National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for battery electric vehicle

  1. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  2. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  3. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  4. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  5. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  6. Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriksen, G.L.

    1993-08-01

    A technology assessment is given for electric batteries with potential for use in electric powered vehicles. Parameters considered include: specific energy, specific power, energy density, power density, cycle life, service life, recharge time, and selling price. Near term batteries include: nickel/cadmium and lead-acid batteries. Mid term batteries include: sodium/sulfur, sodium/nickel chloride, nickel/metal hydride, zinc/air, zinc/bromine, and nickel/iron systems. Long term batteries include: lithium/iron disulfide and lithium- polymer systems. Performance and life testing data for these systems are discussed. (GHH)

  7. Battery Lifetime-Aware Automotive Climate Control for Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    Battery Lifetime-Aware Automotive Climate Control for Electric Vehicles Korosh Vatanparvar) optimization involves stringent con- straints on driving range and battery lifetime. Sophisticated embedded systems and huge number of computing resources have enabled re- searchers to implement advanced Battery

  8. Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    1999-10-06

    The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

  9. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  10. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  11. Battery electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells and biofuels. Which will

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Battery electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells and biofuels. Which will be the winner? ICEPT considered are: improved internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) powered by biofuels, battery electric. All three fuels considered (i.e.: biofuels, electricity and hydrogen) are in principle compatible

  12. 2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number 1N4CL21E27C177982). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. 2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. 2006 Toyota Highlander-6395 Hyrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A160006395). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. 2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K773007129). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. 2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Comparison of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, B.E.; Lalk, T.R.; Swan, D.H.

    1993-12-31

    Battery technologies of different chemistries, manufacture and geometry were evaluated as candidates for use in Electric Vehicles (EV). The candidate batteries that were evaluated include four single cell and seven multi-cell modules representing four technologies: Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual battery types were used in the evaluations. The batteries were evaluated by conducting performance tests, and by subjecting them to cyclical loading, using a computer controlled charge--discharge cycler, to simulate typical EV driving cycles. Criteria for comparison of batteries were: performance, projected vehicle range, cost, and applicability to various types of EVs. The four battery technologies have individual strengths and weaknesses and each is suited to fill a particular application. None of the batteries tested can fill every EV application.

  19. Battery-Aware Energy-Optimal Electric Vehicle Driving Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    of replacing the battery, e.g. 12,000$ for Tesla Model S 85KWh [4] and 5,500$ for Nissan Leaf S [5], extendingBattery-Aware Energy-Optimal Electric Vehicle Driving Management Korosh Vatanparvar, Jiang Wan environmental concerns, e.g. air pollution. However, EVs pose new challenges regarding their Battery Life

  20. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  1. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation describes NREL's computer aided engineering program for electric drive vehicle batteries.

  2. In-Vehicle Testing and Computer Modeling of Electric Vehicle Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    In-Vehicle Testing and Computer Modeling of Electric Vehicle Batteries B. Thomas, W.B. Gu, J.edu Abstract A combined simulation and testing approach has been developed to evaluate battery packs in real accelerates battery development cycle, and enables innovative battery design and optimization. Several

  3. An analysis of battery electric vehicle production projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, John Shamus

    2009-01-01

    In mid 2008 and early 2009 Deutsche Bank and The Boston Consulting Group each released separate reports detailing projected Battery Electric Vehicle production through 2020. These reports both outlined scenarios in which ...

  4. The lithium-ion battery industry for electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassatly, Sherif (Sherif Nabil)

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles have reemerged as a viable alternative means of transportation, driven by energy security concerns, pressures to mitigate climate change, and soaring energy demand. The battery component will play a key ...

  5. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Eitouni, Hany; Yang, Jin; Pratt, Russell; Wang, Xiao; Grape, Ulrik The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a...

  6. 2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima HEV, number 2351 (VIN 1N4CL21E87C172351). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec). The Idaho National Laboratory and eTec conduct the AVTA for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program.

  7. Performance of the Lester battery charger in electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivian, H.C.; Bryant, J.A.

    1984-04-15

    Tests were performed on an improved battery charger manufactured by Lester Electrical of Nebraska, Inc. This charger was installed in a South Coast Technology Rabbit No. 4, which was equipped with lead-acid batteries produced by ESB Company. The primary purpose of the testing was to develop test methodologies for battery charger evaluation. To this end tests were developed to characterize the charger in terms of its charge algorithm and to assess the effects of battery initial state of charge and temperature on charger and battery efficiency. Tests showed this charger to be a considerable improvement in the state of the art for electric vehicle chargers.

  8. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  9. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  10. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  11. Battery Requirements for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles -- Analysis and Rationale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Markel, T.; Tataria, H. S.; Howell, D.

    2009-07-01

    Presents analysis, discussions, and resulting requirements for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle batteries adopted by the US Advanced Battery Consortium.

  12. A global analysis and market strategy in the electric vehicle battery industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Young Hee, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    As use of electric vehicles has been expected to grow, the batteries for the electric vehicles have become critical because the batteries are a key part of the paradigm shift in the automotive industry. However, the demand ...

  13. A smart control system for electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arikara, M.P.; Dickinson, B.E.; Branum, B.

    1993-12-31

    A smart control system for electric vehicle (EV) batteries was designed and its performance was evaluated. The hardware for the system was based on the Motorola MC68HC11ENB micro controller. A zinc bromide (Zn/Br{sub 2}) battery was chosen since it is a good candidate as an EV battery and has a large number of user variable parameters that affect its performance. The flexibility of the system arises from the fact that the system can be programmed to do a wide variety of jobs. The use of real time interrupts and other features makes the system safe for use along with the battery systems. Test data indicates that real time control of the different parameters can increase the performance of the battery by 15%. In addition to optimizing the performance of the battery the control system incorporates essential safety features.

  14. Zinc-bromine battery design for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellows, R.J.; Einstein, H.; Grimes, P.; Kantner, E.; Malachesky, P.; Newby, K.

    1983-02-01

    Design projections for zinc-bromine batteries are attractive for electric vehicle applications in terms of low manufacturing costs ($28/kWh) and good performance characteristics. Zinc-bromine battery projections (60-80 Wh/kg, 130-200 W/kg) compare favorably to both current lead acid batteries and proposed advanced battery candidates. The performance of recently developed battery components with 1200 cm/sup 2/ electrodes in a 120V, 10 kWh module is described. Similarly constructed smaller scale (600 cm/sup 2/) components have shown lifetimes exceeding 400 cycles and the ability to follow both regenerative braking (J227aD) and random cycling regimes. Initial dynamometer evaluations of full scale 20 kWh batteries is expected in early 1984.

  15. Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-09-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies [Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid]. These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  16. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals andE. , Plug-in Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Powertrain Design andLithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Andrew Burke

  17. Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Battery Basics November 22, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Vehicle Battery Basics Batteries are essential for electric drive technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles...

  18. Zinc-bromine battery design for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellows, R.; Grimes, P.; Einstein, H.; Kantner, E.; Malachesky, P.; Newby, K.

    1982-01-01

    Design projections for zinc-bromine batteries are attractive for electric vehicle applications in terms of low manufacturing costs ($28/kWh) and good performance characteristics. Zinc-bromine batery projections (60 to 80 Wh/kg, 130 to 200 W/kg) compare favorably to both current lead acid batteries and proposed advanced battery candidates. The performance of recently developed battery components with 1200 cm/sup 2/ electrodes in a 120V, 10 kWh module is described. Similarly constructed smaller scale (600 cm/sup 2/) components have shown lifetimes exceeding 400 cycles and the ability to follow both regenerative braking (J227aD) and random cycling regimes. Initial dynamometer evaluations of full scale 20 kWh batteries is expected in early 1984.

  19. Performance targets for electric vehicle batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Michael Tse-Gene

    2015-01-01

    Light-duty vehicle transportation accounted for 17.2% of US greenhouse gas emissions in 2012 [95]. An important strategy for reducing CO? emissions emitted by light-duty vehicles is to reduce per-mile CO? emissions. While ...

  20. Analysis of Electric Vehicle Battery Performance Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  1. NREL's Isothermal Battery Calorimeters are Crucial Tools for Advancing Electric-Drive Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    battery safety and life issues long before cars are delivered to dealers' lots, making hybrid and electric taking effect, drivers and automakers are thinking more about electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrids. But before more Americans switch to electric-drive vehicles, automakers need batteries

  2. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  3. Sensitivity of Battery Electric Vehicle Economics to Drive Patterns, Vehicle Range, and Charge Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.

    2012-07-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs discourage many potential purchasers. Making an economic comparison with conventional alternatives is complicated in part by strong sensitivity to drive patterns, vehicle range, and charge strategies that affect vehicle utilization and battery wear. Identifying justifiable battery replacement schedules and sufficiently accounting for the limited range of a BEV add further complexity to the issue. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Battery Ownership Model to address these and related questions. The Battery Ownership Model is applied here to examine the sensitivity of BEV economics to drive patterns, vehicle range, and charge strategies when a high-fidelity battery degradation model, financially justified battery replacement schedules, and two different means of accounting for a BEV's unachievable vehicle miles traveled (VMT) are employed. We find that the value of unachievable VMT with a BEV has a strong impact on the cost-optimal range, charge strategy, and battery replacement schedule; that the overall cost competitiveness of a BEV is highly sensitive to vehicle-specific drive patterns; and that common cross-sectional drive patterns do not provide consistent representation of the relative cost of a BEV.

  4. Monitoring Battery System for Electric Vehicle, Based On "One Wire" Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    of 55 Ah. Under normal conditions the batteries have near 5 degrees Celsius over ambient temperatureMonitoring Battery System for Electric Vehicle, Based On "One Wire" Technology Javier Ibáñez Vial Santiago, Chile jdixon@ing.puc.cl Abstract-- A monitoring system for a battery powered electric vehicle (EV

  5. Diagnostic Characterization of High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries For Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diagnostic Characterization of High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries For Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Lithium-ion batteries are a fast-growing technology that is attractive for use in portable electronics of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. The ATD Program is a joint effort

  6. BATTERY-POWERED, ELECTRIC-DRIVE VEHICLES PROVIDING BUFFER STORAGE FOR PV CAPACITY VALUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    BATTERY-POWERED, ELECTRIC-DRIVE VEHICLES PROVIDING BUFFER STORAGE FOR PV CAPACITY VALUE Steven applications, batteries can serve to provide firm peak-shaving for distributed PV installations. To date, however, the use of batteries from parked electric- drive vehicles (EDV) to provide buffer storage for PV

  7. Comparison of various battery technologies for electric vehicles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, Blake Edward

    1993-01-01

    for comparison of batteries were: performance, projected vehicle range, cost, and applicability to various types of EVs. The four battery technologies have individual strengths and weaknesses and each is suited to fill a particular application. None...

  8. Fact #877: June 15, 2015 Which States Have More Battery Electric Vehicles than Plug-in Hybrids?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) include both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) which run only on electricity, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) which run on electricity and/or gasoline....

  9. NREL Uses Fuel Cells to Increase the Range of Battery Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    NREL analysis identifies potential cost-effective scenarios for using small fuel cell power units to increase the range of medium-duty battery electric vehicles.

  10. The significance of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicle life...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The significance of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicle life-cycle energy and emissions and recycling's role in its reduction Title The significance of Li-ion batteries in...

  11. 2006 Lexus RX400h-4807 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Lexus RX900h hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTJHW31U660004807). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. 2006 Lexus RX400h-2575 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Lexus RX900h hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTJHW31U660002575). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    2007 7. Bottling Electricity: Storage as a Strategic Toolgiven at the The Electricity Storage Association Meeting,electricity for propulsion. The batteries in those vehicles are sized by the energy storage

  14. Kandler Smith, NREL EDV Battery Robust Design -1 Design of Electric Drive Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    decomposition SEI formation = f(as, formation conditions) Mostly formed during first cycle of batteryKandler Smith, NREL EDV Battery Robust Design - 1 Design of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. NREL/PR-5400-48933 #12;Kandler Smith, NREL EDV Battery Robust Design

  15. Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of lithium ion batteries for automobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Haitao

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis report, both quantitative and qualitative approaches are used to provide a comprehensive analysis of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle ...

  16. NREL Reveals Links Among Climate Control, Battery Life, and Electric Vehicle Range (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are providing new insights into the relationships between the climate-control systems of plug-in electric vehicles and the distances these vehicles can travel on a single charge. In particular, NREL research has determined that 'preconditioning' a vehicle-achieving a comfortable cabin temperature and preheating or precooling the battery while the vehicle is still plugged in-can extend its driving range and improve battery life over the long term.

  17. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 0141 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Insight HEV (VIN: JHMZE2H78AS010141). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN JTDKN3DU5A0006063). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 0462 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN: JTDKN3DU2A5010462). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. 2010 Ford Fusion VIN 4757 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Ford Fusion HEV (VIN: 3FADP0L34AR144757). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 1748 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Insight HEV (VIN: JHMZE2H59AS011748). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Diagnostic Characterization of High Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diagnostic Characterization of High Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Manuscript submitted May 15, 2000; revised manuscript received January 15, 2001. Lithium-ion batteries effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to aid the development of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid

  3. Battery Utilization in Electric Vehicles: Theoretical Analysis and an Almost Optimal Online Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamir, Tami

    In the last few years the idea of electrically powered cars has turned into reality. This old idea, fromBattery Utilization in Electric Vehicles: Theoretical Analysis and an Almost Optimal Online n current demands in electric vehicles. When serving a demand, the current allocation might be split

  4. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  5. 2011 Honda CR-Z 4466 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C67BS004466). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. 2011 HONDA CR-Z 2982 - HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Tyler; Shirk, Matthew; Wishart, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C64BS002982). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Switching algorithms for extending battery life in Electric Vehicles Ron Adany a,*, Doron Aurbach b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraus, Sarit

    -wide driving cycles. The results reveal that compared to the common discharge method almost all penalties can reserved. 1. Introduction Electric Vehicles (EVs) are the next generation of cars in the worldSwitching algorithms for extending battery life in Electric Vehicles Ron Adany a,*, Doron Aurbach b

  8. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Activities in a program to develop a Ni/Zn battery for electric vehicle propulsion are reported. Aspects discussed include battery design and development, nickel cathode study, and basic electrochemistry. A number of engineering drawings are supplied. 61 figures, 11 tables. (RWR)

  9. Battery Wear from Disparate Duty-Cycles: Opportunities for Electric-Drive Vehicle Battery Health Management; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-10-01

    Electric-drive vehicles utilizing lithium-ion batteries experience wholly different degradation patterns than do conventional vehicles, depending on geographic ambient conditions and consumer driving and charging patterns. A semi-empirical life-predictive model for the lithium-ion graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum chemistry is presented that accounts for physically justified calendar and cycling fade mechanisms. An analysis of battery life for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles considers 782 duty-cycles from travel survey data superimposed with climate data from multiple geographic locations around the United States. Based on predicted wear distributions, opportunities for extending battery life including modification of battery operating limits, thermal and charge control are discussed.

  10. Progress of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C.; Kim, G. H.; Pannala, S.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation, Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) is about simulation and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools that are widely used to speed up the research and development cycle and reduce the number of build-and-break steps, particularly in the automotive industry. Realizing this, DOE?s Vehicle Technologies Program initiated the CAEBAT project in April 2010 to develop a suite of software tools for designing batteries.

  11. Ecological and biomedical effects of effluents from near-term electric vehicle storage battery cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    An assessment of the ecological and biomedical effects due to commercialization of storage batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is given. It deals only with the near-term batteries, namely Pb/acid, Ni/Zn, and Ni/Fe, but the complete battery cycle is considered, i.e., mining and milling of raw materials, manufacture of the batteries, cases and covers; use of the batteries in electric vehicles, including the charge-discharge cycles; recycling of spent batteries; and disposal of nonrecyclable components. The gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions from various phases of the battery cycle are identified. The effluent dispersal in the environment is modeled and ecological effects are assessed in terms of biogeochemical cycles. The metabolic and toxic responses by humans and laboratory animals to constituents of the effluents are discussed. Pertinent environmental and health regulations related to the battery industry are summarized and regulatory implications for large-scale storage battery commercialization are discussed. Each of the seven sections were abstracted and indexed individually for EDB/ERA. Additional information is presented in the seven appendixes entitled; growth rate scenario for lead/acid battery development; changes in battery composition during discharge; dispersion of stack and fugitive emissions from battery-related operations; methodology for estimating population exposure to total suspended particulates and SO/sub 2/ resulting from central power station emissions for the daily battery charging demand of 10,000 electric vehicles; determination of As air emissions from Zn smelting; health effects: research related to EV battery technologies. (JGB)

  12. Aalborg Universitet Electric vehicle battery charging algorithm using PMSM windings and an inverter as an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathe, Laszlo

    windings and an inverter as an active rectifier. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE Vehicle Power windings as grid side inductors and controlling the inverter to operate as an active boost rectifierAalborg Universitet Electric vehicle battery charging algorithm using PMSM windings and an inverter

  13. Project Milestone. Analysis of Range Extension Techniques for Battery Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents completion of the July 2013 milestone as part of NREL’s Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy. The objective was to perform analysis on range extension techniques for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This work represents a significant advancement over previous thru-life BEV analyses using NREL’s Battery Ownership Model, FastSim,* and DRIVE.* Herein, the ability of different charging infrastructure to increase achievable travel of BEVs in response to real-world, year-long travel histories is assessed. Effects of battery and cabin thermal response to local climate, battery degradation, and vehicle auxiliary loads are captured. The results reveal the conditions under which different public infrastructure options are most effective, and encourage continued study of fast charging and electric roadway scenarios.

  14. Battery Requirements for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Analysis and Rationale (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.

    2007-12-01

    Slide presentation to EVS-23 conference describing NREL work to help identify appropriate requirements for batteries to be useful for plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs). Suggested requirements were submitted to the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium, which used them for a 2007 request for proposals. Requirements were provided both for charge-depleting mode and charge-sustaining mode and for high power/energy ratio and hige energy/power ration batteries for each (different modes of PHEV operation), along with battery and system level requirements.

  15. Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits the Bill Financing Tool Fits theSunShot Prize:4Fuel Celland Battery Electric

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Envia Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy lithium batteries...

  17. Impact of Direct Financial Incentives in the Emerging Battery Electric Vehicle Market: A Preliminary Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study addresses the question “What is the impact of state-level electric vehicle incentives on electric vehicle adoption?”. It focus on rebates, tax credits, and HOV-lane access for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) but also examines the influence of public BEV charging infrastructure on BEV adoption so far. The analysis uses state-level, temporal variation in BEV incentives to identify variation in BEV registrations through econometric methods. This presentation will review initial findings of the project and gather your feedback on future research needs.

  18. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson (Malvern, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power.

  19. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, R.D.; DeDoncker, R.W.A.A.

    1998-01-20

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power. 8 figs.

  20. An Analysis of the Retail and Lifecycle Cost of Battery-Powered Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark; Lipman, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    1997. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: a technology1998. An assessment of electric vehicle life cycle costs tothe bene®ts of electric vehicles. Union of Concerned

  1. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The objective of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery program is to develop a nickel-iron battery for use in the propulsion of electric and electric-hybrid vehicles. To date, the program has concentrated on the characterization, fabrication and testing of the required electrodes, the fabrication and testing of full-scale cells, and finally, the fabrication and testing of full-scale (270 AH) six (6) volt modules. Electrodes of the final configuration have now exceeded 1880 cycles and are showing minimal capacity decline. Full-scale cells have presently exceeded 600 cycles and are tracking the individual electrode tests almost identically. Six volt module tests have exceeded 500 cycles, with a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg. Results to date indicate the nickel-iron battery is beginning to demonstrate the performance required for electric vehicle propulsion.

