Sample records for battery electric transportation

  1. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  2. Efficient Simulation and Reformulation of Lithium-Ion Battery Models for Enabling Electric Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northrop, Paul W. C.

    Improving the efficiency and utilization of battery systems can increase the viability and cost-effectiveness of existing technologies for electric vehicles (EVs). Developing smarter battery management systems and advanced ...

  3. Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tien Duong Hybrid Electric Systems U.S. Department of Energy Annual Merit Review Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program June 8, 2010...

  4. Second use of transportation batteries: Maximizing the value of batteries for transportation and grid services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to gain significant market share over the next decade. The economic viability for such vehicles is contingent upon the availability of cost-effective batteries with high power and energy density. For initial commercial success, government subsidies will be highly instrumental in allowing PHEVs to gain a foothold. However, in the long-term, for electric vehicles to be commercially viable, the economics have to be self-sustaining. Towards the end of battery life in the vehicle, the energy capacity left in the battery is not sufficient to provide the designed range for the vehicle. Typically, the automotive manufacturers indicated the need for battery replacement when the remaining energy capacity reaches 70-80%. There is still sufficient power (kW) and energy capacity (kWh) left in the battery to support various grid ancillary services such as balancing, spinning reserve, load following services. As renewable energy penetration increases, the need for such balancing services is expected to increase. This work explores optimality for the replacement of transportation batteries to be subsequently used for grid services. This analysis maximizes the value of an electric vehicle battery to be used as a transportation battery (in its first life) and then as a resource for providing grid services (in its second life). The results are presented across a range of key parameters, such as depth of discharge (DOD), number of batteries used over the life of the vehicle, battery life in vehicle, battery state of health (SOH) at end of life in vehicle and ancillary services rate. The results provide valuable insights for the automotive industry into maximizing the utility and the value of the vehicle batteries in an effort to either reduce the selling price of EVs and PHEVs or maximize the profitability of the emerging electrification of transportation.

  5. Alternative battery systems for transportation uses

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Michael Thackeray

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne Distinguished Fellow Michael Thackeray highlights the need for alternative battery systems for transportation uses. Such systems will not only need to be smaller, lighter and more energy dense, but also able to make electric vehicles more competitive with internal combustion engine vehicles.

  6. Alternative battery systems for transportation uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Thackeray

    2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne Distinguished Fellow Michael Thackeray highlights the need for alternative battery systems for transportation uses. Such systems will not only need to be smaller, lighter and more energy dense, but also able to make electric vehicles more competitive with internal combustion engine vehicles.

  7. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  8. The lithium-ion battery industry for electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassatly, Sherif (Sherif Nabil)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric vehicles have reemerged as a viable alternative means of transportation, driven by energy security concerns, pressures to mitigate climate change, and soaring energy demand. The battery component will play a key ...

  9. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  10. Recombinant electric storage battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flicker, R.P.; Fenstermacher, S.

    1989-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a recombinant storage battery. It comprises: a plurality of positive plates containing about 2 to 4 percent of antimony based upon the total weight of the alloy and positive active material, and essentially antimony free negative plates in a closed case; a fibrous sheet plate separator between adjacent ones of the plates, and a body of an electrolyte to which the sheet separators are inert absorbed by each of the separators and maintained in contact with each of the adjacent ones of the plates. Each of the separator sheets comprising first fibers which impart to the sheet a given absorbency greater than 90 percent relative to the electrolyte and second fibers which impart to the sheet a different absorbency less than 80 percent relative to the electrolyte. The first and second fibers being present in such proportions that each of the sheet separators has an absorbency with respect to the electrolyte of from 75 to 95 percent and the second fibers being present in such proportions that the battery has a recombination rate adequate to compensate for gassing.

  11. Batteries, mobile phones & small electrical devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , mobile phones and data collection equipment. Lithium Ion batteries are used in mobile phones, laptopsBatteries, mobile phones & small electrical devices IN-BUILDING RECYCLING STATIONS. A full list of acceptable items: Sealed batteries ­excludes vented NiCad and Lead acid batteries Cameras Laser printer

  12. 2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. 2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number 1N4CL21E27C177982). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. 2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. 2006 Toyota Highlander-6395 Hyrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A160006395). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. 2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K773007129). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  18. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  19. Optimal management of batteries in electric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Corey, Garth P. (Albuquerque, NM); Symons, Philip C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

  20. Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program Venkat Srinivasan of the DOE/EERE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program to develop batteries for vehicular applications double the energy density of presently available Li batteries · HEV: low-T operation, cost, and abuse

  1. 2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima HEV, number 2351 (VIN 1N4CL21E87C172351). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec). The Idaho National Laboratory and eTec conduct the AVTA for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program.

  2. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Impact of increased electric vehicle use on battery recycling infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Hammel, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Jungst, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State and Federal regulations have been implemented that are intended to encourage more widespread use of low-emission vehicles. These regulations include requirements of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and regulations pursuant to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the Energy Policy Act. If the market share of electric vehicles increases in response to these initiatives, corresponding growth will occur in quantities of spent electric vehicle batteries for disposal. Electric vehicle battery recycling infrastructure must be adequate to support collection, transportation, recovery, and disposal stages of waste battery handling. For some battery types, such as lead-acid, a recycling infrastructure is well established; for others, little exists. This paper examines implications of increasing electric vehicle use for lead recovery infrastructure. Secondary lead recovery facilities can be expected to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead-acid electric vehicle battery recycling. However, they face stringent environmental constraints that may curtail capacity use or new capacity installation. Advanced technologies help address these environmental constraints. For example, this paper describes using backup power to avoid air emissions that could occur if electric utility power outages disable emissions control equipment. This approach has been implemented by GNB Technologies, a major manufacturer and recycler of lead-acid batteries. Secondary lead recovery facilities appear to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead waste from electric vehicles, but growth in that capacity could be constrained by environmental regulations. Advances in lead recovery technologies may alleviate possible environmental constraints on capacity growth.

  4. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  5. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  6. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  7. Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program Presentation from the U.S....

  8. Better Batteries for Transportation: Behind the Scenes @ Berkeley Lab

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Battaglia, Vince

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Vince Battaglia leads a behind-the-scenes tour of Berkeley Lab's BATT, the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies Program he leads, where researchers aim to improve batteries upon which the range, efficiency, and power of tomorrow's electric cars will depend. This is the first in a forthcoming series of videos taking viewers into the laboratories and research facilities that members of the public rarely get to see.

  9. Better Batteries for Transportation: Behind the Scenes @ Berkeley Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaglia, Vince

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vince Battaglia leads a behind-the-scenes tour of Berkeley Lab's BATT, the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies Program he leads, where researchers aim to improve batteries upon which the range, efficiency, and power of tomorrow's electric cars will depend. This is the first in a forthcoming series of videos taking viewers into the laboratories and research facilities that members of the public rarely get to see.

  10. Battery requirements for urban electric vans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, P.G.; Walsh, W.J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has carried out an intensive study of battery requirements for electric vans, and developed a mission-directed goals package for each of the principal battery contenders for this application. These goals were based on the assumption that vehicle range and acceleration must be fully met throughout each battery discharge. Under this assumption, the design point is the end-of-life condition, defined as the last cycle in which both power and energy requirements can be fulfilled. A light-weight, low-rolling-resistance van with an improved version of the ac powertrain being developed by Eaton was chosen as the hypothetical baseline vehicle. A modified FUDS cycle was selected along with assumptions of 3 M/sup 2/ frontal area, 0.37 drag coefficient, and a rolling resistance of 0.008. State-of-art characteristics and design interrelationships were developed for each battery technology, and the degree of advance expected by 1995 was projected. For each battery candidate, a least-cost combination of performance and operating characteristics was determined. The analysis included the peak power vs specific energy and depth-of-discharge (DOD), cycle life vs DOD, cost vs onboard energy and power, and kWh size effects. The resultant R and D goals for the electric van battery are presented, including early-in-life and end-of-life energy over the drive cycle, peak power, battery weight and volume, battery life, costs, and allowable frequency of repair.

  11. Experimental characterization of adsorption and transport properties for advanced thermo-adsorptive batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyunho, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal energy storage has received significant interest for delivering heating and cooling in both transportation and building sectors. It can minimize the use of on-board electric batteries for heating, ventilation and ...

  12. Reality Check: Cheaper Batteries are GOOD for America's Electric...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    electric vehicle manufacturing. The story says that the price of advanced batteries for electric vehicles is rapidly declining. That's true. And it's also very good news, since...

  13. 2006 Lexus RX400h-2575 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Lexus RX900h hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTJHW31U660002575). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. 2006 Lexus RX400h-4807 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Lexus RX900h hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTJHW31U660004807). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    1999-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

  16. Comparison of various battery technologies for electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, Blake Edward

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery technologies of different chemistries, manufacture and geometry were evaluated as candidates for use in Electric Vehicles (EV). The candidate batteries that were evaluated include four single cell and seven multi-cell modules representing...

  17. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  18. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN JTDKN3DU5A0006063). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 1748 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Insight HEV (VIN: JHMZE2H59AS011748). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 0462 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN: JTDKN3DU2A5010462). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 0141 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Insight HEV (VIN: JHMZE2H78AS010141). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. 2010 Ford Fusion VIN 4757 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Ford Fusion HEV (VIN: 3FADP0L34AR144757). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Battery electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells and biofuels. Which will

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Battery electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells and biofuels. Which will be the winner? ICEPT considered are: improved internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) powered by biofuels, battery electric. All three fuels considered (i.e.: biofuels, electricity and hydrogen) are in principle compatible

  4. Lessons learned in acquiring new regulations for shipping advanced electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriksen, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hammel, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Altemos, E.A. [Winston and Strawn, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1990, the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the US Department of Energy established its ad hoc EV Battery Readiness Working Group to identify regulatory barriers to the commercialization of advanced EV battery technologies and facilitate the removal of these barriers. A Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) was formed to address the regulatory issues associated with the domestic and international shipment of these new battery technologies. The SSWG invites major industrial developers of advanced battery technologies to join as members and work closely with appropriate domestic and international regulatory authorities to develop suitable regulations and procedures for the safe transport of these new battery technologies. This paper describes the domestic and international regulatory processes for the transport of dangerous goods; reviews the status of shipping regulations for sodium-beta and lithium batteries; and delineates the lessons learned to date in this process. The sodium-beta battery family was the first category of advanced EV batteries to be addressed by the SSWG. It includes both sodium/sulfur and sodium/metal chloride batteries. Their efforts led to the establishment of a UN number (UN 3292) in the UN Recommendations, for cold cells and batteries, and establishment of a US Department of Transportation general exemption (DOT-E-10917) covering cold and hot batteries, as well as cold cells. The lessons learned for sodium-beta batteries, over the period of 1990--94, are now being applied to the development of regulations for shipping a new generation of lithium battery technologies (lithium-polymer and lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries).

