leading some of the best minds from U.S. auto manufacturers, battery developers, and automotive simulation tool developers in a $20 million project to accelerate the development of battery packs and thus the wider adoption of electric-drive vehicles. The Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) collaboration is developing sophisticated software tools to help improve and accelerate battery design and boost the performance and consumer appeal of electric-drive vehicles with the ultimate goal of diminishing petroleum consumption and polluting emissions.

  14. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sally (Xiaolei) Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the standard lead-acid unit experienced significant degradation after only 6,273 cycles. The high-carbon, ALABC battery manufactured in Project C3 also was tested under the advanced HEV schedule. Its performance was significantly better than the standard lead-acid unit, but was still inferior compared with the UltraBattery. The batteries supplied by Exide as part of the C3 Project performed well under the HEV screening test, especially at high temperatures. The results suggest that higher operating temperatures may improve the performance of lead-acid-based technologies operated under HEV conditions—it is recommended that life studies be conducted on these technologies under such conditions.

  15. High Capacity Pouch-Type Li-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The pouch-type Li-air batteries operated in ambient condition are reported in this work. The battery used a heat sealable plastic membrane as package material, O2¬ diffusion membrane and moisture barrier. The large variation in internal resistance of the batteries is minimized by a modified separator which can bind the cell stack together. The cells using the modified separators show improved and repeatable discharge performances. It is also found that addition of about 20% of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) in PC:EC (1:1) based electrolyte solvent improves can improve the wetability of carbon electrode and the discharge capacities of Li-air batteries, but further increase in DME amount lead to a decreased capacity due to increase electrolyte loss during discharge process. The pouch-type Li-air batteries with the modified separator and optimized electrolyte has demonstrated a specific capacity of 2711 mAh g-1 based on carbon and a specific energy of 344 Wh kg-1 based on the complete batteries including package.

  16. California Lithium Battery, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California Lithium Battery (CaLBattery), based in Los Angeles, California, is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined with other advanced battery materials, it could effectively lower battery life cycle cost by up to 70 percent. Over the next year, CALBattery will be working with Argonne National Laboratory to combine their patented silicon-graphene anode material process together with other advanced ANL cathode and electrolyte battery materials.

  17. Orthogonal Capability Building Blocks for Flexible AHS Deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koopman, Philip

    System (AHS) was a user service that provides fully automated vehicle control on dedicated highway lanes to also consider lanes that serve both automated and manually operated vehicles. [NAHSC, 1996, chapter 7, PA 15213 USA Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA ABSTRACT Once a baseline level of full automation is possible

  18. Inhibitory actions of Ah receptor agonists and indole-containing compounds in breast cancer cell lines and mouse models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Kelcey Manae Becker

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binds synthetic and chemoprotective phytochemicals, and research in this laboratory has developed selective AhR modulators (SAhRMs) for treatment of breast cancer. Activation of the AhR ...

  19. Electrochemical properties of lithium polymer batteries with doped polyaniline as cathode material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manuel, James [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Kwang; Matic, Aleksandar; Jacobsson, Per [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden)] [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Chauhan, Ghanshyam S. [Department of Chemistry, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005 (India)] [Department of Chemistry, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005 (India); Ha, Jong Keun; Cho, Kwon-Koo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon, E-mail: jhahn@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) was doped with different lithium salts such as LiPF{sub 6} and LiClO{sub 4} and evaluated as cathode-active material for application in room-temperature lithium batteries. The doped PANI was characterized by FTIR and XPS measurements. In the FTIR spectra, the characteristic peaks of PANI are shifted to lower bands as a consequence of doping, and it is more shifted in the case of PANI doped with LiPF{sub 6}. The cathodes prepared using PANI doped with LiPF{sub 6} and LiClO{sub 4} delivered initial discharge capacities of 125 mAh g{sup ?1} and 112 mAh g{sup ?1} and stable reversible capacities of 114 mAh g{sup ?1} and 81 mAh g{sup ?1}, respectively, after 10 charge–discharge cycles. The cells were also tested using polymer electrolyte, which delivered highest discharge capacities of 142.6 mAh g{sup ?1} and 140 mAh g{sup ?1} and stable reversible capacities of 117 mAh g{sup ?1} and 122 mAh g{sup ?1} for PANI-LiPF{sub 6} and PANI-LiClO{sub 4}, respectively, after 10 cycles. The cathode prepared with LiPF{sub 6} doped PANI shows better cycling performance and stability as compared to the cathode prepared with LiClO{sub 4} doped PANI using both liquid and polymer electrolytes.

  20. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  1. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadley, O.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007). As the snow pack ages the ice crystals undergoIn older snow packs containing larger ice grains, albedoarctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study

  2. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  3. Katech (Lithium Polymer) 4-Passenger NEV - Range and Battery Testing Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) received a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) from the Korea Automotive Technology Institute (KATECH) for vehicle and battery characterization testing. The KATECH NEV (called the Invita) was equipped with a lithium polymer battery pack from Kokam Engineering. The Invita was to be baseline performance tested by AVTA’s testing partner, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA), at ETA’s contract testing facilities and test track in Phoenix, Arizona, to AVTA’s NEVAmerica testing specifications and procedures. Before and during initial constant speed range testing, the Invita battery pack experienced cell failures, and the onboard charger failed. A Kokamsupplied off-board charger was used in place of the onboard charger to successfully perform a constant speed range test on the Invita. The Invita traveled a total of 47.9 miles in 1 hour 47 minutes, consuming 91.3 amp-hours and 6.19 kilowatt-hours. The Kokam Engineering lithium polymer battery was also scheduled for battery pack characterization testing, including the C/3 energy capacity, dynamic stress, and peak power tests. Testing was stopped during the initial C/3 energy capacity test, however, because the battery pack failed to withstand cycling without cell failures. After the third discharge/charge sequence was completed, it was discovered that Cell 6 had failed, with a voltage reading of 0.5 volts. Cell 6 was replaced, and the testing sequence was restarted. After the second discharge/charge sequence was complete, it was discovered that Cell 1 had failed, with its voltage reading 0.2 volts. At this point it was decided to stop all battery pack testing. During the discharge cycles, the battery pack supplied 102.21, 94.34, and 96.05 amp-hours consecutively before Cell 6 failed. After replacing Cell 6, the battery pack supplied 98.34 and 98.11 amp-hours before Cell 1 failed. The Idaho National Laboratory managed these testing activities for the AVTA, as part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Batteries & Energy Storage Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    StorageBatteries & Energy Storage Publications Batteries & Energy Storage Publications Batteries & Energy Storage Fact Sheets Achieving Higher Energy Density in Flow Batteries at...

  5. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on New Sealed Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors, B.10. S. Hossain, in Handbook of Batteries, Second Edition, D.Workshop on Advanced Batteries (Lithium Batteries), February

  6. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Rechargeable Lithium Battery," J. Power Sources, 24,Wada, "Rechargeable Lithium Battery Based on Pyrolytic Car-Li-Ion Battery," Lithium Battery Symposium, Electrochemical

  7. Mesoporous TiO2-B Microspheres with Superior Rate Performance for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hansan [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoporous TiO2-B microsperes with a favorable material architecture are designed and synthesized for high power lithium ion batteries. This material, combining the advantages of fast lithium transport with a pseudocapacitive mechanism, adequate electrode-electrolyte contact and compact particle packing in electrode layer, shows superior high-rate charge-discharge capability and long-time cyclability for lithium ion batteries.

  8. Students & Mental Health Resource Pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Mark

    Students & Mental Health Resource Pack Produced by - www.rethink.org/at-ease/ SHEFFIELD EARLY://clik.to/eis NORTH EAST SHEFFIELD Northlands Community Health Centre, Southey Hill, Sheffield S5 8BE Tel: 0114 is severe mental illness? 1.4 Treatment and prognosis What is mental health awareness? 2.1 Introduction 2

  9. Optimized Operating Range for Large-Format LiFePO4/Graphite Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Jiuchun; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Zuo, Pengjian; Xiao, Jie; Chen, Xilin; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e investigated the long-term cycling performance of large format 20Ah LiFePO4/graphite batteries when they are cycled in various state-of-charge (SOC) ranges. It is found that batteries cycled in the medium SOC range (ca. 20~80% SOC) exhibit superior cycling stability than batteries cycled at both ends (0-20% or 80-100%) of the SOC even though the capcity utilized in the medium SOC range is three times as large as those cycled at both ends of the SOC. Several non-destructive techniques, including a voltage interruption approach, model-based parameter identification, electrode impedance spectra analysis, ?Q/?V analysis, and entropy change test, were used to investigate the performance of LiFePO4/graphite batteries within different SOC ranges. The results reveal that batteries at the ends of SOC exhibit much higher polarization impedance than those at the medium SOC range. These results can be attributed to the significant structural change of cathode and anode materials as revealed by the large entropy change within these ranges. The direct correlation between the polarization impedance and the cycle life of the batteries provides an effective methodology for battery management systems to control and prolong the cycle life of LiFePO4/graphite and other batteries.

  10. Accelerating Design of Batteries Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  11. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The FY 1980 program continued to involve full-size, prototype cell, module and battery fabrication and evaluation, aimed at advancing the technical capabilities of the nickel-iron battery, while simultaneously reducing its potential cost in materials and process areas. Improved Electroprecipitation Process (EPP) nickel electrodes of design thickness (2.5 mm) are now being prepared that display stable capacities of 23 to 25 Ah for the C/3 drain rate at 200+ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are delivering 24 Ah at the target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron electrodes are displaying capacity stability for > 1000 test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Finished cells have delivered 57 to 61 Wh/kg at C/3, and have demonstrated cyclic stability to 500+ cycles at 80% depth of discharge profiles at Westinghouse. A 6-cell module that demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 48 Wh/kg at the C/3 drain rate has also been evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory, ANL. It operated for 327 test cycles, to a level of 161 Ah at the C/3 rate, before being removed from test. Reduction in nickel electrode swelling (and concurrent stack starvation), to improve cycling, continues to be an area of major effort to reach the final battery cycle life objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes continue to show promise for meeting the life objectives while, simultaneously, providing a low manufacturing cost. Refinements have occurred in the areas of cell hardware, module manifolding and cell interconnections. These improvements have been incorporated into the construction and testing of the cells and modules for this program. Temperature tests at 0/sup 0/C were performed on a 6-cell module and showed a decrease in capacity of only 25% in Ah and .29% in Wh as compared to 25/sup 0/C performance. Additional tests are planned to demonstrate performance at -15/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C.

  12. 1992 five year battery forecast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amistadi, D.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Five-year trends for automotive and industrial batteries are projected. Topic covered include: SLI shipments; lead consumption; automotive batteries (5-year annual growth rates); industrial batteries (standby power and motive power); estimated average battery life by area/country for 1989; US motor vehicle registrations; replacement battery shipments; potential lead consumption in electric vehicles; BCI recycling rates for lead-acid batteries; US average car/light truck battery life; channels of distribution; replacement battery inventory end July; 2nd US battery shipment forecast.

  13. Kold Pack: Order (2013-CE-5323)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Kold Pack, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Kold Pack had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. Remote Control Inserting the batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Top View Rear View Inserting the batteries 1 3Press in on the arrow mark and slide in the direction of the arrow to remove the battery cover. 2 Insert two AA size batteries, making sure their polarities match the and marks inside the battery compartment. Insert the side tabs of the battery cover into their slots

  15. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries (Management Publication)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  16. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  17. Lithium battery management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  18. Better Battery Performance | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the practical application of several high-energy-density battery systems for powering electric vehicles and storing renewable energy on the grid. Summary Researchers from the...

  19. Boosting batteries | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    way for widespread adoption of lithium ion batteries for applications such as powering electric vehicles and storing renewable energy on the grid. The Science Rechargeable...

  20. Battery Safety Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Battery Safety Testing Christopher J. Orendorff, Leigh Anna M. Steele, Josh Lamb, and Scott Spangler Sandia National Laboratories 2014 Energy Storage Annual Merit Review...

  1. EMSL - battery materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery-materials en Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsmodeling-interfacial-glass-wa...

  2. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. C. Butler, "Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles andIntroduction," in Hnadbook of Batteries, 3rd Edition, D.T. B. Reddy, Handbook of Batteries, 2002). [67] R. Zito, US

  3. Adhesive Loose Packings of Small Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenwei Liu; Shuiqing Li; Adrian Baule; Hernán A. Makse

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore adhesive loose packings of dry small spherical particles of micrometer size using 3D discrete-element simulations with adhesive contact mechanics. A dimensionless adhesion parameter ($Ad$) successfully combines the effects of particle velocities, sizes and the work of adhesion, identifying a universal regime of adhesive packings for $Ad>1$. The structural properties of the packings in this regime are well described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function that includes correlations between bulk and contact spheres. Our theoretical and numerical results predict: (i) An equation of state for adhesive loose packings that appears as a continuation from the frictionless random close packing (RCP) point in the jamming phase diagram; (ii) The existence of a maximal loose packing point at the coordination number $Z=2$ and packing fraction $\\phi=1/2^{3}$. Our results highlight that adhesion leads to a universal packing regime at packing fractions much smaller than the random loose packing, which can be described within a statistical mechanical framework. We present a general phase diagram of jammed matter comprising frictionless, frictional, adhesive as well as non-spherical particles, providing a classification of packings in terms of their continuation from the spherical frictionless RCP.

  4. Servant dictionary battery, map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    Attic *** book teachest Servant dictionary scarf [11] Winery demijohn battery, map AuntLair X Cupboard1 wireless Potting gloves aunt[3] Storage dumbwaiter wrench OldFurn parcel, med whistle Over] EastAnnex battery[4] Cupboard2 [2] mask DeadEnd rucksack AlisonWriting [16] TinyBalcony [17] gold key

  5. battery, map parcel, med

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    Attic *** book teachest Servant dictionary scarf [11] Winery demijohn battery, map AuntLair X Cupboard1 wireless Potting gloves aunt[3] Storage dumbwaiter wrench OldFurn parcel, med whistle Over] EastAnnex battery[4] Cupboard2 [2] mask DeadEnd rucksack AlisonWriting [16] TinyBalcony [17] gold key

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ion batteries In current lithium ion battery technology,ion batteries The first commercialized lithium-ion batteryfirst lithium-ion battery. Compared to the other batteries,

  7. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in work at Exide in three main development areas, i.e., battery design and development, nickel cathode study, and electrochemical studies is reported. Battery design and development concentrated on the optimization of design parameters, including electrode spacing, charging methods, electrolyte concentration, the design and fabrication of prototype cells and modules, and testing to verify these parameters. Initial experiments indicated that an interelectrode spacing of 2.5 mm was optimum when normal (D.C.) charging is used. It was during these experiments that a high rate charging technique was developed to deposit a dense active zinc which did not shed during vibration. A 4 cell - 300 Ah experimental module was built and sent to NBTL for testing. Initial testing on this module and a 300 Ah cell are reported. Experiments on electrolyte concentration indicate that higher concentrations of KOH (8M, 9M or 10M) are beneficial to capacity maintenance. Available nickel cathodes were evaluated for possible use in the VIBROCEL. These included pocket, sintered plaque impregnated, nickel plated steel wool impregnated, plastic bonded and CMG (multifoil) electrodes. These electrodes have Coulombic densities ranging from 70 Ah/Kg for pocket plates to 190 Ah/Kg for CMG electrodes. Detailed test data are presented for each type including rate capability, effect of zincate on performance, and capacity maintenance with cycling. Work on zinc deposition emphasized the special charging technique. This is a deposition using special waveforms of charging current, to deposit dense crystalline zinc on the anode substrate.