  2. Feasibility study for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatini, J.C.; Field, E.L.; Wu, I.C.; Cox, M.R.; Barnett, B.M.; Coleman, J.T. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study examined three possible recycling processes for two compositions (AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5}) of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries to determine possible rotes for recovering battery materials. Analysts examined the processes, estimated the costs for capital equipment and operation, and estimated the value of the reclaimed material. They examined the following three processes: (1) a chemical process that leached battery powders using hydrochloric acid, (2) a pyrometallurical process, and (3) a physical separation/chemical process. The economic analysis revealed that the physical separation/chemical process generated the most revenue.

  3. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key parts—a positive and negative electrode and an electrolyte—that exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a battery’s chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  4. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2003-06-24

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  5. Variability of Battery Wear in Light Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles Subject to Ambient Temperature, Battery Size, and Consumer Usage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A. D.; Gonder, J.; Smith, K. A.

    2012-08-01

    Battery wear in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is a complex function of ambient temperature, battery size, and disparate usage. Simulations capturing varying ambient temperature profiles, battery sizes, and driving patterns are of great value to battery and vehicle manufacturers. A predictive battery wear model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory captures the effects of multiple cycling and storage conditions in a representative lithium chemistry. The sensitivity of battery wear rates to ambient conditions, maximum allowable depth-of-discharge, and vehicle miles travelled is explored for two midsize vehicles: a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with a nominal range of 75 mi (121 km) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a nominal charge-depleting range of 40 mi (64 km). Driving distance distributions represent the variability of vehicle use, both vehicle-to-vehicle and day-to-day. Battery wear over an 8-year period was dominated by ambient conditions for the BEV with capacity fade ranging from 19% to 32% while the PHEV was most sensitive to maximum allowable depth-of-discharge with capacity fade ranging from 16% to 24%. The BEV and PHEV were comparable in terms of petroleum displacement potential after 8 years of service, due to the BEV?s limited utility for accomplishing long trips.

  6. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kempton, Willett; Tomic, Jasna; Letendre, Steven; Brooks, Alec; Lipman, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    service company EV – Electric vehicle (used to refer to aHenriette Schøn of the Electric Vehicle Information CenterJason France of Electric Vehicle Infrastructure, and Mark

  7. Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Efforts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    ,500 for full battery electric vehicle (BEV) and $5,000 for plug- in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) · Financial 39 Tesla 39 BMW 26 Toyota 7 Honda 3 Cadillac 3 Mitsubishi 2 #12;Department of Public Utilities · DPU

  8. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  9. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  10. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    batteries for vehicle applications. Unfortunately the graphite/graphite/NiCoMn chemistry. In general, it seems possible to design high power batteries (graphite/NiCoMn chemistry. In general, it is possible to design high power batteries (

  11. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  12. The ANL electric vehicle battery R D program for DOE-EHP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.

  13. Electric Vehicles: Performances, Life Cycle Costs, Emissions, and Recharging Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Sealed lead-acid electric and vehicle battery development.Nasar S. A. (1982) electric vehicle technology. John Wiley &batteries fornia. for electric vehicles. Argonne National

  14. Integration Issues of Cells into Battery Packs for Plug-in and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Keyser, M.

    2009-05-01

    The main barriers to increased market share of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and commercialization of plug-in HEVs are the cost, safety, and life of lithium ion batteries. Significant effort is being directed to address these issues for lithium ion cells. However, even the best cells may not perform as well when integrated into packs for vehicles because of the environment in which vehicles operate. This paper discusses mechanical, electrical, and thermal integration issues and vehicle interface issues that could impact the cost, life, and safety of the system. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of using many small cells versus a few large cells and using prismatic cells versus cylindrical cells.

  15. NREL's emulation tool helps manufacturers ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicle batteries.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    batteries. Battery safety is key to the acceptance and penetration of electrified vehicles challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries--a battery internal short circuit (ISC). When battery internal shorts occur, they tend to surface without warning and usually after the cell has been

  16. Development of near-term batteries for electric vehicles. Summary report, October 1977-September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajan, J.B. (comp.) [comp.

    1980-06-01

    The status and results through FY 1979 on the Near-Term Electric Vehicle Battery Project of the Argonne National Laboratory are summarized. This project conducts R and D on lead-acid, nickel/zinc and nickel/iron batteries with the objective of achieving commercialization in electric vehicles in the 1980's. Key results of the R and D indicate major technology advancements and achievement of most of FY 1979 performance goals. In the lead-acid system the specific energy was increased from less than 30 Wh/kg to over 40 Wh/kg at the C/3 rate; the peak power density improved from 70 W/kg to over 110 W/kg at the 50% state of charge; and over 200 deep-discharge cycle life demonstrated. In the nickel/iron system a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg was achieved; a peak power of about 100 W/kg demonstrated and a life of 36 cycles obtained. In the nickel/zinc system, specific energies of up to 64 Wh/kg were shown; peak powers of 133 W/kg obtained; and a life of up to 120 cycles measured. Future R and D will emphasize increased cycle life for nickel/zinc batteries and increased cycle life and specific energy for lead-acid and nickel/iron batteries. Testing of 145 cells was completed by NBTL. Cell evaluation included a full set of performance tests plus the application of a simulated power profile equivalent to the power demands of an electric vehicle in stop-start urban driving. Simplified test profiles which approximate electric vehicle demands are also described.

  17. Design of bipolar, flowing-electrolyte zinc-bromine electric-vehicle-battery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malachesky, P.A.; Bellows, R.J.; Einstein, H.E.; Grimes, P.G.; Newby, K.; Young, A.

    1983-01-01

    The integration of bipolar, flowing electrolyte zinc-bromine technology into a viable electric vehicle battery system requires careful analysis of the requirements placed on the battery system by the EV power train. In addition to the basic requirements of an appropriate battery voltage and power density, overall battery system energy efficiency must also be considered and parasitic losses from auxiliaries such as pumps and shunt current protection minimized. An analysis of the influence of these various factors on zinc-bromine EV battery system design has been carried out for two types of EV propulsion systems. The first of these is a nominal 100V dc system, while the second is a high voltage (200V dc) system as might be used with an advanced design ac propulsion system. Battery performance was calculated using an experimentally determined relationship which expresses battery voltage as a function of current density and state-of-charge. Based on these studies, low profile, 12 dm/sup 2/ bipolar cell components have been developed which are readily incorporated into a variety of motive power and stationary energy storage system designs.

  18. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Progress in the development of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicles is reported. Information is presented on nickel electrode preparation and testing; zinc electrode preparation with additives and test results; separator development and the evaluation of polymer-blend separator films; sealed Ni-Zn cells; and the optimization of electric vehicle-type Ni-Zn cells. (LCL)

  19. Battery Second Use Offsets Electric Vehicle Expenses, Improves...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    they increase the potential for widespread PEV adoption by eliminating end-of-life automotive service costs, in addition to helping utilities support peak electricity demands...

  20. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

    2013-10-01

    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

  1. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    MODES IN HIGH-POWER LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES FOR USE IN HYBRIDof high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electricthe development of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric

  2. Tools for Designing Thermal Management of Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature has a significant impact on life, performance, and safety of lithium-ion battery technology, which is expected to be the energy storage of choice for electric drive vehicles (xEVs). High temperatures degrade Li-ion cells faster while low temperatures reduce power and energy capabilities that could have cost, reliability, range, or drivability implications. Thermal management of battery packs in xEVs is essential to keep the cells in the desired temperature range and also reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations, both of which impact life and performance. The value that the battery thermal management system provides in reducing battery life and improving performance outweighs its additional cost and complexity. Tools that are essential for thermal management of batteries are infrared thermal imaging, isothermal calorimetry, thermal conductivity meter and computer-aided thermal analysis design software. This presentation provides details of these tools that NREL has used and we believe are needed to design right-sized battery thermal management systems.

  3. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Progress in developing nickel-zinc batteries for propelling electric vehicles is reported. Information is included on component design, battery fabrication, and module performance testing. Although full scale hardware performance has fallen short of the contract cycle life goals, significant progress has been made to warrant further development. (LCL)

  4. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV demonstrations. One such previous study was a PHEV demonstration conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). AVTA's PHEV demonstration involved over 250 vehicles in the United States, Canada, and Finland. This paper summarizes driving and charging behavior observed in that demonstration, including the distribution of distance driven between charging events, charging frequency, and resulting proportion of operation charge depleting mode. Charging demand relative to time of day and day of the week will also be shown. Conclusions from the PHEV demonstration will be given which highlight the need for expanded analysis in The EV Project. For example, the AVTA PHEV demonstration showed that in the absence of controlled charging by the vehicle owner or electric utility, the majority of vehicles were charged in the evening hours, coincident with typical utility peak demand. Given this baseline, The EV Project will demonstrate the effects of consumer charge control and grid-side charge management on electricity demand. This paper will outline further analyses which will be performed by eTec and INL to documenting driving and charging behavior of vehicles operated in a infrastructure-rich environment.

  5. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bockelmann, Thomas R. (Battle Creek, MI); Hope, Mark E. (Marshall, MI); Zou, Zhanjiang (Battle Creek, MI); Kang, Xiaosong (Battle Creek, MI)

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  6. EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 Stavanger, Norway, May 13-16, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 EVS24 Stavanger, Norway, May 13-16, 2009 Site selection for electric cars of a car-sharing service Luminita Ion1 , T. Cucu is the car-sharing implementation. Car- sharing is defined as a self service which allows to each subscriber

  7. Electric Vehicles: Performances, Life Cycle Costs, Emissions, and Recharging Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Sealed lead-acid electric and vehicle battery development.A. (1987a) ture for electric vehicles. In Resources ElectricInternational Conference. Electric Vehicle De- Universityof

  8. Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative Electric Vehicle Readiness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative Electric Vehicle Readiness Plan Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative Electric Vehicle Readiness Plan The REVi plan addresses the electric...

  9. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  10. Long-Range Electric Vehicle Batteries: High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: In a battery, metal ions move between the electrodes through the electrolyte in order to store energy. Envia Systems is developing new silicon-based negative electrode materials for Li-Ion batteries. Using this technology, Envia will be able to produce commercial EV batteries that outperform today’s technology by 2-3 times. Many other programs have attempted to make anode materials based on silicon, but have not been able to produce materials that can withstand charge/discharge cycles multiple times. Envia has been able to make this material which can successfully cycle hundreds of times, on a scale that is economically viable. Today, Envia’s batteries exhibit world-record energy densities.

  11. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    rd International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exposition (Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications, Sandiaand Impacts of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Options EPRI, Palo

  12. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Characterization for Electric Vehicle Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swan, D.H.; Dickinson, B.E.; Arikara, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel CelL/Battery HybridSystemfor Electric Vehicle Applications",Fuel Cell Characterization for Electric Vehicle Applicationsthe fuel cell ~stemfor electric vehicle applications. Where

  13. Evaluation Of Potential Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications: Vol I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gris, Arturo E.

    1991-01-01

    Air Batteries for Electric Vehicles” E.J.Rudd. SAE 891660.the Soleq Evcort Electric Vehicle”. DOE/ID--10232. Preparedfor Fiscal Year 88, Electric Vehicle Program, February

  14. Electric Vehicle Manufacturing in Southern California: Current Developments, Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Allen J.

    1993-01-01

    the production of electric vehicle componentswill result an1992. "Hot Sales of Electric Vehicles." p. El. Sharpe, W. ,1992. "Battery and Electric Vehicle Update." September1992.

  15. Electrochemical Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Present Status and Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    batteries and ultracapacitors for electric vehicles. EVS24Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposiumpublications on electric and hybrid vehicle technology and

  16. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  17. Development of Low Cost Carbonaceous Materials for Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsukov, Igor V.

    2002-12-10

    Final report on the US DOE CARAT program describes innovative R & D conducted by Superior Graphite Co., Chicago, IL, USA in cooperation with researchers from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and defines the proper type of carbon and a cost effective method for its production, as well as establishes a US based manufacturer for the application of anodes of the Lithium-Ion, Lithium polymer batteries of the Hybrid Electric and Pure Electric Vehicles. The three materials each representing a separate class of graphitic carbon, have been developed and released for field trials. They include natural purified flake graphite, purified vein graphite and a graphitized synthetic carbon. Screening of the available on the market materials, which will help fully utilize the graphite, has been carried out.

  18. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  19. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    depend on the assumed drive cycle, that is, how aggressivelyelectric vs. blended), drive cycle, vehicle mass, batteryelectric vs. blended), drive cycle, vehicle mass, battery

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Seeo, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-voltage solid polymer...

  1. The ANL electric vehicle battery R&D program for DOE-EHP. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE`s Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R&D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.

  2. Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-07-23

    Burak Ozpineci sees a future where electric vehicles charge while we drive them down the road, thanks in part to research under way at ORNL.

  3. Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-05-02

    Burak Ozpineci sees a future where electric vehicles charge while we drive them down the road, thanks in part to research under way at ORNL.

  4. Reality Check: Cheaper Batteries are GOOD for America's Electric...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy has issued for electric vehicle manufacturing. The story says that the price of advanced batteries for electric vehicles is rapidly declining. That's true. And...

  5. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  6. EVS-25 Shenzhen, China, Nov. 5-9, 2010 The 25th World Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © EVS-25 Shenzhen, China, Nov. 5-9, 2010 The 25th World Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition Impact Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the U.S. Power Grid Michael significant amounts of the daily driving energy for the US light duty vehicle (cars, pickups, SUVs, and vans

  7. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The initial phase of work comprises three factorial experiments to evaluate a variety of component combinations. Goals to be met by these batteries include the following: capacity at 3 h discharge, 20 to 30 kWh; specific energy, 40 Wh/kg; specific power, 1000 W/kg for 15 s; cycle life, 800 cycles to 80% depth; price, $50/kWh. The status of the factorial experiments is reviewed. The second phase of work, design of an advanced battery, has the following goals: 30 to 40 kWh; 60 Wh/kg; 150 W/kg for 15 s; 1000 cycles to 80% depth; $40/kWh. It is not yet possible to say whether these goals can be met. Numerous approaches are under study to increase the utilization of battery chemicals. A battery design with no live electrical connection above the battery is being developed. 52 figures, 52 tables. (RWR)

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed (EDAB)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Idaho National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Electric Drive and...

  9. Chlorine hazard evaluation for the zinc-chlorine electric vehicle battery. Final technical report. [50 kWh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zalosh, R. G.; Bajpai, S. N.; Short, T. P.; Tsui, R. K.

    1980-04-01

    Hazards associated with conceivable accidental chlorine releases from zinc-chlorine electric vehicle batteries are evaluated. Since commercial batteries are not yet available, this hazard assessment is based on both theoretical chlorine dispersion models and small-scale and large-scale spill tests with chlorine hydrate (which is the form of chlorine storage in the charged battery). Six spill tests involving the chlorine hydrate equivalent of a 50-kWh battery indicate that the danger zone in which chlorine vapor concentrations intermittently exceed 100 ppM extends at least 23 m directly downwind of a spill onto a warm (30 to 38/sup 0/C) road surface. Other accidental chlorine release scenarios may also cause some distress, but are not expected to produce the type of life-threatening chlorine exposures that can result from large hydrate spills. Chlorine concentration data from the hydrate spill tests compare favorably with calculations based on a quasi-steady area source dispersion model and empirical estimates of the hydrate decomposition rate. The theoretical dispersion model was combined with assumed hydrate spill probabilities and current motor vehicle accident statistics in order to project expected chlorine-induced fatality rates. These calculations indicate that expected chlorine fataility rates are several times higher in a city such as Los Angeles with a warm and calm climate than in a colder and windier city such as Boston. Calculated chlorine-induced fatality rate projections for various climates are presented as a function of hydrate spill probability in order to illustrate the degree of vehicle/battery crashworthiness required to maintain chlorine-induced fatality rates below current vehicle fatality rates due to fires and asphyxiations. 37 figures, 19 tables.

  10. Electric Vehicles: Performance, Life-Cycle Costs, Emissions, and Recharging Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Sealed lead-acid electric and vehicle battery development.A. (1987a) ture for electric vehicles. In Resources ElectricInternational Conference. Electric Vehicle De- Universityof

  11. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

  12. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A. Gallagher, K. G. Bloom, I. Dees, D. W.

    2011-10-20

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on cost and energy density from changes in cell capacity, parallel cell groups, and manufacturing capabilities are easily assessed with the model. New proposed materials may also be examined to translate bench-scale values to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the original equipment manufacturer. The model will be openly distributed to the public in the year 2011. Currently, the calculations are based in a Microsoft{reg_sign} Office Excel spreadsheet. Instructions are provided for use; however, the format is admittedly not user-friendly. A parallel development effort has created an alternate version based on a graphical user-interface that will be more intuitive to some users. The version that is more user-friendly should allow for wider adoption of the model.

  13. The Potential of Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles as Grid Resources: the Case of a Gas and Petroleum Oriented Elecricity Generation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    to integrate their battery storage and internal vehicleOstergaard, J. (2009). Battery energy storage technology fora far smaller battery energy storage capacity than BEVs,

  14. The Potential of Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles as Grid Resources: the Case of a Gas and Petroleum Oriented Elecricity Generation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    and Ostergaard, J. (2009). Battery energy storage technology2001). Vehicle-to-grid power: battery, hybrid and fuel cell468. United States Advanced Battery Consortium (2010). USABC

  15. Interactions between Electric-drive Vehicles and the Power Sector in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle SymposiumSystem. 23rd International Electric Vehicle Symposium andof Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Volume 1: Nationwide

  16. Techno-economic and behavioural analysis of battery electric, hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Techno-economic and behavioural analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid conducts a techno-economic study on hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and hydrogen fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) in the UK using cost predictions

  17. Electrochemical Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Present Status and Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 4 Applications forand applications of batteries and ultracapacitors for electric vehicles. EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel CellFuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium Table 6: Ultracapacitor units for hybrid vehicle applications

  18. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    reliable warranty for the batteries. In addition, they woulda price for the reused batteries that would foster both thevehicles and the second-use batteries. An analysis of these

  19. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of VariousResults with Lithium-ion Batteries, paper presented at EET-performance of lithium-ion batteries of several chemistries

  20. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    of the different lithium battery chemistries are presentedMiller, M. , Emerging Lithium-ion Battery Technologies forMid-size Full (1) Lithium-ion battery with an energy density

  1. Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed (EDAB...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vss033carlson2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed (EDAB) Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electric...

  2. Electric vehicle climate control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dauvergne, J.

    1994-04-01

    EVs have insufficient energy sources for a climatic comfort system. The heat rejection of the drivetrain is dispersed in the vehicle (electric motor, batteries, electronic unit for power control). Its level is generally low (no more than 2-kW peaks) and variable according to the trip profile, with no heat rejection at rest and a maximum during regenerative braking. Nevertheless, it must be used for heating. It is not realistic to have the A/C compressor driven by the electric traction motor: the motor does not operate when the vehicle is at rest, precisely when maximum cooling power is required. The same is true for hybrid vehicles during electric operation. It is necessary to develop solutions that use stored onboard energy either from the traction batteries or specific storage source. In either case, it is necessary to design the climate control system to use the energy efficiently to maximize range and save weight. Heat loss through passenger compartment seals and the walls of the passenger compartment must be limited. Plastic body panes help to reduce heat transfer, and heat gain is minimized with insulating glazing. This article describes technical solutions to solve the problem of passenger thermal comfort. However, the heating and A/C systems of electrically operated vehicles may have marginal performance at extreme outside temperatures.

  3. Modeling temperature distribution in cylindrical lithium ion batteries for use in electric vehicle cooling system design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasinski, Samuel Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Recent advancements in lithium ion battery technology have made BEV's a more feasible alternative. However, some safety concerns still exist. While the energy density of lithium ion batteries has all but made them the ...

  4. Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works to Cut Battery Costs in Half Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works to Cut Battery Costs in Half...

  5. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  6. Testing Electric Vehicle Demand in `Hybrid Households' Using a Reflexive Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth; Turrentine, Thomas; Sperling, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    o f Batteries for Electric Vehicles: A Report of the BatteryR. (1993) Report of the Electric Vehicle At-Home Refueling1994) Demand for Electric Vehicles in Hybrid Households: A n

  7. Electrical system for a motor vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tamor, Michael Alan (Toledo, OH)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor.