  5. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  6. BROADBAND IDENTIFICATION OF BATTERY ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE FOR HEV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to perform impedance measurements on a battery cell. Moreover, spectral coherence is an advanced parameterBROADBAND IDENTIFICATION OF BATTERY ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE FOR HEV R. Al-Nazer, V. Cattin, M. Montaru). In such applications, the most possible accurate estimation of the battery states is needed to optimize its operation

  7. Overview and Progress of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies (BATT) Activity Overview and Progress of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Activity 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  8. Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. es15srinivasan.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program BATT Program- Summary and...

  9. Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    es00bduong2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview and Progress of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Activity Overview and Progress of...

  10. Overview and Progress of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Progress of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  11. Microprocessor-based ferroresonant battery charger for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mersman, C.R.; Morcos, M.M.; Dillman, N.G. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric vehicles are needed to reduce air pollution in metropolitan areas. For electric vehicles to succeed, efficient battery chargers that generate very little harmonic distortion are needed. This paper discusses the design of a battery charger that utilizes a microprocessor to control a ferroresonant transformer, resulting in a ``smart`` charger. 12 refs.

  12. Techno-economic and behavioural analysis of battery electric, hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conducts a techno-economic study on hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and hydrogen fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) in the UK using cost predictions reforming methane in 2030. Keywords: Fuel cell vehicle; electric vehicle; hybrid vehicle; hydrogen

  13. 2011 Honda CR-Z 4466 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C67BS004466). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. 2011 HONDA CR-Z 2982 - HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Tyler [Interek; Shirk, Matthew [Idaho National Laboratory; Wishart, Jeffrey [Interek

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C64BS002982). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungst, R.G.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

  16. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes NREL's computer aided engineering program for electric drive vehicle batteries.

  17. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson (Malvern, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power.

  18. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, R.D.; DeDoncker, R.W.A.A.

    1998-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power. 8 figs.

  19. 2010 Ford Fusion VIN 4757 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 2010 Ford Fusion VIN 4757 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Matthew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy National...

  20. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 0141 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 2010 Honda Insight VIN 0141 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Mathew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy...

  1. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 0462 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 0462 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Matthew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy...

  2. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    6 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Matthew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy...

  3. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    9679 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Matthew Shirk Jeffrey Wishart July 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department...

  4. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 1748 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 2010 Honda Insight VIN 1748 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Matthew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy...

  5. An analysis of battery electric vehicle production projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, John Shamus

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In mid 2008 and early 2009 Deutsche Bank and The Boston Consulting Group each released separate reports detailing projected Battery Electric Vehicle production through 2020. These reports both outlined scenarios in which ...

  6. Comparison of various battery technologies for electric vehicles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, Blake Edward

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    four technologies; Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual...

  7. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  8. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  9. The ANL electric vehicle battery R D program for DOE-EHP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.

  10. Battery Requirements for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles -- Analysis and Rationale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Markel, T.; Tataria, H. S.; Howell, D.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents analysis, discussions, and resulting requirements for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle batteries adopted by the US Advanced Battery Consortium.

  11. Battery Chargers | Electrical Power Conversion and Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromofBatteries from Brine Batteries from Brine MarchBattery

  12. Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.; Imhoff, Carl H.; Graff, Gordon L.; Li, Liyu; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Xia, Guanguang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Baskaran, Suresh; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Schwenzer, Birgit

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale electrical energy storage has become more important than ever for reducing fossil energy consumption in transportation and for the widespread deployment of intermittent renewable energy in electric grid. However, significant challenges exist for its applications. Here, the status and challenges are reviewed from the perspective of materials science and materials chemistry in electrochemical energy storage technologies, such as Li-ion batteries, sodium (sulfur and metal halide) batteries, Pb-acid battery, redox flow batteries, and supercapacitors. Perspectives and approaches are introduced for emerging battery designs and new chemistry combinations to reduce the cost of energy storage devices.

  13. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MODES IN HIGH-POWER LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES FOR USE IN HYBRIDof high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electricthe development of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric

  14. In-Vehicle Testing and Computer Modeling of Electric Vehicle Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    In-Vehicle Testing and Computer Modeling of Electric Vehicle Batteries B. Thomas, W.B. Gu, J was performed for both VRLA and NiMH batteries using Penn State University's electric vehicle, the Electric Lion and hybrid-electric vehicles. A thorough understanding of battery systems from the point of view

  15. A global analysis and market strategy in the electric vehicle battery industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Young Hee, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As use of electric vehicles has been expected to grow, the batteries for the electric vehicles have become critical because the batteries are a key part of the paradigm shift in the automotive industry. However, the demand ...

  16. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kempton, Willett; Tomic, Jasna; Letendre, Steven; Brooks, Alec; Lipman, Timothy

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery cycle life (cycles) c Battery calendar life (years) Battery costin the battery during its life cycle in kWh, C B is cost ofBattery cycle life (cycles) Battery calendar life (years) Maximum electrical power output to motor (kW) Battery cost

  17. Market feasibility study of utility battery applications: Penetration of battery energy storage into regulated electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountainview, CA (United States); Symons, P.C. [Electrochemical Engineering Consultants, Inc., Morgan Hill, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although recent studies indicate there could be significant opportunities for battery systems in electric utility applications, markets for this and other dispersed energy storage technologies have been slow to develop. Prior analyses had suggested that the slow market development has resulted from reluctance to make the necessary investments on the part of both suppliers and customers. In order to confirm this and other concerns over the utility energy storage market, an assessment has been performed to estimate the potential penetration of batteries into regulated electric utilities. The estimates thus obtained confirm that the possible market for batteries on the utility side of the meter, approximately $280 million annually in 2010, is indeed smaller than indicated by the assessment of potential opportunities had suggested it might be. On the other hand, the estimates for possible market penetration on the customer side of the meter are greater than on the utility-side, particularly in the nearer-term. Of more importance than the numeric results, however, are the comments given by potential customers of utility battery energy storage, and the conclusions regarding ways to increase the attractiveness of utility battery energy storage that result from analyses of these comments.

  18. BATTERY-POWERED, ELECTRIC-DRIVE VEHICLES PROVIDING BUFFER STORAGE FOR PV CAPACITY VALUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    BATTERY-POWERED, ELECTRIC-DRIVE VEHICLES PROVIDING BUFFER STORAGE FOR PV CAPACITY VALUE Steven, however, the use of batteries from parked electric- drive vehicles (EDV) to provide buffer storage for PV requirements that will result in a number of new battery-powered electric drive vehicles being sold beginning

  19. Electric Fuel Battery Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazel Crest, Illinois:EdinburghEldorado Ivanpah TransmissionBattery

  20. Vehicle remote charge-all electric transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a pollution-free transportation system that utilizes technology from the defense industry combines two industries in a commercial venture. In conjunction with the abatement of pollution that an all-electric transportation system would realize, the defense industry is looking for a commercial market for the technology that it has developed over the years. This new transportation system will accomplish both these goals. To date, the most reliable electric source has been overhead tethered lines or on-ground tracks in public transportation. But these greatly reduce the convenience of route changes and are at the mercy of small traffic pattern changes which can cause traffic tie-ups. The ideal electric bus would have a completely mobile energy source, such as a battery pack. But the limited range of a battery powered vehicle has diminished its use to only specific cases. In private vehicles also, the limited range of zero-pollution battery power has reduced the desirability of all-electric transportation. The electric transportation system proposed here will eliminate these problems. Buses will be sent out on their routes with convenient in-route charging. There will be minimum route changes to accommodate vehicle recharging. The buses will have full mobility and can avoid any traffic tie-ups. The charging of these on-board electrical energy storage systems will take place via a wireless power transmission network that will be established along the roadside on existing power line (telephone) poles or new stand-alone poles that would be in conjunction with the existing poles. Radio frequency (RF) wavelengths such as a microwave or a millimeterwave system or optical frequencies (OF), a laser based system, are wireless energy transmission systems. Utilizing this means to establish a nationwide transportation system will take a technology that has been defense based and use it in a commercial application.

  1. Kandler Smith, NREL EDV Battery Robust Design -1 Design of Electric Drive Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandler Smith, NREL EDV Battery Robust Design - 1 Design of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries for significant market penetration to be achieved · Batteries are the most expensive component of the vehicle · Consumers expect >10 years vehicle life · Periodic battery replacement (e.g., every 5 years) not warranted

  2. Switching algorithms for extending battery life in Electric Vehicles Ron Adany a,*, Doron Aurbach b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraus, Sarit

    27 December 2012 Keywords: Electric Vehicles (EV) Switching algorithms Battery life Lithium ionSwitching algorithms for extending battery life in Electric Vehicles Ron Adany a,*, Doron Aurbach b Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel h i g h l i g h t s battery's life

  3. US-ABC Collaborates to Lower Cost of Electric Drive Batteries...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Lower Cost of Electric Drive Batteries April 16, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (US-ABC) is a group that funds electrochemical storage research and...

  4. Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overview FuelStorage, andAgencyLevel

  5. The ANL electric vehicle battery R&D program for DOE-EHP. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE`s Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R&D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.

  6. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals andE. , Plug-in Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Powertrain Design andLithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Andrew Burke

  7. A calculation method of running range of electric vehicle with battery hybrid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohmae, T.; Naito, S.; Ishizuka, M.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much attention is being paid to electric vehicles from environmental standpoints. One disadvantage of the electric vehicle is that its operative range is short. A means to overcome this difficulty is to use a hybrid battery which consist of a energy battery and a power battery. A method to make it possible to calculate the discharge characteristics of the battery hybrid system taking into account the charging behavior from the energy battery to the power battery is presented. In the proposed method, first the output voltage and the output current of an equivalent battery, which is required for realizing the given operating pattern are calculated. Next, the conduction ratio of the main chopper and the equivalent discharge of electric charge of each battery are calculated. These calculated data are used to calculate the operating range.

  8. Monitoring Battery System for Electric Vehicle, Based On "One Wire" Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Monitoring Battery System for Electric Vehicle, Based On "One Wire" Technology Javier Ibáńez Vial Santiago, Chile jdixon@ing.puc.cl Abstract-- A monitoring system for a battery powered electric vehicle (EV- powered electric vehicles, the need for fast information related to different components and equipment

  9. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  10. NREL Uses Fuel Cells to Increase the Range of Battery Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL analysis identifies potential cost-effective scenarios for using small fuel cell power units to increase the range of medium-duty battery electric vehicles.

  11. Diagnostic Characterization of High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries For Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diagnostic Characterization of High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries For Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles generated specifically for performance characterization of these batteries in HEV applications in contrast to the constant-current profiles typically used in the characterization of lithium-ion batteries for portable

  12. Transportation | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation From modeling and simulation programs to advanced electric powertrains, engines, biofuels, lubricants, and batteries, Argonne's transportation research is vital to...

  13. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Kasei * Focused on High Capacity Manganese Rich (HCMR TM ) cathodes & Silicon-Carbon composite anodes for Lithium ion batteries * Envia's high energy Li-ion battery materials...