  8. A Novel Integrated Magnetic Structure Based DC/DC Converter for Hybrid Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manuscript focuses on a novel actively controlled hybrid magnetic battery/ultracapacitor based energy storage system (ESS) for vehicular propulsion systems. A stand-alone battery system might not be sufficient to satisfy peak power demand and transient load variations in hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV, PHEV). Active battery/ultracapacitor hybrid ESS provides a better solution in terms of efficient power management and control flexibility. Moreover, the voltage of the battery pack can be selected to be different than that of the ultracapacitor, which will result in flexibility of design as well as cost and size reduction of the battery pack. In addition, the ultracapacitor bank can supply or recapture a large burst of power and it can be used with high C-rates. Hence, the battery is not subjected to supply peak and sharp power variations, and the stress on the battery will be reduced and the battery lifetime would be increased. Utilizing ultracapacitor results in effective capturing of the braking energy, especially in sudden braking conditions.

  9. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  10. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  11. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery program is to develop a nickel-iron battery for use in the propulsion of electric and electric-hybrid vehicles. To date, the program has concentrated on the characterization, fabrication and testing of the required electrodes, the fabrication and testing of full-scale cells, and finally, the fabrication and testing of full-scale (270 AH) six (6) volt modules. Electrodes of the final configuration have now exceeded 1880 cycles and are showing minimal capacity decline. Full-scale cells have presently exceeded 600 cycles and are tracking the individual electrode tests almost identically. Six volt module tests have exceeded 500 cycles, with a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg. Results to date indicate the nickel-iron battery is beginning to demonstrate the performance required for electric vehicle propulsion.

  12. A method for dense packing discovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoav Kallus; Veit Elser; Simon Gravel

    2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting \\textit{de novo} (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the \\textit{divide and concur} framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing which are reported in [arXiv:0910.5226]. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest known lattice sphere packings and the best known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and 11 dimensions respectively (the first such numerical evidence for their optimality in some of these dimensions). For non-spherical particles, we report a new dense packing of regular four-dimensional simplices with density $\\phi=128/219\\approx0.5845$ and with a similar structure to the densest known tetrahedron packing.

  13. SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract -This paper proposes new solar battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract - This paper proposes new solar battery chargers for NiMH batteries. Used with portable solar panels, existing charge control methods are shown of consumer portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, and flexible and have been

  14. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  15. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodes for Aluminum-Air Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.Anodes for Aluminum-Air Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.ALLOYS FOR ALUMINUM AIR BATTERIES. J. Electrochem. Soc.

  16. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gabano, Ed. , Lithium Batteries, Academic Press, New York,K. V. Kordesch, "Primary Batteries 1951-1976," J. Elec- n ~.Rechargeable Lithium Batteries," J. Electrochem. Soc. , [20

  17. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414, 359-367 (lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionics 135,electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materials

  18. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their use in lithium-ion batteries. However, applications atresponse of lithium rechargeable batteries,” Journal of therechargeable lithium batteries (Preliminary report, Sept.

  19. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Company-v3832/Lithium-Ion-Batteries- Outlook-Alternative-Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Marca M. Doeff * , Jordirechargeable sodium ion batteries, particularly for large-

  20. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Secondary Lithium Batteries. Journal of the Electrochemicalin Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Overcharge Protection.G. M. in Handbook of Batteries (eds Linden, D. & Reddy, T.

  1. Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer,...

  2. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Identification of a suitabledevelopment of sodium ion batteries, because graphite, theanode for lithium ion batteries, does not undergo sodium

  3. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   One   of   the   challenges  of   sodium   ion   batteries   is   identification   of  for   use   in   batteries.   Our   recent   work   has  

  4. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Dual Intercalation Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Dual Intercalation Batteries Lithium supply securityinterest in sodium-ion batteries. These devices operate muchsodium-ion or lithium-ion batteries that utilize them as

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Battery Development, System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    materials and applied battery research into full battery systems for vehicles. The Vehicle Technologies Office's (VTO) Advanced Battery Development, System Analysis, and...

  6. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. M. Directions in secondary lithium battery research-and-runaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journalrunaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journal

  7. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those...

  8. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. -P. Gabano, Ed. , Lithium Batteries, Academic Press, Newfor Rechargeable Lithium Batteries," J. Electrochem.for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries," J. Electroclzern.

  9. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries (Preliminary report,applications using lithium batteries, we must be sure thattemperature range. For lithium batteries in hybrid vehicles,

  10. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries. Advanced Materials 10,Protection of Secondary Lithium Batteries. Journal of thein Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Overcharge Protection.

  11. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vanpuzzling mysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book beginssuch importance to lithium ion batteries one is amazed that

  12. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. Nature 394, 456-facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414, 359-367 (vanadium oxides for lithium batteries. Journal of Materials

  13. Better Battery Performance | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the study could pave the way for the practical application of several high-energy-density battery systems for powering electric vehicles and storing renewable energy on the grid....

  14. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  15. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Marine Battery Banks don't look like power tools Marine and RV Chargers Differ from Automotive Chargers * The core strategy in the CEC standard is to shut down the charger when...

  16. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiser, Eric [The German Engineering Federation (VDMA), Battery Production Industry Group, Lyoner Str. 18, 60528 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  17. Battery SEAB Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromofBatteries from Brine Batteries from

  18. Application pack for funding commencing in 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kheifets, Anatoli

    Application pack for funding commencing in 2012 GROUP OF EIGHT AUSTRALIA­GERMANY JOINT RESEARCH COOPERATION SCHEME #12;PAGE 2 OF 9GROUP OF EIGHT AUSTRALIA­GERMANY JOINT RESEARCH COOPERATION SCHEME © GROUP OF EIGHT Application pack for funding commencing in 2012 ABOUT THE GROUP OF EIGHT AUSTRALIA­GERMANY JOINT

  19. Softening of Granular Packings with Dynamic Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Olson Reichhardt; L. M. Lopatina; X. Jia; P. A. Johnson

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform numerical simulations of a two-dimensional bidisperse granular packing subjected to both a static confining pressure and a sinusoidal dynamic forcing applied by a wall on one edge of the packing. We measure the response experienced by a wall on the opposite edge of the packing and obtain the resonant frequency of the packing as the static or dynamic pressures are varied. Under increasing static pressure, the resonant frequency increases, indicating a velocity increase of elastic waves propagating through the packing. In contrast, when the dynamic amplitude is increased for fixed static pressure, the resonant frequency decreases, indicating a decrease in the wave velocity. This occurs both for compressional and for shear dynamic forcing, and is in agreement with experimental results. We find that the average contact number $Z_c$ at the resonant frequency decreases with increasing dynamic amplitude, indicating that the elastic softening of the packing is associated with a reduced number of grain-grain contacts through which the elastic waves can travel. We image the excitations created in the packing and show that there are localized disturbances or soft spots that become more prevalent with increasing dynamic amplitude. Our results are in agreement with experiments on glass bead packings and earth materials such as sandstone and granite, and may be relevant to the decrease in elastic wave velocities that has been observed to occur near fault zones after strong earthquakes, in surficial sediments during strong ground motion, and in structures during earthquake excitation.

  20. Automated packing systems: Review of industrial implementations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whelan, Paul F.

    Automated packing systems: Review of industrial implementations. Paul F. Whelan School in these applications. An outline of one such industrial application, the automated placement of shape templates Mathematics University of Wales Cardiff, Wales. ABSTRACT The problems involved in the automated packing

  1. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetter, Roman; Herrmann, Hans J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists, biologists and materials engineers alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, however. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, self-similar structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  2. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Vetter; Falk K. Wittel; Hans J. Herrmann

    2015-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists, biologists and materials engineers alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, however. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, self-similar structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  3. A User Programmable Battery Charging System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable batteries are found in almost every battery powered application. Be it portable, stationary or motive applications, these batteries go hand in hand with battery charging systems. With energy harvesting being targeted in this day and age...

  4. Nickel coated aluminum battery cell tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bucchi, Robert S.; Casoli, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Nicotina, Joseph

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery cell tab is described. The battery cell tab is anodized on one end and has a metal coating on the other end. Battery cells and methods of making battery cell tabs are also described.

  5. New sealed rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, B.M. (ed.) (Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Dowgiallo, E. (ed.) (Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)); Halpert, G. (ed.) (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)); Matsuda, Y. (ed.) (Yamagushi Univ., Ube (Japan)); Takehara, Z.I. (ed.) (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference was divided into the following sections: supercapacitors; nickel-metal hydride batteries; lithium polymer batteries; lithium/carbon batteries; cathode materials; and lithium batteries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers of this conference.

  6. Testimonials- Partnerships in Battery Technologies- CalBattery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Phil Roberts, CEO and Founder of California Lithium Battery (CalBattery), describes the new growth and development that was possible through partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Accelerating Development of EV Batteries Through Computer-Aided Engineering (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Program has launched the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) project to work with national labs, industry and software venders to develop sophisticated software. As coordinator, NREL has teamed with a number of companies to help improve and accelerate battery design and production. This presentation provides an overview of CAEBAT, including its predictive computer simulation of Li-ion batteries known as the Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) model framework. MSMD's modular, flexible architecture connects the physics of battery charge/discharge processes, thermal control, safety and reliability in a computationally efficient manner. This allows independent development of submodels at the cell and pack levels.

  8. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  9. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, Thomas J. (Aurora, CO); Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO); Baer, Jose T. (Gaviota, CA); Swan, David H. (Monrovia, CA)

    1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  10. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO)

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  11. Advanced Battery Materials Characterization: Success stories...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced Battery Materials Characterization: Success stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Advanced Battery Materials Characterization: Success...

  12. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges, and Perspective. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges,...

  13. Testimonials - Partnerships in Battery Technologies - Capstone...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery Technologies - Capstone Turbine Corporation Testimonials - Partnerships in Battery Technologies - Capstone Turbine Corporation Addthis Text Version The words Office of...

  14. Circulating current battery heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  15. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  16. A method for dense packing discovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallus, Yoav; Gravel, Simon

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing which are reported in [arXiv:0910.5226]. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest known lattice sphere packings and the best known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and ...

  17. Electrochemical Studies of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects of Common Constituents of Natural Waters on Corrosion Electrochemical Studies of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects of Common...

  18. Mechanical design of flow batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Brandon J. (Brandon James)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the design of low-cost, high-efficiency flow batteries. Researchers are searching for next-generation battery materials, and this thesis presents a systems analysis encompassing ...

  19. DEM simulation of experimental dense granular packing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanifpour, Maryam; Allaei, Mehdi Vaez [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Francois, Nicolas; Saadatfar, Mohammad [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we present numerical analysis performed on the experimental results of sphere packings of mono-sized hard sphere whose packing fraction spans across a wide range of 0.59<{Phi}<0.72. Using X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT), we have full access to the 3D structure of the granular packings. Numerical analysis performed on thr data provides the first experimental proofs of how densification affects local order parameters. Furthermore by combining Discrete Element Method (DEM) and the experimental results from XCT, we investigate how the intergranular forces change with the onset of crystallization.

  20. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromofBatteries from Brine Batteries from Brine March 31,

  1. Batteries | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteries Batteries An error occurred. Try watching this

  2. Food Battery Competition Sponsored by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    and outstanding lithium-ion batteries, you can recognize the progress. Lithium provides good voltages and powerFood Battery Competition Sponsored by: The University of Tennessee, Materials Advantage (MA not have enough natural resources to support our growing populations and energy needs forever. Batteries

  3. Layered Vanadium and Molybdenum Oxides: Batteries and Electrochromics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chernova, N. A.; Roppolo, M.; Dillon, A. C.; Whittingham, M. S.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The layered oxides of vanadium and molybdenum have been studied for close to 40 years as possible cathode materials for lithium batteries or electrochromic systems. The highly distorted metal octahedra naturally lead to the formation of a wide range of layer structures, which can intercalate lithium levels exceeding 300 Ah/kg. They have found continuing success in medical devices, such as pacemakers, but many challenges remain in their application in long-lived rechargeable devices. Their high-energy storage capability remains an encouragement to researchers to resolve the stability concerns of vanadium dissolution and the tendency of lithium and vanadium to mix changing the crystal structure on cycling the lithium in and out. Nanomorphologies have enabled higher reactivities to be obtained for both vanadium and molybdenum oxides, and with the latter show promise for electrochromic displays.

  4. FeO0.7F1.3/C Nanocomposite as a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Uptown, NY (United States); Sina, Masha [Rutgers Univ., Materials and Engineering, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Pereira, Nathalie [Rutgers Univ., Energy Storage Research Group (ESRG), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Yu, Xiquian [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Uptown, NY (United States); Amatucci, Glenn G. [Rutgers Univ., Energy Storage Research Group (ESRG), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Uptown, NY (United States); Cosandey, Frederic [Rutgers Univ., Materials and Engineering, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Nam, Kyung-Wan [Dongguk University-Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Energy and Materials Engineering

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Searching high capacity cathode materials is one of the most important fields of the research and development of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Here, we report a FeO0.7F1.3/C nanocomposite synthesized via a solution process as a new cathode material for SIBs. This material exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 496 mAh g-1 in a sodium cell at 50 °C. From the 3rd to 50th cycle, the capacity fading is only 0.14% per cycle (from 388 mAh g-1 at 3rd the cycle to 360 mAh g-1 at the 50th cycle), demonstrating superior cyclability. A high energy density of 650 Wh kg-1 is obtained at the material level. The reaction mechanism studies of FeO0.7F1.3/C with sodium show a hybridized mechanism of both intercalation and conversion reaction.