  8. Electrical system for a motor vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tamor, M.A.

    1999-07-20

    In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor. 2 figs.

  9. MIT Electric Vehicle Team Porsche designing a cooling system for the AC24 electric motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meenen, Jordan N

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis I worked on the design and analysis of a cooling system for the electric motor of the MIT Electric Vehicle Team's Porsche 914 Battery Electric Vehicle. The vehicle's Azure Dynamics AC24 motor tended to ...

  10. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Interactions with a Small Office Building: An Economic Analysis using DER-CAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Momber, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    Environmental Benefits of Electric Vehicles Integration onusing plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs for gridL ABORATORY Plug-in Electric Vehicle Interactions with a

  11. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Interactions with a Small Office Building: An Economic Analysis using DER-CAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Momber, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    Environmental Benefits of Electric Vehicles Integration onusing plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs for gridwith Connection of Electric Vehicles TABLE IV D ECISION V

  12. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report describes work performed from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. The approach for development of both the Improved State-of-the-Art (ISOA) and Advanced lead-acid batteries is three pronged. This approach concentrates on simultaneous optimization of battery design, materials, and manufacturing processing. The 1979 fiscal year saw the achievement of significant progress in the program. Some of the major accomplishments of the year are outlined. 33 figures, 13 tables. (RWR)

  13. Driving Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Reports from U.S. Drivers of HEVs converted to PHEVs, circa 2006-07

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Heffner, Reid R.; Turrentine, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Early Market for Hybrid Electric Vehicles. ” TransportationVehicles: What Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Mean and WhyAssessment for Battery Electric Vehicles, Power Assist

  14. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  15. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The program has progressed to the stage of evaluating full-sized (220 Ah) cells, multicell modules, and 22 kWh batteries. Nickel electrodes that display stable capacities of up to 24 Ah/plate (at C/3 drain rate) at design thickness (2.5 mm) in tests at 200/sup +/ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are also delivering 24 Ah/plate (at C/3) at target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron plates are displaying capacity stability for 300/sup +/ test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Best finished cells are delivering 57 to 63 Wh/kg at C/3, based on cell weights of the finished cells, and in the actual designed cell volume. 6-cell module (6-1) performance has demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 53 WH/kg at the C/3 drain rate. This module is now being evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory. The 2 x 4 battery has been constructed, tested, and delivered for engineering test and evaluation. The battery delivered 22.5 kWh, as required (199 Ah discharge at 113 V-bar) at the C/3 drain rate. The battery has performed satisfactorily under dynamometer and constant current drain tests. Some cell problems, related to construction, necessitated changing 3 modules, but the battery is now ready for further testing. Reduction in nickel plate swelling (and concurrent stack electrolyte starvation), to improve cycling, is one area of major effort to reach the final battery objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes are showing promise in initial full-size cell tests and will continue to be evaluated in finished cells, along with other technology advancements. 30 figures, 14 tables.

  16. High-Power Electrochemical Storage Devices and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  17. Smith Electric Vehicles: Advanced Vehicle Electrification + Transporta...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Confidential, 4222013 2013 DOE VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM REVIEW PRESENTATION Smith Electric Vehicles: Advanced Vehicle Electrification + Transportation Sector Electrification...

  18. Influence of Electric Vehicles Connected to the Grid Guangbin Li (gl2423) Influence of Electric Vehicles Connected to the Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    Influence of Electric Vehicles Connected to the Grid Guangbin Li (gl2423) 1/13 Influence of Electric Vehicles Connected to the Grid Guangbin Li (gl2423) 1. Introduction 1.1 Background of electric vehicles and its meaning of research An electric vehicle refers to the vehicle powered from batteries

  19. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed, and fuel cell. Battery EDVs can store electricity, charging during low demand times and discharging when power is scarce and prices are high. Fuel cell and hybrid EDVs are sources of new power generation

  20. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  1. RECHARGEABLE HIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2014-01-01

    F. Eshman, High-Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleS. Sudar, High Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleHIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES Elton J. Cairns January 1981 TWO-

  2. Addressing the Impact of Temperature Extremes on Large Format Li-Ion Batteries for Vehicle Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation discusses the effects of temperature on large format lithium-ion batteries in electric drive vehicles.

  3. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kempton, Willett; Tomic, Jasna; Letendre, Steven; Brooks, Alec; Lipman, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    and of the electric power grid, yet analysts, industries,be realized only if the power grid operator has control overplugged in when the power grid needs them. A. The California

  4. Current Status of Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues of Lithium Ion Electric Vehicle Batteries

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesThe Heat Is onis3 Annual41

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Community...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AVTA - Electric Vehicle Community and Fleet Readiness Data and Reports Making plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs, also known as electric cars) as affordable and convenient as...

  6. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quanlu; DeLuchi, Mark A.; Sperling, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    greenhouse effect, and electric vehicles," Proceedingso/9thInternational Electric Vehicles Symposium, 1988. 14. R. M.of 9th International Electric Vehicles Sympo- sium, 1988.

  7. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01

    for Multiplexed Electric Vehicle Charging”, US20130154561A1,Chynoweth, ”Intelligent Electric Vehicle Charging System”,of RFID Mesh Network for Electric Vehicle Smart Charging

  8. The Case for Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    land Press, 1995 TESTING ELECTRIC VEHICLE DEMAND IN " HYBRIDThe Case for Electric Vehicles DanieI Sperlmg Reprint UCTCor The Case for Electric Vehicles Darnel Sperling Institute

  9. EA-1723: General Motors LLC Electric Drive Vehicle Battery and Component Manufacturing Initiative Application White Marsh, Maryland and Wixom, Michigan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Proposed Action is to provide GM with $105,387,000 in financial assistance in a cost sharing arrangement to facilitate construction and operation of a manufacturing facility to produce electric motor components and assemble an electric drive unit. This Proposed Action through the Vehicle Technologies Program will accelerate the development and production of electric-drive vehicle systems and reduce the United States’ consumption of petroleum. This Proposed Action will also meaningfully assist in the nation’s economic recovery by creating manufacturing jobs in the United States in accordance with the objectives of the Recovery Act.

  10. Washington State Electric Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Washington State Electric Vehicle Implementation Bryan Bazard Maintenance and Alternate Fuel Technology Manager #12;Executive Order 14-04 Requires the procurement of electric vehicles where and equipment with electricity or biofuel to the "extent practicable" by June 2015 1. The vehicle is due

  11. Ultracapacitors and Batteries in Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Zolot, M.; Sprik, S.

    2005-08-01

    Using an ultracapacitor in conjunction with a battery in a hybrid vehicle combines the power performance of the former with the greater energy storage capability of the latter.

  12. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Meeting vss043gonder2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Battery Pack Requirements and Targets...

  13. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    the USABC's goals for PHEV batteries, we have summarized theM. (2007). Lithium Phosphate Batteries used Successfully inAdvanced Automotive Batteries Conference 2007, Long Beach,

  14. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    USABC PHEV-40 Source: Image of battery chemistry “Ragone”USABC PHEV-40 Source: Image of battery chemistry “Ragone”

  15. Effects of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Ken; Turrentine, Tom

    2005-01-01

    of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles Reidof Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles Reidhigh demand for gasoline-hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)?

  16. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  17. Energy Storage Systems Considerations for Grid-Charged Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

    2005-09-01

    This paper calculates battery power and energy requirements for grid-charged hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with different operating strategies.

  18. Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scudiere, Matthew B; McKeever, John W

    2011-01-01

    As Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (EVs and HEVs) become more prevalent, there is a need to change the power source from gasoline on the vehicle to electricity from the grid in order to mitigate requirements for onboard energy storage (battery weight) as well as to reduce dependency on oil by increasing dependency on the grid (our coal, gas, and renewable energy instead of their oil). Traditional systems for trains and buses rely on physical contact to transfer electrical energy to vehicles in motion. Until recently, conventional magnetically coupled systems required a gap of less than a centimeter. This is not practical for vehicles of the future.

  19. Consumer preferences for electric vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, W.L.; Calfee, J.E.; Bruck, H.W.

    1986-06-01

    A small-sample survey of consumer preferences for a second car - featuring both conventional and electric vehicle choices - indicates a proelectric bias. The potential of electric cars in the utility market largely depends on dramatic improvements in battery technology and the right mix of electricity and gasoline prices.

  20. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    in batteries, ultracapacitors, fuel cells and hybrid vehicleBattery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle SymposiumBattery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium

  1. Modeling the vehicle cycle impacts of hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.; Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research

    1997-03-13

    Pure and hybrid electric vehicles, considered environmentally benign, are being developed to reduce urban air pollutant emissions. The obvious emissions benefit of pure electric vehicles is that they produce no tailpipe emissions. Hybrid electric vehicles have the potential of improving fuel economy and reducing emissions. However, both electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) do have their own environmental impacts. In order to quantify the potential benefits from introducing such vehicles, it is necessary to compare their impacts with those from the conventional vehicles they would replace. These impacts include energy use and emissions from the entire energy cycle, including fuel production, vehicle and battery production and recycling, and vehicle operation. Argonne`s previous work in collaboration with other national laboratories analyzed the total energy cycle of electric vehicles; this paper compares energy use and emissions for the total energy cycles of several HEV designs with those from modern conventional vehicles. The estimates presented indicate that use of HEVs can reduce energy use and emissions of greenhouse gases, volatile organic gases, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 micrometers. HEVs may, in some cases, increase emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. Although some of the HEV designs illustrated in this paper could run a significant proportion of annual miles in all electric operation, no calculation of the emission reductions that result from using electricity from the utility grid is presented in this paper.

  2. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs.

  3. Optimally Controlling Hybrid Electric Vehicles using Path Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.

    The paper examines path-dependent control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). In this approach we seek to improve HEV fuel economy by optimizing charging and discharging of the vehicle battery depending on the forecasted ...

  4. Metal-Air Electric Vehicle Battery: Sustainable, High-Energy Density, Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage – Metal-Air Ionic Liquid (MAIL) Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-21

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is developing a new class of metal-air batteries. Metal-air batteries are promising for future generations of EVs because they use oxygen from the air as one of the battery’s main reactants, reducing the weight of the battery and freeing up more space to devote to energy storage than Li-Ion batteries. ASU technology uses Zinc as the active metal in the battery because it is more abundant and affordable than imported lithium. Metal-air batteries have long been considered impractical for EV applications because the water-based electrolytes inside would decompose the battery interior after just a few uses. Overcoming this traditional limitation, ASU’s new battery system could be both cheaper and safer than today’s Li-Ion batteries, store from 4-5 times more energy, and be recharged over 2,500 times.

  5. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bockelmann, Thomas R. (Battle Creek, MI); Beaty, Kevin D. (Kalamazoo, MI); Zou, Zhanijang (Battle Creek, MI); Kang, Xiaosong (Battle Creek, MI)

    2009-07-21

    A battery control system for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery includes a detecting arrangement for determining a vehicle operating state or an intended vehicle operating state and a controller for setting a target state of charge level of the battery based on the vehicle operating state or the intended vehicle operating state. The controller is operable to set a target state of charge level at a first level during a mobile vehicle operating state and at a second level during a stationary vehicle operating state or in anticipation of the vehicle operating in the stationary vehicle operating state. The invention further includes a method for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery.

  6. Fact #822: May 26, 2014 Battery Capacity Varies Widely for Plug-In Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Battery-electric vehicles have capacities ranging from 12 kilowatt-hours (kWh) in the Scion iQ EV to 85 kWh in the Tesla Model S. Plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles typically have smaller battery...

  7. Electric-Drive Vehicle Basics (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    Describes the basics of electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles, and the various charging options.

  8. Smith Electric Vehicles: Advanced Vehicle Electrification + Transporta...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt072vssmackie2013o.pdf More Documents & Publications Smith Electric Vehicles: Advanced Vehicle Electrification + Transportation Sector...

  9. Electric vehicles move closer to market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, L.

    1995-03-01

    This article reports that though battery technology is currently limiting the growth of EVs, the search for improvements is spurring innovative engineering developments. As battery makers, automakers, national laboratories, and others continue their search for a practical source of electric power that will make electric vehicles (EVs) more viable, engineers worldwide are making progress in other areas of EV development. Vector control, for example, enables better regulation of motor torque and speed; composite and aluminum parts reduce the vehicle`s weight, which in turn reduces the load on the motor and battery; and flywheel energy storage systems, supercapacitors, regenerative brake systems, and hybrid/electric drive trains increase range and acceleration. Despite efforts to develop an electric vehicle from the ground up, most of the early EVs to be sold in the United States will likely be converted from gasoline-powered vehicles. Chrysler Corp., for example, is expected to sell electric versions of its minivans and build them on the same assembly line as its gasoline-powered vehicles to reduce costs. The pace of engineering development in this field is fast and furious. Indeed, it is virtually impossible to monitor all emerging EV technology. To meet their quotas, the major automakers may even consider buying credits from smaller, innovative EV manufacturers. But whatever stopgap measures vehicle makers take, technology development will be the driving force behind long-term EV growth.

  10. Electrochemical Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Present Status and Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    to assist the energy storage battery (12 kWh) in providingbattery and ultracapacitors in the vehicles when the characteristics of the energy storageBattery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium the energy storage

  11. AVTA: Battery Testing- Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The AVTA runs the Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed to capture batteries’ real-world performance. The Testbed simulates battery charging as well as on-road driving. Researchers run the Testbed on a daily basis on cycles that represent typical driving and charging patterns. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  12. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    batteries and ultracapacitors for electric vehicles. EVS24Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposiumpublications on electric and hybrid vehicle technology and

  13. Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging Behavior UC Davis Plug-in Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Research Center Michael Nicholas Thomas Turrentine Gil Tal #12;Project Overview · Provide most in-depth study of PEV usage and charging dynamics. Inform policy on battery size/vehicle architecture

  14. Cost-Effective Design of a Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Cost-Effective Design of a Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Di Zhu1 to the successful application of hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems in electric vehi- cles (EVs energy storage system comprised of Li-ion batteries only. 1. INTRODUCTION Electric vehicles (EVs) have

  15. Electric-Drive Vehicle engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Electric-Drive Vehicle engineering COLLEGE of ENGINEERING Electric-driveVehicle engineers for 80 years t Home to nation's first electric-drive vehicle engineering program and alternative-credit EDGE Engineering Entrepreneur Certificate Program is a great addition to an electric-drive vehicle

  16. Efficient Simulation and Reformulation of Lithium-Ion Battery Models for Enabling Electric Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northrop, Paul W. C.

    Improving the efficiency and utilization of battery systems can increase the viability and cost-effectiveness of existing technologies for electric vehicles (EVs). Developing smarter battery management systems and advanced ...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Tractor Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tractor Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Tractor Vehicles The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a...

  18. Proceedings of the Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy E.; Kurani, Kenneth S.; Sperling, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Preferences for Electric Vehicles. Electric PowerResearchWilliam L. Garrison, "Electric Vehicle Potential in Hawaii,"Ro Warf Pacific Electric Vehicles Research and Development

  19. Proceedings of the Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy

    1994-01-01

    Preferences for Electric Vehicles. Electric Power ResearchWilliam L. Garrison, "Electric Vehicle Potential in Hawaii,"R. Warf Pacific Electric Vehicles Research and Development

  20. Proceedings of the Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy E.; Kurani, Kenneth S.; Sperling, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Ro Warf Pacific Electric Vehicles Research and DevelopmentPreferences for Electric Vehicles. Electric PowerResearchWilliam L. Garrison, "Electric Vehicle Potential in Hawaii,"

  1. Proceedings of the Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy

    1994-01-01

    R. Warf Pacific Electric Vehicles Research and DevelopmentPreferences for Electric Vehicles. Electric Power ResearchWilliam L. Garrison, "Electric Vehicle Potential in Hawaii,"

  2. Incentive Policies for Neighborhood Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy E.; Kurani, Kenneth S.; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Developmentfor Neighborhood Electric Vehicles. Institute ofPaul. "Small and Electric: Vehicles With a Future." ResearchElectric Company. Electric Vehicle Program: Exhibit III

  3. Incentive Policies for Neighborhood Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy E.; Kuranu, Kenneth S.; Sperling, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Developmentfor Neighborhood Electric Vehicles. Institute ofPaul. "Small and Electric: Vehicles With a Future." ResearchElectric Company. Electric Vehicle Program: Exhibit III

  4. Implementation of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of flow batteries for energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yaliang

    2009-01-01

    For large-scale energy storage application, flow battery has the advantages of decoupled power and energy management, extended life cycles and relatively low cost of unit energy output ($/kWh). In this thesis, an overview ...

  5. Electric and Hydrogen Vehicles Past and Progress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    in performance · Practical NiMH batteries did not yet exist · Production hybrid cars did not yet exist · Andy · Transportation Propulsion, Fuels, & Emissions ­ Electric-drive vehicles (including plug-in hybrid and fuel Research (IMR) · Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) ­ Smart cars, smart parking, goods movement

  6. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  7. Fact #823: June 2, 2014 Hybrid Vehicles use more Battery Packs but Plug-in Vehicles use More Battery Capacity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Of the battery packs used for electrified vehicle powertrains in model year 2013, the greatest number went into conventional hybrid vehicles which use battery packs that average about 1.3 kilowatt...

  8. Path dependent receding horizon control policies for hybrid electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.

    Future hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may use path-dependent operating policies to improve fuel economy. In our previous work, we developed a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm for prescribing the battery state of charge ...

  9. Optimized control studies of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bougler, Benedicte Bernadette

    1995-01-01

    This thesis addresses the development of a control scheme to maximize automobile fuel economy and battery state-of-charge (SOC) while meeting exhaust emission standards for parallel hybrid electric vehicles, which are an alternative to conventional...

  10. A simulation-based assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sotingco, Daniel (Daniel S.)

    2012-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are vehicles that utilize power from both an internal combustion engine and an electric battery that can be recharged from the grid. Simulations of series, parallel, and split-architecture ...

  11. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  12. Electric Vehicle Transportation Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) power grid has been developed, which includes EV charging stations and integrated photovoltaic (PV vehicles (EVs) into power grids characterized by high penetration of intermittent renewable energy. HNEI and practices. To examine the effects of EVs on electric power systems and their operation, a Hawai

  13. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The FY 1980 program continued to involve full-size, prototype cell, module and battery fabrication and evaluation, aimed at advancing the technical capabilities of the nickel-iron battery, while simultaneously reducing its potential cost in materials and process areas. Improved Electroprecipitation Process (EPP) nickel electrodes of design thickness (2.5 mm) are now being prepared that display stable capacities of 23 to 25 Ah for the C/3 drain rate at 200+ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are delivering 24 Ah at the target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron electrodes are displaying capacity stability for > 1000 test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Finished cells have delivered 57 to 61 Wh/kg at C/3, and have demonstrated cyclic stability to 500+ cycles at 80% depth of discharge profiles at Westinghouse. A 6-cell module that demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 48 Wh/kg at the C/3 drain rate has also been evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory, ANL. It operated for 327 test cycles, to a level of 161 Ah at the C/3 rate, before being removed from test. Reduction in nickel electrode swelling (and concurrent stack starvation), to improve cycling, continues to be an area of major effort to reach the final battery cycle life objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes continue to show promise for meeting the life objectives while, simultaneously, providing a low manufacturing cost. Refinements have occurred in the areas of cell hardware, module manifolding and cell interconnections. These improvements have been incorporated into the construction and testing of the cells and modules for this program. Temperature tests at 0/sup 0/C were performed on a 6-cell module and showed a decrease in capacity of only 25% in Ah and .29% in Wh as compared to 25/sup 0/C performance. Additional tests are planned to demonstrate performance at -15/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C.