  14. The harmonic impact of electric vehicle battery chargers on residential power distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; O`Connell, R.M. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Brownfield, G. [Ameren Services, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric vehicles (EV), which are powered by battery-driven electric motors, are becoming an ecologically attractive alternative to gasoline driven vehicles. One drawback to them is that the associated battery chargers are power electronic circuits which, because of their non-linear nature, can produce deleterious harmonic effects on the electric utility distribution system. To investigate the harmonic effects of widespread use of EV battery chargers, three different commercially available EV battery chargers are modeled using the injection current method to represent their current waveforms for simulation in a SPICE model of a particular distribution system.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: lithium-ion battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ion battery Electric Car Challenge Sparks Students' STEM Interest On January 9, 2015, in Energy, Energy Storage, News, News & Events, Partnership, Transportation Energy Aspiring...

  16. Battery Wear from Disparate Duty-Cycles: Opportunities for Electric-Drive Vehicle Battery Health Management; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric-drive vehicles utilizing lithium-ion batteries experience wholly different degradation patterns than do conventional vehicles, depending on geographic ambient conditions and consumer driving and charging patterns. A semi-empirical life-predictive model for the lithium-ion graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum chemistry is presented that accounts for physically justified calendar and cycling fade mechanisms. An analysis of battery life for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles considers 782 duty-cycles from travel survey data superimposed with climate data from multiple geographic locations around the United States. Based on predicted wear distributions, opportunities for extending battery life including modification of battery operating limits, thermal and charge control are discussed.

  17. Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Material BATT and the Battery Industry Block copolymer electrolytes for Li-metal batteries (Balsara) being commercialized by Seeo, Inc. Advanced cathode materials (Manthiram)...

  18. Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of lithium ion batteries for automobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Haitao

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis report, both quantitative and qualitative approaches are used to provide a comprehensive analysis of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle ...

  19. Ecological and biomedical effects of effluents from near-term electric vehicle storage battery cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of the ecological and biomedical effects due to commercialization of storage batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is given. It deals only with the near-term batteries, namely Pb/acid, Ni/Zn, and Ni/Fe, but the complete battery cycle is considered, i.e., mining and milling of raw materials, manufacture of the batteries, cases and covers; use of the batteries in electric vehicles, including the charge-discharge cycles; recycling of spent batteries; and disposal of nonrecyclable components. The gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions from various phases of the battery cycle are identified. The effluent dispersal in the environment is modeled and ecological effects are assessed in terms of biogeochemical cycles. The metabolic and toxic responses by humans and laboratory animals to constituents of the effluents are discussed. Pertinent environmental and health regulations related to the battery industry are summarized and regulatory implications for large-scale storage battery commercialization are discussed. Each of the seven sections were abstracted and indexed individually for EDB/ERA. Additional information is presented in the seven appendixes entitled; growth rate scenario for lead/acid battery development; changes in battery composition during discharge; dispersion of stack and fugitive emissions from battery-related operations; methodology for estimating population exposure to total suspended particulates and SO/sub 2/ resulting from central power station emissions for the daily battery charging demand of 10,000 electric vehicles; determination of As air emissions from Zn smelting; health effects: research related to EV battery technologies. (JGB)

  20. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

  1. Battery Electric Vehicles: Range Optimization and Diversification for the U.S. Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Properly selecting the driving range is critical for accurately predicting the market acceptance and the resulting social benefits of BEVs. Analysis of transportation technology transition could be biased against battery electric vehicles (BEV) and mislead policy making, if BEVs are not represented with optimal ranges. This study proposes a coherent method to optimize the BEV driving range by minimizing the range-related cost, which is formulated as a function of range, battery cost, energy prices, charging frequency, access to backup vehicles, and the cost and refueling hassle of operating the backup vehicle. This method is implemented with a sample of 36,664 drivers, representing U.S. new car drivers, based on the 2009 National Household Travel Survey data. Key findings are: 1) Assuming the near term (2015) battery cost at $405/kWh, about 98% of the sampled drivers are predicted to prefer a range below 200 miles, and about 70% below 100 miles. The most popular 20-mile band of range is 57 to77 miles, unsurprisingly encompassing the Leaf s EPA-certified 73-mile range. With range limited to 4 or 7 discrete options, the majority are predicted to choose a range below 100 miles. 2) Found as a statistically robust rule of thumb, the BEV optimal range is approximately 0.6% of one s annual driving distance. 3) Reducing battery costs could motivate demand for larger range, but improving public charging may cause the opposite. 4) Using a single range to represent BEVs in analysis could significantly underestimate their competitiveness e.g. by $3226/vehicle if BEVs are represented with 73-mile range only or by $7404/BEV if with 150-mile range only. Range optimization and diversification into 4 or 7 range options reduce such analytical bias by 78% or 90%, respectively.

  2. Diagnostic Characterization of High Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diagnostic Characterization of High Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for perfor- mance characterization of these batteries in HEV applications in contrast to the constant microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gas chromatography, etc., were used to characterize the anode, cathode

  3. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV demonstrations. One such previous study was a PHEV demonstration conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). AVTA's PHEV demonstration involved over 250 vehicles in the United States, Canada, and Finland. This paper summarizes driving and charging behavior observed in that demonstration, including the distribution of distance driven between charging events, charging frequency, and resulting proportion of operation charge depleting mode. Charging demand relative to time of day and day of the week will also be shown. Conclusions from the PHEV demonstration will be given which highlight the need for expanded analysis in The EV Project. For example, the AVTA PHEV demonstration showed that in the absence of controlled charging by the vehicle owner or electric utility, the majority of vehicles were charged in the evening hours, coincident with typical utility peak demand. Given this baseline, The EV Project will demonstrate the effects of consumer charge control and grid-side charge management on electricity demand. This paper will outline further analyses which will be performed by eTec and INL to documenting driving and charging behavior of vehicles operated in a infrastructure-rich environment.

  4. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, D; Morse, T; Patel, P; Patel, S; Bondar, J; Taylor, L

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of several life-cycle energy analyses of prospective electric vehicle batteries are presented. The batteries analyzed were: Nickel-zinc; Lead-acid; Nickel-iron; Zinc-chlorine; Sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte); Sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte); Lithium-metal sulfide; and Aluminum-air. A life-cycle energy analysis consists of evaluating the energy use of all phases of the battery's life, including the energy to build it, operate it, and any credits that may result from recycling of the materials in it. The analysis is based on the determination of three major energy components in the battery life cycle: Investment energy, i.e., The energy used to produce raw materials and to manufacture the battery; operational energy i.e., The energy consumed by the battery during its operational life. In the case of an electric vehicle battery, this energy is the energy required (as delivered to the vehicle's charging circuit) to power the vehicle for 100,000 miles; and recycling credit, i.e., The energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life-cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. The analysis of the life-cycle energy requirements consists of identifying the materials from which each battery is made, evaluating the energy needed to produce these materials, evaluating the operational energy requirements, and evaluating the amount of materials that could be recycled and the energy that would be saved through recycling. Detailed descriptions of battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling, and the operational energy for an electric vehicle, and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  5. Progress in the development of recycling processes for electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungst, R.G.; Clark, R.P.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposition of electric vehicle (EV) batteries after they have reached the end of their useful life is an issue that could impede the widespread acceptance of EVs in the commercial market. This is especially true for advanced battery systems where working recycling processes have not as yet been established. The DOE sponsors an Ad Hoc Electric Vehicle Battery Readiness Working Group to identify barriers to the introduction of commercial EVs and to advise them of specific issues related to battery reclamation/recycling, in-vehicle battery safety, and battery shipping. A Sub-Working Group on the reclamation/recycle topic has been reviewing the status of recycling process development for the principal battery technologies that are candidates for EV use from the near-term to the long-term. Recycling of near-term battery technologies, such as lead-acid and nickel/cadmium, is occurring today and it is believed that sufficient processing capacity can be maintained to keep up with the large number of units that could result from extensive EV use. Reclamation/recycle processes for midterm batteries are partially developed. Good progress has been made in identifying processes to recycle sodium/sulfur batteries at a reasonable cost and pilot scale facilities are being tested or planned. A pre-feasibility cost study on the nickel/metal hydride battery also indicates favorable economics for some of the proposed reclamation processes. Long-term battery technologies, including lithium-polymer and lithium/iron disulfide, are still being designed and developed for EVs, so descriptions for prototype recycling processes are rather general at this point. Due to the long time required to set up new, full-scale recycling facilities, it is important to develop a reclamation/recycling process in parallel with the battery technologies themselves.

  6. Dynamic Electric Power Supply Chains and Transportation Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Dynamic Electric Power Supply Chains and Transportation Networks: an Evolutionary Variational energy Electric power supply chains, provide the foundations for theElectric power supply chains, provide and societies. Communication, transportation, heating, lighting, cooling,Communication, transportation, heating

  7. Commuter simulation of lithium-ion battery performance in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A.; Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.

    2000-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a lithium-ion battery was designed for a hybrid electric vehicle, and the design was tested by a computer program that simulates driving of a vehicle on test cycles. The results showed that the performance goals that have been set for such batteries by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles are appropriate. The study also indicated, however, that the heat generation rate in the battery is high, and that the compact lithium-ion battery would probably require cooling by a dielectric liquid for operation under conditions of vigorous vehicle driving.

  8. Design and analysis of a battery for a formula electric car

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reineman, Samuel (Samuel Thomas)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to present the philosophy and methodology behind the design of the battery pack for MITs 2013 Formula SAE Electric racecar. Functional requirements are established for the pack. An overview of ...

  9. Technological and economic comparison of battery technologies for U.S.A electric grid stabilization applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Ted (Ted A.)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy storage can provide many benefits to the electric grid of the United States of America. With recent pushes to stabilize renewable energy and implement a Smart Grid, battery technology can play a pivotal role in the ...

  10. FC/Battery Power Management for Electric Vehicle Based Interleaved dc-dc Boost Converter Topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FC/Battery Power Management for Electric Vehicle Based Interleaved dc- dc Boost Converter Topology.fr Keywords Fuel cell System (FCS), Electric vehicle, Energy management, Interleaved Boost DC-DC Converter (FC for electric vehicle may not be feasible to satisfy the peak demand changes especially during accelerations

  11. accumulators electric batteries: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Sciences Websites Summary: Distributed Battery Control to Improve Peak Power Shaving Efficiency in Data Centers Baris Aksanli, Eddie Pettis and Tajana S. Rosing UCSD,...

  12. Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

  13. Center for Electric Drive Transportation at the University of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Drive Transportation at the University of Michigan - Dearborn Center for Electric Drive Transportation at the University of Michigan - Dearborn 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  14. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Work on...