  5. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  6. Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu; Liu, Jun

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon is environmentally benign and ubiquitous. Because of its high specific capacity, it is considered one of the most promising candidates to replace the conventional graphite negative electrode used in today's Li ion batteries. Silicon has a theoretical specific capacity of nearly 4200 mAh/g (Li21Si5), which is 10 times larger than the specific capacity of graphite (LiC6, 372 mAh/g). However, the high capacity of silicon is associated with huge volume changes (more than 300 percent) when alloyed with lithium, which can cause severe cracking and pulverization of the electrode and lead to significant capacity loss. Significant scientific research has been conducted to circumvent the deterioration of silicon based anode materials during cycling. Various strategies, such as reduction of particle size, generation of active/inactive composites, fabrication of silicon based thin films, use of alternative binders, and the synthesis of 1-D silicon nanostructures have been implemented by a number of research groups. Fundamental mechanistic research has also been performed to better understand the electrochemical lithiation and delithiation process during cycling in terms of crystal structure, phase transitions, morphological changes, and reaction kinetics. Although efforts to date have not attained a commercially viable Si anode, further development is expected to produce anodes with three to five times the capacity of graphite. In this chapter, an overview of research on silicon based anodes used for lithium-ion battery applications will be presented. The overview covers electrochemical alloying of the silicon with lithium, mechanisms responsible for capacity fade, and methodologies adapted to overcome capacity degradation observed during cycling. The recent development of silicon nanowires and nanoparticles with significantly improved electrochemical performance will also be discussed relative to the mechanistic understanding. Finally, future directions on the development of silicon based anodes will be considered.

  7. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Holdren, Jr., George R. (Kennewick, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

  8. Kold Pack: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5323)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Kold Pack, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  9. PACKING ELLIPSOIDS WITH OVERLAP? 1. Introduction. Shape ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 7, 2013 ... problem of finding the densest sphere packing is still open. .... (c) Some measure of volumes of the pairwise overlaps Ei ? Ej, i, j = 1, 2,...,N,.

  10. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, T.J.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques. 3 figs.

  11. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and Manufactur...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond...

  12. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 and 4, secondary lithium batteries based on using lithiumcommercial primary lithium batteries. The final part of thislithium batteries. ..

  13. PACKING DIMENSIONS, TRANSVERSAL MAPPINGS AND GEODESIC FLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jyväskylä, University of

    result for the packing dimension, dimp, of projected measures. They showed that if µ is a finite Borel measure on Rn , then (1.1) dimp PV µ = dimm µ for almost all V G(n, m), where dimm µ is a packing is the same for almost all projections, but it may happen that dimm µ dimp µ. The above results are "almost

  14. Conceptual design of a sodium sulfur cell for US electric-van batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binden, P.J. [Beta Power, Inc., Wayne, PA (United States)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual design of an advanced sodium/sulfur cell for US electric-van applications has been completed. The important design factors included specific physical and electrical requirements, service life, manufacturability, thermal management, and safety. The capacity of this cell is approximately the same as that for the ``PB`` cell being developed by Silent Power Limited (10 Ah). The new cell offers a 50% improvement in energy capacity and nearly a 100% improvement in peak power over the existing PB cells. A battery constructed with such cells would significantly exceed the USABC`s mid-term performance specifications. In addition, a similar cell and battery design effort was completed for an advanced passenger car application. A battery using the van cell would have nearly 3 times the energy compared to lead-acid batteries, yet weigh 40% less; a present-day battery using a cell specifically designed for this car would provide 50% more energy in a package 60% smaller and 50% lighter.

  15. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  16. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, James H. (New Baltimore, MI)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  17. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eidler, Phillip

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Zinc/Bromine Load-Leveling Battery Development contract (No. 40-8965) was partitioned at the outset into two phases of equal length. Phase 1 started in September 1990 and continued through December 1991. In Phase 1, zinc/bromine battery technology was to be advanced to the point that it would be clear that the technology was viable and would be an appropriate choice for electric utilities wishing to establish stationary energy-storage facilities. Criteria were established that addressed most of the concerns that had been observed in the previous development efforts. The performances of 8-cell and 100-cell laboratory batteries demonstrated that the criteria were met or exceeded. In Phase 2, 100-kWh batteries will be built and demonstrated, and a conceptual design for a load-leveling plant will be presented. At the same time, work will continue to identify improved assembly techniques and operating conditions. This report details the results of the efforts carried out in Phase 1. The highlights are: (1) Four 1-kWh stacks achieved over 100 cycles, One l-kWh stack achieved over 200 cycles, One 1-kWh stack achieved over 300 cycles; (2) Less than 10% degradation in performance occurred in the four stacks that achieved over 100 cycles; (3) The battery used for the zinc loading investigation exhibited virtually no loss in performance for loadings up to 130 mAh/cm{sup 2}; (4) Charge-current densities of 50 ma/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in minicells; (5) Fourteen consecutive no-strip cycles have been conducted on the stack with 300+ cycles; (6) A mass and energy balance spreadsheet that describes battery operation was completed; (7) Materials research has continued to provide improvements in the electrode, activation layer, and separator; and (8) A battery made of two 50-cell stacks (15 kWh) was produced and delivered to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for testing. The most critical development was the ability to assemble a battery stack that remained leak free. The task of sealing the battery stack using vibration welding has undergone significant improvement resulting in a viable production process. Through several design iterations, a solid technology base for larger battery stack designs was established. Internal stack stresses can now be modeled, in addition to fluid velocity and fluid pressure distribution, through the use of a finite element analysis computer program. Additionally, the Johnson Controls Battery Group, Inc. (JCBGI) proprietary FORTRAN model has been improved significantly, enabling accurate performance predictions. This modeling was used to improve the integrity and performance of the battery stacks, and should be instrumental in reducing the turnaround time from concept to assembly.

  18. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, Gerald K. (Cedarburg, WI); Andrew, Michael G. (Wauwatosa, WI); Eskra, Michael D. (Fredonia, WI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  19. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Re-direct Destination: A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger...

  20. Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works to Cut Battery Costs in Half Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works to Cut Battery Costs in Half...

  1. Dense periodic packings of tetrahedra with small repeating units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoav Kallus; Veit Elser; Simon Gravel

    2010-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a one-parameter family of periodic packings of regular tetrahedra, with the packing fraction $100/117\\approx0.8547$, that are simple in the sense that they are transitive and their repeating units involve only four tetrahedra. The construction of the packings was inspired from results of a numerical search that yielded a similar packing. We present an analytic construction of the packings and a description of their properties. We also present a transitive packing with a repeating unit of two tetrahedra and a packing fraction $\\frac{139+40\\sqrt{10}}{369}\\approx0.7194$.

  2. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Energy Storage R&D Progress Report, Sections 4-6 Analysis of Electric Vehicle Battery Performance...

  3. United States Advanced Battery Consortium

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of internal short circuit as a potential failure mechanism * Public Perception: - Media and other promotion of unrealistic expectations for battery capabilities present a...

  4. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  5. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  6. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  7. Advanced battery modeling using neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arikara, Muralidharan Pushpakam

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Batteries have gained importance as power sources for electric vehicles. The main problem with the battery technology available today is that the design of the battery system has not been optimized for different applications. No comprehensive...

  8. Advanced battery modeling using neural networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arikara, Muralidharan Pushpakam

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Batteries have gained importance as power sources for electric vehicles. The main problem with the battery technology available today is that the design of the battery system has not been optimized for different applications. No comprehensive...

  9. Energy Storage & Battery | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage & Battery Leading the charge in battery R&D Argonne National Laboratory is a global leader in the development of advanced battery technologies and has a portfolio of...

  10. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. Thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid StateH. Polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. AdvancedReviews, 2010). Ozawa, K. Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

  11. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vantolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission andmysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book begins with an

  12. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simulate those in a lithium battery. Chapter 3 TransientModel for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of TheRole in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrochemistry.

  13. Good upkeep adds to battery life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The care and maintenance of underground mine batteries is discussed. A guide to motive power battery manufacturers in USA is included, plus a list of definitions of battery terms.

  14. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Thermal Rise in Lead-Acid Batteries Used in Electricon Advances in Lead-Acid Batteries, The Electrochemicalbattery market is for lead-acid batteries for SLI (starting,

  15. Tools for Designing Thermal Management of Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature has a significant impact on life, performance, and safety of lithium-ion battery technology, which is expected to be the energy storage of choice for electric drive vehicles (xEVs). High temperatures degrade Li-ion cells faster while low temperatures reduce power and energy capabilities that could have cost, reliability, range, or drivability implications. Thermal management of battery packs in xEVs is essential to keep the cells in the desired temperature range and also reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations, both of which impact life and performance. The value that the battery thermal management system provides in reducing battery life and improving performance outweighs its additional cost and complexity. Tools that are essential for thermal management of batteries are infrared thermal imaging, isothermal calorimetry, thermal conductivity meter and computer-aided thermal analysis design software. This presentation provides details of these tools that NREL has used and we believe are needed to design right-sized battery thermal management systems.

  16. Sodium/sulfur battery engineering for stationary energy storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, A.; Rasmussen, J. [Silent Power, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of modular systems to distribute power using batteries to store off-peak energy and a state of the art power inverter is envisioned to offer important national benefits. A 4-year, cost- shared contract was performed to design and develop a modular, 300kVA/300-kWh system for utility and customer applications. Called Nas-P{sub AC}, this system uses advanced sodium/sulfur batteries and requires only about 20% of the space of a lead-acid-based system with a smaller energy content. Ten, 300-VDC, 40-kWh sodium/sulfur battery packs are accommodated behind a power conversion system envelope with integrated digital control. The resulting design facilities transportation, site selection, and deployment because the system is quiet and non-polluting, and can be located in proximity to the load. This report contains a detailed description of the design and supporting hardware development performed under this contract.

  17. Lithium-sulfur batteries based on nitrogen-doped carbon and ionic liquid electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NC) and sulfur were used to prepare an NC/S composite cathode, which was evaluated in an ionic liquid electrolyte of 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (MPPY.TFSI) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cycle testing. To facilitate the comparison, a C/S composite based on activated carbon (AC) without nitrogen doping was also fabricated under the same conditions as those for the NC/S composite. Compared with the AC/S composite, the NC/S composite showed enhanced activity toward sulfur reduction, as evidenced by the early onset sulfur reduction potential, higher redox current density in the CV test, and faster charge transfer kinetics as indicated by EIS measurement. At room temperature under a current density of 84 mA g-1 (C/20), the battery based on the NC/S composite exhibited higher discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1420 mAh g-1 whereas that based on the AC/S composite showed lower discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1120 mAh g-1. Both batteries showed similar capacity fading with cycling due to the intrinsic polysulfide solubility and the polysulfide shuttle mechanism; the capacity fading can be improved by further modification of the cathode.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Evaluating Powerful Batteries for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ClimateECEnergyEvaluating Powerful Batteries for Modular Electric Grid Energy Storage Evaluating Powerful Batteries for Modular Electric Grid Energy Storage Sandian Spoke at the...

  19. Batteries and Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPOTLIGHT Batteries and Energy Storage Argonne's all- encompassing battery research program spans the continuum from basic materials research and diagnostics to scale-up processes...

  20. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    experimental data from plastic lithium ion cells. Journal ofelectrolyte additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec-A. Aging Mechanisms in Lithium-Ion Batteries. Journal of

  1. Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011Year #12;Flow Battery Research at PNNL and Sandia #12 with industries and universities New Generation Redox Flow Batteries, PNNL Developed new generation redox flow

  2. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results...

  3. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    needed. In all three cases, today's batteries simply do not hold enough charge. Replacing lithium with other metals with multiple charges could greatly increase battery capacity....

  4. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    molten salts as lithium battery electrolyte,” ElectrochimicaFigure 15. Rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Figure 16 showsbattery. It is essential that an ionic liquid – lithium salt

  5. Upgrading the Vanadium Redox Battery | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Upgrading the Vanadium Redox Battery Upgrading the Vanadium Redox Battery New electrolyte mix increases energy storage by 70 percent After developing a more effective...

  6. Disordered Materials Hold Promise for Better Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disordered materials hold promise for better batteries Disordered Materials Hold Promise for Better Batteries February 21, 2014 | Tags: Chemistry, Hopper, Materials Science,...

  7. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award February...

  8. Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the current lithium-ion-based car batteries are at the forefront of the automotive industry's research agenda-manufacturers want to build cars with longer battery...

  9. A Failure and Structural Analysis of Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Gregory Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lithium-ion battery is the most advanced rechargeable battery technology in use today. These batteries

  10. Controlled Nucleation and Growth Process of Li2S2/Li2S in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Zuo, Pengjian; Koech, Phillip K.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-sulfur battery is a promising next-generation energy storage system because of its potentially three to five times higher energy density than that of traditional lithium ion batteries. However, the dissolution and precipitation of soluble polysulfides during cycling initiate a series of key-chain reactions that significantly shorten battery life. Herein, we demonstrate that through a simple but effective strategy, significantly improved cycling performance is achieved for high sulfur loading electrodes through controlling the nucleation and precipitation of polysulfieds on the electrode surface. More than 400 or 760 stable cycling are successfully displayed in the cells with locked discharge capacity of 625 mAh g-1 or 500 mAh g-1, respectively. The nucleation and growth process of dissolved polysulfides has been electrochemically altered to confine the thickness of discharge products passivated on the cathode surface, increasing the utilization rate of sulfur while avoiding severe morphology changes on the electrode. More importantly, the exposure of new lithium metal surface to the S-containing electrolyte is also greatly reduced through this strategy, largely minimizing the anode corrosion caused by polysulfides. This work interlocks the electrode morphologies and its evolution with electrochemical interference to modulate cell performances by using Li-S system as a platform, providing different but critical directions for this community.

  11. Influenza A/H7N9 virus emergence in poultry and humans in Guangdong China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Changwen; Lu, Jing; Wu, Jie; Guan, Dawei; Zou, Lirong; Song, Tie; Yi, Lina; Zeng, Xianqiao; Liang, Lijun; Ni, Hanzhong; Kang, Min; Zhang, Xin; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan; Smith, Derek; Burke, David; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Koopmans, Marion; Zhang, Yonghui

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    2034 Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 20, No. 12, December 2014 Influenza A(H7N9) virus emerged in eastern China in February 2013 and continues to circulate in this region, but its ecology is poorly understood. In April... against previously published complete genome sequences of H7N9 and H9N2 Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 20, No. 12, December 2014 2035 Reassortant Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses, China RESEARCH 2036 Emerging Infectious Diseases...

  12. Packing frustration in dense confined fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim Nygĺrd; Sten Sarman; Roland Kjellander

    2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Packing frustration for confined fluids, i.e., the incompatibility between the preferred packing of the fluid particles and the packing constraints imposed by the confining surfaces, is studied for a dense hard-sphere fluid confined between planar hard surfaces at short separations. The detailed mechanism for the frustration is investigated via an analysis of the anisotropic pair distributions of the confined fluid, as obtained from integral equation theory for inhomogeneous fluids at pair correlation level within the anisotropic Percus-Yevick approximation. By examining the mean forces that arise from interparticle collisions around the periphery of each particle in the slit, we calculate the principal components of the mean force for the density profile - each component being the sum of collisional forces on a particle's hemisphere facing either surface. The variations of these components with the slit width give rise to rather intricate changes in the layer structure between the surfaces, but, as shown in this paper, the basis of these variations can be easily understood qualitatively and often also semi-quantitatively. It is found that the ordering of the fluid is in essence governed locally by the packing constraints at each single solid-fluid interface. A simple superposition of forces due to the presence of each surface gives surprisingly good estimates of the density profiles, but there remain nontrivial confinement effects that cannot be explained by superposition, most notably the magnitude of the excess adsorption of particles in the slit relative to bulk.