  14. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Research progress in the development of Ni/Fe batteries (electrodes in particular) for the period is described. The negative plate demonstrated a reliable lifetime of almost 1000 cycles; 20 mm positive plates were proved feasible; prototype cells yielded output at about 50 Wh/kg and 100 Wh/liter; program goals of 20% greater than these figures appear feasible. 27 figures, 20 tables. (RWR)

  15. P1.2 -- Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Lithium Polymer NEV Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests hybrid electric, pure electric, and other advanced technology vehicles. As part of this testing, 28 hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are being tested in fleet, dynamometer, and closed track environments. This paper discusses some of the HEV test results, with an emphasis on the battery performance of the HEVs. It also discusses the testing results for a small electric vehicle with a lithium polymer traction battery.

  16. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Progress in work at Exide in three main development areas, i.e., battery design and development, nickel cathode study, and electrochemical studies is reported. Battery design and development concentrated on the optimization of design parameters, including electrode spacing, charging methods, electrolyte concentration, the design and fabrication of prototype cells and modules, and testing to verify these parameters. Initial experiments indicated that an interelectrode spacing of 2.5 mm was optimum when normal (D.C.) charging is used. It was during these experiments that a high rate charging technique was developed to deposit a dense active zinc which did not shed during vibration. A 4 cell - 300 Ah experimental module was built and sent to NBTL for testing. Initial testing on this module and a 300 Ah cell are reported. Experiments on electrolyte concentration indicate that higher concentrations of KOH (8M, 9M or 10M) are beneficial to capacity maintenance. Available nickel cathodes were evaluated for possible use in the VIBROCEL. These included pocket, sintered plaque impregnated, nickel plated steel wool impregnated, plastic bonded and CMG (multifoil) electrodes. These electrodes have Coulombic densities ranging from 70 Ah/Kg for pocket plates to 190 Ah/Kg for CMG electrodes. Detailed test data are presented for each type including rate capability, effect of zincate on performance, and capacity maintenance with cycling. Work on zinc deposition emphasized the special charging technique. This is a deposition using special waveforms of charging current, to deposit dense crystalline zinc on the anode substrate.

  17. AVTA: 2010 Electric Vehicles International Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe testing results of the 2010 Electric Vehicles International neighborhood electric vehicle. Neighborhood electric vehicles reach speeds of no more than 35 miles per hour and are only allowed on roads with speed limits of up to 35 miles per hour. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  18. Optimal routes for electric vehicles facing uncertainty, congestion, and energy constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontana, Matthew William

    2013-01-01

    There are many benefits of owning a battery electric vehicle, including zero tailpipe emissions, potential independence from oil, lower fuel costs, and the option to recharge the battery at home. However, a significant ...

  19. The Charging-Scheduling Problem for Electric Vehicle Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    method to reduce the total charging time for EVs. We study the Electric Vehicle Charging-Scheduling (EVCS the classic greedy nearest scheduling algorithm: assign each EV to its nearest charging station, then choose]. The capacity of EV battery is limited, which requires frequent charging. EV battery swapping is well known

  20. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  1. DOE Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Test Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yimin [Advanced Vehicle Research Center, Danville, VA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    Based on the contract NT-42790 to the Department of Energy, “Plug-in Hybrid Ethanol Research Platform”, Advanced Vehicle Research Center (AVRC) Virginia has successfully developed the phase I electric drive train research platform which has been named as Laboratory Rapid Application Testbed (LabRAT). In phase II, LabRAT is to be upgraded into plug-in hybrid research platform, which will be capable of testing power systems for electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles running on conventional as well as alternative fuels. LabRAT is configured as a rolling testbed with plentiful space for installing various component configurations. Component connections are modularized for flexibility and are easily replaced for testing various mechanisms. LabRAT is designed and built as a full functional vehicle chassis with a steering system, brake system and four wheel suspension. The rear drive axle offers maximum flexibility with a quickly changeable gear ratio final drive to accommodate different motor speed requirements. The electric drive system includes an electric motor which is mechanically connected to the rear axle through an integrated speed/torque sensor. Initially, a 100 kW UQM motor and corresponding UQM motor controller is used which can be easily replaced with another motor/controller combination. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is installed, which consists of 108 cells of 100 AH capacity, giving the total energy capacity of 32.5 kWh. Correspondingly, a fully functional battery management system (BMS) is installed to perform battery cell operation monitoring, cell voltage balancing, and reporting battery real time operating parameters to vehicle controller. An advanced vehicle controller ECU is installed for controlling the drive train. The vehicle controller ECU receives traction or braking torque command from driver through accelerator and brake pedal position sensors and battery operating signals from the BMS through CAN BUS, and then generates motor torque command (traction or braking) to the motor controller based on the control algorithm software embedded in the vehicle controller ECU. The vehicle controller ECU is a re-programmable electronic control unit. Any control algorithm software developed can be easily downloaded to vehicle controller ECU to test any newly developed control strategy. The flexibility of the control system significantly enhances the practical applicability of the LabRAT. A new test methodology has been developed for the LabRAT simulating any vehicles running on road with different weights from compact passenger car to light duty truck on an AC or eddy current dynamometers without much effort for modification of the system. LabRAT is equipped with a fully functional data acquisition system supplied by CyberMetrix. The measurement points along the drive train are DC electric power between battery pack and motor controller input, AC electric power between motor controller and electric motor, mechanical power between motor and rear axle. The data acquisition system is designed with more capability than current requirements in order to meet the requirements for phase II.

  2. Scaling of hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain components for Hardware-in-the-loop simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    Scaling of hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain components for Hardware-in-the-loop simulation: Hardware-in-the-loop Hybrid electric vehicle Buckingham Pi Theorem Battery model a b s t r a c t Hardware to correctly scale electric vehicle components, particularly the following subsystems: electric motor

  3. Online Prediction of Battery Discharge and Estimation of Parasitic Loads for an Electric Aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daigle, Matthew

    Online Prediction of Battery Discharge and Estimation of Parasitic Loads for an Electric Aircraft 94035 matthew.j.daigle@nasa.gov ABSTRACT Predicting whether or not vehicle batteries contain sufficient that aircraft batteries will con- tinue to meet output power and voltage requirements over the remainder

  4. Choices and Requirements of Batteries for EVs, HEVs, PHEVs (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation describes the choices available and requirements for batteries for electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Battery Safety Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about battery safety...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Battery Thermal Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about battery...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Battery Thermal Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by NREL at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about battery thermal characterization.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Battery Safety Testing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about battery safety...

  9. Optimal management of batteries in electric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Corey, Garth P. (Albuquerque, NM); Symons, Philip C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

  10. Energy Efficient Navigation Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Highways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yongge

    Energy Efficient Navigation Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Highways Mohammad Ashiqur the elec- tric power stored in the battery as energy, as an alternative to traditional gasoline Vehicles (PHEVs) are gaining pop- ularity due to their economical efficiency as well as their contribution

  11. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Management for Urban EV Charging Systems”, 2013 IEEEfor Large Scale Public EV Charging Facilities”, 2013 IEEESmart Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging and Grid Integration

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2013: A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by LG Chem at 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a high-performance battery pack the company is researching for plug-in electric vehicles.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Plug-in Electric Vehicle...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    nation's vehicle fleet. VTO invested 400 million in 18 projects to demonstrate plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs, also known as electric cars) and infrastructure, including 10...

  14. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  15. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01

    fuel efficiency and electricity demand assumptions used into added vehicle electricity demand in the BAU (no IGCC)to added vehicle electricity demand in the Mixed technology

  16. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    Describes the basics of electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles, and the various charging options.

  17. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Describes the basics of electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles, and the various charging options.

  18. Challenges for the vehicle tester in characterizing hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duoba, M.

    1997-08-01

    Many problems are associated with applying test methods, like the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), for HEVs. Although there has been considerable progress recently in the area of HEV test procedure development, many challenges are still unsolved. A major hurdle to overcoming the challenges of developing HEV test procedures is the lack of HEV designs available for vehicle testing. Argonne National Laboratory has tested hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) built by about 50 colleges and universities from 1994 to 1997 in annual vehicle engineering competitions sponsored in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). From this experience, the Laboratory has gathered information about the basics of HEV testing and issues important to successful characterization of HEVs. A collaboration between ANL and the Society of Automotive Engineer`s (SAE) HEV Test Procedure Task Force has helped guide the development of test protocols for their proposed procedures (draft SAE J1711) and test methods suited for DOE vehicle competitions. HEVs use an electrical energy storage device, which requires that HEV testing include more time and effort to deal with the effects of transient energy storage as the vehicle is operating in HEV mode. HEV operation with electric-only capability can be characterized by correcting the HEV mode data using results from electric-only operation. HEVs without electric-only capability require multiple tests conducted to form data correlations that enable the tester to find the result that corresponds to a zero net change in SOC. HEVs that operate with a net depletion of charge cannot be corrected for battery SOC and are characterized with emissions and fuel consumption results coupled with the electrical energy usage rate. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    in batteries, ultracapacitors, fuel cells and hybrid vehicleBattery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposiumcycles. Vehicles with the fuel cell operating in the optimum

  20. Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed (EDAB...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vss033carlson2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed (EDAB) Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components...

  1. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure), Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Describes the basics of electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles, and the various charging options.

  2. SOCIALLY OPTIMAL CHARGING STRATEGIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    SOCIALLY OPTIMAL CHARGING STRATEGIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES ELENA YUDOVINA AND GEORGE MICHAILIDIS Abstract. Electric vehicles represent a promising technology for reducing emissions and dependence. This pa- per studies decentralized policies that assign electric vehicles to a network of charging

  3. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Konrad, Charles E. (Roanoke, VA); Benson, Ralph A. (Roanoke, VA)

    1994-01-01

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor.

  4. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Konrad, C.E.; Benson, R.A.

    1994-11-29

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor. 3 figures.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Electric Drive Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report The...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office: Electrical Machines | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in efficiency, cost, weight, and volume for competitive future electric vehicles. Tesla Motors, a U.S. electric vehicle manufacturer, uses induction motor technology....

  7. A Vehicle Systems Approach to Evaluate Plug-in Hybrid Battery Cold Start, Life and Cost Issues 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shidore, Neeraj Shripad

    2012-07-16

    The batteries used in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) need to overcome significant technical challenges in order for PHEVs to become economically viable and have a large market penetration. The internship at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL...

  8. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01

    of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional PowerTransmission Area, in Electric Vehicle Symposium, Anaheim,of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, ANL/ESD/09-2, Argonne

  9. Analysis of Class 8 Hybrid-Electric Truck Technologies Using Diesel, LNG, Electricity, and Hydrogen, as the Fuel for Various Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing

    2013-01-01

    Protection Agency Electric Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Gas toHybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium Reference: [aspects of battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles,

  10. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01

    of gasoline, electricity, and hydrogen fuel carbonhybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, Journal of2005) Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet:

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Battery Development, System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research (USCAR). It also works directly with industry battery and material suppliers through competitive research and development awards. To learn how batteries are used...

  12. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles could significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependence on imported petroleum. However, for mass adoption, EV costs have historically been too high to be competitive with conventional vehicle options due to the high price of batteries, long refuel time, and a lack of charging infrastructure. A number of different technologies and business strategies have been proposed to address some of these cost and utility issues: battery leasing, battery fast-charging stations, battery swap stations, deployment of charge points for opportunity charging, etc. In order to investigate these approaches and compare their merits on a consistent basis, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a new techno-economic model. The model includes nine modules to examine the levelized cost per mile for various types of powertrain and business strategies. The various input parameters such as vehicle type, battery, gasoline, and electricity prices; battery cycle life; driving profile; and infrastructure costs can be varied. In this paper, we discuss the capabilities of the model; describe key modules; give examples of how various assumptions, powertrain configurations, and business strategies impact the cost to the end user; and show the vehicle's levelized cost per mile sensitivity to seven major operational parameters.

  13. Results of advanced batter technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  14. Household Markets for Neighborhood Electric Vehicles in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S.; Sperling, Daniel; Lipman, Timothy; Stanger, Deborah; Turrentine, Thomas; Stein, Aram

    2001-01-01

    A Statewide ELECTRIC ELECTRIC and VEHICLES: Survey Sandrafor Neighborhood Electric Vehicles. Report prepared for theD. (1994). Future Drive: Electric Vehicles and Sustainable

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Battery Recycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by OnTo Technology LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced battery recycling.

  16. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    i Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed more robust. This report analyzes V2G power from three types of EDVs--battery, hybrid, and fuel cell and prices are high. Fuel cell and hybrid EDVs are sources of new power generation. For economic reasons

  17. Design of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries for Long Life and Low Cost: Robustness to Geographic and Consumer-Usage Variation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Markel, T.; Kim, G. H.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-10-01

    This presentation describes a battery optimization and trade-off analysis for Li-ion batteries used in EVs and PHEVs to extend their life and/or reduce cost.

  18. Electric vehicle test report, Cutler-Hammer Corvette

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The work described was part of the effort to characterize vehicles for the state-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles. The vehicle evaluated was a Chevrolet Corvette converted to electric operation. The vehicle was based on a standard production 1967 chassis and body. The original internal combustion engine was replaced by an electric traction motor. Eighteen batteries supplied the electrical energy. A controller, an onboard battery charger, and several dashboard instruments completed the conversion. The remainder of the vehicle, and in particular the remainder of the drive-train (clutch, driveshaft, and differential), was stock, except for the transmission. The overall objective of the tests was to develop performance data at the system and subsystem level. The emphasis was on the electrical portion of the drive train, although some analysis and discussion of the mechanical elements are included. There was no evaluation of other aspects of the vehicle such as braking, ride, handling, passenger accomodations, etc. Included are a description of the vehicle, the tests performed and a discussion of the results. Tests were conducted both on the road (actually a mile long runway) and in a chassis dynamometer equipped laboratory. The majority of the tests performed were according to SAE Procedure J227a and included maximum effort accelerations, constant-speed range, and cyclic range. Some tests that are not a part of the SAE Procedure J227a are described and the analysis of the data from all tests is discussed. (LCL)

  19. Energy Management for an Electric Vehicle Based on Combinatorial Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    energy sources (fuel cells, photovoltaic panels, batteries, supercapacitors) with different of the energy system The energy chain of the vehicle concerned is composed of a Fuel Cell System (FCS) using Toulouse, France Abstract This paper describes the process of electrical energy management and optimization

  20. FADEC: Fast Authentication for Dynamic Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    charging [1], [2] is a promising technol- ogy for charging electric vehicles (EV) while driving. The basic idea is to place charging coils under the charging pads on the road and attach charging coils to the EV the road and the coils in the EV can charge the EV battery. Dynamic charging is only possible with proper

  1. Source of electrical power for an electric vehicle and other purposes, and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaFollette, Rodney M. (Provo, UT)

    2002-11-12

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form corrugated thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries, silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (i) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and (j) high specific capacitance.

  2. Source of electrical power for an electric vehicle and other purposes, and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaFollette, Rodney M. (Provo, UT)

    2000-05-16

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries, silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (j) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and k) high specific capacitance.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Neighborhood All-Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Data on the following vehicles is available in downloadable form: 2013 BRP Commander Electric, 2010 Electric Vehicles International E-Mega, 2009 Vantage Pickup EVX1000, and 2009 Vantage Van EVC1000.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Hybrid Electric Vehicles Performance and Testing Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. This page provides data on the hybrid electric versions of the Volkswagen Jetta, Ford C-Max, Chevrolet Malibu, Honda Civic, Hyundai Sonata, Honda CRZ, Honda Civic with Advanced Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery, Mercedes Benz, Toyota Prius Gen III, Ford Fusion, Honda Insight and Honda CR-Z.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Smith Electric Vehicles: Advanced Vehicle Electrification + Transportation Sector Electrification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Smith Electric Vehicles at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Smith Electric...

  6. Quantifying EV battery end-of-life through analysis of travel needs with vehicle powertrain models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saxena, Samveg; Le Floch, Caroline; MacDonald, Jason; Moura, Scott

    2015-05-15

    Electric vehicles enable clean and efficient transportation; however, concerns about range anxiety and battery degradation hinder EV adoption. The common definition for battery end-of-life is when 70-80% of original energy capacity remain;, however, little analysis is available to support this retirement threshold. By applying detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars, we show that EV batteries continue to meet daily travel needs of drivers well beyond capacity fade of 80% remaining energy storage capacity. Further, we show that EV batteries with substantial energy capacity fade continue to provide sufficient buffer charge for unexpected tripsmore »with long distances. We show that enabling charging in more locations, even if only with 120 V wall outlets, prolongs useful life of EV batteries. Battery power fade is also examined and we show EVs meet performance requirements even down to 30% remaining power capacity. Our findings show that defining battery retirement at 70-80% remaining capacity is inaccurate. Battery retirement should instead be governed by when batteries no longer satisfy daily travel needs of a driver. Using this alternative retirement metric, we present results on the fraction of EV batteries that may be retired with different levels of energy capacity fade.« less

  7. Electricity Grid: Impacts of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCarthy, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    and timing of vehicle electricity demand. As the number ofcontinually changing electricity demands by using a suite ofif local patterns of electricity demand change significantly

  8. Accomodating Electric Vehicles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aasheim, D.

    2011-01-01

    ? New Building Construction & Core & Shell (SSc4.3) ? Up to 3 LEED points ? Existing Building (SSc4) ? 3-15 LEED points available Retail Benefits ? Green Differentiator ? Business associated with EV locator sites ? Vehicle GPS + websites... ? Encourage Sales Behavior ? Park/shop where EVSE is located ? Advertise on blink screen ? Discount or Free charge with minimum purchase (Host controls pricing) Recent Additions to the blink Network ? Nissan?s Smyrna Plant Solar EV Carport- Tennessee...

  9. ECE 438 Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Catalog Description: History of electric traction. Introduction to electric and hybrid-electric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ECE 438 ­ Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Catalog Description: History of electric traction. Introduction to electric and hybrid-electric vehicle configurations. Vehicle mechanics. Energy sources and storage. Range prediction. Motor for HEVs. Electric drive components. Vehicle transmission system. Credits

  10. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: All Electric USPS Long Life...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    USPS Long Life Vehicle Conversions Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: All Electric USPS Long Life Vehicle Conversions The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Delivery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vehicles The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a...

  13. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  14. Ultracapacitor Technologies and Application in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Moderate Hybrid-electric Vehicles. ESScap06, Switzerland,GH. SIMPLEV: A Simple Electric Vehicle Simulation Program-Ultracapacitors in Hybrid- electric Vehicle Applications.

  15. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Characterization for Electric Vehicle Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swan, D.H.; Dickinson, B.E.; Arikara, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Characterization for Electric Vehicle Applications D.H. SwanHybridSystemfor Electric Vehicle Applications", SAEPaperFuel Cells for Electric Vehicles, Knowledge Gaps and

  16. Interested but unsure: Public attitudes toward electric vehicles in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Experiencing range in an electric vehicle: Understandingto pay for electric vehicles and their attributes. Resourceownership and use of electric vehicles–a review of

  17. Ultracapacitor Technologies and Application in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Moderate Hybrid-electric Vehicles. ESScap06, Switzerland,GH. SIMPLEV: A Simple Electric Vehicle Simulation Program-20 th International Electric Vehicle Symposium, Long Beach,

  18. Demand for Electric Vehicles in Hybrid Households: An Exploratory Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S.; Turrentine, Tom; Sperling, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    stated they wouldlikely add an electric and vehicle to theirhouseholdsand the demand electric vehicles", Transportation1983) "A Critical Reviewof Electric Vehicle MarketStudies",

  19. Household Markets for Neighborhood Electric Vehicles in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Sperling, Daniel; Lipman, Timothy; Stanger, Deborah; Turrentine, Thomas; Stein, Aram

    1995-01-01

    for Neighborhood Electric Vehicles. Report prepared for theD. (1994). Future Drive: Electric Vehicles and Sustainablefor Neighborhood Electric Vehicles. Report prepared for the

  20. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, Journal ofof the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & theof battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles

  1. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: The Voltage Fade Project, A New Paradigm for Applied Battery Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by the Department of Energy's Energy Storage area at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a new approach to the challenge of voltage fade in batteries for plug-in electric vehicles.