  15. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key parts—a positive and negative electrode and an electrolyte—that exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a battery’s chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  16. PNGV Battery Testing Procedures and Analytical Methodologies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Christophersen, Jon Petter; Wright, Randy Ben; Hunt, Gary Lynn; Haskind, H. J.; Tartamella, T.; Sutula, R.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel testing procedures and analytical methodologies to assess the performance of hybrid electric vehicle batteries have been developed. Tests include both characterization and cycle life and/or calendar life, and have been designed for both Power Assist and Dual Mode applications. Analytical procedures include a battery scaling methodology, the calculation of pulse resistance, pulse power, available energy, and differential capacity, and the modeling of calendar and cycle life data. Representative performance data and examples of the application of the analytical methodologies including resistance growth, power fade, and cycle and calendar life modeling for hybrid electric vehicle batteries are presented.

  17. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, C.J.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

  18. OUT Success Stories: Battery Electricity Storage for Quality Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recca, L.

    2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A 3.5-megawatt valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery system installed at a lead recycling plant in California provides one hour of energy storage for both peak-shaving and uninterruptible power. It incorporates improvements in battery materials, manufacturing processes, and quality control.

  19. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 2, Battery recycling and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

  20. EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 Stavanger, Norway, May 13-16, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 EVS24 Stavanger and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition, Stavanger : Norway (2009)" #12;EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 2 that Discrete MDCM (Multi Criteria Decision

  1. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  2. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial phase of work comprises three factorial experiments to evaluate a variety of component combinations. Goals to be met by these batteries include the following: capacity at 3 h discharge, 20 to 30 kWh; specific energy, 40 Wh/kg; specific power, 1000 W/kg for 15 s; cycle life, 800 cycles to 80% depth; price, $50/kWh. The status of the factorial experiments is reviewed. The second phase of work, design of an advanced battery, has the following goals: 30 to 40 kWh; 60 Wh/kg; 150 W/kg for 15 s; 1000 cycles to 80% depth; $40/kWh. It is not yet possible to say whether these goals can be met. Numerous approaches are under study to increase the utilization of battery chemicals. A battery design with no live electrical connection above the battery is being developed. 52 figures, 52 tables. (RWR)

  3. Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage Huilin Pan attention particularly in large- scale electric energy storage applications for renewable energy and smart storage system in the near future. Broader context With the rapid development of renewable energy sources

  4. Solid Electrolyte Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Present Li-ion Batteries Insertion compounds have limited capacity Li Air batteries are inefficient if used for electrical energy storage Li S batteries have too...

  5. Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of lithium intercalation and may hold the key to high-energy T. Richardson and G. Chen (LBNL) batteries T. Richardson and G. Chen (LBNL) Material Modifications on the Nanoscale L...

  6. Progress of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C.; Kim, G. H.; Pannala, S.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation, Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) is about simulation and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools that are widely used to speed up the research and development cycle and reduce the number of build-and-break steps, particularly in the automotive industry. Realizing this, DOE?s Vehicle Technologies Program initiated the CAEBAT project in April 2010 to develop a suite of software tools for designing batteries.

  7. NREL Reveals Links Among Climate Control, Battery Life, and Electric Vehicle Range (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are providing new insights into the relationships between the climate-control systems of plug-in electric vehicles and the distances these vehicles can travel on a single charge. In particular, NREL research has determined that 'preconditioning' a vehicle-achieving a comfortable cabin temperature and preheating or precooling the battery while the vehicle is still plugged in-can extend its driving range and improve battery life over the long term.

  8. Sensitivity of Battery Electric Vehicle Economics to Drive Patterns, Vehicle Range, and Charge Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs discourage many potential purchasers. Making an economic comparison with conventional alternatives is complicated in part by strong sensitivity to drive patterns, vehicle range, and charge strategies that affect vehicle utilization and battery wear. Identifying justifiable battery replacement schedules and sufficiently accounting for the limited range of a BEV add further complexity to the issue. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Battery Ownership Model to address these and related questions. The Battery Ownership Model is applied here to examine the sensitivity of BEV economics to drive patterns, vehicle range, and charge strategies when a high-fidelity battery degradation model, financially justified battery replacement schedules, and two different means of accounting for a BEV's unachievable vehicle miles traveled (VMT) are employed. We find that the value of unachievable VMT with a BEV has a strong impact on the cost-optimal range, charge strategy, and battery replacement schedule; that the overall cost competitiveness of a BEV is highly sensitive to vehicle-specific drive patterns; and that common cross-sectional drive patterns do not provide consistent representation of the relative cost of a BEV.

  9. Advanced battery technology for electric two-wheelers in the people's Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2009-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report focuses on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology applications for two- and possibly three-wheeled vehicles. The author of this report visited the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) to assess the status of Li-ion battery technology there and to analyze Chinese policies, regulations, and incentives for using this technology and for using two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Another objective was to determine if the Li-ion batteries produced in China were available for benchmarking in the United States. The United States continues to lead the world in Li-ion technology research and development (R&D). Its strong R&D program is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Department of Defense. In Asia, too, developed countries like China, Korea, and Japan are commercializing and producing this technology. In China, more than 120 companies are involved in producing Li-ion batteries. There are more than 139 manufacturers of electric bicycles (also referred to as E-bicycles, electric bikes or E-bikes, and electric two-wheelers or ETWs in this report) and several hundred suppliers. Most E-bikes use lead acid batteries, but there is a push toward using Li-ion battery technology for two- and three-wheeled applications. Highlights and conclusions from this visit are provided in this report and summarized.

  10. Electric Ground Support Equipment Advanced Battery Technology Demonstration Project at the Ontario Airport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Jeremy Diez; Jeffrey Wishart; James Francfort

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of the electric Ground Support Equipment (eGSE) demonstration is to evaluate the day-to-day vehicle performance of electric baggage tractors using two advanced battery technologies to demonstrate possible replacements for the flooded lead-acid (FLA) batteries utilized throughout the industry. These advanced battery technologies have the potential to resolve barriers to the widespread adoption of eGSE deployment. Validation testing had not previously been performed within fleet operations to determine if the performance of current advanced batteries is sufficient to withstand the duty cycle of electric baggage tractors. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. The demonstration project also grew the relationship with Southwest Airlines (SWA), our demonstration partner at Ontario International Airport (ONT), located in Ontario, California. The results of this study have encouraged a proposal for a future demonstration project with SWA.

  11. RECHARGEABLE HIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. Eshman, High-Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleS. Sudar, High Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleHIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES Elton J. Cairns January 1981 TWO-

  12. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery program is to develop a nickel-iron battery for use in the propulsion of electric and electric-hybrid vehicles. To date, the program has concentrated on the characterization, fabrication and testing of the required electrodes, the fabrication and testing of full-scale cells, and finally, the fabrication and testing of full-scale (270 AH) six (6) volt modules. Electrodes of the final configuration have now exceeded 1880 cycles and are showing minimal capacity decline. Full-scale cells have presently exceeded 600 cycles and are tracking the individual electrode tests almost identically. Six volt module tests have exceeded 500 cycles, with a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg. Results to date indicate the nickel-iron battery is beginning to demonstrate the performance required for electric vehicle propulsion.

  13. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Tennessee Knoxville; U. Texas Austin; McGill U; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  14. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

  15. Variability of Battery Wear in Light Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles Subject to Ambient Temperature, Battery Size, and Consumer Usage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A. D.; Gonder, J.; Smith, K. A.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery wear in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is a complex function of ambient temperature, battery size, and disparate usage. Simulations capturing varying ambient temperature profiles, battery sizes, and driving patterns are of great value to battery and vehicle manufacturers. A predictive battery wear model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory captures the effects of multiple cycling and storage conditions in a representative lithium chemistry. The sensitivity of battery wear rates to ambient conditions, maximum allowable depth-of-discharge, and vehicle miles travelled is explored for two midsize vehicles: a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with a nominal range of 75 mi (121 km) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a nominal charge-depleting range of 40 mi (64 km). Driving distance distributions represent the variability of vehicle use, both vehicle-to-vehicle and day-to-day. Battery wear over an 8-year period was dominated by ambient conditions for the BEV with capacity fade ranging from 19% to 32% while the PHEV was most sensitive to maximum allowable depth-of-discharge with capacity fade ranging from 16% to 24%. The BEV and PHEV were comparable in terms of petroleum displacement potential after 8 years of service, due to the BEV?s limited utility for accomplishing long trips.

  16. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery.

  17. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S.Z.

    1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery. 35 figs.

  18. Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Spring 2011 Shell 1 -Battery Electric Vehicle Chassis and Body Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    , Texas. The team performed better than our projected performance. The Battery Electric Vehicle achievedPENNSTATE Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Spring 2011 Shell 1 - Battery Electric Vehicle Chassis and Body Design Overview The team faced the challenging task of redesigning a previous

  19. EVS27 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 Barcelona, Spain, November 17-20, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EVS27 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 EVS27 Barcelona and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 2 However, for embedded systems, studies look for simple signals for the diagnosis of electrochemical generators (batteries or fuel cell). It is now possible to acquire

  20. An assessment of research and development leadership in advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruch, V.L.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the recently enacted California regulations requiring zero emission vehicles be sold in the market place by 1998, electric vehicle research and development (R&D) is accelerating. Much of the R&D work is focusing on the Achilles` heel of electric vehicles -- advanced batteries. This report provides an assessment of the R&D work currently underway in advanced batteries and electric vehicles in the following countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. Although the US can be considered one of the leading countries in terms of advanced battery and electric vehicle R&D work, it lags other countries, particularly France, in producing and promoting electric vehicles. The US is focusing strictly on regulations to promote electric vehicle usage while other countries are using a wide variety of policy instruments (regulations, educational outreach programs, tax breaks and subsidies) to encourage the use of electric vehicles. The US should consider implementing additional policy instruments to ensure a domestic market exists for electric vehicles. The domestic is the largest and most important market for the US auto industry.

  1. NAS battery demonstration at American Electric Power:a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmiller, Jeff (Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA); Norris, Benjamin L. (Norris Energy Consulting Company, Martinez, CA); Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

  2. Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for road transport, flexible power systems and wind power (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and...

  3. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  4. Compact, Interactive Electric Vehicle Charger: Gallium-Nitride Switch Technology for Bi-directional Battery-to-Grid Charger Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADEPT Project: HRL Laboratories is using gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors to create battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs) that are more compact and efficient than traditional EV chargers. Reducing the size and weight of the battery charger is important because it would help improve the overall performance of the EV. GaN semiconductors process electricity faster than the silicon semiconductors used in most conventional EV battery chargers. These high-speed semiconductors can be paired with lighter-weight electrical circuit components, which helps decrease the overall weight of the EV battery charger. HRL Laboratories is combining the performance advantages of GaN semiconductors with an innovative, interactive battery-to-grid energy distribution design. This design would support 2-way power flow, enabling EV battery chargers to not only draw energy from the power grid, but also store and feed energy back into it.