  13. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartmentOutreachDepartment ofProgram49,PHEV Battery Cost

  14. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 in Ah responsive and Ah nonresponsive human breast cancer cells by 17 B-estradiol and 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrope, Katherine Eillene

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were not affected 24 hours after treatment. Aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (Ah) nonresponsive cells (BaP MCF-7 and T47D5 cells) were utilized to investigate the role of the Ah-receptor in the regulation of IGFBP-4 by TCDD. Western ligand blot analysis...

  15. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  16. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Tennessee Knoxville; U. Texas Austin; McGill U; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  17. Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Chen [ORNL; Shao, Nan [ORNL; Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

  18. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, J.H.

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger...

  19. Seawater batteries for the Luna 27

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On 20 January 1996, the first installation of seawater batteries (SWBs) on a live subsea well was successfully completed on the Luna 27 well in 591 ft of water in the Ionian Sea. The SWB pack is composed of six cells, each measuring 3.3 ft in diameter by 6.6 ft high, and is designed to provide all the electrical energy required by the autonomous control system for the well. The only operations required in the future will be periodic replacement of the anodes by use of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) every 3 to 5 years. This application of the SWBs is a part of the continuing research by Agip SpA in the area of autonomous control that began with the subsea-wells autonomous-control system (SWACS) project. This project began in 1982 and culminated with the installation of a SWACS prototype in December 1987 on the Luna 27 gas well offshore Crotone and 2.5 miles form the Luna A platform. Notwithstanding the 5-year predicted life, the system was still operating in 1996 without any noticeable problems.

  20. Recombinant electric storage battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flicker, R.P.; Fenstermacher, S.

    1989-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a recombinant storage battery. It comprises: a plurality of positive plates containing about 2 to 4 percent of antimony based upon the total weight of the alloy and positive active material, and essentially antimony free negative plates in a closed case; a fibrous sheet plate separator between adjacent ones of the plates, and a body of an electrolyte to which the sheet separators are inert absorbed by each of the separators and maintained in contact with each of the adjacent ones of the plates. Each of the separator sheets comprising first fibers which impart to the sheet a given absorbency greater than 90 percent relative to the electrolyte and second fibers which impart to the sheet a different absorbency less than 80 percent relative to the electrolyte. The first and second fibers being present in such proportions that each of the sheet separators has an absorbency with respect to the electrolyte of from 75 to 95 percent and the second fibers being present in such proportions that the battery has a recombination rate adequate to compensate for gassing.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: A 12V Start-Stop Li Polymer Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by LG Chem Power at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about A 12V start-stop Li polymer...

  2. Fact #823: June 2, 2014 Hybrid Vehicles use more Battery Packs but Plug-in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment ofDepartmentLast Ten Years |

  3. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I ETechnology |DepartmentExperimental

  4. Random packing of hyperspheres and Marsaglia's Parking Lot Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitlock, Paula

    Random packing of hyperspheres and Marsaglia's Parking Lot Test Stefan C. Agapie and Paula A York 10021 September 30, 2009 Abstract Many studies of randomly packed hyperspheres in multiple box until some randomly loosely packed density is achieved. Then either a compression algorithm

  5. Chemical markers of possible hot spots on Mars Ah-San Wong and Sushil K. Atreya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atreya, Sushil

    Chemical markers of possible hot spots on Mars Ah-San Wong and Sushil K. Atreya Department not be ruled out. If outgassing does occur somewhere on Mars, water, carbon dioxide, sulfur species, methane, and to a lesser extent, halogens would be the likely molecules of outgassing, based on terrestrial analogs

  6. CAS-based Channel Access Protocol for IEEE 802.11ah WLANs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellalta, Boris

    Cities and Smart Grids concepts have motivated the growth of wireless networks based on sensor will extend IEEE 802.11 potential to applications such as smart metering, plan automation, eHealth or surveillance. In this paper we propose a novel channel access protocol for IEEE 802.11ah WLANs based on a smart

  7. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-ion battery modules for testing Table 2: BatteriesBatteries, Advanced Automotive Battery and Ultracapacitor Conference, Fourth International Symposium on Large Lithium-ion Battery

  8. Recycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , nickel cadmium (Nicad), nickel metal hydride, lithium ion, silver button, mercury, magnesium carbon. Recycling rechargeable batteries Rechargeable batteries are often referred to as nickel cadmium, nickel Battery Per Bag Please sort the batteries by battery type, using a separate receptacle for nickel cadmium

  9. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    battery electrolytes; we also describe a general approach toward performing fundamental in situ characterization

  10. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHARACTERIZATION ON HIGHLY ORIENTED PYROLYTIC GRAPHITE cator of electrode passivation in realistic battery

  11. Waste Toolkit A-Z Battery recycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Battery recycling How can I recycle batteries? The University Safety Office is responsible for arranging battery recycling for departments (see Contact at bottom of page). Colleges must in normal waste bins or recycling boxes. To recycle batteries, select either option 1 or 2 below: Option 1

  12. Battery-Powered Digital CMOS Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    (submarines) Stationary batteries 250 Wh~5 MWh Emergency power supplies, local energy storage, remote relay1 Page 1 USC Low Power CAD Massoud Pedram Battery-Powered Digital CMOS Design Massoud Pedram Power CAD Massoud Pedram Motivation Extending the battery service life of battery-powered micro

  13. Batteries, mobile phones & small electrical devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , mobile phones and data collection equipment. Lithium Ion batteries are used in mobile phones, laptopsBatteries, mobile phones & small electrical devices IN-BUILDING RECYCLING STATIONS. A full list of acceptable items: Sealed batteries ­excludes vented NiCad and Lead acid batteries Cameras Laser printer

  14. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, S.J.; Liu, M.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1992-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145 C (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium trifluorate (PEO[sub 8]LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS)[sub n], and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte. 2 figs.

  15. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (2336 California St., Berkeley, CA 94703); Liu, Meilin (1121C Ninth St., #29, Albany, CA 94710); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (910 Acalanes Rd., Lafayette, CA 94549)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145.degree. C. (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium triflate (PEO.sub.8 LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS).sub.n, and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte.

  16. Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Ireland, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  17. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electrochemical characterization, and battery performance ofthe battery cell for electrochemical characterization. TheBattery Highlights 13 2.3 Electrochemical Characterization ..

  18. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of VariousMiller, M. , Emerging Lithium-ion Battery Technologies forSymposium on Large Lithium-ion Battery Technology and

  19. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electrode in lithium-ion batteries: AFM study in an ethylenelithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Carbon 1999, 37, 165-batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2001,

  20. EES and Batteries: The Basics | University of Texas Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EES AND BATTERIES: THE BASICS Virtually all portable electronic devices, including cell phones, PDAs and laptop computers, rely on chemical energy stored in batteries. Batteries...

  1. Sodium Titanates as Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodes  for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   Marca  M.  Doeff,  dual   intercalation   batteries   based   on   sodium  future   of   sodium  ion  batteries  will  be  discussed  

  2. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project Andrewto evaluate emerging lithium battery technologies for plug-vehicles. By emerging lithium battery chemistries were meant

  3. Silicon sponge improves lithium-ion battery performance | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sponge improves lithium-ion battery performance Silicon sponge improves lithium-ion battery performance Increasing battery's storage capacity could allow devices to run...

  4. Developing Next-Gen Batteries With Help From NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries A genomics approach to materials research could speed up advancements in battery performance December...

  5. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report Breakout session...

  6. Redox shuttle additives for overcharge protection in lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Ross Jr., P.N.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protection in Lithium Batteries”, T. J. Richardson* and P.OVERCHARGE PROTECTION IN LITHIUM BATTERIES T. J. Richardson*improve the safety of lithium batteries. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

  7. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.Calculations for Lithium Batteries. J. Electrostatics 1995,Modeling of Lithium Polymer Batteries. J. Power Sources

  8. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries, Journal of Powerand iron phosphate lithium batteries will be satisfactoryapplications. The cost of lithium batteries remains high ($

  9. Grafted polyelectrolyte membranes for lithium batteries and fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MEMBRANES FOR LITHIUM BATTERIES AND FUEL CELLS. John Kerralso be discussed. Lithium Batteries for Transportation andpolymer membrane for lithium batteries. This paper will give

  10. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries. J. Power Sources 139,for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,nano-anodes for lithium rechargeable batteries. Angew. Chem.

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0 lithium batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.for rechargeable lithium batteries. Advanced Materials 1998,for rechargeable lithium batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.

  12. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges. |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges. Abstract: A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five...

  13. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  14. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  15. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  16. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  17. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  18. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  19. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  20. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Ahmad, P.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.; Smith, K.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the application of the Battery Ownership Model for strategies for optimal battery use in electric drive vehicles (PEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs).

  1. Model based control of a coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.M.; Srour, J.M.; Zulli, P. [BHP Research, Mulgrave (Australia). Melbourne Labs.; Cunningham, R.; Hockings, K. [BHP Steel, Pt Kembla, New South Wales (Australia). Coal and Coke Technical Development Group

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a model-based strategy for coke battery control at BHP Steel`s operations in Pt Kembla, Australia. The strategy uses several models describing the battery thermal and coking behavior. A prototype controller has been installed on the Pt Kembla No. 6 Battery (PK6CO). In trials, the new controller has been well accepted by operators and has resulted in a clear improvement in battery thermal stability, with a halving of the standard deviation of average battery temperature. Along with other improvements to that battery`s operations, this implementation has contributed to a 10% decrease in specific battery energy consumption. A number of enhancements to the low level control systems on that battery are currently being undertaken in order to realize further benefits.

  2. Development of a special nuclear materials monitoring sensor pack for Project Straight-Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily, M.R.; Moreno, D.J.; Tolk, K.M.; Wilcoxen, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oetken, R.E.; Collins, J.E.; Miller, R.; Olsen, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Sheets, L. [Allied-Signal, Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Division

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    With the end of the Cold War and the accelerated dismantlement of nuclear weapons, the nuclear material inventory of the United States is growing. In addition, the United States has offered these excess weapons-grade nuclear material assets for international inspections with the intent of encouraging reciprocal action by other nations. In support of this policy, Sandia National Laboratories has initiated a pilot effort (Project Straight-Line) to develop a flexible, site-independent system to continuously and remotely monitor stored nuclear material and integrate the collection, processing, and dissemination of information regarding this material to ensure that declared nuclear materials placed in storage remain in place, unaltered, and stable. As part of this effort, a +3.6V battery powered, modular sensor pack has been developed to monitor total radiation dose, radiation dose rate, and the temperature of each nuclear material container and to provide this information using a standardized sensor interface. This paper will discuss the development of the sensors, the engineering and production of the sensor pack units, and their installation and operation at sites in New Mexico, California, and the Pantex plant in Amarillo.

  3. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spinel structures for lithium batteries. ElectrochemistryMaterials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Journal of thefor Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Electrochemical and

  4. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chi, John W. H. (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  5. Cooking with Canned Tuna (packed in water)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    E-75 12/08 Cooking with Canned Tuna (packed in water) Tuna is a nutritious source of protein, iron, and niacin. Because it is already cooked, it can be eaten right out of the can or used to make your favorite tuna dishes. A serving of tuna is 2...- by 13-inch baking dish. 4. Bake it at 350 degrees F for 30 to 35 minutes. Let it stand for about 10 minutes before serving. Note: You can also use 2 cups of cooked rice instead of macaroni. Quick Tuna Spread (makes 4 servings, ? cup each) Tuna...

  6. Optimal management of batteries in electric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Corey, Garth P. (Albuquerque, NM); Symons, Philip C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

  7. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    commercial Li-ion batteries today use graphite or a mixturein certain primary batteries). Graphite has a potential of

  8. Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures as cathode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Y.H., E-mail: yhding@xtu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Ren, H.M. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Huang, Y.Y. [BTR New Energy Materials Inc., Shenzhen 518000 (China); Chang, F.H.; Zhang, P. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} composites as a high-performance cathode material for flexible lithium-ion batteries have been prepared by using a co-precipitation method to synthesize graphene/LiFePO4 powders as precursors and then followed by a solvent evaporation process. - Highlights: • Flexible LiFePO{sub 4}/graphene films were prepared first time by a solvent evaporation process. • The flexible electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity without conductive additives. • Graphene network offers the electrode adequate strength to withstand repeated flexing. - Abstract: Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures for flexible lithium-ion batteries were successfully prepared by solvent evaporation method. Structural characteristics of flexible electrodes were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance of graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} was examined by a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures showed high electrochemical properties and significant flexibility. The composites with low graphene content exhibited a high capacity of 163.7 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.1 C and 114 mAh g{sup ?1} at 5 C without further incorporation of conductive agents.

  9. Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Peter C. (Espanola, NM); Rodriguez, Patrick J. (Espanola, NM); Pereyra, Ramiro A. (Medanales, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries.

  10. Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, P.C.; Rodriguez, P.J.; Pereyra, R.A.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object is disclosed. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries. 4 figs.

  11. Batteries for Vehicular Applications Venkat SrinivasanVenkat Srinivasan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    ;Lithium-ion battery Modern Li-ion Battery Cathode:Anode: e-e- u o b e y e- Electrolyte LiPF6 in Ethylene Electronic Li-ion Batteries Theoretical Energy Density Source: TIAX, LLC #12;Lithium-ion battery BatteryBatteries for Vehicular Applications Venkat SrinivasanVenkat Srinivasan Staff Scientist Lawrence

  12. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres as anode material for enhanced performance in lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasidharan, Manickam [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Gunawardhana, Nanda [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)] [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki, E-mail: yoshio@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)] [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Nakashima, Kenichi, E-mail: nakashik@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanosphere constructed electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup ?1} after 250 cycles and maintains structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. Highlights: ? Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres synthesis was synthesized by soft-template. ? Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode material in Li-ion battery. ? Nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup ?1} after 250 cycles. ? The electrode maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. ? Nanosized shell domain facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation. -- Abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres of average diameter ca. ?29 nm and hollow cavity size ca. 17 nm were synthesized using polymeric micelles with core–shell–corona architecture under mild conditions. The hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal (TG/DTA) and nitrogen adsorption analyses. Thus obtained Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries for the first time. The nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup ?1} after 250 cycles of charge/discharge at a rate of 0.5 C. More importantly, the hollow particles based electrodes maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability even after exposing to high current density 6.25 A g{sup ?1}. The enhanced electrochemical behavior is ascribed to hollow cavity coupled with nanosized Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} shell domain that facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation kinetics.