  3. PREDICTING THE MARKET POTENTIAL OF PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES USING MULTIDAY GPS DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    -electric Vehicles, Long-Term Vehicle Use BACKGROUND Energy-security concerns, the rising cost of petroleum of battery-replacement costs, energy savings and resale value. Currently, the U.S. government provides receive another $5,000 from the Clean Vehicle Rebates Project (Center for Sustainable Energy 2011

  4. Evaluation of electric vehicle production and operating costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, R. M.; Gaines, L. L.; Vyas, A. D.

    2000-05-23

    This report presents an analysis of the initial cost of electric vehicles (EVs). The manufacturing and retail cost structure of mature conventional vehicles produced at high volume is analyzed first, and the contributions by various cost categories to vehicle price are estimated. The costs are then allocated to such vehicle component groups as body, chassis, and powertrain. The similarities and differences among various component systems are reviewed. In electric vehicles, an electric drive replaces the conventional powertrain, and a battery pack replaces the fuel system. Three types of traction motors are reviewed, and their cost in high-volume production is analyzed. Various components of the motor and controller package are analyzed, and their representative costs are summarized. Four types of EV batteries are reviewed, and their costs are presented. Various alternatives for the low-, medium-, and high-volume production of EVs are evaluated, and some sample costs are presented. A methodology that estimates initial and operating costs on the basis of this analysis is presented. The methodology also estimates the average lifetime cost of owning and operating an electric vehicle.

  5. Preparing for the Arrival of Electric Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar covers how to prepare for electric vehicles and elements of developing an EV infrastructure plan.

  6. Aalborg Universitet Flexible Local Load Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Supplemented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaltz, Erik

    the charging patterns of EV batteries, thus prolonging their lifetime and increasing the drivers' comfort levelAalborg Universitet Flexible Local Load Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Supplemented with Flywheel Energy Storage System

  7. Internal Short Circuit Device Helps Improve Lithium-Ion Battery Design (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's emulation tool helps manufacturers ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicle batteries.

  8. Putting electric vehicles to the test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putting electric vehicles to the test Boeing, Dal team to make more efficient aircraft parts.moore@dal.ca 902.494.3158 2 Engineering Electric vehicles. Are they for real or just a fad? Can they satisfy an electric vehicle may seem novel to some, while others may wonder if such a machine could actually meet

  9. Aalborg Universitet Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahat, Pukar

    Aalborg Universitet Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup., Lozano, A., & Sleimovits, A. (2012). Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging. In Proceedings of the 2012 in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential

  10. Ultracapacitor Technologies and Application in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    AF. Comparisons of Lithium-ion Batteries and UltracapacitorsResults with Lithium-ion Batteries. EET- 2008 European Ele-Comparisons with Lithium- ion Batteries for Hybrid vehicle

  11. Simulations of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles Using Advanced Lithium Batteries and Ultracapacitors on Various Driving Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Zhao, Hengbing

    2010-01-01

    of Ultracapacitor-Battery Energy Storage Systems GainingFerdowsi, A New Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systemthe vehicle. The energy storage and battery weight for AER

  12. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  13. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    for vehicle applications. 2 Lithium-ion battery chemistriesThe lithium-ion battery technology used for consumerfrom EIG Figure 4: Lithium-ion battery modules for testing

  14. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    batteries for vehicle applications. Unfortunately the graphite/graphite/NiCoMn chemistry. In general, it seems possible to design high power batteries (graphite/NiCoMn chemistry. In general, it seems possible to design high power batteries (

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Mechanistic Modeling Framework for Predicting Extreme Battery Response: Coupled Hierarchical Models for Thermal, Mechanical, Electrical and (Electro)chemical Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about mechanistic...

  16. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  17. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [165 Ah, 36. 5 Wh/kg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodamer, G.W.; Branca, G.C.; Cash, H.R.; Chrastina, J.R.; Yurick, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Progress during the 1979 fiscal year is reported. All the tooling and capital equipment required for the pilot line production has been installed. A limited amount of plate production has been realized. A highly automated and versatile testing facility was established. The fabrication and testing of the initial calculated design is discussed. Cell component adjustments and the trade-offs associated with those changes are presented. Cells are being evaluated at the 3-hour rate. They have a capacity of 165 Ah and an energy density of 36.5 Wh/kg, and have completed 105 cycles to date. Experimental results being pursued under the advanced battery development program to enhance energy density and cycle life are presented. Data on the effects of different electrolyte specific gravity, separators, retainers, paste densities, battery additives and grid alloy composition on battery performance are presented and evaluated. Advanced battery prototype cells are under construction. Quality Assurance activities are summarized. They include monitoring the cell and battery fabrication and testing operations as well as all relevant documentation procedures. 12 figures, 28 tables.

  18. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01

    solar generation can reduce costs and emissions associated with supplying vehicle electricity demand dramatically. Sensitivity Analysis of Long-term

  19. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Electrical Contractors (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This handbook answers basic questions about plug-in electric vehicles, charging stations, charging equipment, charging equipment installation, and training for electrical contractors.

  20. Resistive companion battery modeling for electric circuit simulations , R. Dougalb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resistive companion battery modeling for electric circuit simulations B. Wua , R. Dougalb , R be achieved based on RC models. In this study, the construction of RC battery models is investigated. A general battery model and a nickel±metal hydride cell model have been built. Simulations of RC battery

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electric Vehicle Grid Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electric...

  2. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    investment for reducing US gasoline consumption Scott B. Peterson a , Jeremy J. Michalek a,b,n a Dept per gal than oil premium estimates. c Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium

  3. he prospect of millions of vehicles plugging into the nation's electric grid in the coming decades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    : Tesla Motors recently intro- duced an all-electric vehicle. See sidebar, p. 34.) Two startup firms plan-board battery pack. These conversions kits offer the potential to almost double an HEV's fuel efficiency rating to 100+ miles per gallon by increasing the size of the battery stor- age system and installing

  4. taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramani, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

  5. Energy Department Awards Will Promote Electric Vehicles in 24...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Department Awards Will Promote Electric Vehicles in 24 States and Train a Workforce for Advanced Vehicle Development Energy Department Awards Will Promote Electric Vehicles...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Smith Electric...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Smith Electric Vehicles at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Smith Electric Vehicles:...

  7. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01

    P. C. Butler, "Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles andIntroduction," in Hnadbook of Batteries, 3rd Edition, D.T. B. Reddy, Handbook of Batteries, 2002). [67] R. Zito, US

  8. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation uses a vehicle simulator and economics model called the Battery Ownership Model to examine the levelized cost per mile of conventional (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in comparison with the cost to operate an electric vehicle (EV) under a service provider business model. The service provider is assumed to provide EV infrastructure such as charge points and swap stations to allow an EV with a 100-mile range to operate with driving profiles equivalent to CVs and HEVs. Battery cost, fuel price forecast, battery life, and other variables are examined to determine under what scenarios the levelized cost of an EV with a service provider can approach that of a CV. Scenarios in both the United States as an average and Hawaii are examined. The levelized cost of operating an EV with a service provider under average U.S. conditions is approximately twice the cost of operating a small CV. If battery cost and life can be improved, in this study the cost of an EV drops to under 1.5 times the cost of a CV for U.S. average conditions. In Hawaii, the same EV is only slightly more expensive to operate than a CV.

  9. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Ahmad, P.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.; Smith, K.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.

    2012-05-01

    This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the application of the Battery Ownership Model for strategies for optimal battery use in electric drive vehicles (PEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs).

  10. The Potential of Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles as Grid Resources: the Case of a Gas and Petroleum Oriented Elecricity Generation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    purchasing electricity off the grid during off-peak hours ofthat it is charging off the grid or discharging back intothe electricity purchased off the grid would most likely be

  11. Evaluation Study for Large Prismatic Lithium-Ion Cell Designs Using Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2009-05-01

    Addresses battery requirements for electric vehicles using a model that evaluates physical-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries, from atomic variations to vehicle interface controls.

  12. Electric Drive Vehicle Demonstration and Vehicle Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. vssarravt066karner2010p...

  13. Electric Drive Vehicle Demonstration and Vehicle Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt066vsskarner2012...

  14. Electric Drive Vehicle Demonstration and Vehicle Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt066vsskarner2011...

  15. Smith Electric Vehicles: Advanced Vehicle Electrification + Transporta...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt072vssmackie2011...

  16. Smith Electric Vehicles: Advanced Vehicle Electrification + Transporta...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt072vssmackie2012...

  17. Modelling and Design Optimization of Low Speed Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Modelling and Design Optimization of Low Speed Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Matthew Blair of emissions to global climate change. Although electric cars and buses have been the focus of much of electric and utility purposes in many countries. In order to explore the viability of fuel cell - battery hybrid

  18. Electric Vehicle Preparedness Task 3: Detailed Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-08-01

    Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support this replacement. That is the subject of a separate report.

  19. Infrastructure, Components and System Level Testing and Analysis of Electric Vehicles: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-353

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.

    2013-05-01

    Battery technology is critical for the development of innovative electric vehicle networks, which can enhance transportation sustainability and reduce dependence on petroleum. This cooperative research proposed by Better Place and NREL will focus on predicting the life-cycle economics of batteries, characterizing battery technologies under various operating and usage conditions, and designing optimal usage profiles for battery recharging and use.

  20. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.

  1. Advanced Electric Drive Vehicles ? A Comprehensive Education...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. tiarravt034ferdowsi2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Electric Drive Vehicles A Comprehensive Education, Training, and Outreach Program...

  2. Advanced Electric Drive Vehicles ? A Comprehensive Education...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting arravt034tiferdowsi2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Electric Drive Vehicles A Comprehensive Education, Training, and Outreach Program...

  3. Advanced Electric Drive Vehicles ? A Comprehensive Education...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Evaluation arravt034tiferdowsi2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Electric Drive Vehicles A Comprehensive Education, Training, and Outreach Program...

  4. One Million Electric Vehicles By 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-02-01

    February 2011 status report on the steps needed to achieve President Obama's goal of putting one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015.

  5. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.

    2006-05-08

    Provides an overview on the current status, long-term prospects, and key challenges in the development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology.

  6. Washington: Battery Manufacturer Brings Material Production Home...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    batteries enable electric drive vehicles to consume less petroleum and produce less pollution than conventional vehicles. At full capacity, the EnerG2 plant will produce enough...

  7. Highway vehicle electric drive in the United States : 2009 status and issues.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-16

    The status of electric drive technology in the United States as of early 2010 is documented. Rapidly evolving electric drive technologies discussed include hybrid electric vehicles, multiple types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Recent trends for hybrids are quantified. Various plug-in vehicles entering the market in the near term are examined. The technical and economic requirements for electric drive to more broadly succeed in a wider range of highway vehicle applications are described, and implications for the most promising new markets are provided. Federal and selected state government policy measures promoting and preparing for electric drive are discussed. Taking these into account, judgment on areas where increased Clean Cities funds might be most productively focused over the next five years are provided. In closing, the request by Clean Cities for opinion on the broad range of research needs providing near-term support to electric drive is fulfilled.

  8. Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report1538-1950 TimelineUtility-Scale SolarV-Site AssemblyValueBattery

  9. AVTA: 2013 Nissan Leaf All-Electric Vehicle Testing Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe early results of testing done on an all-electric 2013 Nissan Leaf. Baseline data, which provides a point of comparison for the other test results, was collected at two different research laboratories. Baseline and other data collected at Idaho National Laboratory is in the attached documents. Baseline and battery testing data collected at Argonne National Laboratory is available in summary and CSV form on the Argonne Downloadable Dynometer Database site (http://www.anl.gov/energy-systems/group/downloadable-dynamometer-databas...). Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing.

  10. Electric Vehicle Service Personnel Training Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Gerald

    2013-06-21

    As the share of hybrid, plug-in hybrid (PHEV), electric (EV) and fuel-cell (FCV) vehicles grows in the national automotive fleet, an entirely new set of diagnostic and technical skills needs to be obtained by the maintenance workforce. Electrically-powered vehicles require new diagnostic tools, technique and vocabulary when compared to existing internal combustion engine-powered models. While the manufacturers of these new vehicles train their own maintenance personnel, training for students, independent working technicians and fleet operators is less focused and organized. This DOE-funded effort provided training to these three target groups to help expand availability of skills and to provide more competition (and lower consumer cost) in the maintenance of these hybrid- and electric-powered vehicles. Our approach was to start locally in the San Francisco Bay Area, one of the densest markets in the United States for these types of automobiles. We then expanded training to the Los Angeles area and then out-of-state to identify what types of curriculum was appropriate and what types of problems were encountered as training was disseminated. The fact that this effort trained up to 800 individuals with sessions varying from 2- day workshops to full-semester courses is considered a successful outcome. Diverse programs were developed to match unique time availability and educational needs of each of the three target audiences. Several key findings and observations arising from this effort include: • Recognition that hybrid and PHEV training demand is immediate; demand for EV training is starting to emerge; while demand for FCV training is still over the horizon • Hybrid and PHEV training are an excellent starting point for all EV-related training as they introduce all the basic concepts (electric motors, battery management, controllers, vocabulary, testing techniques) that are needed for all EVs, and these skills are in-demand in today’s market. • Faculty training is widely available and can be relatively quickly achieved. Equipment availability (vehicles, specialized tools, diagnostic software and computers) is a bigger challenge for funding-constrained colleges. • A computer-based emulation system that would replicate vehicle and diagnostic software in one package is a training aid that would have widespread benefit, but does not appear to exist. This need is further described at the end of Section 6.5. The benefits of this project are unique to each of the three target audiences. Students have learned skills they will use for the remainder of their careers; independent technicians can now accept customers who they previously needed to turn away due to lack of familiarity with hybrid systems; and fleet maintenance personnel are able to lower costs by undertaking work in-house that they previously needed to outsource. The direct job impact is estimated at 0.75 FTE continuously over the 3 ½ -year duration of the grant.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office: Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancialInvestingRenewableTeach andAffordabilityVehicleDepartment

  12. BROADBAND IDENTIFICATION OF BATTERY ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE FOR HEV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    battery performances and assessment of its condition in order to increase the reliability of EV and HEVBROADBAND IDENTIFICATION OF BATTERY ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE FOR HEV R. Al-Nazer, V. Cattin, M. Montaru ­ CEA LETI/LITEN; P. Granjon ­ GIPSA-Lab; Abstract -- In recent years, Li-ion batteries have been

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fast Charge - November 2012 WirelessInductive Charging Inductive charging, also known as wireless charging, uses an electromagnetic field to transfer electricity to a PEV without...

  14. Development of Computer-Aided Design Tools for Automotive Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT)...

  15. Socially Optimal Electric Driving Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kontou, Eleftheria [ORNL; Yin, Yafeng [University of Florida; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the optimal electric driving range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that minimizes the daily cost borne by the society when using this technology. An optimization framework is developed and applied to datasets representing the US market. Results indicate that the optimal range is 16 miles with an average social cost of $3.19 per day when exclusively charging at home, compared to $3.27 per day of driving a conventional vehicle. The optimal range is found to be sensitive to the cost of battery packs and the price of gasoline. When workplace charging is available, the optimal electric driving range surprisingly increases from 16 to 22 miles, as larger batteries would allow drivers to better take advantage of the charging opportunities to achieve longer electrified travel distances, yielding social cost savings. If workplace charging is available, the optimal density is to deploy a workplace charger for every 3.66 vehicles. Moreover, the diversification of the battery size, i.e., introducing a pair and triple of electric driving ranges to the market, could further decrease the average societal cost per PHEV by 7.45% and 11.5% respectively.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office- AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following set of reports describes data collected from testing on FedEx Express and UPS hybrid-electric delivery trucks. This research was conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  17. Advanced battery technology for electric two-wheelers in the people's Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2009-07-22

    This report focuses on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology applications for two- and possibly three-wheeled vehicles. The author of this report visited the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) to assess the status of Li-ion battery technology there and to analyze Chinese policies, regulations, and incentives for using this technology and for using two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Another objective was to determine if the Li-ion batteries produced in China were available for benchmarking in the United States. The United States continues to lead the world in Li-ion technology research and development (R&D). Its strong R&D program is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Department of Defense. In Asia, too, developed countries like China, Korea, and Japan are commercializing and producing this technology. In China, more than 120 companies are involved in producing Li-ion batteries. There are more than 139 manufacturers of electric bicycles (also referred to as E-bicycles, electric bikes or E-bikes, and electric two-wheelers or ETWs in this report) and several hundred suppliers. Most E-bikes use lead acid batteries, but there is a push toward using Li-ion battery technology for two- and three-wheeled applications. Highlights and conclusions from this visit are provided in this report and summarized.

  18. Performance of electric and hybrid vehicles at the 1995 American Tour de Sol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Buitrago, C.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.

    1995-12-31

    Energy consumption and performance data were collected on more than 40 electric and hybrid vehicles during the 1995 American Tour de Sol. At this competition, one electric vehicle drove 229 miles on one charge using nickel metalhydride batteries. The results obtained from the data show that electric vehicle efficiencies reached 9.07 mi./kWh or 70 equivalent mpg of gasoline when compared to the total energy cycle efficiency of electricity and gasoline. A gasoline-fueled 1995 Geo Metro that drove the same route attained 36.4 mpg.

  19. KAir Battery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    KAir Battery, from Ohio State University, is commercializing highly energy efficient cost-effective potassium air batteries for use in the electrical stationary storage systems market (ESSS). Beyond, the ESSS market potential applications range from temporary power stations and electric vehicle.

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office- AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Tractor Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following set of reports describes performance data collected from hybrid-electric heavy-duty tractor vehicles in the Coca-Cola fleet. This research was conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  1. Hybrid & electric vehicle technology and its market feasibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Sang Yeob

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) and Electric Vehicle (EV) technology and their sales forecasts are discussed. First, the current limitations and the future potential ...

  2. State-of-Health Aware Optimal Control of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    , nuclear power and renewable energy such as wind energy, solar energy and tidal energy. The battery storage, USA {yanzhiwa, siyuyue, pedram}@usc.edu Abstract--Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are key new energy) technology in the smart grid infrastructure can exploit the electrical energy storage ability of PEV

  3. The Evolution of Sustainable Personal Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jungers, Bryan D

    2009-01-01

    M. (2007). Battery Electric Vehicles: An Assessment of theExtended-Range Electric Vehicles: An Enabling Platform forReady Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle. D.O.E. Challenge X,

  4. Modelling and control strategy development for fuel cell electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Modelling and control strategy development for fuel cell electric vehicles Andreas Schell b , Huei applicable to the development of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs reserved. Keywords: Fuel cell electric vehicle; Hybrid vehicles; Modelling 1. Introduction Advanced

  5. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report This report discusses key analysis results...

  6. Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Protocol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Protocol Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Protocol Download the webinar slides from the U.S. Department...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for Hybrid and Electric...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hybrid and Electric Drive Systems Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for Hybrid and Electric Drive Systems The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) is working to lower the cost...

  8. System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on Emissions System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on Emissions Comparative simulations of hybrid...

  9. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles and Hydrogen Infrastructure: Deployment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Vehicles and Hydrogen Infrastructure: Deployment and Issues Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles and Hydrogen Infrastructure: Deployment and Issues This presentation by Bill Elrick...

  10. Electric Vehicle Deployment: Policy Questions and Impacts to...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Vehicle Deployment: Policy Questions and Impacts to the U.S. Electric Grid - EAC Recommendations (November 2011) Electric Vehicle Deployment: Policy Questions and Impacts to the...

  11. Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Volume 1: Nationwide Greenhouse Gas Emissions Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Volume 1:...