  5. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  6. NREL's emulation tool helps manufacturers ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicle batteries.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL's emulation tool helps manufacturers ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicle internal short, the device is small compared to other shorting tools being developed by industry and does tool for battery manufacturers and other national laboratories as well as original equipment

  7. Electrical Readout of the Local Nuclear Polarization in the Quantum Hall Effect: A Hyperfine Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorke, Axel

    Electrical Readout of the Local Nuclear Polarization in the Quantum Hall Effect: A Hyperfine Battery A. Wu¨rtz,1,* T. Mu¨ller,1 A. Lorke,1, D. Reuter,2 and A. D. Wieck2 1 Laboratorium fu¨r Festko which utilizes separately contacted edge states to establish a local nuclear spin polarization

  8. Tools for Designing Thermal Management of Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature has a significant impact on life, performance, and safety of lithium-ion battery technology, which is expected to be the energy storage of choice for electric drive vehicles (xEVs). High temperatures degrade Li-ion cells faster while low temperatures reduce power and energy capabilities that could have cost, reliability, range, or drivability implications. Thermal management of battery packs in xEVs is essential to keep the cells in the desired temperature range and also reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations, both of which impact life and performance. The value that the battery thermal management system provides in reducing battery life and improving performance outweighs its additional cost and complexity. Tools that are essential for thermal management of batteries are infrared thermal imaging, isothermal calorimetry, thermal conductivity meter and computer-aided thermal analysis design software. This presentation provides details of these tools that NREL has used and we believe are needed to design right-sized battery thermal management systems.

  9. Tempe Transportation Division: LNG Turbine Hybrid Electric Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describes the performance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) turbine hybrid electric buses used in Tempe's Transportation Division.

  10. Conceptual design of a sodium sulfur cell for US electric-van batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binden, P.J. [Beta Power, Inc., Wayne, PA (United States)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual design of an advanced sodium/sulfur cell for US electric-van applications has been completed. The important design factors included specific physical and electrical requirements, service life, manufacturability, thermal management, and safety. The capacity of this cell is approximately the same as that for the ``PB`` cell being developed by Silent Power Limited (10 Ah). The new cell offers a 50% improvement in energy capacity and nearly a 100% improvement in peak power over the existing PB cells. A battery constructed with such cells would significantly exceed the USABC`s mid-term performance specifications. In addition, a similar cell and battery design effort was completed for an advanced passenger car application. A battery using the van cell would have nearly 3 times the energy compared to lead-acid batteries, yet weigh 40% less; a present-day battery using a cell specifically designed for this car would provide 50% more energy in a package 60% smaller and 50% lighter.

  11. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savi, Daniel, E-mail: d.savi@umweltchemie.ch [Dipl. Environmental Sci. ETH, büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Kasser, Ueli [Lic. Phil. Nat. (Chemist), büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Ott, Thomas [Dipl. Phys. ETH, Institute of Applied Simulation, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Wädenswil (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • We’ve analysed data on the dismantling of electronic and electrical appliances. • Ten years of mass balance data of more than recycling companies have been considered. • Percentages of dismantled batteries, capacitors and PWB have been studied. • Threshold values and benchmarks for batteries and capacitors have been identified. • No benchmark for the dismantling of printed wiring boards should be set. - Abstract: The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given.

  12. Transportation Center Seminar "Electric Vehicle Recharging: Decision Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Transportation Center Seminar "Electric Vehicle Recharging: Decision Support Tools for Drivers Conference Center Refreshments available at 3:30 pm Abstract: Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have become electric vehicles. #12;

  13. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  14. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in developing nickel-zinc batteries for propelling electric vehicles is reported. Information is included on component design, battery fabrication, and module performance testing. Although full scale hardware performance has fallen short of the contract cycle life goals, significant progress has been made to warrant further development. (LCL)

  15. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Foundation for Electrified Transportation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)--which include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles--provide a new opportunity for reducing oil consumption by drawing power from the electric grid. To maximize the benefits of PEVs, the emerging PEV infrastructure--from battery manufacturing to communication and control between the vehicle and the grid--must provide access to clean electricity, satisfy stakeholder expectations, and ensure safety. Currently, codes and standards organizations are collaborating on a PEV infrastructure plan. Establishing a PEV infrastructure framework will create new opportunities for business and job development initiating the move toward electrified transportation. This paper summarizes the components of the PEV infrastructure, challenges and opportunities related to the design and deployment of the infrastructure, and the potential benefits.

  16. Electric Vehicle Technology and Batteries | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscoveringESnetEffectiveElectric MeteringElectricA Recipe

  17. NREL: Energy Storage - Battery Ownership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    publications. Updating United States Advanced Battery Consortium and Department of Energy Battery Technology Targets for Battery Electric Vehicles Sensitivity of Plug-In Hybrid...

  18. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  19. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Miller, M. , Emerging Lithium-ion Battery Technologies forCharacteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Variousand Simulation Results with Lithium-ion Batteries, paper

  20. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electricfast charging of the lithium batteries should be possiblefast charging of the lithium batteries will be is possible

  1. Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overview FuelStorage,

  2. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e p p a a rDepartment

  3. Analysis of interrelationships between photovoltaic power and battery storage for electric utility load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, B.H.; Rahman, S.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of photovoltaic power generation on the electric utility's load shape under supply-side peak load management conditions is explored. Results show that some utilities employing battery storage for peak load shaving might benefit from use of photovoltaic (PV) power, the extent of its usefulness being dependent on the specific load shapes as well as the photovoltaic array orientations. Typical utility load shapes both in the eastern and in the western parts of the U.S. are examined for this purpose. While photovoltaic power generation seems to present a bigger impact on the load of the western utility, both utilities will experience considerable savings on the size of the battery system required to shave the peak loads and also in the night-time base capacity required to charge the battery. Results show that when the cost of 2-axis tracking PV systems drop to $2/Wp, the southwestern utility will experience net cost savings when the PV-battery hybrid system is employed for load management. On the other hand, because of lesser availability of solar energy, the southeastern utility shows adverse economics for such a system.

  4. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    include low cost lead-acid batteries. There are several wayscould include low cost lead-acid batteries. Establishing a

  5. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

  6. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  7. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A.

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on cost and energy density from changes in cell capacity, parallel cell groups, and manufacturing capabilities are easily assessed with the model. New proposed materials may also be examined to translate bench-scale values to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the original equipment manufacturer. The model will be openly distributed to the public in the year 2011. Currently, the calculations are based in a Microsoft{reg_sign} Office Excel spreadsheet. Instructions are provided for use; however, the format is admittedly not user-friendly. A parallel development effort has created an alternate version based on a graphical user-interface that will be more intuitive to some users. The version that is more user-friendly should allow for wider adoption of the model.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure online 22 October 2012 Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Charging infrastructure Battery size a b s t r a c t Federal electric vehicle (EV) policies in the United States currently include vehicle

  9. BOOK CHAPTERS 1. B.Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, "A roadmap to understand battery performance in electric and hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and hybrid vehicle operation," in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. Power Sources, Models, SustainabilityBOOK CHAPTERS 1. B.Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, "A roadmap to understand battery performance in electric, Infrastructure and the Market, G. Pistoia, ed., Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2010. Chapter 15, pp

  10. Battery Powered Electric Car, Using Photovoltaic Cells Assistance Juan Dixon, Alberto Ziga, Angel Abusleme and Daniel Soto

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad CatĂłlica de Chile)

    Battery Powered Electric Car, Using Photovoltaic Cells Assistance Juan Dixon, Alberto Zúñiga, Angel Vehicles (EVs) is the scarce capacity of conventional electrical energy storage systems. Although. However, if a particular situation is considered, in which a small-sized, high-efficiency EV operates

  11. US-ABC Collaborates to Lower Cost of Electric Drive Batteries | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and Battery TechnologyDepartmentIndia Joint Center forGridUSof

  12. User's guide to DIANE Version 2. 1: A microcomputer software package for modeling battery performance in electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Energy Systems Div.); Symons, P.C. (Electrochemical Engineering Consultants, Inc., Morgan Hill, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DIANE is an interactive microcomputer software package for the analysis of battery performance in electric vehicle (EV) applications. The principal objective of this software package is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile. The capability of the battery is modeled by an algorithm that relates the battery voltage to the withdrawn current, taking into account the effect of battery depth-of-discharge (DOD). Because of the lack of test data and other constraints, the current version of DIANE deals only with vehicles using fresh'' batteries with or without regenerative braking. Deterioration of battery capability due to aging can presently be simulated with user-input parameters accounting for an increase of effective internal resistance and/or a decrease of cell no-load voltage. DIANE 2.1 is written in FORTRAN language for use on IBM-compatible microcomputers. 7 refs.

  13. Development of Low Cost Carbonaceous Materials for Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsukov, Igor V.

    2002-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report on the US DOE CARAT program describes innovative R & D conducted by Superior Graphite Co., Chicago, IL, USA in cooperation with researchers from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and defines the proper type of carbon and a cost effective method for its production, as well as establishes a US based manufacturer for the application of anodes of the Lithium-Ion, Lithium polymer batteries of the Hybrid Electric and Pure Electric Vehicles. The three materials each representing a separate class of graphitic carbon, have been developed and released for field trials. They include natural purified flake graphite, purified vein graphite and a graphitized synthetic carbon. Screening of the available on the market materials, which will help fully utilize the graphite, has been carried out.

  14. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reliable warranty for the batteries. In addition, they woulda price for the reused batteries that would foster both thevehicles and the second-use batteries. An analysis of these

  15. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the different lithium battery chemistries are presentedMiller, M. , Emerging Lithium-ion Battery Technologies forMid-size Full (1) Lithium-ion battery with an energy density

  16. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    range. Figure 6: PV/battery system schematic Prospects andAC inverter can be provided by the PV panel or battery aloneor the PV panel and battery in combination. For crystalline

  17. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    batteries for vehicle applications. Unfortunately the graphite/graphite/NiCoMn chemistry. In general, it seems possible to design high power batteries (graphite/NiCoMn chemistry. In general, it is possible to design high power batteries (

  18. A NEW CONCEPT IN AN ELECTRICALLY RECHARGEABLE ZINC-AIR ALKALINE BATTERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, P.N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study of a New Zinc-Air Battery Concept Using Flowingdiagram of the zinc-air battery single cell prototype usedRECHARGEABLE ZINC-AIR ALKALINE BATTERY Philip N. Ross

  19. Modeling the overcharge process of VRLA batteries , G.Q. Wang, C.Y. Wang*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -phase, electrochemical and thermal coupled model is developed for valve-regulated lead±acid (VRLA) batteries. Physical; Mathematical model 1. Introduction Valve-regulated lead±acid (VRLA) batteries are being used to power electric evolution and recom- bination in a lead±acid battery. This model, however, assumes in®nitely rapid transport

  20. Integration Issues of Cells into Battery Packs for Plug-in and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Keyser, M.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main barriers to increased market share of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and commercialization of plug-in HEVs are the cost, safety, and life of lithium ion batteries. Significant effort is being directed to address these issues for lithium ion cells. However, even the best cells may not perform as well when integrated into packs for vehicles because of the environment in which vehicles operate. This paper discusses mechanical, electrical, and thermal integration issues and vehicle interface issues that could impact the cost, life, and safety of the system. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of using many small cells versus a few large cells and using prismatic cells versus cylindrical cells.