  13. An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng cycle-life tends to shrink significantly. The capacities of commercial lithium-ion batteries fade by 10 prediction model to estimate the remaining capacity of a Lithium-Ion battery. The proposed analytical model

  14. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Batteries for Vehicular Applications Venkat Srinivasan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    of the range and charging-time issues. INTRODUCTION TO BATTERIES Several electrical energy storage be achieved by a high-energy Li-ion cell (similar to the batteries used in the Tesla Roadster).a However

  19. Batteries lose in game of thorns | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries lose in game of thorns Batteries lose in game of thorns Released: January 30, 2013 Scientists see how and where disruptive structures form and cause voltage fading Images...

  20. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries. |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles (EV), including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric...

  1. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries by Christopher Marc Doyle Doctor of Philosophy in Chemical EngineeringDesign and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries I C. Marc Doyle Department of Chemical Engineering

  2. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Model for the Graphite Anode in Li-Ion Batteries. Journal ofgraphite Chapters 2-3 have developed a method using ferrocene to characterize the SEI in lithium- ion batteries.

  3. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  4. Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling with Bursty Workloads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    of the low power battery status until nodes start to fail. Moreover, it requires extra time and effort

  5. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  6. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. Armand, “Room temperature molten salts as lithium batteryZ. Suarez, “Ionic liquid (molten salt) phase organometallic

  7. Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation summarizes NREL battery thermal modeling and testing work for the DOE Annual Merit Review, May 9, 2011.

  8. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

  9. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bockelmann, Thomas R. (Battle Creek, MI); Hope, Mark E. (Marshall, MI); Zou, Zhanjiang (Battle Creek, MI); Kang, Xiaosong (Battle Creek, MI)

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  10. Advanced Models and Controls for Prediction and Extension of Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Predictive models of capacity and power fade must consider a multiplicity of degradation modes experienced by Li-ion batteries in the automotive environment. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must presently be absorbed by overdesign and excess warranty costs. To reduce these costs and extend life, degradation models are under development that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. The lifetime models provide engineering feedback for cell, pack and system designs and are being incorporated into real-time control strategies.

  11. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  12. Battery Chargers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromofBatteries from Brine Batteries from Brine March

  13. Battery Model for Embedded Systems , Gaurav Singhal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navet, Nicolas

    Battery Model for Embedded Systems Venkat Rao , Gaurav Singhal , Anshul Kumar , Nicolas Navet in embedded systems. It describes the prominent battery models with their advantages and draw- backs of the battery. With the tremendous increase in the comput- ing power of hardware and the relatively slow growth

  14. Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program Venkat Srinivasan of the DOE/EERE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program to develop batteries for vehicular applications double the energy density of presently available Li batteries · HEV: low-T operation, cost, and abuse

  15. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  16. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  17. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  18. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  19. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  20. Transparent lithium-ion batteries , Sangmoo Jeongb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    voltage window. For example, LiCoO2 and graphite, the most common cathode and anode in Li-ion batteriesTransparent lithium-ion batteries Yuan Yanga , Sangmoo Jeongb , Liangbing Hua , Hui Wua , Seok Woo, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices

  1. Mesoporous carbon -Cr2O3 composite as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoporous carbon-Cr2O3 (M-C-Cr2O3) composite was prepared by co-assembly of in-situ formed phenolic resin, chromium precursor, and Pluronic block copolymer under acidic conditions, followed by carbonization at 750oC under Argon. The TEM results confirmed that the Cr2O3 nanoparticles, ranging from 10 to 20 nm, were well dispersed in the matrix of mesoporous carbon. The composite exhibited an initial reversible capacity of 710 mAh g-1 and good cycling stability, which is mainly due to the synergic effects of carbons within the composites, i.e. confining the crystal growth of Cr2O3 during the high temperature treatment step and buffering the volume change of Cr2O3 during the cycling step. This composite material is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  2. Transformation from hollow carbon octahedra to compressed octahedra and their use in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Tao; Li, Na; Li, Qianwen; Xing, Zheng; Tang, Kaibin; Zhu, Yongchun [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)] [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qian, Yitai, E-mail: ytqian@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Shen, Xiaoyan [Jiangsu Highstar Battery Manufacturing CO., LTD (China)] [Jiangsu Highstar Battery Manufacturing CO., LTD (China)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the transformation process from hollow carbon octahedra into deflated balloon-like compressed hollow carbon octahedra ?. Highlights: ? We demonstrate the in situ template synthesis of hollow carbon octahedra. ? The shell thickness of hollow carbon octahedra is only 2.5 nm. ? Morphology transformation could be realized by extending of reaction time. ? The hollow structures show reversible capacity as 353 mAh g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles. -- Abstract: Hollow carbon octahedra with an average size of 300 nm and a shell thickness of 2.5 nm were prepared by a reaction starting from ferrocene and Mg(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O at 700 °C for 10 h. They became compressed and turned into deflated balloon-like octahedra when the reaction time was increased to 16 h. It was proposed that the gas pressure generated during the reaction process induced the transformation from broken carbon hollow octahedra into deflated balloon-like compressed octahedra. X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the as-obtained carbon products possess a graphitic structure and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images indicate that they have low crystallinity. Their application as an electrode shows reversible capacity of 353 mAh g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles in the charge/discharge experiments of secondary lithium ion batteries.

  3. Thermal vacancies in close-packing solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mostafa Mortazavifar; Martin Oettel

    2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on Stillinger's version of cell cluster theory, we derive an expression for the equilibrium concentration of thermal monovacancies in solids which allows for a transparent interpretation of the vacancy volume and the energetic/entropic part in the corresponding Gibbs energy of vacancy formation $\\Delta G_{\\rm v}$. For the close--packing crystals of the hard sphere and Lennard--Jones model systems very good agreement with simulation data is found. Application to metals through the embedded--atom method (EAM) reveals a strong sensitivity of the variation of $\\Delta G_{\\rm v}$ with temperature to details of the EAM potential. Our truncation of the cell cluster series allows for an approximate, but direct measurement of crystal free energies and vacancy concentration in colloidal model systems using laser tweezers.

  4. Volatile Components from Packing Matrials, Rev. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. A.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An outgassing study was conducted on five packing materials, comprising two experiments. These materials comprised 277-4 borated concrete, Borobond4 concrete, polyethylene bags, silica-filled silicone rubber seals, and silicone foam padding. The purpose was measure the volume of gases which diffuse from packaging materials when sealed in containers. Two heating profiles were used to study the offgassing quantities in a set of accelerated aging tests. It was determined that the concretes contain a large quantity of water. The plastic materials hold much less moisture, with the silicone materials even consuming water, possibly due to the presence of silica filler. Polyethylene tends to degrade as the temperature is elevated and the foam stiffens.

  5. CONCRETE OPTIMISATION WITH REGARD TO PACKING DENSITY AND RHEOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CONCRETE OPTIMISATION WITH REGARD TO PACKING DENSITY AND RHEOLOGY François de Larrard LCPC Centre/organizers): .............. Keywords: packing density, rheology, grading curve, optimisation, self-compacting concrete, roller-compacted concrete. Author contacts Authors E-Mail Fax Postal address LCPC Centre de Nantes François de Larrard

  6. Liquid Holdup Profiles in Structured Packing Determined via Neutron Radiography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eldridge, R. Bruce

    scans of an operating air-water contactor were performed at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR packings are widely employed in vapor-liquid contacting devices for distillation, absorption, and stripping. The high specific surface areas (ap), regular geometries, and high void fraction () of structured packing

  7. Packed bed reactor for photochemical .sup.196 Hg isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Straight tubes and randomly oriented pieces of tubing having been employed in a photochemical mercury enrichment reactor and have been found to improve the enrichment factor (E) and utilization (U) compared to a non-packed reactor. One preferred embodiment of this system uses a moving bed (via gravity) for random packing.

  8. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature, 2001. 414(of rechargeable lithium batteries, I. Lithium manganeseof rechargeable lithium batteries, II. Lithium ion

  9. Evolving Design Rules for the Inverse Granular Packing Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Z. Miskin; Heinrich M. Jaeger

    2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    If a collection of identical particles is poured into a container, different shapes will fill to different densities. But what is the shape that fills a container as close as possible to a pre-specified, desired density? We demonstrate a solution to this inverse-packing problem by framing it in the context of artificial evolution. By representing shapes as bonded spheres, we show how shapes may be mutated, simulated, and selected to produce particularly dense or loose packing aggregates, both with and without friction. Moreover, we show how motifs emerge linking these shapes together. The result is a set of design rules that function as an effective solution to the inverse packing problem for given packing procedures and boundary conditions. Finally, we show that these results are verified by experiments on 3D-printed prototypes used to make packings in the real world.

  10. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  11. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  12. Thermal analysis of the Ultralife SSS{trademark} lithium ion solid polymer battery with high energy anode for dual use applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollandsworth, R.P.; Isaacson, M. [Lockheed Martin Missile and Space, Palo Alto, CA (United States). Advanced Technology Center; Cuellar, E.A.; Read, J.A. [Ultralife Batteries, Inc., Newark, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal properties of the Ultralife SSS{trademark} Lithium Ion Battery are investigated, with cell laminate thermal stability and heat capacity reported, as well as thermal calorimetry performed upon a cell stack having an initial capacity of 12.476 Ah during charge and discharge cycling at temperatures of 3, 10, 20, and 40 C. Thermal energy represents 3.7 and 7.8% of total energy with discharge currents of 2 and 5 A, represents 3.6 and 7.3% of total energy respectively. The major contributor to thermal performance during charge/discharge cycling is the cell impedance.

  13. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  14. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A.

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on cost and energy density from changes in cell capacity, parallel cell groups, and manufacturing capabilities are easily assessed with the model. New proposed materials may also be examined to translate bench-scale values to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the original equipment manufacturer. The model will be openly distributed to the public in the year 2011. Currently, the calculations are based in a Microsoft{reg_sign} Office Excel spreadsheet. Instructions are provided for use; however, the format is admittedly not user-friendly. A parallel development effort has created an alternate version based on a graphical user-interface that will be more intuitive to some users. The version that is more user-friendly should allow for wider adoption of the model.

  15. Battery research at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thackeray, M.M.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has, for many years, been engaged in battery-related R and D programs for DOE and the transportation industry. In particular, from 1973 to 1995, ANL played a pioneering role in the technological development of the high-temperature (400 C) lithium-iron disulfide battery. With the emphasis of battery research moving away from high temperature systems toward ambient temperature lithium-based systems for the longer term, ANL has redirected its efforts toward the development of a lithium-polymer battery (60--80 C operation) and room temperature systems based on lithium-ion technologies. ANL`s lithium-polymer battery program is supported by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), 3M and Hydro-Quebec, and the lithium-ion battery R and D efforts by US industry and by DOE.

  16. Lithium-Air Battery: High Performance Cathodes for Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEEST Project: Researchers at Missouri S&T are developing an affordable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery that could enable an EV to travel up to 350 miles on a single charge. Today’s EVs run on Li-Ion batteries, which are expensive and suffer from low energy density compared with gasoline. This new Li-Air battery could perform as well as gasoline and store 3 times more energy than current Li-Ion batteries. A Li-Air battery uses an air cathode to breathe oxygen into the battery from the surrounding air, like a human lung. The oxygen and lithium react in the battery to produce electricity. Current Li-Air batteries are limited by the rate at which they can draw oxygen from the air. The team is designing a battery using hierarchical electrode structures to enhance air breathing and effective catalysts to accelerate electricity production.

  17. Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 and 27,000 Wh per liter.

  18. NiO nanowall array prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis method and its enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, F., E-mail: caofenghz@126.com [Department of Chemistry, Huzhou Teachers College, Huzhou, 313000 (China); Pan, G.X.; Tang, P.S.; Chen, H.F. [Department of Chemistry, Huzhou Teachers College, Huzhou, 313000 (China)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Self-supported NiO nanowall array is fabricated by a facile hydrothermal synthesis method and exhibits noticeable Li ion battery performance with good cycle life and high capacity. Highlights: ? NiO nanowall array is prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis method. ? NiO nanowall array with high capacity as anode material for Li ion battery. ? Nanowall array structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. - Abstract: Free-standing quasi-single-crystalline NiO nanowall array is successfully fabricated via a simple hydrothermal synthesis method. The as-prepared NiO film exhibits a highly porous nanowall structure composed of many interconnected nanoflakes with thicknesses of ?20 nm. The NiO nanowalls arrange vertically to the substrate resulting in the formation of extended porous net-like structure with pores of 30–300 nm. As anode material for lithium ion batteries, the quasi-single-crystalline NiO nanowall array exhibits pretty good electrochemical performances with high capacity, weaker polarization, higher coulombic efficiency and better cycling performance as compared to the dense polycrystalline NiO film. The quasi-single-crystalline NiO nanowall array presents an initial coulombic efficiency of 76% and good cycling life with a capacity of 564 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.5 A g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles, higher than that of the dense polycrystalline NiO film (358 mAh g{sup ?1}). The enhanced performance is due to the unique nanowall array structure providing faster ion/electron transport and better morphological stability.

  19. Nanostructured Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries (Final Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meilin Liu, James Gole

    2006-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to explore new ways to create nanostructured electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Of particular interests are unique nanostructures created by electrochemical deposition, etching and combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Three-dimensional nanoporous Cu6Sn5 alloy has been successfully prepared using an electrochemical co-deposition process. The walls of the foam structure are highly-porous and consist of numerous small grains. This represents a novel way of creating porous structures that allow not only fast transport of gas and liquid but also rapid electrochemical reactions due to high surface area. The Cu6Sn5 samples display a reversible capacity of {approx}400 mAhg-1. Furthermore, these materials exhibit superior rate capability. At a current drain of 10 mA/cm2(20C rate), the obtainable capacity was more than 50% of the capacity at 0.5 mA/cm2 (1C rate). Highly open and porous SnO2 thin films with columnar structure were obtained on Si/SiO2/Au substrates by CCVD. The thickness was readily controlled by the deposition time, varying from 1 to 5 microns. The columnar grains were covered by nanoparticles less than 20 nm. These thin film electrodes exhibited substantially high specific capacity. The reversible specific capacity of {approx}3.3 mAH/cm2 was demonstrated for up to 80 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 0.3 mA/cm2. When discharged at 0.9 mA/cm2, the capacity was about 2.1 mAH/cm2. Tin dioxide box beams or tubes with square or rectangular cross sections were synthesized using CCVD. The cross-sectional width of the SnO2 tubules was tunable from 50 nm to sub-micrometer depending on synthesis temperature. The tubes are readily aligned in the direction perpendicular to the substrate surface to form tube arrays. Silicon wafers were electrochemically etched to produce porous silicon (PS) with honeycomb-type channels and nanoporous walls. The diameters of the channels are about 1 to 3 microns and the depth of the channels can be up to 100 microns. We have successfully used the PS as a matrix for Si-Li-based alloy. Other component(s) can be incorporated into the PS either by an electroless metallization or by kinetically controlled vapor deposition.