  12. Socially optimal electric driving range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kontou, Eleftheria; Yin, Yafeng; Lin, Zhenhong

    2015-07-25

    This study determines the optimal electric driving range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that minimizes the daily cost borne by the society when using this technology. An optimization framework is developed and applied to datasets representing the US market. Results indicate that the optimal range is 16 miles with an average social cost of 3.19 per day when exclusively charging at home, compared to 3.27 per day of driving a conventional vehicle. The optimal range is found to be sensitive to the cost of battery packs and the price of gasoline. When workplace charging is available, the optimal electricmore »driving range surprisingly increases from 16 to 22 miles, as larger batteries would allow drivers to better take advantage of the charging opportunities to achieve longer electrified travel distances, yielding social cost savings. If workplace charging is available, the optimal density is to deploy a workplace charger for every 3.66 vehicles. Moreover, the diversification of the battery size, i.e., introducing a pair and triple of electric driving ranges to the market, could further decrease the average societal cost per PHEV by 7.45% and 11.5% respectively.« less

  13. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle system controller (20) is presented for a LSR parallel hybrid electric vehicle having an engine (10), a motor (12), wheels (14), a transmission (16) and a battery (18). The vehicle system controller (20) has a state machine having a plurality of predefined states (22-32) that represent operating modes for the vehicle. A set of rules is defined for controlling the transition between any two states in the state machine. The states (22-32) are prioritized according to driver demands, energy management concerns and system fault occurrences. The vehicle system controller (20) controls the transitions from a lower priority state to a higher priority state based on the set of rules. In addition, the vehicle system controller (20) will control a transition to a lower state from a higher state when the conditions no longer warrant staying in the current state. A unique set of output commands is defined for each state for the purpose of controlling lower level subsystem controllers. These commands serve to achieve the desire vehicle functionality within each state and insure smooth transitions between states.

  14. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2002-01-01

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  15. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2002-08-27

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  16. Planning an itinerary for an electric vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chale-Gongora, Hugo G.

    The steady increase in oil prices and awareness regarding environmental risks due to carbon dioxide emissions are promoting the current interest in electric vehicles. However, the current relatively low driving range ...

  17. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Castaing, Francois J. (Bloomfield Township, MI)

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  18. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

  19. Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuel CellFuel

  20. A Study of Adaptive and Optimizing Behavior for Electric Vehicles Based on Interactive Simulation Games and Revealed Behavior of Electric Vehicle Owners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Thomas; Lee-Gosselin, Martin; Kurani, Kenneth; Sperling, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    the Demand Electric Vehicles. In Transportation Research-1990. and L. Shipper, Electric Vehicles in a BroaderContext:of The Urban Electric Vehicle conference, Stockholm,

  1. A Study of Adaptive and Optimizing Behavior for Electric Vehicles Based on Interactive Simulation Games and Revealed Behavior of Electric Vehicle Owners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Thomas; Lee-Gosselin, Martin; Kurani, Kenneth; Sperling, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    1990. and L. Shipper, Electric Vehicles in a BroaderContext:of The Urban Electric Vehicle conference, Stockholm,the Demand Electric Vehicles. In Transportation Research-

  2. Electric Ground Support Equipment Advanced Battery Technology Demonstration Project at the Ontario Airport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Jeremy Diez; Jeffrey Wishart; James Francfort

    2013-07-01

    The intent of the electric Ground Support Equipment (eGSE) demonstration is to evaluate the day-to-day vehicle performance of electric baggage tractors using two advanced battery technologies to demonstrate possible replacements for the flooded lead-acid (FLA) batteries utilized throughout the industry. These advanced battery technologies have the potential to resolve barriers to the widespread adoption of eGSE deployment. Validation testing had not previously been performed within fleet operations to determine if the performance of current advanced batteries is sufficient to withstand the duty cycle of electric baggage tractors. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. The demonstration project also grew the relationship with Southwest Airlines (SWA), our demonstration partner at Ontario International Airport (ONT), located in Ontario, California. The results of this study have encouraged a proposal for a future demonstration project with SWA.

  3. Think City Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford Motor Company

    2005-03-01

    The THINK city Electric Vehicle (EV) Demonstration Program Project, initiated late 2001, has been successfully completed as of April 2005. US. Partners include Federal, State and Municipal agencies as well as commercial partners. Phase I, consisting of placement of the vehicles in demonstration programs, was completed in 2002. Phase II, the monitoring of these programs was completed in 2004. Phase III, the decommissioning and/or exporting of vehicles concluded in 2005. Phase I--the Program successfully assigned 192 EV's with customers (including Hertz) in the state of California, 109 in New York (including loaner and demo vehicles), 16 in Georgia, 7 to customers outside of the US and 52 in Ford's internal operations in Dearborn Michigan for a total of 376 vehicles. The Program was the largest operating Urban EV Demonstration Project in the United States. Phase II--the monitoring of the operational fleet was ongoing and completed in 2004, and all vehicles were returned throughout 2004 and 2005. The Department of Energy (DOE) was involved with the monitoring of the New York Power Authority/THINK Clean Commute Program units through partnership with Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC), which filed separate reports to DOE. The remainder of the field fleet was monitored through Ford's internal operations. Vehicles were retired from lease operation throughout the program for various operator reasons. Some of the vehicles were involved in re-leasing operations. At the end of the program, 376 vehicles had been involved, 372 of which were available for customer use while 4 were engineering prototype and study vehicles. Phase III--decommissioning and/or export of vehicles. In accordance with the NHTSA requirement, City vehicles could not remain in the United States past their three-year allowed program timeframe. At the end of leases, City vehicles have been decommissioned and/or exported to KamKorp in Norway.

  4. Heat engine and electric motor torque distribution strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Gebby, Brian P. (Hazel Park, MI)

    1999-09-28

    A method is provided for controlling a power train system for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method includes a torque distribution strategy for controlling the engine and the electric motor. The engine and motor commands are determined based upon the accelerator position, the battery state of charge and the amount of engine and motor torque available. The amount of torque requested for the engine is restricted by a limited rate of rise in order to reduce the emissions from the engine. The limited engine torque is supplemented by motor torque in order to meet a torque request determined based upon the accelerator position.

  5. Analysis of Off-Board Powered Thermal Preconditioning in Electric Drive Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.; Rugh , J.; Smith, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Following a hot or cold thermal soak, vehicle climate control systems (air conditioning or heat) are required to quickly attain a cabin temperature comfortable to the vehicle occupants. In a plug-in hybrid electric or electric vehicle (PEV) equipped with electric climate control systems, the traction battery is the sole on-board power source. Depleting the battery for immediate climate control results in reduced charge-depleting (CD) range and additional battery wear. PEV cabin and battery thermal preconditioning using off-board power supplied by the grid or a building can mitigate the impacts of climate control. This analysis shows that climate control loads can reduce CD range up to 35%. However, cabin thermal preconditioning can increase CD range up to 19% when compared to no thermal preconditioning. In addition, this analysis shows that while battery capacity loss over time is driven by ambient temperature rather than climate control loads, concurrent battery thermal preconditioning can reduce capacity loss up to 7% by reducing pack temperature in a high ambient temperature scenario.

  6. Optimizing and Diversifying Electric Vehicle Driving Range for U.S. Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Properly determining the driving range is critical for accurately predicting the sales and social benefits of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This study proposes a framework for optimizing the driving range by minimizing the sum of battery price, electricity cost, and range limitation cost referred to as the range-related cost as a measurement of range anxiety. The objective function is linked to policy-relevant parameters, including battery cost and price markup, battery utilization, charging infrastructure availability, vehicle efficiency, electricity and gasoline prices, household vehicle ownership, daily driving patterns, discount rate, and perceived vehicle lifetime. Qualitative discussion of the framework and its empirical application to a sample (N=36,664) representing new car drivers in the United States is included. The quantitative results strongly suggest that ranges of less than 100 miles are likely to be more popular in the BEV market for a long period of time. The average optimal range among U.S. drivers is found to be largely inelastic. Still, battery cost reduction significantly drives BEV demand toward longer ranges, whereas improvement in the charging infrastructure is found to significantly drive BEV demand toward shorter ranges. The bias of a single-range assumption and the effects of range optimization and diversification in reducing such biases are both found to be significant.

  7. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackie, Robin J. D.

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  8. Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Lifecycle Cost and Energy-Use Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark; Burke, Andy; Lipman, Timothy; Miller, Marshall

    2000-01-01

    and Conventional Vans , Electric Vehicle DevelopmentElectric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Workshop Proceedings,J. Oros, President, Electric Vehicle Infrastructure, Inc. ,

  9. Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , central plant solar and distributed solar resources. This IntElectric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-06NT42847

  10. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John Sheungchun (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  11. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Foundation for Electrified Transportation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.

    2010-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)--which include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles--provide a new opportunity for reducing oil consumption by drawing power from the electric grid. To maximize the benefits of PEVs, the emerging PEV infrastructure--from battery manufacturing to communication and control between the vehicle and the grid--must provide access to clean electricity, satisfy stakeholder expectations, and ensure safety. Currently, codes and standards organizations are collaborating on a PEV infrastructure plan. Establishing a PEV infrastructure framework will create new opportunities for business and job development initiating the move toward electrified transportation. This paper summarizes the components of the PEV infrastructure, challenges and opportunities related to the design and deployment of the infrastructure, and the potential benefits.

  12. Regenerative Braking for an Electric Vehicle Using Ultracapacitors and a Buck-Boost Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Regenerative Braking for an Electric Vehicle Using Ultracapacitors and a Buck-Boost Converter Juan situation (regenerative braking), the battery voltage goes up, and then the control needs to activate regenerative braking can be avoided #12;with the help of ultracapacitors. Besides, ultracapacitors allow

  13. Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based are used as energy storage. The size of the battery depends not only on the driving range, but also Deterministic Dynamic Programming. To determine an energy management to control the power flows to the storage

  14. Smart infrastructure for carbon foot print analysis of Electric Vehicles V Suresh, G Hill, Prof P T Blythe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    ]. Manuscript received April 11, 2010. This work was supported in part by the U.K Technology Strategy Board T Blythe Abstract-- Electric powered vehicles use energy stored in some form of battery for the vehicle under different conditions. By measuring the energy usage on any particular journey the equivalent

  15. Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

  16. On-road evaluation of advanced hybrid electric vehicles over a wide range of ambient temperatures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, R.; Duoba, M. J.; Bocci, D.; Lohse-Busch, H.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV's) have become a production viable and effective mode of efficient transportation. HEV's can provide increased fuel economy over convention technology vehicle, but these advantages can be affected dramatically by wide variations in operating temperatures. The majority of data measured for benchmarking HEV technologies is generated from ambient test cell temperatures at 22 C. To investigate cold and hot temperature affects on HEV operation and efficiency, an on-road evaluation protocol is defined and conducted over a six month study at widely varying temperatures. Two test vehicles, the 2007 Toyota Camry HEV and 2005 Ford Escape HEV, were driven on a pre-defined urban driving route in ambient temperatures ranging from -14 C to 31 C. Results from the on-road evaluation were also compared and correlated to dynamometer testing of the same drive cycle. Results from this on-road evaluation show the battery power control limits and engine operation dramatically change with temperature. These changes decrease fuel economy by more than two times at -14 C as compared to 25 C. The two vehicles control battery temperature in different manners. The Escape HEV uses the air conditioning system to provide cool air to the batteries at high temperatures and is therefore able to maintain battery temperature to less than 33 C. The Camry HEV uses cabin air to cool the batteries. The observed maximum battery temperature was 44 C.

  17. Semiotics and Advanced Vehicles: What Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Mean and Why it Matters to Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.

    2007-01-01

    electric, diesel, fuel-cell, and plug-in hybrid-electric,Hybrid Electric Vehicle 2X mileage of previous vehicle (full-size dieselhybrid and conventional gasoline powertrains, but very few articulated meanings for diesel

  18. Electric Storage in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium &progress in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage foronsite energy production (e.g. fuel cells, PV) at different

  19. On Minimizing the Energy Consumption of an Electrical Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-04-19

    Abstract. The electrical vehicle energy management can be expressed ... concerns only hybrid vehicles and discussed about the efficiency of some adapta

  20. Test Plan to Assess Electric Vehicle Cell Degradation under Electric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Test Plan to Assess Electric Vehicle Cell Degradation under Electric Utility Grid Operations. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the contents or use thereof. #12;Test Plan to Assess EV. Abstract This report details the testing plan that will be used by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute

  1. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Kloess, Maximillian; Cardoso, Goncalo; Mégel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-07-01

    Connecting electric storage technologies to smartgrids will have substantial implications in building energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response. Mobile storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources at the building. EVs will change the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g. PV, or fuel cells). In order to examine the impact of EVs on building energy costs and CO2 emissions in 2020, a distributed-energy-resources adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs or CO2 emissions. The mixed-integer linear program is applied to a set of 139 different commercial buildings in California and example results as well as the aggregated economic and environmental benefits are reported. The research shows that considering second life of EV batteries might be very beneficial for commercial buildings.

  2. Online Mechanism Design for Electric Vehicle Charging Enrico H. Gerding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Online Mechanism Design for Electric Vehicle Charging Enrico H. Gerding eg@ecs.soton.ac.uk Valentin electric vehicles are expected to place a consid- erable strain on local electricity distribution networks mechanisms are evaluated in depth, using data from a real-world trial of electric vehicles in the UK

  3. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  4. Computer Aided Design Tool for Electric, Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eskandari Halvaii, Ali

    2012-07-16

    -electric vehicle would start from the vehicle performance criteria and continue by applying them to the physical models of di?erent components of the vehicle. The final result would be strict and precise characteristics of all components in the vehicle...

  5. Testing Electric Vehicle Demand in "Hybrid Households" Using a Reflexive Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S.; Turrentine, Thomas; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    the demand electric vehicles’, TransportationResearchA,1994) ~tive NewsCalifornia Electric Vehicle ConsumerStudy.1995) Forecasting Electric Vehicle Ownership Use in the

  6. International Assessment of Electric-Drive Vehicles: Policies, Markets, and Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Lipman, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    D. (1995), Future Drive Electric Vehicles and Sustainable1996), "The Case for Electric Vehicles," Sclent~c American,Emissions Impacts of Electric Vehicles," Journal of the Alr

  7. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, Goncalo

    2014-01-01

    of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection,”Economy of 2012 Electric Vehicles. ” [Online]. Available:Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

  8. Boost Converters for Gas Electric and Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, JW

    2005-06-16

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are driven by at least two prime energy sources, such as an internal combustion engine (ICE) and propulsion battery. For a series HEV configuration, the ICE drives only a generator, which maintains the state-of-charge (SOC) of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. For a parallel HEV configuration, the ICE is mechanically connected to directly drive the wheels as well as the generator, which likewise maintains the SOC of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. Today the prime energy source is an ICE; tomorrow it will very likely be a fuel cell (FC). Use of the FC eliminates a direct drive capability accentuating the importance of the battery charge and discharge systems. In both systems, the electric traction motor may use the voltage directly from the batteries or from a boost converter that raises the voltage. If low battery voltage is used directly, some special control circuitry, such as dual mode inverter control (DMIC) which adds a small cost, is necessary to drive the electric motor above base speed. If high voltage is chosen for more efficient motor operation or for high speed operation, the propulsion battery voltage must be raised, which would require some type of two-quadrant bidirectional chopper with an additional cost. Two common direct current (dc)-to-dc converters are: (1) the transformer-based boost or buck converter, which inverts a dc voltage, feeds the resulting alternating current (ac) into a transformer to raise or lower the voltage, and rectifies it to complete the conversion; and (2) the inductor-based switch mode boost or buck converter [1]. The switch-mode boost and buck features are discussed in this report as they operate in a bi-directional chopper. A benefit of the transformer-based boost converter is that it isolates the high voltage from the low voltage. Usually the transformer is large, further increasing the cost. A useful feature of the switch mode boost converter is its simplicity. Its inductor must handle the entire current, which is responsible for its main cost. The new Z-source inverter technology [2,3] boosts voltage directly by actively using the zero state time to boost the voltage. In the traditional pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter, this time is used only to control the average voltage by disconnecting the supply voltage from the motor. The purpose of this study is to examine the Z-source's potential for reducing the cost and improving the reliability of HEVs.

  9. Implementation Approach for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord. Task 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on Joint Base Lewis McChord (JBLM), which is located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at JBLM to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and the types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of select vehicles were identified and vehicle movements were recorded in data loggers in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. In Task 3, the results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption (i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle [collectively referred to as PEVs] can fulfill the mission requirements0, as well as the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the JBLM fleet.

  10. Electric Vehicle Lifecycle Cost Assessment for Hawaii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to residential solar photovoltaic (PV) power to reducing EV ownership costs. In this work, extensions are made substantially brings down the cost of EV ownership, even considering the capital expenditure for PV panelsElectric Vehicle Lifecycle Cost Assessment for Hawaii Dr. Makena Coffman Dr. Paul Bernstein

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    As nations around the world pursue a variety of sustainable transportation solutions, the hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) presents a promising opportunity for American consumers and automakers. FCEVs offer a sustainable transportation option, provide a cost-competitive alternative for drivers, reduce dependence on imported oil, and enable global economic leadership and job growth.

  12. An Optimization Model for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The necessity for environmentally conscious vehicle designs in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change have induced significant investment towards enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. More recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have held great intuitive appeal and have attracted considerable attention. PHEVs have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the commercial transportation sector. They are especially appealing in situations where daily commuting is within a small amount of miles with excessive stop-and-go driving. The research effort outlined in this paper aims to investigate the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium-duty PHEV. An optimization framework is developed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, e.g., pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the optimal design with respect to motor/generator and battery size. A comparison between the conventional and PHEV configurations with equivalent size and performance under the same driving conditions is conducted, thus allowing an assessment of the fuel economy and GHG emissions potential improvement. The post-transmission parallel configuration yields higher fuel economy and less GHG emissions compared to pre-transmission configuration partly attributable to the enhanced regenerative braking efficiency.

  13. Cost Analysis of Plug-In Hybred Electric Vehicles Using GPS-Based Longitudinal Travel Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xing [Lamar University] [Lamar University; Dong, Jing [Iowa State University] [Iowa State University; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Using spatial, longitudinal travel data of 415 vehicles over 3 18 months in the Seattle metropolitan area, this paper estimates the operating costs of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) of various electric ranges (10, 20, 30, and 40 miles) for 3, 5, and 10 years of payback period, considering different charging infrastructure deployment levels and gasoline prices. Some key findings were made. (1) PHEVs could help save around 60% or 40% in energy costs, compared with conventional gasoline vehicles (CGVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), respectively. However, for motorists whose daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT) is significant, HEVs may be even a better choice than PHEV40s, particularly in areas that lack a public charging infrastructure. (2) The incremental battery cost of large-battery PHEVs is difficult to justify based on the incremental savings of PHEVs operating costs unless a subsidy is offered for largebattery PHEVs. (3) When the price of gasoline increases from $4/gallon to $5/gallon, the number of drivers who benefit from a larger battery increases significantly. (4) Although quick chargers can reduce charging time, they contribute little to energy cost savings for PHEVs, as opposed to Level-II chargers.

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Vehicle Charging for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Vehicle Charging for Multi-Unit Dwellings to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Vehicle Charging for Multi-Unit Dwellings on Facebook Tweet...

  15. Sample Employee Newsletter Articles for Plug-In Electric Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Articles for Plug-In Electric Vehicle Engagement These sample articles on plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can be customized and used in your employee newsletters, blog or...

  16. Partnership Helps Alleviate Electric Vehicle Range Anxiety (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL, Clean Cities, and industry leaders join forces to create the first comprehensive online locator for electric vehicle charging stations.

  17. System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with gasoline and diesel engines will be conducted with focus on emissions control.

  18. Electric Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. electric vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by [company name] at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy lithium batteries...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development of a PHEV Battery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Xerion Advanced Battery Corp. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development of...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Envia at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy lithium batteries for PHEV...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by [company name] at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy high power battery...

  3. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in annual sales of plug-in electric vehicles by 2023, which may substantially increase electricity usage and peak demand in high adoption areas. Understanding customer charging...