  1. Electrical transport properties of Ti-doped Fe2O3(0001) epitaxial...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrical transport properties of Ti-doped Fe2O3(0001) epitaxial films. Electrical transport properties of Ti-doped Fe2O3(0001) epitaxial films. Abstract: The electrical transport...

  2. Promoting the Market for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles: Role of Recharge Availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much recent attention has been drawn to providing adequate recharge availability as a means to promote the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market. The possible role of improved recharge availability in developing the BEV-PHEV market and the priorities that different charging options should receive from the government require better understanding. This study reviews the charging issue and conceptualizes it into three interactions between the charge network and the travel network. With travel data from 3,755 drivers in the National Household Travel Survey, this paper estimates the distribution among U.S. consumers of (a) PHEV fuel-saving benefits by different recharge availability improvements, (b) range anxiety by different BEV ranges, and (c) willingness to pay for workplace and public charging in addition to home recharging. With the Oak Ridge National Laboratory MA3T model, the impact of three recharge improvements is quantified by the resulting increase in BEV-PHEV sales. Compared with workplace and public recharging improvements, home recharging improvement appears to have a greater impact on BEV-PHEV sales. The impact of improved recharging availability is shown to be amplified by a faster reduction in battery cost.

  3. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  4. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  5. Comparative costs of flexible package cells and rigid cells for lithium-ionhybrid electric vehicle batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A.; Jansen, A. N.

    2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We conducted a design study to compare the manufacturing costs at a level of 100,000 hybrid vehicle batteries per year for flexible package (Flex) cells and for rigid aluminum container (Rigid) cells. Initially, the Rigid cells were considered to have welded closures and to be deep-drawn containers of about the same shape as the Flex cells. As the study progressed, the method of fabricating and sealing the Rigid cells was expanded to include lower cost options including double seaming and other mechanically fastened closures with polymer sealants. Both types of batteries were designed with positive electrodes containing Li(Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3})O{sub 2} and graphite negative electrodes. The use of a different combination of lithium-ion electrodes would have little effect on the difference in costs for the two types of cells. We found that 20-Ah cells could be designed with excellent performance and heat rejection capabilities for either type of cell. Many parts in the design of the Flex cells are identical or nearly identical to those of the Rigid Cell, so for these features there would be no difference in the cost of manufacturing the two types of batteries. We judged the performance, size and weight of the batteries to be sufficiently similar that the batteries would have the same value for their application. Some of the design features of the Flex cells were markedly different than those of the deep-drawn and welded Rigid cells and would result in significant cost savings. Fabrication and processing steps for which the Flex cells appear to have a cost advantage over these Rigid cells are (1) container fabrication and sealing, (2) terminal fabrication and sealing, and (3) intercell connections. The costs of providing cooling channels adjacent to the cells and for module and battery hardware appear to favor Rigid cell batteries slightly. Overall, Flex cell batteries appear to have an advantage of about $1.20-$3.70 per cell for a 25-kW Battery of 20 cells or about $24 to $74 per battery. Container experts assisted with this study, including a paid consultant and personnel at container manufacturing companies. Some of the companies are considering entering the business of manufacturing containers for hybrid vehicle battery manufacturers. For this reason they provided valuable guidance on overall approaches to reducing the costs of the cell containers. They have retained the description of some specific designs and procedures for future possible work with battery manufacturers, with whom they are now in contact. Through the guidance of these experts, we determined that a new type of container could be manufactured that would have the best features of performance and low cost of both the Rigid and Flex containers. For instance, the aluminum layer in a tri-layer sheet can be sufficiently thick to form a rigid container that can be fabricated in two halves, much like a Flex container, and mechanically joined at the edges for strength. In addition to the mechanical joint, this container can be sealed at the edges, much like a Flex container, by means of an inner polymer liner that can be heat-sealed or ultrasonically welded. The terminals can be flat strips of metal sealed into the top of the container as part of the edge sealing of the container, as for the Flex cell. Ridges can be stamped into one side of the container to provide cooling channels and the exterior layer of the container stock can be coated with a thin, electrically insulating, polymer layer. We expect this type of container will provide excellent sealing and durability and be less expensive than either the Flex or the Rigid container, which the study initially considered. A major cost for the original Rigid container is the welding required for sealing the container. However, the welding of the current collector tabs to the terminal piece may be even more complex and costly than welding the container. It is important, therefore, to develop an inexpensive procedure for attachment of the foils to the terminal pieces. A lower-cost procedure, such as

  6. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  7. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kempton, Willett; Tomic, Jasna; Letendre, Steven; Brooks, Alec; Lipman, Timothy

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cellrevenue – cost). Peak power Battery, full function Battery,sources of distributed power; battery-EDVs, fuel cell EDVs,

  8. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use inhybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostecki, R.; Zhang, X.; Ross Jr., P.N.; Kong, F.; Sloop, S.; Kerr, J.B.; Striebel, K.; Cairns, E.; McLarnon, F.

    2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program seeks to aid the development of high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Nine 18650-size ATD baseline cells were tested under a variety of conditions. The cells consisted of a carbon anode, LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode and DEC-EC-LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte, and they were engineered for high-power applications. Selected instrumental techniques such as synchrotron IR microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gas chromatography, etc. were used to characterize the anode, cathode, current collectors and electrolyte from these cells. The goal was to identify detrimental processes which lead to battery failure under a high-current cycling regime as well as during storage at elevated temperatures. The diagnostic results suggest that the following factors contribute to the cell power loss: (a) SEI deterioration and non-uniformity on the anode, (b) morphology changes, increase of impedance and phase separation on the cathode, (c) pitting corrosion on the cathode Al current collector, and (d) decomposition of the LiPF{sub 6} salt in the electrolyte at elevated temperature.

  9. Electrical and Thermoelectrical Transport Properties of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deqi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IV Large Memory Effect in Graphene Based Devices IV-1Transport Properties of Graphene A Dissertation submitted into study the new material, graphene. By investigating the

  10. Lecture #2: Electric transport in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    et al., Nature 2001 #12;III) Ballistic and coherent transport Tworzydlo et al., PRL 2006 #12;III) Ballistic and coherent transport Tworzydlo et al., PRL 2006 #12;IV) Experiments: diffusive and incoherent al., PRL 2008 #12;Kim et al., PRL 2007 IV) Experiments: diffusive and incoherent #12;IV) Experiments

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  12. Modeling temperature distribution in cylindrical lithium ion batteries for use in electric vehicle cooling system design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasinski, Samuel Anthony

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advancements in lithium ion battery technology have made BEV's a more feasible alternative. However, some safety concerns still exist. While the energy density of lithium ion batteries has all but made them the ...

  13. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for ATD 18650 GEN 1 lithium ion cells, Revision 4, DecemberFAILURE MODES IN HIGH-POWER LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES FOR USE INdevelopment of high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid

  14. Dualmode transportation - impact on the electric grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azcarate Lara, Francisco Javier

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Continual increase in transport demand and uneven road capacity results in chaotic traffic congestion, brings with it high levels of air pollution, an elevated number of accidents, and an insatiable demand for oil to satisfy the motorized vehicles...

  15. Dualmode transportation - impact on the electric grid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azcarate Lara, Francisco Javier

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Continual increase in transport demand and uneven road capacity results in chaotic traffic congestion, brings with it high levels of air pollution, an elevated number of accidents, and an insatiable demand for oil to satisfy the motorized vehicles...

  16. Dualmode transportation - impact on the electric grid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azcarate Lara, Francisco Javier

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Continual increase in transport demand and uneven road capacity results in chaotic traffic congestion, brings with it high levels of air pollution, an elevated number of accidents, and an insatiable demand for oil to satisfy the motorized vehicles...

  17. Dualmode transportation - impact on the electric grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azcarate Lara, Francisco Javier

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Continual increase in transport demand and uneven road capacity results in chaotic traffic congestion, brings with it high levels of air pollution, an elevated number of accidents, and an insatiable demand for oil to satisfy the motorized vehicles...

  18. Published in IET Electrical Systems in Transportation Received on 4th May 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    , of which the electric charger is one of the most important components in a PHEV to charge the battery stack inductance, and a system-level safe operational area (SOA) to guarantee the whole system to charge quickly September 2010 doi: 10.1049/iet-est.2010.0038 ISSN 2042-9738 Modelling, design and optimisation of a battery

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Evaluating Powerful Batteries for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ClimateECEnergyEvaluating Powerful Batteries for Modular Electric Grid Energy Storage Evaluating Powerful Batteries for Modular Electric Grid Energy Storage Sandian Spoke at the...

  20. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles (EV), including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electrical vehicles. With the increasing demand on devices of high energy densities (>500 Wh/kg) , new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB also attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performances of these energy storage systems depend not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performances characteristics of batteries often have conflict requirements on the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflict requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li-O2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate 1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and 2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties, prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime.

  1. Metal-Air Electric Vehicle Battery: Sustainable, High-Energy Density, Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage – Metal-Air Ionic Liquid (MAIL) Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is developing a new class of metal-air batteries. Metal-air batteries are promising for future generations of EVs because they use oxygen from the air as one of the battery’s main reactants, reducing the weight of the battery and freeing up more space to devote to energy storage than Li-Ion batteries. ASU technology uses Zinc as the active metal in the battery because it is more abundant and affordable than imported lithium. Metal-air batteries have long been considered impractical for EV applications because the water-based electrolytes inside would decompose the battery interior after just a few uses. Overcoming this traditional limitation, ASU’s new battery system could be both cheaper and safer than today’s Li-Ion batteries, store from 4-5 times more energy, and be recharged over 2,500 times.

  2. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. C. Butler, "Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles andIntroduction," in Hnadbook of Batteries, 3rd Edition, D.T. B. Reddy, Handbook of Batteries, 2002). [67] R. Zito, US

  3. The Potential of Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles as Grid Resources: the Case of a Gas and Petroleum Oriented Elecricity Generation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Mark R

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferdowsi, M. (2007). Plug-hybrid vehicles – A vision for thepower: battery, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles as resources2010). Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power

  4. Materials for electrical battery technology. (Latest citations from Metadex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning materials used in batteries. Among materials discussed are lead, nickel, magnesium and zinc alloys, rare-earth-based hydrogen, aluminum, and lead-calcium alloys. Recovery and recycling of polypropylene from automotive batteries are referenced, and use of polyphase as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems is also examined.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Materials for electrical battery technology. (Latest citations from Metadex). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning materials used in batteries. Among materials discussed are lead, nickel, magnesium and zinc alloys, rare-earth-based hydrogen, aluminum, and lead-calcium alloys. Recovery and recycling of polypropylene from automotive batteries are referenced, and use of polyphase as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems is also examined. (Contains a minimum of 153 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the USABC's goals for PHEV batteries, we have summarized theM. (2007). Lithium Phosphate Batteries used Successfully inAdvanced Automotive Batteries Conference 2007, Long Beach,

  7. Infrastructure, Components and System Level Testing and Analysis of Electric Vehicles: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-353

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery technology is critical for the development of innovative electric vehicle networks, which can enhance transportation sustainability and reduce dependence on petroleum. This cooperative research proposed by Better Place and NREL will focus on predicting the life-cycle economics of batteries, characterizing battery technologies under various operating and usage conditions, and designing optimal usage profiles for battery recharging and use.