  20. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electrolytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  1. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  2. Shaken, not stirred: why gravel packs better than bricks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anita Mehta; J. M. Luck

    2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the effect of shape -- jagged vs. regular -- in the jamming limit of very gently shaken packings. Our measure of shape $\\eps$ is the void space occupied by a disordered grain; we show that depending on its number-theoretic nature, two generic behaviours are obtained. Thus, regularly shaped grains (rational $\\eps$) have ground states of perfect packing, which are irretrievably lost under zero-temperature shaking; the reverse is the case for jagged grains (irrational $\\eps$), where the ground state is only optimally packed, but entirely retrievable. At low temperatures, we find intermittency at the surface, which has recently been seen experimentally.

  3. Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.

  4. Battery-Aware Power Management Based on Markovian Decision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    ] " Electrical circuit model: A spice model of the lithium-ion batteries [Gold-97] " Electro-chemical model: Generic dual-foil lithium-ion battery model [Doyle-94] ! Battery Management " Discharge rate-based policyBattery-Aware Power Management Based on Markovian Decision Processes Battery-Aware Power Management

  5. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraft, Helmut (Liederbach, DE); Ledjeff, Konstantin (Bad Krozingen, DE)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive he discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  6. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraft, H.; Ledjeff, K.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive the discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  7. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  8. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

  9. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  10. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  11. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery system includes a platform having an aperture formed therethrough, a flexible member having a generally planar configuration and extending across the aperture, wherein a portion of the flexible member is coextensive with the aperture, a cell provided adjacent the platform, and a sensor coupled to the flexible member and positioned proximate the cell. The sensor is configured to detect a temperature of the cell.

  12. EERE Partner Testimonials- Phil Roberts, California Lithium Battery (CalBattery)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Phil Roberts, CEO and Founder of California Lithium Battery (CalBattery), describes the new growth and development that was possible through partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  14. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  15. Nanostructured bilayered vanadium oxide electrodes for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tepavcevic, S.; Xiong, H.; Stamenkovic, V.R.; Zuo, X.; Balasubramanian, M.; Prakapenka, V.B.; Johnson, C.S.; Rajh, T. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS)); ( CNM); ( MSD); (University of Chicago)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tailoring nanoarchitecture of materials offers unprecedented opportunities in utilization of their functional properties. Nanostructures of vanadium oxide, synthesized by electrochemical deposition, are studied as a cathode material for rechargeable Na-ion batteries. Ex situ and in situ synchrotron characterizations revealed the presence of an electrochemically responsive bilayered structure with adjustable intralayer spacing that accommodates intercalation of Na{sup +} ions. Sodium intake induces organization of overall structure with appearance of both long- and short-range order, while deintercalation is accompanied with the loss of long-range order, whereas short-range order is preserved. Nanostructured electrodes achieve theoretical reversible capacity for Na{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} stoichiometry of 250 mAh/g. The stability evaluation during charge-discharge cycles at room temperature revealed an efficient 3 V cathode material with superb performance: energy density of {approx}760 Wh/kg and power density of 1200 W/kg. These results demonstrate feasibility of development of the ambient temperature Na-ion rechargeable batteries by employment of electrodes with tailored nanoarchitectures.

  16. Nanostructure and Nanomechanics of Cement: Polydisperse Colloidal Packing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masoero, Enrico

    Cement setting and cohesion are governed by the precipitation and growth of calcium-silicate-hydrate, through a complex evolution of microstructure. A colloidal model to describe nucleation, packing, and rigidity of ...

  17. Center for Academic Success Tech Prep Student Packing List

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pele?, Slaven

    Center for Academic Success Tech Prep Student Packing List Personal items to bring or buy: shower items: · alcoholic beverages (if under 21 years of age) · candles (lighted), fireworks, weapons, incense

  18. Effective thermal conductivity of packed beds of spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Allen Buchanan

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF PACKED BEDS OF SPHERES A Thesis ALLEN BUCHANAN DUNCAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ot MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987... Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF PACKED BEDS OF SPHERES A Thesis by ALLEN BUCHANAN DUNCAN Approved as to style and content by: G. P. Peterson (Chairman of Committee) G. D. Allen (Member) W. M. Moses...

  19. Performance characterization of a packed bed electro-filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanan, Ajay

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by A JAY NARAYANAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1990 Major Subject: Safety Engineering PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by AJAY NARAYANAN Approved as to style and content by: John P. Wagn (Ch ' of the Com ittee) Aydin Akgerman (Member) Ri ard B...

  20. Performance characterization of a packed bed electro-filter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanan, Ajay

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by A JAY NARAYANAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1990 Major Subject: Safety Engineering PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A PACKED BED ELECTRO-FILTER A Thesis by AJAY NARAYANAN Approved as to style and content by: John P. Wagn (Ch ' of the Com ittee) Aydin Akgerman (Member) Ri ard B...

  1. ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0.04Co02O2 electrode containing 5 wt% single-walled carbon nanotubes as the conductive additive and demonstrated both high rate capability as well as the ability to cycle the cathode to 5 V vrs. Li/Li+. Finally, we coated a Celgard (TM) separator and enabled stable cycling in a high dielectric electrolyte. These results will be presented in detail.

  2. Preliminary Design of a Smart Battery Controller for SLI Batteries Xiquan Wang and Pritpal Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Pritpal

    Automotive start, light, ignition (SLI) lead acid batteries are prone to capacity loss due to low for using the fuzzy logic methodology for determining the SOC/SOH of an automotive SLI lead acid battery controller. Introduction Automotive start, light ignition (SLI) lead acid batteries are the most widely used

  3. Ultracapacitors and Batteries in Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Zolot, M.; Sprik, S.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using an ultracapacitor in conjunction with a battery in a hybrid vehicle combines the power performance of the former with the greater energy storage capability of the latter.

  4. Celgard and Entek - Battery Separator Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Celgard and Entek Battery Separator Development Harshad Tataria R. Pekala, Ron Smith USABC May 19, 2009 Project ID es08tataria This presentation does not contain any...

  5. Panasonic Corporation Energy Company formerly Matsushita Battery...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Panasonic Corporation Energy Company (formerly Matsushita Battery Industrial Co) Place: Moriguchi, Osaka, Japan Zip: 570-8511 Product: Producer of...

  6. Batteries for energy storage: part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, D.L.; Birk, J.R.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Explores 4 large battery RandD programs. Two are individual electrochemical systems for electric utility energy storage: zinc-chlorine and sodium sulfur. The third is a high-temperature battery, lithium-iron sulfide, which is expected to be applicable in electric vehicles. Reviews the nearer term EV battery development programs, which include zinc-nickel oxide, iron-nickel oxide, and lead-acid batteries. Suggests that batteries appear to be an ideal companion to coal- and nuclear power-derived electrical energy, to play a key role in electrical generation and distribution networks and to power vehicles. Batteries could augment solarderived electrical energy to attain continuity and reliability of power. Battery systems now under development represent a broad range of possible approaches encompassing extremes of the periodical table, a wide variety of operating temperatures, and limitless design concepts. Along with substantial international emphasis on battery development, this range of approaches suggests that one or more candidate systems can be demonstrated to have commercial viability. While commercial viability can be demonstrated, actual implementation will be deterred by high capital cost, substantial commercialization costs, and buyer reluctance. Concludes that because oil has an unstable future, legislation or regulation coupled with personal inconvenience (rationing or waiting in gas lines) can override the economics of utility battery energy storage.

  7. Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a safe, cost-effective, and high energy density technology for large scale energy storage. However, the development of magnesium battery has been hindered by the limited...

  8. Advanced Battery Materials Characterization: Success stories...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Battery Materials Characterization: Success stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Dr. E. Andrew Payzant, ORNL Project ID lmp02payzant This...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: lithium-ion battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ion battery Electric Car Challenge Sparks Students' STEM Interest On January 9, 2015, in Energy, Energy Storage, News, News & Events, Partnership, Transportation Energy Aspiring...

  10. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stories News Events Find More Like This Return to Search Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries United States Patent Patent Number: 6,528,208 Issued: March 4, 2003...

  11. Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Improved spinel-containing "layered-layered" lithium metal oxide electrodes Materials...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: thin-film battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery Sandia Labs, Front Edge Technology, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Lab, Univ. of California-Los Angeles: Micro Power Source On March 20, 2013, in Energy Storage Systems,...

  13. Ambient Operation of Li/Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Deyu; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Williford, Ralph E.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, Li/air batteries based on nonaqueous electrolytes were investigated in ambient conditions (with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm and relative humidity of ~20%). A heat-sealable polymer membrane was used as both an oxygen-diffusion membrane and as a moisture barrier for Li/air batteries. The membrane also can minimize the evaporation of the electrolyte from the batteries. Li/air batteries with this membrane can operate in ambient conditions for more than one month with a specific energy of 362 Wh kg-1, based on the total weight of the battery including its packaging. Among various carbon sources used in this work, Li/air batteries using Ketjenblack (KB) carbon-based air electrodes exhibited the highest specific energy. However, KB-based air electrodes expanded significantly and absorbed much more electrolyte than electrodes made from other carbon sources. The weight distribution of a typical Li/air battery using the KB-based air electrode was dominated by the electrolyte (~70%). Lithium-metal anodes and KB-carbon anodes account for only 5.12% and 5.78% of the battery weight, respectively. We also found that only ~ 20% of the mesopore volume of the air electrode was occupied by reaction products after discharge. To further improve the specific energy of the Li/air batteries, the microstructure of the carbon electrode needs to be further improved to absorb much less electrolyte while still holding significant amounts of reaction products

  14. In situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High Energy Density Li-Air Batteries In situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High...

  15. In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High Energy Density Li-Air Batteries In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High...

  16. Benefits of battery-uItracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ian C., S.M. (Ian Charles). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the benefits of battery and battery-ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESSs) in pulsed-load applications. It investigates and quantifies the benefits of the hybrid ESS over its battery-only ...

  17. A Bayesian nonparametric approach to modeling battery health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doshi-Velez, Finale

    The batteries of many consumer products are both a substantial portion of the product's cost and commonly a first point of failure. Accurately predicting remaining battery life can lower costs by reducing unnecessary battery ...

  18. Redox shuttle additives for overcharge protection in lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Ross Jr., P.N.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protection in Lithium Batteries”, T. J. Richardson* and P.PROTECTION IN LITHIUM BATTERIES T. J. Richardson* and P. N.in lithium and lithium ion batteries are now available. The

  19. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,for lithium rechargeable batteries. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.anodes for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem. A 1,

  20. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles, (ANL/ESD- 42) .Linden, D. , Handbook of Batteries, McGraw-Hill Companies,2012). Lithium Use in Batteries, U.S. Geological Survey (

  1. Batteries as they are meant to be seen | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries as they are meant to be seen Batteries as they are meant to be seen Released: December 26, 2013 The search for long-lasting, inexpensive rechargeable batteries...

  2. Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    higher power density batteries have reduced energy density,2008 UCD-ITS-WP-09-02 Are batteries ready for plug-in hybridprograms mischaracterize the batteries needed to start

  3. Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    237–253. Burke, A. , 2007. Batteries and ultracapacitors forresults with lithium-ion batteries. In: Proceedings (CD)locate/tranpol Are batteries ready for plug-in hybrid

  4. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    T. , Tozawa, K. Prog. Batteries Solar Cells 1990, 9, 209. E.Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vechicles. ” Center forin Solids: Solid State Batteries and Devices, Ed. by W. vn

  5. Are batteries ready for plug-in hybrid buyers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.; Burke, Andrew

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    higher power density batteries have reduced energy density,2008 UCD-ITS-WP-09-02 Are batteries ready for plug-in hybridprograms mischaracterize the batteries needed to start

  6. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode Jun Liu,Modeling of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power SourcesBehavior of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources

  7. Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytesin commercially available lithium-ion battery electrolytes,

  8. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime: Applications in Design and Health Management (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Jun, M.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses models for battery reliability and lifetime and the Battery Ownership Model.

  9. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems: Commercial vehicle and transit ahs analysis. Volume 6. Final report, September 1993-February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bottiger, F.; Chemnitz, H.D.; Doorman, J.; Franke, U.; Zimmerman, T.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final report of the Automated Highway System (AHS). The activities of Commercial Vehicle and Transit AHS Analysis are reported on in this document. This document type is resource materials. This volume is the six in a series. There are nine other volumes in the series.

  10. Charging a Battery-Powered Device with a Fiber-Optically Connected Photonic Power System for Achieving High-Voltage Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizon, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gioria, Jack G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Snyder, Hans R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development and testing of a system to provide isolated power to the cathode-subsystem electronics of an x-ray tube. These components are located at the cathode potential of several hundred kilovolts, requiring a supply of power isolated from this high voltage. In this design a fiber-optically connected photonic power system (PPS) is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack, which will subsequently supply power to the cathode-subsystem electronics. The suitability of the commercially available JDSU PPS for this application is evaluated. The output of the ppe converter is characterized. The technical aspects of its use for charging a variety of Li-Ion batteries are discussed. Battery charge protection requirements and safety concerns are also addressed.

  11. NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASYMPTOTIC, DIFFUSION DOMINATED MASS-TRANSFER COEFFICIENT IN PACKED BED REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedkiw, Peter

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculations for the Asymptotic, Diffusion Dominated Mass-Transfer Coefficient in Packed Bed Reactors

  12. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and characterization of spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanoparticles anode materials for lithium ion battery.Li-ion battery performance. Figure 34. Characterization of

  13. Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries September 9, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov...

  14. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques 2011 DOE...

  15. High power bipolar battery/cells with enhanced overcharge tolerance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cell or battery of cells having improved overcharge tolerance and increased power capability, and methods for the construction of such cells or batteries, via electrolyte modification.

  16. Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials. Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials....

  17. Development of Computer-Aided Design Tools for Automotive Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9han2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT)...

  18. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  19. New imaging capability reveals possible key to extending battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lifetime and capacity, opening a path to wider use of these batteries in conjunction with renewable energy sources. Lithium ion batteries power mobile devices and electric cars and...

  20. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage...

  1. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for powering microelectromechanical systems and otherSurvey of battery powered microelectromechanical systems.battery powered microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), it is

  2. Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Electrolyte Properties Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and...

  3. Polymer Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries Ashoutosh Panday Scott Mullin Nitash Balsara Proposed Battery anode (Li metal) Li Li + + e - e - Li salt in a hard solid...

  4. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  5. Batteries - Simulation software aids design ... | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Simulation software aids design ... Designers of safe high-performance batteries for electric vehicles are getting a hand with a new computational toolset created by a...

  6. USABC Development of Advanced High-Performance Batteries for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Advanced High-Performance Batteries for EV Applications USABC Development of Advanced High-Performance Batteries for EV Applications 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  7. alkaline storage battery: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arrays, wind turbines, and battery storage is designed based on empirical weather and load development of photovoltaic (PV), wind turbine and battery technologies, hybrid...

  8. alkaline storage batteries: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arrays, wind turbines, and battery storage is designed based on empirical weather and load development of photovoltaic (PV), wind turbine and battery technologies, hybrid...