  4. Now Available: Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in annual sales of plug-in electric vehicles by 2023, which may substantially increase electricity usage and peak demand in high adoption areas. Understanding customer charging...

  5. Ultracapacitor Applications and Evaluation for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Gonder, J.; Keyser, M.

    2009-04-01

    Describes the use of ultracapacitors in advanced hybrid and electric vehicles and discusses thermal and electrical testing of lithium ion capacitors for HEV applications.

  6. Control Strategies for Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Using Renewables and Local Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castello, Charles C; LaClair, Tim J; Maxey, L Curt

    2014-01-01

    The increase of electric vehicle (EV) and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption creates a need for more EV supply equipment (EVSE) infrastructure (i.e., EV chargers). The impact of EVSE installations could be significant due to limitations in the electric grid and potential demand charges for residential and commercial customers. The use of renewables (e.g., solar) and local storage (e.g., battery bank) can mitigate loads caused by EVSE on the electric grid. This would eliminate costly upgrades needed by utilities and decrease demand charges for consumers. This paper aims to explore control systems that mitigate the impact of EVSE on the electric grid using solar energy and battery banks. Three control systems are investigated and compared in this study. The first control system discharges the battery bank at a constant rate during specific times of the day based on historical data. The second discharges the battery bank based on the number of EVs charging (linear) and the amount of solar energy being generated. The third discharges the battery bank based on a sigmoid function (non-linear) in response to the number of EVs charging, and also takes into consideration the amount of renewables being generated. The first and second control systems recharge the battery bank at night when demand charges are lowest. The third recharges the battery bank at night and during times of the day when there is an excess of solar. Experiments are conducted using data from a private site that has 25 solar-assisted charging stations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, TN and 4 at a public site in Nashville, TN. Results indicate the third control system having better performance, negating up to 71% of EVSE load, compared with the second control system (up to 61%) and the first control system (up to 58%).

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Evaluating Military Bases and Fleet Readiness for Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Through the AVTA, Idaho National Laboratory also does fleet and other analysis to evaluate readiness for plug-in electric vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles. The following reports describe analysis studies Idaho National Laboratory conducted for the military to evaluate readiness for plug-in electric vehicles.

  8. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty (West Bloomfield, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  9. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Parameter FedEx HEV C d 0.7 Frontal area (m 2 ) 7.02 Vehicle mass (kg) 4,472 Engine power (kW) 182 Motor power (kW) 100 Battery power (kW) 60 Battery capacity (kWh) 2.45...

  10. Benefits and Challenges of Achieving a Mainstream Market for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ungar, Edward [Taratec Corporation; Mueller, Howard [Taratec Corporation; Smith, Brett [Center for Automotive Research

    2010-08-01

    The Plug-in Hybrid electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study Final Report identified a range of policies, incentives and regulations designed to enhance the probability of success in commercializing PHEVs as they enter the automotive marketplace starting in 2010. The objective of the comprehensive PHEV Value Proposition study, which encompasses the PHEV Market Introduction Study, is to better understand the value proposition that PHEVs (as well as other plug-in electric vehicle platforms - PEVs) provide to the auto companies themselves, to the consumer and to the public at large as represented by the government and its public policies. In this report we use the more inclusive term PEVs, to include PHEVs, BEVs (battery electric vehicles that operate only on battery) and EREVs (extended range electric vehicles that combine battery electric vehicles with an internal combustion engine that charges the battery as needed). The objective of Taratec's contribution to Phase 2 of the PHEV Value Proposition Study is to develop a clear understanding of the benefits of PEVs to three stakeholders - auto original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), utilities, and the government - and of the technical and commercial challenges and risks to be overcome in order to achieve commercial success for these vehicles. The goal is to understand the technical and commercial challenges in moving from the 'early adopters' at the point of market introduction of these vehicles to a 'sustainable' mainstream market in which PEVs and other PEVs represent a normal, commercially available and attractive vehicle to the mainstream consumer. For the purpose of this study, that sustainable market is assumed to be in place in the 2030 timeframe. The principal focus of the study is to better understand the technical and commercial challenges in the transition from early adopters to a sustainable mainstream consumer market. Effectively, that translates to understanding the challenges to be overcome during the transition period - basically the middle years as the second and third generation of these vehicles are developed and come to market. The concern is to understand those things that in the near term would delay that transition. The study looked at identifying and then quantifying these technical and commercial risks and benefits from three perspectives: (1) The auto industry original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) themselves; (2) The utilities who will provide the electric 'fuel' that will fully or partially power the vehicles; and (3) The government, representing public policy interest in PEV success. By clarifying and quantifying these benefits and the technical and commercial risks that could delay the transition to a sustainable mainstream market, the study provides the basis for developing recommendations for government policies and support for PHEV and PEV development.

  11. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study SSuummmmaarryy ooff WWoorrkksshhoopp. #12;ORNL/TM-2008/242 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study SUMMARY OF WORKSHOP The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study Workshop was attended by approximately

  12. ChargeCar Community Conversions: Practical, Electric Commuter Vehicles Now!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ChargeCar Community Conversions: Practical, Electric Commuter Vehicles Now! H. Ben Brown, Illah-range electric commuter vehicles (EVs) is here now! The ChargeCar project at Carnegie Mellon University aims to exploit today's technology to make efficient, clean, quiet, commuter electric vehicles avail- able

  13. Sneaking Interaction Techniques into Electric Vehicles Sebastian Loehmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sneaking Interaction Techniques into Electric Vehicles Sebastian Loehmann University of Munich (LMU Due to the release of several electric vehicles (EV) to the car market, the number of sales from regular combustion engine cars to create electric vehicle information systems (EVIS). We argue

  14. Cinematic of Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (V.H.E. CINEMATICS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudoin, Geneviève

    Cinematic of Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (V.H.E. CINEMATICS) Participants: Pr. Abdel Réama Pr. Arben Hybrid electrical vehicle is becoming a necessity to counter the rising price of the traditional for energy efficient hybrid electrical vehicle drive Problématique et objectifs The flux producing current

  15. Mobile Applications and Algorithms to Facilitate Electric Vehicle Deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Veciana, Gustavo

    Mobile Applications and Algorithms to Facilitate Electric Vehicle Deployment Yuhuan Du and Gustavo: dyhuan123@gmail.com, gustavo@ece.utexas.edu Abstract--Although electric vehicles are attracting strengthen the potential of electric vehicle integration with the renewable energy generation and storage. We

  16. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study Phase 1, Task 3:Phase 1, Task 3: Technic Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2008/068 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Proposition Study is a collaborative effort between

  17. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study IInntteerriimm RReeppoorrtt:: PPhhaassee 11 Government or any agency thereof. ORNL/TM-2008/076 #12;Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition 2009 i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Proposition Study

  18. Enhancing Location Privacy for Electric Vehicles (at the right time)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Enhancing Location Privacy for Electric Vehicles (at the right time) Joseph K. Liu1 , Man Ho Au2 University of Wollongong, Australia {aau, wsusilo}@uow.edu.au Abstract. An electric vehicle is a promising of electric vehicles at the right time, by proposing an anonymous payment system with privacy protection

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    INVITED P A P E R Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Tools that can model embedded software as well as components, and can automate the details of electric and hybrid vehicle design of electric and hybrid vehicles. Different modeling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form

  20. Joachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Joachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles using AC Master's Thesis, September 2013 #12;#12;Joachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles using AC Master's Thesis, September 2013 #12;#12;Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles using AC This report was prepared by Joachim Skov Johansen Contact

  1. California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, Marc; Helwig, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment conveys to interested parties the Energy Commission’s conclusions, recommendations, and intentions with respect to plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure development. There are several relatively low-risk and high-priority electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) deployment options that will encourage PEV sales and

  2. Electric vehicles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdisto Electric Coop, Inc Jump to:ElectraLink Jump to:Chattanooga

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office: Plug-In Electric Vehicles and Batteries |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment| Department of Energy OfficeResourcesmap|Department of Energy

  4. Fact #796: September 9, 2013 Electric Vehicle and Plug-In Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6: September 9, 2013 Electric Vehicle and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales History Fact 796: September 9, 2013 Electric Vehicle and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales...

  5. Electrochemical Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Present Status and Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of Lithium-ion Batteries and Ultracapacitors inResults using Lithium-ion Batteries, paper presented at EET-Comparisons with Lithium-ion Batteries for Hybrid vehicle

  6. Commercial Electric Vehicle (EV) Development and Manufacturing Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeve, Dion

    2014-06-30

    Navistar with the Department of Energy’s assistance undertook this effort to achieve the project objectives as listed in the next section. A wholly owned subsidiary of Navistar, Workhorse Sales Corporation was the original grant awardee and upon their discontinuation as a standalone business entity, Navistar assumed the role of principal investigator. The intent of the effort, as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) was to produce zero emission vehicles that could meet the needs of the marketplace while reducing carbon emissions to zero. This effort was predicated upon the assumption that concurrent development activities in the lithium ion battery industry investigations would significantly increase their production volumes thus leading to substantial reductions in their manufacturing costs. As a result of this development effort much was learned about the overall system compatibility between the electric motor, battery pack, and charging capabilities. The original system was significantly revised and improved during the execution of this development effort. The overall approach that was chosen was to utilize a British zero emissions, class 2 truck that had been developed for their market, homologate it and modify it to meet the product requirements as specified in the grant details. All of these specific goals were achieved. During the course of marketing and selling the product valuable information was obtained as relates to customer expectations, price points, and product performance expectations, specifically those customer expectations about range requirements in urban delivery situations. While the grant requirements specified a range of 100 miles on a single charge, actual customer usage logs indicate a range of 40 miles or less is typical for their applications. The price point, primarily due to battery pack costs, was significantly higher than the mass market could bear. From Navistar’s and the overall industry’s perspective, valuable insights and lessons into this all-electric vehicle propulsion were gained during the performance of this effort and can be revisited when battery chemistry and technology advance to the point of more suitable economic viability. Additionally, another goal of the ARRA act and this specific grant was to manufacture the product in the, at that time, economically depressed Northwest Indiana area. Navistar chose a location in Wakarusa, Indiana which fulfilled this requirement. Navistar was and continues to be committed to alternative fuel and propulsion options as an industry leader in the medium and heavy duty truck industry.

  7. Simulations of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles Using Advanced Lithium Batteries and Ultracapacitors on Various Driving Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Zhao, Hengbing

    2010-01-01

    ex> energy storage 2 drive cycle vehicle cycle, the vehicle had blended operation (engine and electric drive

  8. PWM Inverter control and the application thereof within electric vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geppert, Steven (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    1982-01-01

    An inverter (34) which provides power to an A.C. machine (28) is controlled by a circuit (36) employing PWM control strategy whereby A.C. power is supplied to the machine at a preselectable frequency and preselectable voltage. This is accomplished by the technique of waveform notching in which the shapes of the notches are varied to determine the average energy content of the overall waveform. Through this arrangement, the operational efficiency of the A.C. machine is optimized. The control circuit includes a micro-computer and memory element which receive various parametric inputs and calculate optimized machine control data signals therefrom. The control data is asynchronously loaded into the inverter through an intermediate buffer (38). In its preferred embodiment, the present invention is incorporated within an electric vehicle (10) employing a 144 VDC battery pack (32) and a three-phase induction motor (18).

  9. US-ABC Collaborates to Lower Cost of Electric Drive Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    US-ABC Collaborates to Lower Cost of Electric Drive Batteries US-ABC Collaborates to Lower Cost of Electric Drive Batteries April 16, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The U.S. Advanced...

  10. RD&D Cooperation for the Development of Fuel Cell, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles within the International Energy Agency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Telias, G.; Day, K.; Dietrich, P.

    2011-01-01

    Annex XIII on 'Fuel Cell Vehicles' of the Implementing Agreement Hybrid and Electric Vehicles of the International Energy Agency has been operating since 2006, complementing the ongoing activities on battery and hybrid electric vehicles within this group. This paper provides an overview of the Annex XIII final report for 2010, compiling an up-to-date, neutral, and comprehensive assessment of current trends in fuel cell vehicle technology and related policy. The technological description includes trends in system configuration as well as a review of the most relevant components including the fuel cell stack, batteries, and hydrogen storage. Results from fuel cell vehicle demonstration projects around the world and an overview of the successful implementation of fuel cells in specific transport niche markets will also be discussed. The final section of this report provides a detailed description of national research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) efforts worldwide.

  11. Learning from Consumers: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Demonstration and Consumer Education, Outreach, and Market Research Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Axsen, Jonn; Caperello, Nicolette; Davies, Jamie; Stillwater, Tai

    2009-01-01

    in relation to the electric vehicle. Science Technology &Vehicles: What Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Mean and Whymarket for hybrid electric vehicles. Transportation Research

  12. How green are electric vehicles? It is thought plug-in hybrids and other electric vehicles are more environmental friendly and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    How green are electric vehicles? It is thought plug-in hybrids and other electric vehicles are more environmental friendly and produce less pollution. Examining other aspects of electric vehicles besides tailpipe vehicles are a life cycle analysis approach must be used. Electricity: Electric vehicles will require more

  13. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle...

  14. MARVEL: A PC-based interactive software package for life-cycle evaluations of hybrid/electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, W.W.; He, J.

    1995-07-01

    As a life-cycle analysis tool, MARVEL has been developed for the evaluation of hybrid/electric vehicle systems. It can identify the optimal combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and performance requirements, on the basis of either life-cycle cost or fuel efficiency. Battery models that allow trade-offs between specific power and specific energy, between cycle life and depth of discharge, between peak power and depth of discharge, and between other parameters, are included in the software. A parallel hybrid configuration, using an internal combustion engine and a battery as the power sources, can be simulated with a user-specified energy management strategy. The PC-based software package can also be used for cost or fuel efficiency comparisons among conventional, electric, and hybrid vehicles.

  15. Costs and Emissions Associated with Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging in the Xcel Energy Colorado Service Territory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, K.; Denholm, P.; Markel, T.

    2007-05-01

    The combination of high oil costs, concerns about oil security and availability, and air quality issues related to vehicle emissions are driving interest in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs are similar to conventional hybrid electric vehicles, but feature a larger battery and plug-in charger that allows electricity from the grid to replace a portion of the petroleum-fueled drive energy. PHEVs may derive a substantial fraction of their miles from grid-derived electricity, but without the range restrictions of pure battery electric vehicles. As of early 2007, production of PHEVs is essentially limited to demonstration vehicles and prototypes. However, the technology has received considerable attention from the media, national security interests, environmental organizations, and the electric power industry. The use of PHEVs would represent a significant potential shift in the use of electricity and the operation of electric power systems. Electrification of the transportation sector could increase generation capacity and transmission and distribution (T&D) requirements, especially if vehicles are charged during periods of high demand. This study is designed to evaluate several of these PHEV-charging impacts on utility system operations within the Xcel Energy Colorado service territory.

  16. Investigating Wireless Charging and Mobility of Electric Vehicles on Electricity Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Weihua

    1 Investigating Wireless Charging and Mobility of Electric Vehicles on Electricity Market Chia inconvenient vehicle stops at charging stations, the on-road wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs for this application, i.e., the impact of wireless charging and mobility of EVs on the wholesale electricity market

  17. Ultracapacitor Technologies and Application in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    operation of the engine and electric drive system. In thefor a wide variety of engines, electric, and lithium-ionstrategy of the electric motor and engine when the vehicle

  18. A Consumer-Oriented Control Framework for Performance Analysis in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoultout, Mohamed L.; Malikopoulos, Andreas; Pannala, Sreekanth; Chen, Dongmei

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. The objective of this paper is to enhance our understanding of the associated tradeoffs among the HEV subsystems, e.g., the engine, the motor, and the battery, and investigate the related implications for fuel consumption and battery capacity and lifetime. Addressing this problem can provide insights on how to prioritize these objectives based on consumers needs and preferences. The results of the proposed optimization approach can also be used to investigate the implications for HEV costs related to ownership and warranty.

  19. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Francfort

    2009-07-01

    The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results report provides real world test results from PHEV operations and testing in 20 United States and Canada. Examples are given that demonstrate the significant variations operational parameters can have on PHEV petroleum use. In addition to other influences, PHEV mpg results are significantly impacted by driver aggressiveness, cold temperatures, and whether or not the vehicle operator has charged the PHEV battery pack. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) has been testing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for several years. The AVTA http://avt.inl.gov/), which is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technology Program, also tests other advanced technology vehicles, with 12 million miles of total test vehicle and data collection experience. The Idaho National Laboratory is responsible for conducting the light-duty vehicle testing of PHEVs. Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation also supports the AVTA by conducting PHEV and other types of testing. To date, 12 different PHEV models have been tested, with more than 600,000 miles of PHEV operations data collected.

  20. Reinforcement Learning Based Power Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Reinforcement Learning Based Power Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Xue Lin 1 , Yanzhi Wang combustion engine (ICE) propelled vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can achieve both higher fuel economy and lower pollution emissions. The HEV consists of a hybrid propulsion system containing one ICE

  1. Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.; Sun, Y.; Bush, B.

    2014-08-01

    Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions. Total fuel costs per mile for battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are, respectively, 21% lower and 13% lower than that for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) under the home-dominant scenario. Including fuel economies and vehicle costs makes FCEVs and BEVs comparable in terms of costs per mile, and PHEVs are about 10% less than FCEVs and BEVs. To account for geographic variability in energy prices and hydrogen delivery costs, we use the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model and confirm the aforementioned estimate of cost per mile, nationally averaged, but see a 15% variability in regional costs of FCEVs and a 5% variability in regional costs for BEVs.

  2. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikes, Karen R; Markel, Lawrence C; Hadley, Stanton W; Hinds, Shaun; DeVault, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The purpose of this project is to identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome this market barrier. Candidate value propositions for the initial case study were chosen to enhance consumer acceptance of PHEVs and/or compatibility with the grid. Potential benefits of such grid-connected vehicles include the ability to supply peak load or emergency power requirements of the grid, enabling utilities to size their generation capacity and contingency resources at levels below peak. Different models for vehicle/battery ownership, leasing, financing and operation, as well as the grid, communications, and vehicle infrastructure needed to support the proposed value-added functions were explored during Phase 1. Rigorous power system, vehicle, financial and emissions modeling were utilized to help identify the most promising value propositions and market niches to focus PHEV deployment initiatives.

  3. An Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessary Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Gui-Jia; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, an integrated onboard battery charger and accessary dc-dc converter for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is presented. The idea is to utilize the already available traction drive inverters and motors of a PEV as the frond converter of the charger circuit and the transformer of the 14 V accessary dc-dc converter to provide galvanic isolation. The topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5 kW charger prototype

  4. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  5. Electric and hybrid vehicles program. 5th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-03-01

    This fifth annual report on the implementation of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-413, as amended by Public Law 95-238, referred to as the Act) complies with the reporting requirements established in Section 14 of the Act. In addition to informing the Congress of the progress and plans of the Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program, this report is intended to serve as a communication link between the Department and all of the public and private interests involved in making the program a success. The Annual Report represents the major summary of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program activities; since July 1981, DOE has ceased publication of the EHV Quarterly Reports with Congressional approval. The fourth quarter activities for FY 1981 are included in this report. During FY 1981, significant progress was made toward implementing the policies established by Congress in the Act. There has been a noticeable increase in interest shown by both the automobile manufacturing and the supply sectors of our economy in electric and hybrid vehicles. This year, the emphasis in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program shifted from vehicle demonstration and preparation for production readiness to research, development, test, and evaluation of advanced technologies to achieve the attributes necessary to make electric and hybrid vehicles a practical transportation alternative. Research and development efforts in batteries and propulsion components, as well as total vehicle systems, continue to reveal significant progress toward providing industry with technology options that will result in vehicles with greater public acceptance.

  6. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  7. Plug-in electric vehicle introduction in the EU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sisternes, Fernando J. de $q (Fernando José Sisternes Jiménez)

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) could significantly reduce gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU's transport sector. However, PEV well-towheel (WTW) emissions depend on improvements in vehicle ...