  8. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

  9. Impact of Battery Weight and Charging Patterns on the Economic and Environmental Benefits of Plug-in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    the transportation sector. Because plug-in vehicles require large batteries for energy storage, battery weight can of gasoline consumption with electricity. While the U.S. transportation sector is overwhelming powered Samaras Engineering and Public Policy Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213

  10. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Electric Fuel Zinc-Air Battery System for EVs,of the Electric Fuel Zinc-air battery for electric vehicles,

  11. Batteries and electrochemical energy storage are central to any future alternative energy scenario. Future energy generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    Batteries and electrochemical energy storage are central to any future alternative energy scenario. Future energy generation sources are likely to be intermittent, requiring storage capacity energy storage for uninterrupted power supply units, the electrical grid, and transportation. Of all

  12. Nano-structured anode material for high-power battery system in electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amine, K.; Belharouak, I.; Chen, Z.; Taison, T.; Yumoto, H.; Ota, N.; Myung, S.-T.; Sun, Y.-K. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Enerdel Lithium Power Systems); (Iwate Univ.); (Hanyang Univ.)

    2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A new MSNP-LTO anode is developed to enable a high-power battery system that provides three times more power than any existing battery system. It shows excellent cycle life and low-temperature performance, and exhibits unmatched safety characteristics.

  13. Grafted polyelectrolyte membranes for lithium batteries and fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MEMBRANES FOR LITHIUM BATTERIES AND FUEL CELLS. John Kerralso be discussed. Lithium Batteries for Transportation andpolymer membrane for lithium batteries. This paper will give

  14. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Envia Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy lithium batteries...

  16. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  17. 1992 five year battery forecast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amistadi, D.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Five-year trends for automotive and industrial batteries are projected. Topic covered include: SLI shipments; lead consumption; automotive batteries (5-year annual growth rates); industrial batteries (standby power and motive power); estimated average battery life by area/country for 1989; US motor vehicle registrations; replacement battery shipments; potential lead consumption in electric vehicles; BCI recycling rates for lead-acid batteries; US average car/light truck battery life; channels of distribution; replacement battery inventory end July; 2nd US battery shipment forecast.

  18. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  19. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program has progressed to the stage of evaluating full-sized (220 Ah) cells, multicell modules, and 22 kWh batteries. Nickel electrodes that display stable capacities of up to 24 Ah/plate (at C/3 drain rate) at design thickness (2.5 mm) in tests at 200/sup +/ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are also delivering 24 Ah/plate (at C/3) at target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron plates are displaying capacity stability for 300/sup +/ test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Best finished cells are delivering 57 to 63 Wh/kg at C/3, based on cell weights of the finished cells, and in the actual designed cell volume. 6-cell module (6-1) performance has demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 53 WH/kg at the C/3 drain rate. This module is now being evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory. The 2 x 4 battery has been constructed, tested, and delivered for engineering test and evaluation. The battery delivered 22.5 kWh, as required (199 Ah discharge at 113 V-bar) at the C/3 drain rate. The battery has performed satisfactorily under dynamometer and constant current drain tests. Some cell problems, related to construction, necessitated changing 3 modules, but the battery is now ready for further testing. Reduction in nickel plate swelling (and concurrent stack electrolyte starvation), to improve cycling, is one area of major effort to reach the final battery objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes are showing promise in initial full-size cell tests and will continue to be evaluated in finished cells, along with other technology advancements. 30 figures, 14 tables.

  20. Better Battery Performance | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the practical application of several high-energy-density battery systems for powering electric vehicles and storing renewable energy on the grid. Summary Researchers from the...

  1. Boosting batteries | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    way for widespread adoption of lithium ion batteries for applications such as powering electric vehicles and storing renewable energy on the grid. The Science Rechargeable...

  2. Mesoscale Phase-Field Modeling of Charge Transport in Nanocomposite Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sushko, Maria L.

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A phase-field model is developed to investigate the influence of microstructure, thermodynamic and kinetic properties, and charging conditions on charged particle transport in nanocomposite electrodes. Two sets of field variables are used to describe the microstructure. One is comprised of the order parameters describing size, orientation and spatial distributions of nanoparticles, and the other is comprised of the concentrations of mobile species. A porous nanoparticle microstructure filled with electrolyte is taken as a model system to test the phase-field model. Inhomogeneous and anisotropic dielectric constants and mobilities of charged particles, and stresses associated with lattice deformation due to Li-ion insertion/extraction are considered in the model. Iteration methods are used to find the elastic and electric fields in an elastically and electrically inhomogeneous medium. The results demonstrate that the model is capable of predicting charge separation associated with the formation of a double layer at the electrochemical interface between solid and electrolyte, and the effect of microstructure, inhomogeneous and anisotropic thermodynamic and kinetic properties, charge rates, and stresses on voltage versus current density and capacity during charging and discharging.

  3. Flow-Assisted Alkaline Battery: Low-Cost Grid-Scale Electrical Storage using a Flow-Assisted Rechargeable Zinc-Manganese Dioxide Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: Traditional consumer-grade disposable batteries are made of Zinc and Manganese, 2 inexpensive, abundant, and non-toxic metals. But these disposable batteries can only be used once. If they are recharged, the Zinc in the battery develops filaments called dendrites that grow haphazardly and disrupt battery performance, while the Manganese quickly loses its ability to store energy. CUNY Energy Institute is working to tame dendrite formation and to enhance the lifetime of Manganese in order to create a long-lasting, fully rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. CUNY Energy Institute is also working to reduce dendrite formation by pumping fluid through the battery, enabling researchers to fix the dendrites as they’re forming. The team has already tested its Zinc battery through 3,000 recharge cycles (and counting). CUNY Energy Institute aims to demonstrate a better cycle life than lithium-ion batteries, which can be up to 20 times more expensive than Zinc-based batteries.

  4. Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low carbon electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low on the costs of a range of `alternative' energy sources for electricity generation and transport markets;Alternative fuels for transport and electricity generation: A technical note on costs and cost projections

  5. Dynamic Electric Power Supply Chains and Transportation Networks: An Evolutionary Variational Inequality Formulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Dynamic Electric Power Supply Chains and Transportation Networks: An Evolutionary Variational; Transportation Research E 43 (2007) pp 624-646. 1 #12;Abstract: In this paper, we develop a static electric power supernetwork. This equivalence yields a new interpretation of electric power supply chain network equilibria

  6. Advanced battery modeling using neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arikara, Muralidharan Pushpakam

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Batteries have gained importance as power sources for electric vehicles. The main problem with the battery technology available today is that the design of the battery system has not been optimized for different applications. No comprehensive...

  7. Advanced battery modeling using neural networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arikara, Muralidharan Pushpakam

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Batteries have gained importance as power sources for electric vehicles. The main problem with the battery technology available today is that the design of the battery system has not been optimized for different applications. No comprehensive...

  8. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, Stanley C. (Alameda, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA); Salas-Morales, Juan (Berkeley, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

  9. Characterization of the Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery for Electrical Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreutzer, Haley Maren

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost and efficient electrical energy storage system is needed to implement intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar and wind while maintaining grid reliability, and could also reduce the use of inefficient peak-load electrical...

  10. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, James H. (New Baltimore, MI)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  11. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Ahmad, P.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.; Smith, K.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the application of the Battery Ownership Model for strategies for optimal battery use in electric drive vehicles (PEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs).

  12. Planning of feeding station installment for elec-tric urban public mass-transportation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierlaire, Michel

    especially in the transportation sector, a key and viable approach is to use renewable energy such as wind 13th Swiss Transport Research Conference Monte Veritŕ / Ascona, April 24 ­ 26, 2013 #12;Planning-based transportation infrastructure has led to renewed interest in electric transportation infrastructure, especially

  13. 2010 Plug-In Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010 Plug-In Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Research Center TRANSPORTATION ENERGY RESEARCH PIER The PlugIn and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Researc Center conducts research in: · Battery second life applications. Plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are promising

  14. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and ferment all sugars Ethanol recovery Fuel ethanol Residuecellulosic ethanol that is competitive as a pure fuel •Fuels Ocean/ hydro Geothermal Transportation Electricity Hydrogen Batteries Nuclear By Lee Lynd, Dartmouth Ethanol •

  15. EV Everywhere: Innovative Battery Research Powering Up Plug-In Electric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6: RecordJune- BatteryVehicles | Department

  16. Maximizing the usage of renewable energy will reduce our reliance on dwindling natural resources and environmental pollution. Batteries are an important enabling technology for renewable energy, portable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    Maximizing the usage of renewable energy will reduce our reliance on dwindling natural resources and environmental pollution. Batteries are an important enabling technology for renewable energy, portable electronics, and modern transportation systems such as hybrid electric vehicles. However, limitation

  17. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

    1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

  18. The Effect of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Lithium-Ion Batteries and Electric Double Layer Capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    into the anode of the Li-ion battery and the electrodes of the EDLC to observe the effects it would have and resistance of the EDLC. If the use of SWNT also improves these devices, it would be evidence that Li-ion batteries and EDLCs are excellent options for more efficient commercial energy storage. Li-ion batteries

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed (EDAB)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Idaho National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Electric Drive and...

  20. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYCO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

  1. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries. |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles (EV), including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric...

  2. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  3. Lithium battery management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  4. The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research: A New Paradigm for Battery Research and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crabtree, George

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) seeks transformational change in transportation and the electricity grid driven by next generation high performance, low cost electricity storage. To pursue this transformative vision JCESR introduces a new paradigm for battery research: integrating discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization. This new paradigm will accelerate the pace of discovery and innovation and reduce the time from conceptualization to commercialization. JCESR applies its new paradigm exclusively to beyond-lithium-ion batteries, a vast, rich and largely unexplored frontier. This review presents JCESR's motivation, vision, mission, intended outcomes or legacies and first year accomplishments.

  5. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Energy Storage R&D Progress Report, Sections 4-6 Analysis of Electric Vehicle Battery Performance...

  6. Implementation of battery energy storage system for the electricity grid in Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhenqi, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market of grid-level electricity storage is growing rapidly, with a predicted market value of 1.6 billion in 2012 and 8.3 billion in 2016. Electrochemical storages such as lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, sodium-sulfur and ...