  9. aerospace flight battery: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    minigrid system comprising batteries and an inverter under which the battery charging load is only one of many various village loads on the system. NREL has completed feasibility...

  10. alkaline zinc batteries quarterly: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    minigrid system comprising batteries and an inverter under which the battery charging load is only one of many various village loads on the system. NREL has completed feasibility...

  11. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  12. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  13. Diagnostic and Prognostic Analysis of Battery Performance & Aging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Prognostic Analysis of Battery Performance & Aging based on Kinetic and Thermodynamic Principles Diagnostic and Prognostic Analysis of Battery Performance & Aging based on...

  14. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  15. advanced battery systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Management Systems - Part I: SOC Estimation S. J- cles and renewable energy resources is battery energy storage. Advanced battery systems represent Krstic, Miroslav 2 PDE...

  16. 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 4. Exploratory Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4. Exploratory Battery Research 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 4. Exploratory Battery Research DOE Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review 2008meritreview4.pdf More...

  17. Overview and Progress of United States Advanced Battery Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Activity United States Advanced Battery Consortium High-Power Electrochemical Storage Devices and Plug-in Hybrid Electric...

  18. Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success...

  19. Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode. Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode. Abstract: Functionalized graphene sheets (FGS)...

  20. Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program Presentation from the U.S....

  1. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Kasei * Focused on High Capacity Manganese Rich (HCMR TM ) cathodes & Silicon-Carbon composite anodes for Lithium ion batteries * Envia's high energy Li-ion battery materials...

  2. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Lithium-ion batteries, popular in today's electronic devices and electric vehicles, could gain significant...

  3. Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin . Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin . Abstract: Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have...

  4. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell...

  5. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode...

  6. Fact Sheet: Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (October 2012) | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Batteries (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage Program is funding research to develop next-generation vanadium redox flow...

  7. International Battery Presentation - Keeping The Lights On: Smart...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Battery Presentation - Keeping The Lights On: Smart Storage for a Smart Grid (July 12, 2011) International Battery Presentation - Keeping The Lights On: Smart Storage...

  8. Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed: Solar Energy Capture...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture in chemical form makes it storable and transportable January 11, 2011 | Tags: Chemistry,...

  9. 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 3. Battery Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3. Battery Development, Testing, Simulation, Analysis 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 3. Battery Development, Testing, Simulation, Analysis DOE Vehicle Technologies...

  10. Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Material BATT and the Battery Industry Block copolymer electrolytes for Li-metal batteries (Balsara) being commercialized by Seeo, Inc. Advanced cathode materials (Manthiram)...

  11. Battery Company Puts New Nanowire Technology into Production...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    batteries for niche market applications. Silicon offers a number of advantages over pure graphite, the current material of choice for lithium ion batteries. In particular,...

  12. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Electric Fuel Zinc-Air Battery System for EVs,of the Electric Fuel Zinc-air battery for electric vehicles,

  13. 2014 APSECA Safe Programming Guidance of Function Block Diagram for Reactor Protection Systems Dong-Ah Lee*, Junbeom Yoo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in safety critical systems ­ Nuclear power plant · RPS (Reactor Protection System) · ESF-CCS (Engineering-Ah Lee*, Junbeom Yoo Konkuk University Jang-Soo Lee Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Guidelines Safety Feature Component Control System) ­ Automotive systems ­ Medical systems ­ Etc. · Failure

  14. Topic 3: Smart Grid Communications A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Aggregator PLC IP WMN ZigBee (Home Area Network) Substations Operation Sensors PLC IP/IEC #12;Smart GridTopic 3: Smart Grid Communications A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems Reference Model for Smart Grid Dr. Hamed Mohsenian-Rad Texas Tech UniversityCommunications and Control

  15. Fault-tolerant battery system employing intra-battery network architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Chen, Kenneth W. (Fair Oaks, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A distributed energy storing system employing a communications network is disclosed. A distributed battery system includes a number of energy storing modules, each of which includes a processor and communications interface. In a network mode of operation, a battery computer communicates with each of the module processors over an intra-battery network and cooperates with individual module processors to coordinate module monitoring and control operations. The battery computer monitors a number of battery and module conditions, including the potential and current state of the battery and individual modules, and the conditions of the battery's thermal management system. An over-discharge protection system, equalization adjustment system, and communications system are also controlled by the battery computer. The battery computer logs and reports various status data on battery level conditions which may be reported to a separate system platform computer. A module transitions to a stand-alone mode of operation if the module detects an absence of communication connectivity with the battery computer. A module which operates in a stand-alone mode performs various monitoring and control functions locally within the module to ensure safe and continued operation.

  16. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  17. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kepler, Keith D. (Mountain View, CA); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  18. Self-Charging Battery Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yager, Eric

    2007-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 2006, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was formed between Fauton Tech, Inc. and INL to develop a prototype for a commercial application that incorporates some INL-developed Intellectual Properties (IP). This report presents the results of the work performed at INL during Phase 1. The objective of Phase 1 was to construct a prototype battery in a “D” cell form factor, determine optimized internal components for a baseline configuration using a standard coil design, perform a series of tests on the baseline configuration, and document the test results in a logbook.

  19. Sandia Energy - Battery Calorimetry Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements RecentlyElectronicResourcesjobsJulyCatalystsMolten-SaltAssessmentBattery

  20. Optima Batteries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellenceOfficeOhio:Opower Social Jump to:OpenOptima Batteries

  1. Battery Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbon CaptureAtriaPower SystemsRhode Island:Battery Ventures

  2. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrode for Sodium Ion Batteries. Chemistry of Materialsnickel fluoride in Li ion batteries. Electrochimica Actafor advanced lithium ion batteries. Materials Science and

  3. Battery requirements for urban electric vans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, P.G.; Walsh, W.J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has carried out an intensive study of battery requirements for electric vans, and developed a mission-directed goals package for each of the principal battery contenders for this application. These goals were based on the assumption that vehicle range and acceleration must be fully met throughout each battery discharge. Under this assumption, the design point is the end-of-life condition, defined as the last cycle in which both power and energy requirements can be fulfilled. A light-weight, low-rolling-resistance van with an improved version of the ac powertrain being developed by Eaton was chosen as the hypothetical baseline vehicle. A modified FUDS cycle was selected along with assumptions of 3 M/sup 2/ frontal area, 0.37 drag coefficient, and a rolling resistance of 0.008. State-of-art characteristics and design interrelationships were developed for each battery technology, and the degree of advance expected by 1995 was projected. For each battery candidate, a least-cost combination of performance and operating characteristics was determined. The analysis included the peak power vs specific energy and depth-of-discharge (DOD), cycle life vs DOD, cost vs onboard energy and power, and kWh size effects. The resultant R and D goals for the electric van battery are presented, including early-in-life and end-of-life energy over the drive cycle, peak power, battery weight and volume, battery life, costs, and allowable frequency of repair.

  4. Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries Frontiers in Materials Science Seminar / Chemistryg g g g g y University at Buffalo ­ The State University of New York (SUNY) Abstract Batteries for implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) are based on the Lithium/Silver vanadium oxide (SVO, Ag2V4O11

  5. A User Programmable Battery Charging System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    to provide the convenience of rare battery replacement and extend the periods between charges. This thesis proposes a user programmable charging system that can charge a Lithium ion battery from three different input sources, i.e. a wall outlet, a universal...

  6. Alloys of clathrate allotropes for rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chan, Candace K; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai S

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure is directed at an electrode for a battery wherein the electrode comprises clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin. In method form, the present disclosure is directed at methods of forming clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin which methods lead to the formation of empty cage structures suitable for use as electrodes in rechargeable type batteries.

  7. The BATINTREC process for reclaiming used batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia Yueqing; Li Guojian

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Battery Recycling (BATINTREC) process is an innovative technology for the recycling of used batteries and electronic waste, which combines vacuum metallurgical reprocessing and a ferrite synthesis process. Vacuum metallurgical reprocessing can be used to reclaim the mercury (Hg) in the dry batteries and the cadmium (Cd) in the Ni-Cd batteries. The ferrite synthesis process reclaims the other heavy metals by synthesizing ferrite in a liquid phase. Mixtures of manganese oxide and carbon black are also produced in the ferrite synthesis process. The effluent from the process is recycled, thus significantly minimizing its discharge. The heavy metal contents of the effluent could meet the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard of China if the ratio of the crushed battery scrap and powder to FeSO{sub 4}{center_dot}7H{sub 2}O is set at 1:6. This process could not only stabilize the heavy metals, but also recover useful resource from the waste.

  8. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  9. State of charge indicators for a battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to state of charge indicators for a battery. One aspect of the present invention utilizes expansion and contraction displacements of an electrode plate of a battery to gauge the state of charge in the battery. One embodiment of a battery of the present invention includes an anodic plate; a cathodic plate; an electrolyte in contact with the anodic and cathodic plates; plural terminals individually coupled with one of the anodic and cathodic plates; a separator intermediate the anodic and cathodic plates; an indicator configured to indicate an energy level of the battery responsive to movement of the separator; and a casing configured to house the anodic and cathodic plates, electrolyte, and separator.

  10. In search of high performance anode materials for Mg batteries: computational studies of Mg in Ge, Si, and Sn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malyi, Oleksandr I; Manzhos, Sergei; 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.01.114

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ab initio studies of structures, energetics, and diffusion properties of Mg in Si, Ge, and Sn diamond structures to evaluate their potential as insertion type anode materials for Mg batteries. We show that Si could provide the highest specific capacities (3817 mAh g-1) and the lowest average insertion voltage (~0.15 eV vs. Mg) for Mg storage. Nevertheless, due to its significant percent lattice expansion (~216%) and slow Mg diffusion, Sn and Ge are more attractive; both anodes have lower lattice expansions (~120 % and ~178 %, respectively) and diffusion barriers (~0.50 and ~0.70 eV, respectively for single-Mg diffusion) than Si. We show that Mg-Mg interactions at different stages of charging can decrease significantly the diffusion barrier compared to the single atom diffusion, by up to 0.55 eV.

  11. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaolin; Gu, Meng; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Kennard, Rhiannon; Yan, Pengfei; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Sailor, Michael J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured silicon is a promising anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries, yet scalable synthesis of such materials, and retaining good cycling stability in high loading electrode remain significant challenges. Here, we combine in-situ transmission electron microscopy and continuum media mechanical calculations to demonstrate that large (>20 micron) mesoporous silicon sponge (MSS) prepared by the scalable anodization method can eliminate the pulverization of the conventional bulk silicon and limit particle volume expansion at full lithiation to ~30% instead of ~300% as observed in bulk silicon particles. The MSS can deliver a capacity of ~750 mAh/g based on the total electrode weight with >80% capacity retention over 1000 cycles. The first-cycle irreversible capacity loss of pre-lithiated MSS based anode is only <5%. The insight obtained from MSS also provides guidance for the design of other materials that may experience large volume variation during operations.

  12. Prospects for Reducing the Processing Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood III, David L [ORNL; Li, Jianlin [ORNL; Daniel, Claus [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  13. Spherical codes, maximal local packing density, and the golden ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Hopkins; F. H. Stillinger; S. Torquato

    2010-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The densest local packing (DLP) problem in d-dimensional Euclidean space Rd involves the placement of N nonoverlapping spheres of unit diameter near an additional fixed unit-diameter sphere such that the greatest distance from the center of the fixed sphere to the centers of any of the N surrounding spheres is minimized. Solutions to the DLP problem are relevant to the realizability of pair correlation functions for packings of nonoverlapping spheres and might prove useful in improving upon the best known upper bounds on the maximum packing fraction of sphere packings in dimensions greater than three. The optimal spherical code problem in Rd involves the placement of the centers of N nonoverlapping spheres of unit diameter onto the surface of a sphere of radius R such that R is minimized. It is proved that in any dimension, all solutions between unity and the golden ratio to the optimal spherical code problem for N spheres are also solutions to the corresponding DLP problem. It follows that for any packing of nonoverlapping spheres of unit diameter, a spherical region of radius less than or equal to the golden ratio centered on an arbitrary sphere center cannot enclose a number of sphere centers greater than one more than the number that can be placed on the region's surface.

  14. Multi-cell storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brohm, Thomas (Hattersheim, DE); Bottcher, Friedhelm (Kelkheim, DE)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-cell storage battery, in particular to a lithium storage battery, which contains a temperature control device and in which groups of one or more individual cells arranged alongside one another are separated from one another by a thermally insulating solid layer whose coefficient of thermal conductivity lies between 0.01 and 0.2 W/(m*K), the thermal resistance of the solid layer being greater by at least a factor .lambda. than the thermal resistance of the individual cell. The individual cell is connected, at least in a region free of insulating material, to a heat exchanger, the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger in the direction toward the neighboring cell being selected to be greater by at least a factor .lambda. than the thermal resistance of the individual cell and, in addition, the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger toward the temperature control medium being selected to be smaller by at least a factor of about 10 than the thermal resistance of the individual cell, and .lambda. being the ratio of the energy content of the individual cell to the amount of energy that is needed to trigger a thermally induced cell failure at a defined upper operating temperature limit.

  15. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

  16. Hydrogen gettering packing material, and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D. (Castro Valley, CA); Thompson, Lisa M. (Knoxville, TN); Smith, Henry Michael (Overland Park, KS); Schicker, James R. (Lee's Summit, MO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen gettering system for a sealed container is disclosed comprising packing material for use within the sealed container, and a coating film containing hydrogen gettering material on at least a portion of the surface of such packing material. The coating film containing the hydrogen gettering material comprises a mixture of one or more organic materials capable of reacting with hydrogen and one or more catalysts capable of catalyzing the reaction of hydrogen with such one or more organic materials. The mixture of one or more organic materials capable of reacting with hydrogen and the one or more catalysts is dispersed in a suitable carrier which preferably is a curable film-forming material. In a preferred embodiment, the packing material comprises a foam material which is compatible with the coating film containing hydrogen gettering material thereon.

  17. Models for Metal Hydride Particle Shape, Packing, and Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyle C. Smith; Timothy S. Fisher

    2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiphysics modeling approach for heat conduction in metal hydride powders is presented, including particle shape distribution, size distribution, granular packing structure, and effective thermal conductivity. A statistical geometric model is presented that replicates features of particle size and shape distributions observed experimentally that result from cyclic hydride decreptitation. The quasi-static dense packing of a sample set of these particles is simulated via energy-based structural optimization methods. These particles jam (i.e., solidify) at a density (solid volume fraction) of 0.665+/-0.015 - higher than prior experimental estimates. Effective thermal conductivity of the jammed system is simulated and found to follow the behavior predicted by granular effective medium theory. Finally, a theory is presented that links the properties of bi-porous cohesive powders to the present systems based on recent experimental observations of jammed packings of fine powder. This theory produces quantitative experimental agreement with metal hydride powders of various compositions.