  8. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation vss043barnitt2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field...

  9. Optimally controlling hybrid electric vehicles using path forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsargyri, Georgia-Evangelina

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) with path-forecasting belong to the class of fuel efficient vehicles, which use external sensory information and powertrains with multiple operating modes in order to increase fuel economy. ...

  10. Optimal Decentralized Protocol for Electric Vehicle Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, LW; Topcu, U; Low, SH

    2013-05-01

    We propose a decentralized algorithm to optimally schedule electric vehicle (EV) charging. The algorithm exploits the elasticity of electric vehicle loads to fill the valleys in electric load profiles. We first formulate the EV charging scheduling problem as an optimal control problem, whose objective is to impose a generalized notion of valley-filling, and study properties of optimal charging profiles. We then give a decentralized algorithm to iteratively solve the optimal control problem. In each iteration, EVs update their charging profiles according to the control signal broadcast by the utility company, and the utility company alters the control signal to guide their updates. The algorithm converges to optimal charging profiles (that are as "flat" as they can possibly be) irrespective of the specifications (e.g., maximum charging rate and deadline) of EVs, even if EVs do not necessarily update their charging profiles in every iteration, and use potentially outdated control signal when they update. Moreover, the algorithm only requires each EV solving its local problem, hence its implementation requires low computation capability. We also extend the algorithm to track a given load profile and to real-time implementation.

  11. MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS on the maximum deliverable power is essential to protect lithium-ion batteries from over- charge Terminal voltage Voc Open circuit voltage of a battery 1 INTRODUCTION Lithium-ion batteries have been used

  12. Methodology for combined Integration of electric vehicles and distributed resources into the electric grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunter, Samantha Joellyn

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles and distributed generation are expected to appear in growing numbers over the next few decades. Large scale unregulated penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and distributed generation can each ...

  13. Special Section on: Dynamic Charging of Electric Vehicles by Wireless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Special Section on: Dynamic Charging of Electric Vehicles by Wireless Power Transfer I N RECENT TIMES, wireless power charging of electric vehicles (EV) has gained huge attentions. Static wireless charging systems Mass transit electrification (electric trains, trams, and buses) us- ing dynamic wireless

  14. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric vehicles, usually because of range limitations. Twelve fleets reported experiencing at least one charge depletion while driving, whereas nine fleets reported not having this problem. Twenty-four of the 25 fleets responded that the electric vehicles were easy to use and 22 fleets indicated that the payload was adequate. Thirteen fleets reported charging problems; eleven fleets reported no charging problems. Nine fleets reported the vehicles broke down while driving; 14 fleets reported no onroad breakdowns. Some of the breakdowns while driving, however, appear to include normal flat tires and idiot lights coming on. In spite of operation and charging problems, 59% of the fleets responded that they were satisfied, very satisfied, or extremely satisfied with the performance of the electric vehicles. As of September 2003, 74 of the electric vehicles were still being used and 107 had been returned to the manufacturers because the leases had concluded.

  15. Optimizing and Diversifying the Electric Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for U.S. Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    To provide useful information for automakers to design successful plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) products and for energy and environmental analysts to understand the social impact of PHEVs, this paper addresses the question of how many of the U.S. consumers, if buying a PHEV, would prefer what electric ranges. The Market-oriented Optimal Range for PHEV (MOR-PHEV) model is developed to optimize the PHEV electric range for each of 36,664 sampled individuals representing U.S. new vehicle drivers. The optimization objective is the minimization of the sum of costs on battery, gasoline, electricity and refueling hassle. Assuming no battery subsidy, the empirical results suggest that: 1) the optimal PHEV electric range approximates two thirds of one s typical daily driving distance in the near term, defined as $450/kWh battery delivered price and $4/gallon gasoline price. 2) PHEVs are not ready to directly compete with HEVs at today s situation, defined by the $600/kWh battery delivered price and the $3-$4/gallon gasoline price, but can do so in the near term. 3) PHEV10s will be favored by the market over longer-range PHEVs in the near term, but longer-range PHEVs can dominate the PHEV market if gasoline prices reach as high as $5-$6 per gallon and/or battery delivered prices reach as low as $150-$300/kWh. 4) PHEVs can become much more attractive against HEVs in the near term if the electric range can be extended by only 10% with multiple charges per day, possible with improved charging infrastructure or adapted charging behavior. 5) the impact of a $100/kWh decrease in battery delivered prices on the competiveness of PHEVs against HEVs can be offset by about $1.25/gallon decrease in gasoline prices, or about 7/kWh increase in electricity prices. This also means that the impact of a $1/gallon decrease in gasoline prices can be offset by about 5/kWh decrease in electricity prices.

  16. Electric Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles: Electric-Powered Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a new class of advanced nanomaterial called an electrical metal organic framework (EMOF) for EV heating and cooling systems. The EMOF would function similar to a conventional heat pump, which circulates heat or cold to the cabin as needed. However, by directly controlling the EMOF's properties with electricity, the PNNL design is expected to use much less energy than traditional heating and cooling systems. The EMOF-based heat pumps would be light, compact, efficient, and run using virtually no moving parts.

  17. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Electrical Contractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-01

    This handbook answers basic questions about plug-in electric vehicles, charging stations, charging equipment, charging equipment installation, and training for electrical contractors.

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  19. DC Fast Charge Impacts on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: - Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see Attachment A) are intended to assist future implementation of electric vehicle technology. They are based on the cited research and on the empirical data collected and presented. The report is not expected to represent the entire operating conditions of any of the equipment under consideration within this project, and tested equipment may operate differently under other conditions.

  1. Modeling of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Interactions with a Sustainable Community Grid in the Azores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, Goncalo

    2013-01-01

    could be used to offset EV charging at home. It is importantbattery charging and discharging efficiencies, E EV is theby EV battery Electricity for stationary battery charging

  2. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    is limited by battery size - Heat storage is limited bybattery discharging efficiency, dimensionless electricity storagefor other non-storage technologies, $ EV battery degradation

  3. Electric Drive Vehicle Level Control Development Under Various...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Level Control Development Under Various Thermal Conditions Electric Drive Vehicle Level Control Development Under Various Thermal Conditions 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  4. EV Everywhere: America's Plug-In Electric Vehicle Market Charges...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the world's total and our transportation system producing a third of the country's carbon pollution, improving plug-in electric vehicle technology and increasing the number of...

  5. AVTA: EVSE Testing- NYSERDA Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These reports describe the charging patterns of drivers participating in the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority's (NYSERDA) electric vehicle (EV) infrastructure project.

  6. Communication and Control of Electric Vehicles Supporting Renewables: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Kuss, M.; Denholm, P.

    2009-08-01

    Discusses the technologies needed, potential scenarios, limitations, and opportunities for using grid-connected renewable energy to fuel the electric vehicles of the future.

  7. Advancing Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and government partners will focus on identifying actions to encourage early adopters of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) by conducting coordinated technical and market...

  8. Electric vehicle design, racing and distance to empty algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodgers, Lennon Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This research began with the goal of designing and building an electric motorcycle to compete in the Isle of Man TT Zero race. A set of parametric physics-based models was derived to size the batteries and motors, predict ...

  9. Fact #750: October 22, 2012 Electric Vehicle Energy Requirements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    There are energy losses of about 16-19% from charging and battery storage while electric drive system and parasitic losses combined account for another 25-28%. Off-setting some of...

  10. Housing assembly for electric vehicle transaxle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  11. Using Electric Vehicles to Meet Balancing Requirements Associated with Wind Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-07-31

    Many states are deploying renewable generation sources at a significant rate to meet renewable portfolio standards. As part of this drive to meet renewable generation levels, significant additions of wind generation are planned. Due to the highly variable nature of wind generation, significant energy imbalances on the power system can be created and need to be handled. This report examines the impact on the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP) region for a 2019 expected wind scenario. One method for mitigating these imbalances is to utilize plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) or battery electric vehicles (BEVs) as assets to the grid. PHEVs and BEVs have the potential to meet this demand through both charging and discharging strategies. This report explores the usage of two different charging schemes: V2GHalf and V2GFull. In V2GHalf, PHEV/BEV charging is varied to absorb the additional imbalance from the wind generation, but never feeds power back into the grid. This scenario is highly desirable to automotive manufacturers, who harbor great concerns about battery warranty if vehicle-to-grid discharging is allowed. The second strategy, V2GFull, varies not only the charging of the vehicle battery, but also can vary the discharging of the battery back into the power grid. This scenario is currently less desirable to automotive manufacturers, but provides an additional resource benefit to PHEV/BEVs in meeting the additional imbalance imposed by wind. Key findings in the report relate to the PHEV/BEV population required to meet the additional imbalance when comparing V2GHalf to V2GFull populations, and when comparing home-only-charging and work-and-home-charging scenarios. Utilizing V2GFull strategies over V2GHalf resulted in a nearly 33% reduction in the number of vehicles required. This reduction indicates fewer vehicles are needed to meet the unhandled energy, but they would utilize discharging of the vehicle battery into the grid. This practice currently results in the voiding of automotive manufacturer's battery warranty, and is not feasible for many customers. The second key finding is the change in the required population when PHEV/BEV charging is available at both home and work. Allowing 10% of the vehicle population access to work charging resulted in nearly 80% of the grid benefit. Home-only charging requires, at best, 94% of the current NWPP light duty vehicle fleet to be a PHEV or BEV. With the introduction of full work charging availability, only 8% of the NWPP light duty vehicle fleet is required. Work charging has primarily been associated with mitigating range anxiety in new electric vehicle owners, but these studies indicate they have significant potential for improving grid reliability. The V2GHalf and V2GFull charging strategies of the report utilize grid frequency as an indication of the imbalance requirements. The introduction of public charging stations, as well as the potential for PHEV/BEVs to be used as a resource for renewable generation integration, creates conditions for additional products into the ancillary services market. In the United Kingdom, such a capability would be bid as a frequency product in the ancillary services market. Such a market could create the need for larger, third-party aggregators or services to manage the use of electric vehicles as a grid resource. Ultimately, customer adoption, usage patterns and habits, and feedback from the power and automotive industries will drive the need.

  12. Electric vehicle drive train with rollback detection and compensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Konrad, Charles E. (Roanoke, VA)

    1994-01-01

    An electric vehicle drive train includes a controller for detecting and compensating for vehicle rollback, as when the vehicle is started upward on an incline. The vehicle includes an electric motor rotatable in opposite directions corresponding to opposite directions of vehicle movement. A gear selector permits the driver to select an intended or desired direction of vehicle movement. If a speed and rotational sensor associated with the motor indicates vehicle movement opposite to the intended direction of vehicle movement, the motor is driven to a torque output magnitude as a nonconstant function of the rollback speed to counteract the vehicle rollback. The torque function may be either a linear function of speed or a function of the speed squared.

  13. Electric vehicle drive train with rollback detection and compensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Konrad, C.E.

    1994-12-27

    An electric vehicle drive train includes a controller for detecting and compensating for vehicle rollback, as when the vehicle is started upward on an incline. The vehicle includes an electric motor rotatable in opposite directions corresponding to opposite directions of vehicle movement. A gear selector permits the driver to select an intended or desired direction of vehicle movement. If a speed and rotational sensor associated with the motor indicates vehicle movement opposite to the intended direction of vehicle movement, the motor is driven to a torque output magnitude as a nonconstant function of the rollback speed to counteract the vehicle rollback. The torque function may be either a linear function of speed or a function of the speed squared. 6 figures.

  14. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Interactions with a Small Office Building: An Economic Analysis using DER-CAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momber, Ilan; Gomez, Tomás; Venkataramanan, Giri; Stadler, Michael; Beer, Sebastian; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Battaglia, Vincent

    2010-06-01

    It is generally believed that plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) offer environmental and energy security advantages compared to conventional vehicles. Policies are stimulating electric transportation deployment, and PEV adoption may grow significantly. New technology and business models are being developed to organize the PEV interface and their interaction with the wider grid. This paper analyzes the PEVs' integration into a building's Energy Management System (EMS), differentiating between vehicle to macrogrid (V2M) and vehicle to microgrid (V2m) applications. This relationship is modeled by the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which finds optimal equipment combinations to meet microgrid requirements at minimum cost, carbon footprint, or other criteria. Results derive battery value to the building and the possibility of a contractual affiliation sharing the benefit. Under simple annual fixed payments and energy exchange agreements, vehicles are primarily used to avoid peak demand charges supplying cheaper off-peak electricity to the building during workdays.

  15. Building a Better Battery for Vehicles and the Grid | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    what happened today, as Argonne National Lab takes the reins of the newly formed Batteries and Energy Storage Hub. It'll be known as the Joint Center for Energy Storage...

  16. Demonstrating Dynamic Wireless Charging of an Electric Vehicle - The benefit of Electrochemical Capacitor Smoothing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller , John M.; Onar, Omer C; White, Cliff P; Campbell, Steven L; Coomer, Chester; Seiber, Larry Eugene; Sepe, Raymond B; Steyerl, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The wireless charging of an electric vehicle (EV) while it is in motion presents challenges in terms of low-latency communications for roadway coil excitation sequencing and maintenance of lateral alignment, plus the need for power-flow smoothing. This article summarizes the experimental results on power smoothing of in-motion wireless EV charging performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using various combinations of electrochemical capacitors at the grid side and in the vehicle. Electrochemical capacitors of the symmetric carbon carbon type from Maxwell Technologies comprised the in-vehicle smoothing of wireless charging current to the EV battery pack. Electro Standards Laboratories (ESL) fabricated the passive and active parallel lithium-capacitor (LiC) unit used to smooth the grid-side power. The power pulsation reduction was 81% on the grid by the LiC, and 84% on the vehicle for both the LiC and the carbon ultracapacitors (UCs).

  17. Vehicles Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the next generation of hybrid and electric vehicles. February 10, 2014 Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award EERE-supported...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office: Success Stories | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the next generation of hybrid and electric vehicles. February 10, 2014 Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award EERE-supported...

  19. Smith Electric Vehicles: Advanced Vehicle Electrification + Transportation Sector Electrification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Electric Drive Vehicle Demonstration and Vehicle Infrastructure Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  1. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program 18th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Department remains focused on the technologies that are critical to making electric and hybrid vehicles commercially viable and competitive with current production gasoline-fueled vehicles in performance, reliability, and affordability. During Fiscal Year 1994, significant progress was made toward fulfilling the intent of Congress. The Department and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (a partnership of the three major domestic automobile manufacturers) continued to work together and to focus the efforts of battery developers on the battery technologies that are most likely to be commercialized in the near term. Progress was made in industry cost-shared contracts toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of fuel cells for passenger bus and light duty vehicle applications. Two industry teams which will develop hybrid vehicle propulsion technologies have been selected through competitive procurement and have initiated work, in Fiscal Year 1994. In addition, technical studies and program planning continue, as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to achieve the goals of reducing the transportation sector dependence on imported oil, reducing the level of environmentally harmful emissions, and enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

  2. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles 2014 BMW i3-REX 2013 Chevrolet Volt 2013 Ford Cmax Energi 2013 Ford Fusion Energi 2013 Toyota Prius 2012 Chevrolet Volt 2012 Toyota Prius Electric...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electric Drive Vehicle Climate Control Load Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electric...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electric Drive Vehicle Climate Control Load Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electric...

  5. Secretary Chu Visits Advanced Battery Plant in Michigan, Announces...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    key facts? Thirty new manufacturing plants across the country for electric vehicle batteries and components - including A123 in Michigan - were supported through the Recovery...

  6. NREL: Technology Transfer - NREL's Battery Life Predictive Model...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL 32696 Companies that rely on batteries for enhanced energy efficiency-including electric vehicle (EV) manufacturers, solar and wind energy generation companies, and...

  7. Battery Choices for Different Plug-in HEV Configurations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.

    2006-07-12

    Presents battery choices for different plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configurations to reduce cost and to improve performance and life.

  8. AVTA: Battery Testing - Best Practices for Responding to Emergency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Idaho National Laboratory. Best Practices for Emergency Response to Incidents Involving Electric Vehicles Battery Hazards: A Report on Full-Scale Testing Results - June 2013...

  9. Using neutrons to probe and understand battery interfaces | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to mitigate this reaction. Si anodes have nearly 8 times the capacity of standard graphite anodes, giving them high potential for use in electric vehicles batteries with...

  10. An Online Mechanism for Multi-Speed Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    , MA 02138, USA parkes@eecs.harvard.edu Abstract. As plug-in electric vehicles become more widespread, their charg- ing needs to be coordinated, in order to ensure that capacity constraints are not exceeded use of the network capacity when vehicle owners truthfully report their expected future vehicle use

  11. A Brief Discussion of Battery Properties and Goals for Plug-in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brief Discussion of Battery Properties and Goals for Plug-in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Title A Brief Discussion of Battery Properties and Goals for Plug-in Hybrid and Electric...

  12. AVTA: 2009 Vantage Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe testing results of two 2009 Vantage neighborhood electric vehicles (a pickup truck style and a van style). Neighborhood electric vehicles reach speeds of no more than 35 miles per hour and are only allowed on roads with speed limits of up to 35 miles per hour. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  13. AVTA: 2013 BRP Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe testing results of the 2013 BRP neighborhood electric vehicle. Neighborhood electric vehicles reach speeds of no more than 35 miles per hour and are only allowed on roads with speed limits of up to 35 miles per hour. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  14. Stock-Take of Electric Vehicle Interface with Electricity and Smart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Stock-Take of Electric Vehicle Interface with Electricity and Smart Grids across APEC Economies and the Potential for Harmonisation APEC Energy Working Group August 2012 #12;Assessm Electric APEC Produc Verdan Dr-01.6 group.com m 6 m or #12;Assessment of August 2012 Electric Vehicle Connectivity Conditions

  15. Learning from Consumers: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Demonstration and Consumer Education, Outreach, and Market Research Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Axsen, Jonn; Caperello, Nicolette; Davies, Jamie; Stillwater, Tai

    2009-01-01

    for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and thetechnology: California's electric vehicle program. Scienceand Impacts of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Options for a Compact

  16. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity” technologies and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brett D; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01

    and S. E. Letendre, "Electric Vehicles as a New Power Sourceassessment for fuel cell electric vehicles." Argonne, Ill. :at 20th International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS-20),

  17. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team also completed four GM engineering development Buy-Off rides/milestones. The project included numerous engineering vehicle and systems development trips including extreme hot, cold and altitude exposure. The final fuel economy performance demonstrated met the objectives of the PHEV collaborative GM/DOE project. Charge depletion fuel economy of twice that of the non-PHEV model was demonstrated. The project team also designed, developed and tested a high voltage battery module concept that appears to be feasible from a manufacturability, cost and performance standpoint. The project provided important product development and knowledge as well as technological learnings and advancements that include multiple U.S. patent applications.

  18. "Catching the second wave" of the Plug in Electric Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    , utility side support · Retail system: dealer profit and support for customers · Used PEV market"Catching the second wave" of the Plug in Electric Vehicle Market PEV market update from ITS PHEV on gasoline, diesel, natural gas, biofuels and other liquid or gaseous fuels. · HEV = Hybrid electric vehicles

  19. Competitive Charging Station Pricing for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    Competitive Charging Station Pricing for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Wei Yuan, Member, IEEE, Jianwei considers the problem of charging station pricing and station selection of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Every PEV needs to select a charging station by con- sidering the charging prices, waiting times

  20. WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY ELECTRIC-DRIVE VEHICLE ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    5120 Fundamentals of Alternative Energy Technology 4 PROGRAM (4 Courses) EVE 5___ 4 EVE 5___ 4 EVE 5WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY ELECTRIC-DRIVE VEHICLE ENGINEERING PLAN OF WORK FOR MASTERS DEGREE Student with the Electric-Drive Vehicle Engineering Office (1100 Engineering) prior to the beginning of the second semester