  18. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Batteries, Advanced Automotive Battery and Ultracapacitor Conference, Fourth International Symposium on Large Lithium-ion Batterybatteries with Nano-Li4Ti5O12 electrodes, Advanced Automotive Battery and Ultracapacitor Conference, Third International Symposium on Large Lithium-ion Battery

  19. 1994 battery shipment review and five-year forecast report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fetherolf, D. [East Penn Manufacturing Co., Lyon Station, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a 1994 battery shipment review and five year forecast report. Data is presented on replacement battery shipments, battery shipments, car and truck production, truck sales, original equipment, shipments for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles, and ten year battery service life trend.

  20. Last Revised: 10/2013 Battery Waste Collection Request

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    Labpack 113 ENV XX MCID: 51618 Chem Id: 317 Codes: None Lead Acid Batteries Recycle 114 ACI XX MCID: 51620 batteries into Mixed, Lithium (button batteries) or Lead Acid. We can collect all types at the same timeLast Revised: 10/2013 Battery Waste Collection Request www.ehs.washington.edu/forms/epo/1943.pdf

  1. Mechanical Properties of Lithium-Ion Battery Separator Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    -ion batteries like on the inside Anode Separator Cathode 500 nm 20 um20 um Anode: Graphite SeparatorMechanical Properties of Lithium-Ion Battery Separator Materials Patrick Sinko B.S. Materials and motivation ­ Why study lithium-ion batteries? ­ Lithium-ion battery fundamentals ­ Why study the mechanical

  2. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  3. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles (EV), including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electrical vehicles. With the increasing demand on devices of high energy densities (>500 Wh/kg) , new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB also attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performances of these energy storage systems depend not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performances characteristics of batteries often have conflict requirements on the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflict requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li-O2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate 1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and 2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties, prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime.

  4. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  5. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kempton, Willett; Tomic, Jasna; Letendre, Steven; Brooks, Alec; Lipman, Timothy

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cellrevenue – cost). Peak power Battery, full function Battery,sources of distributed power; battery-EDVs, fuel cell EDVs,

  6. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems. Activity area J, AHS entry/exit implementation. Final report, September 1993-November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, S.; Schulze, R.; Lima, P.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The activity focuses on the traffic operational impacts of Automated Highway Systems (AHS) entry/exit facilities at the points where they interface with the local street network. Information and results from several of the other Precursor Systems Analyses (PSA) activity areas are utilized in the conduct of the entry/exit research. Various strategies for AHS entry and exit are considered and their attributes identified. Analyses determined the operating conditions based on AHS volumes and ramp volumes from other PSA studies. Measures of effectiveness were established to allow comparison of different entry and exit strategies.

  7. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson (Malvern, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power.

  8. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, R.D.; DeDoncker, R.W.A.A.

    1998-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power. 8 figs.

  9. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  10. Redox Flow Batteries: An Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalamala, Babu R.; Soundappan, Thiagarajan; Fisher, Graham R.; Anstey, Mitchell A.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Perry, Mike L.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox flow batteries are well suited to provide modular and scalable energy storage systems for a wide range of energy storage applications. In this paper, we review the development of redox flow battery technology including recent advances in new redox active materials and systems. We discuss cost, performance, and reliability metrics that are critical for deployment of large flow battery systems. The technology, while relatively young, has the potential for significant improvement through reduced materials costs, improved energy and power efficiency, and significant reduction in the overall system cost.

  11. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  12. Battery Chargers | Electrical Power Conversion and Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromofBatteries from Brine Batteries from Brine MarchBattery

  13. 1600 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 22, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2007 Solar Battery Chargers for NiMH Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    1600 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 22, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2007 Solar Battery Chargers for NiMH Batteries Florent Boico, Brad Lehman, Member, IEEE, and Khalil Shujaee Abstract--This paper proposes new solar battery chargers for NiMH batteries. First, it is shown that existing charge

  14. Capacity fade analysis of a battery/super capacitor hybrid and a battery under pulse loads full cell studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    . Introduction Hybrid energy storage devices are more efficient than a battery in supplying the total powerCapacity fade analysis of a battery/super capacitor hybrid and a battery under pulse loads ­ full words: capacity fade, interfacial impedance, lithium ion battery/supercapacitor hybrid, pulse discharge

  15. The Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    array on the performance for a diesel/battery/inverter/pv system. It seeks to determine whetherThe Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS WA 6150 Abstract This paper focuses on pv/diesel/battery hybrid RAPS systems meeting loads above 50 k

  16. Fuzzy Logic-Based Smart Battery State-of-Charge (SOC) Monitor for SLI Batteries Pritpal Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Pritpal

    dreisner@usnanocorp.com Abstract Automotive starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) lead acid batteries of SLI lead acid batteries. Since 1997, Villanova University and US Nanocorp, Inc. have collaborated1 Fuzzy Logic-Based Smart Battery State-of-Charge (SOC) Monitor for SLI Batteries Pritpal Singh

  17. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    graphite negative electrode for lithium-ion batteries.batteries. The Na anode materials must not be overlooked since graphite-

  18. Development of high productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikejiri, T.; Hamamoto, N.; Hisada, S.; Iwasawa, K.; Kawakami, K.; Kokuryu, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Nogami, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasada, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, T. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., LTD., 575, Kuze-tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto, 601-8205 (Japan)

    2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    High productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2' is developed. In semiconductor manufacturing field, improvement of the productivity is continuously required. Especially mass production lines recently tend to use low energy beam and 2 pass implant for higher throughput. The 'Evo2' has been developed in an effort to fulfill these requirements. The 'Evo2' increases low energy beam current by 150 to 250% by applying electrostatic einzel lens called 'V-lens' installed at the exit of the Collimator magnet. This lens is also able to control the beam incident angle by adjusting the upper and lower electrode's voltages independently. Besides, mechanical scanning speed is enhanced to minimize process time of 2 pass implant, while also frequency of the fast beam scanning is enhanced to keep dose uniformity. In addition, a vacuum pumping capability at the target chamber is enhanced to reduce a vacuum waiting time during processing photo-resist wafers. This improvement achieved to reduce process time by 40% for a specific recipe. Furthermore, a modified Indirectly Heated Cathode with electron active Reflection 2 (IHC-R2) ion source which has a long life time filament has been installed. These new elements and/or functions have realized typically 25% improvement of productivity compared to standard EXCEED, and also improve a precise implantation capability.

  19. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  20. Second use of transportation batteries: Maximizing the value of batteries for transportation and grid services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to gain significant market share over the next decade. The economic viability for such vehicles is contingent upon the availability of cost-effective batteries with high power and energy density. For initial commercial success, government subsidies will be highly instrumental in allowing PHEVs to gain a foothold. However, in the long-term, for electric vehicles to be commercially viable, the economics have to be self-sustaining. Towards the end of battery life in the vehicle, the energy capacity left in the battery is not sufficient to provide the designed range for the vehicle. Typically, the automotive manufacturers indicated the need for battery replacement when the remaining energy capacity reaches 70-80%. There is still sufficient power (kW) and energy capacity (kWh) left in the battery to support various grid ancillary services such as balancing, spinning reserve, load following services. As renewable energy penetration increases, the need for such balancing services is expected to increase. This work explores optimality for the replacement of transportation batteries to be subsequently used for grid services. This analysis maximizes the value of an electric vehicle battery to be used as a transportation battery (in its first life) and then as a resource for providing grid services (in its second life). The results are presented across a range of key parameters, such as depth of discharge (DOD), number of batteries used over the life of the vehicle, battery life in vehicle, battery state of health (SOH) at end of life in vehicle and ancillary services rate. The results provide valuable insights for the automotive industry into maximizing the utility and the value of the vehicle batteries in an effort to either reduce the selling price of EVs and PHEVs or maximize the profitability of the emerging electrification of transportation.

  1. Measuring Energy Efficiency Improvements in Industrial Battery Chargers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matley, R.

    Measuring Energy Efficiency Improvements in Industrial Battery Chargers Ryan Matley, Sr. Program Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, San Francisco, CA ABSTRACT Industrial battery chargers have provided the energy requirements... to 100 GWh per year. There are three areas of energy losses in the battery and charger system: ? Power Conversion Efficiency (energy out of charger vs. energy into charger) ? Charge Return (energy out of battery vs. energy into battery): some...

  2. High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5.0E-04 1.0E-03 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 Voltage (V) dQdV (AhV) 1 st Charge 1.2M LiPF 6 ECEMC 37 1 st Charge 1.0M LiPF 6 TMS1NM3 55 with 2% and 4% VC 1 st Charge 1.0M LiPF 6 TMS...

  3. Thermal resistance gaps for solid breeder blankets using packed beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbis, Z.R.; Raffray, A.R.; Tillack, M.S.; Abdou, M.A.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main design features of a new concept for solid breeder blanket thermal resistance gaps are described and analysis is shown for the blanket thermal characteristics. The effective thermal conductivity of a helium-beryllium packed bed configuration is studied, including the effect of a purge stream. Possible applications of this concept to ITER blanket designs are stressed.

  4. Hydrogen Bonding Increases Packing Density in the Protein Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Bonding Increases Packing Density in the Protein Interior David Schell,1,2 Jerry Tsai,1 J System Health Science Center, College Station, Texas 77843-1114 ABSTRACT The contribution of hydrogen to the stability, but experimental studies show that bury- ing polar groups, especially those that are hydrogen

  5. PACKING DIMENSION RESULTS FOR ANISOTROPIC GAUSSIAN RANDOM FIELDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Yimin

    and GrX [0, 1]N are determined by the lower index of . Namely, dimP X [0, 1]N = min d, N , a.s. (1.5) and dimP GrX [0, 1]N = min N , N + (1 - )d , a.s., (1.6) where dimP E denotes the packing dimension of E

  6. PACKING DIMENSION RESULTS FOR ANISOTROPIC GAUSSIAN RANDOM FIELDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by the lower index of . Namely, dimP X [0, 1]N = min d, N , a.s. (1.5) and dimP GrX [0, 1]N = min N , N + (1 - )d , a.s., (1.6) where dimP E denotes the packing dimension o

  7. Particle Shape Effects on the Stress Response of Granular Packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athanasios G. Athanassiadis; Marc Z. Miskin; Paul Kaplan; Nicholas Rodenberg; Seung Hwan Lee; Jason Merritt; Eric Brown; John Amend; Hod Lipson; Heinrich M. Jaeger

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of the stress response of packings formed from a wide range of particle shapes. Besides spheres these include convex shapes such as the Platonic solids, truncated tetrahedra, and triangular bipyramids, as well as more complex, non-convex geometries such as hexapods with various arm lengths, dolos, and tetrahedral frames. All particles were 3D-printed in hard resin. Well-defined initial packing states were established through preconditioning by cyclic loading under given confinement pressure. Starting from such initial states, stress-strain relationships for axial compression were obtained at four different confining pressures for each particle type. While confining pressure has the largest overall effect on the mechanical response, we find that particle shape controls the details of the stress-strain curves and can be used to tune packing stiffness and yielding. By correlating the experimentally measured values for the effective Young's modulus under compression, yield stress and energy loss during cyclic loading, we identify trends among the various shapes that allow for designing a packing's aggregate behavior.

  8. Geometry and Optimal Packing of Twisted Columns and Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory M. Grason

    2015-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This review presents recent progress in understanding constraints and consequences of close-packing geometry of filamentous or columnar materials possessing non-trivial textures, focusing in particular on the common motifs of twisted and toroidal structures. The mathematical framework is presented that relates spacing between line-like, filamentous elements to their backbone orientations, highlighting the explicit connection between the inter-filament {\\it metric} properties and the geometry of non-Euclidean surfaces. The consequences of the hidden connection between packing in twisted filament bundles and packing on positively curved surfaces, like the Thomson problem, are demonstrated for the defect-riddled ground states of physical models of twisted filament bundles. The connection between the "ideal" geometry of {\\it fibrations} of curved three-dimensional space, including the Hopf fibration, and the non-Euclidean constraints of filament packing in twisted and toroidal bundles is presented, with a focus on the broader dependence of metric geometry on the simultaneous twisting and folded of multi-filament bundles.

  9. FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE GridPACK: Grid Parallel Advanced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE GridPACK: Grid Parallel Advanced Computational Kernels OBJECTIVE The U of the power grid will also have to evolve to insure accurate and timely simulations. On the other hand, the software tools available for power grid simulation today are primarily sequential single core programs

  10. ROV PACK: INFORMATION AND GUIDELINES www.serpentproject.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Oceanography Centre, Southampton

    are lucky enough to see Encourage best practice during offshore activities Map any impact footprint AND OBJECTIVES 5 TECHNIQUES 6 VIDEO SURVEY 6 NON DRILL-RIG OPERATIONS 7 PIPELINE AND IRM 7 DRILLING SUPPORT that is created when drilling offshore #12;ROV PACK: INFORMATION AND GUIDELINES www.serpentproject.com SERPENT

  11. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Miller, M. , Emerging Lithium-ion Battery Technologies forCharacteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Variousand Simulation Results with Lithium-ion Batteries, paper

  12. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Feng

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    O 2 Cathode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries. Adv. Energysolvent decomposition in lithium ion batteries: first-Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. Funct.

  13. Characterization of nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustyn, Veronica

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of High Energy-Density Batteries. Electrochemistry: Past and1971). Huggins, R. A. Advanced Batteries: Materials ScienceC. A. & Scrosati, B. Modern Batteries: An Introduction to

  14. Characterization of an Electroactive Polymer for Overcharge Protection in Secondary Lithium Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guoying; Thomas-Alyea, Karen E.; Newman, John; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Secondary Lithium Batteries Guoying Chen, Karen E.protection agents in lithium batteries is relatively new,rechargeable lithium batteries with a variety of different

  15. Cu2Sb thin film electrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition f or lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Seung-Wan; Reade, Ronald P.; Cairns, Elton J.; Vaughey, Jack T.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electrochemical Society (Batteries and Energy ConversionDeposition for Lithium Batteries Seung-Wan Song, a, * Ronaldrechargeable lithium batteries. Introduction Sb-containing

  16. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of thin- film Li-ion batteries under flexural deflection,”thin-film solar cells and batteries (2) Characterizesolar cells and batteries for multifunctional performance (

  17. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries," Science 311(5763), 977-^ for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries," J. Electrochem. Soc.02 for lithium-ion batteries," Chem. Lett. , [3] Yabuuchi,

  18. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on fuel cells, advanced batteries, and ultracapacitorof Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-inAdvisor utilizing lithium-ion batteries of the different

  19. Experimental Validation of Voltage-Based State-of-Charge Algorithm for Power Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Zhuo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for nickel metal hydride batteries including hysteresis” ,Control of Lithium-Ion Batteries”, Control Systems, IEEE,modeling of lead acid batteries”, Applied Power Electronics

  20. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Whether any of the lithium battery chemistries can meetgeneral the higher cost lithium battery chemistries have thecosts for various lithium battery chemistries Electrode