  7. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M=Mn, Ni, Co) in Lithium Batteries at 50°C. Electrochem.Electrodes for Lithium Batteries. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82:S CIENCE AND T ECHNOLOGY Batteries: Overview of Battery

  8. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writ

  9. The Potential of Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles as Grid Resources: the Case of a Gas and Petroleum Oriented Elecricity Generation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Mark R

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to integrate their battery storage and internal vehicleOstergaard, J. (2009). Battery energy storage technology fora far smaller battery energy storage capacity than BEVs,

  10. Better Battery Performance | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the study could pave the way for the practical application of several high-energy-density battery systems for powering electric vehicles and storing renewable energy on the grid....

  11. Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed: Solar Energy Capture...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture in chemical form makes it storable and transportable January 11, 2011 | Tags: Chemistry,...

  12. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rd International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exposition (Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications, Sandiaand Impacts of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Options EPRI, Palo

  13. Fact #877: June 15, 2015 Which States Have More Battery Electric Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment ofDepartmentLast TenPrice of| Department ofthan

  14. Development of Computer-Aided Design Tools for Automotive Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9han2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT)...

  15. New imaging capability reveals possible key to extending battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lifetime and capacity, opening a path to wider use of these batteries in conjunction with renewable energy sources. Lithium ion batteries power mobile devices and electric cars and...

  16. Batteries - Simulation software aids design ... | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Simulation software aids design ... Designers of safe high-performance batteries for electric vehicles are getting a hand with a new computational toolset created by a...

  17. Overview and Progress of United States Advanced Battery Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Activity United States Advanced Battery Consortium High-Power Electrochemical Storage Devices and Plug-in Hybrid Electric...

  18. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Lithium-ion batteries, popular in today's electronic devices and electric vehicles, could gain significant...

  19. Accomodating Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aasheim, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accommodating Electric Vehicles Dave Aasheim 214-551-4014 daasheim@ecotality.com A leader in clean electric transportation and storage technologies ECOtality North America Overview Today ? Involved in vehicle electrification... ECOtality North America Overview Today ?Warehouse Material Handling ? Lift trucks ? Pallet Jacks ? Over 200 Customers ? Over 5,000 Installations ECOtality North America Overview Today ? 1990?s involved in EV1 ? EV Chargers ? Vehicle & battery...

  20. Accomodating Electric Vehicles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aasheim, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accommodating Electric Vehicles Dave Aasheim 214-551-4014 daasheim@ecotality.com A leader in clean electric transportation and storage technologies ECOtality North America Overview Today ? Involved in vehicle electrification... ECOtality North America Overview Today ?Warehouse Material Handling ? Lift trucks ? Pallet Jacks ? Over 200 Customers ? Over 5,000 Installations ECOtality North America Overview Today ? 1990?s involved in EV1 ? EV Chargers ? Vehicle & battery...

  1. The Effect of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Lithium-Ion Batteries and Electric Double Layer Capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the overall performance of Li-ion batteries and EDLCs. SWNTs were incorporated into the anode of the Lithium carbon in the EDLC to act as conductors. An EDLC containing no SWNT was the control. Activated carbon secondary batteries ·High voltage (3.6 V) ·No memory effect ·lightweight EDLCs ·High power density ·High

  2. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS: ASSESSING TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    power generation, energy policy, fuel economy ABSTRACT Prioritizing the numerous technology and policy Publications for book titled "Energy Consumption: Impacts of Human Activity, Current and Future Challenges, Environmental and Ecological Effects," August 2013. KEY WORDS: Greenhouse gases, transportation energy, electric

  3. EA-1851: Delphi Automotive Systems Electric Drive Vehicle Battery and Component Manufacturing Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) to Delphi Automotive Systems, Limited Liability Corporation (LLC) (Delphi). Delphi proposes to construct a laboratory referred to as the “Delphi Kokomo, IN Corporate Technology Center” (Delphi CTC Project) and retrofit a manufacturing facility. The project would advance DOE’s Vehicle Technology Program through manufacturing and testing of electric-drive vehicle components as well as assist in the nation’s economic recovery by creating manufacturing jobs in the United States. The Delphi CTC Project would involve the construction and operation of a 10,700 square foot (ft2) utilities building containing boilers and heaters and a 70,000 ft2 engineering laboratory, as well as site improvements (roads, parking, buildings, landscaping,and lighting).

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overview and Progress of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Activity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by the Department of Energy's Energy Storage area at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the research area that is examining new battery materials and addressing fundamental chemical and mechanical instability issues in batteries.

  5. Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G Henrik Lund Renewable energy Wind powerQ1 a b s t r a c t Large-scale sustainable energy systems will be necessary replace oil in the transportation sector, and (2) since today's inexpensive and abundant renewable energy

  6. Proton transport along water chains in an electric field Karen Drukker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    Proton transport along water chains in an electric field Karen Drukker Department of Chemistry, Indiana 46556 Received 4 November 1997; accepted 23 January 1998 Proton transport along water chains is thought to be essential for the translocation of protons over large distances in proteins. In this paper

  7. Electric Bike Use in China and Their Impacts on the Environment, Safety, Mobility and Accessibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherry, Christopher

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recycling! rates! of! lead! acid! batteries,! up! to! 30%!The! reason! lead! acid! batteries! are! used! in! electric!they! use! lead! acid! batteries! and! electricity,! which!

  8. Choices and Requirements of Batteries for EVs, HEVs, PHEVs (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes the choices available and requirements for batteries for electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  9. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybridand Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid

  10. Battery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B; Andrew, Michael G

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery module includes a plurality of battery cells and a system configured for passing a fluid past at least a portion of the plurality of battery cells in a parallel manner.

  11. The effect of electron induced hydrogenation of graphene on its electrical transport properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, Sung Oh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Teizer, Winfried [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States) [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a deterioration of the electrical transport properties of a graphene field effect transistor due to energetic electron irradiation on a stack of Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) on graphene (PMMA/graphene bilayer). Prior to electron irradiation, we observed that the PMMA layer on graphene does not deteriorate the carrier transport of graphene but improves its electrical properties instead. As a result of the electron irradiation on the PMMA/graphene bilayer, the Raman “D” band appears after removal of PMMA. We argue that the degradation of the transport behavior originates from the binding of hydrogen generated during the PMMA backbone secession process.

  12. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chu, A. (2007). Nanophosphate Lithium-Ion Technology forYomoto (2007). Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries for Plug- inhydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-Ion), comparing their

  13. Implementation of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of flow batteries for energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yaliang

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For large-scale energy storage application, flow battery has the advantages of decoupled power and energy management, extended life cycles and relatively low cost of unit energy output ($/kWh). In this thesis, an overview ...

  14. Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 and 27,000 Wh per liter.

  15. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M=Mn, Ni, Co) in Lithium Batteries at 50°C. Electrochem.Spinel Electrodes for Lithium Batteries. J. Am. Ceram. Soc.for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. J. Power Sources 54:

  16. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are readylithium ion batteries (i.e. , to lithiate graphite anodes soGraphite Electrodes Due to the Deposition of Manganese Ions on Them in Li-Ion Batteries.

  17. Battery-Aware Power Management Based on Markovian Decision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    ] " Electrical circuit model: A spice model of the lithium-ion batteries [Gold-97] " Electro-chemical model: Generic dual-foil lithium-ion battery model [Doyle-94] ! Battery Management " Discharge rate-based policyBattery-Aware Power Management Based on Markovian Decision Processes Battery-Aware Power Management

  18. Thermal and Electrical Transport Study of One Dimensional Nanomaterials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Liang

    2013-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    concentration were measured using a MEMS micro-device consisting of two suspended silicon nitride membranes in the temperature range of 60 K ~450 K. The experimental results were obtained by “simultaneously” measuring thermal conductivity, electrical...

  19. Batteries for Vehicular Applications Venkat Srinivasan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    of the range and charging-time issues. INTRODUCTION TO BATTERIES Several electrical energy storage be achieved by a high-energy Li-ion cell (similar to the batteries used in the Tesla Roadster).a However

  20. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1978-September 1979. [40 kWh, Li-Al and Li-Si anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barney, D. L.; Steunenberg, R. K.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Battles, J. E.; Hornstra, F.; Miller, W. E.; Vissers, D. R.; Roche, M. F.; Shimotake, H.; Hudson, R.; Askew, B. A.; Sudar, S.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978 to September 1979 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte. During this reporting period, cell and battery development work has continued at ANL and contractors' laboratories. A 40 kWh electric-vehicle battery (designated Mark IA) was fabricated and delivered to ANL for testing. During the initial heat-up, one of the two modules failed due to a short circuit. A failure analysis was conducted, and the Mark IA program completed. Development work on the next electric-vehicle battery (Mark II) was initiated at Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. and Gould, Inc. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries during this period has consisted primarily of conceptual design studies. 107 figures, 67 tables.

  1. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  2. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EMISSIONS OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYEMISSIONS OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

  3. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in peak shaving by the battery and PV. Therefore, to satisfylow storage & 60% PV incentive Battery discharging BatteryElectricity input to battery Considering lower PV prices and

  4. The Potential of Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles as Grid Resources: the Case of a Gas and Petroleum Oriented Elecricity Generation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Mark R

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the battery depletion cost per kWh transferred could bethe battery depletion cost per kWh transferred from off-peakhigher battery depletion cost per kWh transferred under the

  5. Material and Energy Flows in the Materials Production, Assembly, and End-of-Life Stages of the Automotive Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Barnes, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn?O?). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn?O? as the cathode material using Argonne’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  6. Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J. (Energy Systems)

    2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  7. Assessment of the status of fuel cell/battery vehicle power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escher, W.J.D.; Foster, R.W.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of the status of the integrated fuel cell/battery power system concept for electric vehicle propulsion is reported. The fuel cell, operating on hydrogen or methanol (indirectly), acts as a very high capacity energy battery for vehicle sustaining operation, while a special power battery provides over-capacity transient power on demand, being recharged by the fuel cell, e.g., during cruising. A focused literature search and a set of industrial and Government contacts were carried out to establish views, outlooks, and general status concerning the concept. It is evident that, although vehicle battery R and D is being actively pursued, little of today's fuel cell work is directed to transportation usage. Only very limited attention has been, and is being, given to the fuel cell/battery power system concept itself. However, judging largely from computer-simulated driving cycle results, the concept can provide needed range capabilities and general operating flexibility to electric vehicles. New transportation applications, conventionally viewed as beyond the capability of electric vehicles, may thereby be practical, e.g., rail, trucks. In view of these potential and important benefits, and the absence of any comprehensive research, development, and demonstration activities which are supportive of the fuel cell/battery system concept, the initiation of an appropriate effort is recommended by the Assessment Team. This general recommendation is supported by applicable findings, observations, and conclusions.

  8. Internal Short Circuit Device Helps Improve Lithium-Ion Battery Design (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL's emulation tool helps manufacturers ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicle batteries.

  9. NREL: Transportation Research - Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid IntegrationReportTransmissionResearch CutawayHybrid Electric

  10. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  11. Flexographically Printed Rechargeable Zinc-based Battery for Grid Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zuoqian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Power Sources - Battery systems for electric vehicles — apower sources for fully flexible electronic systems. In the electric vehicle (

  12. Modeling electron transport in the presence of electric and magnetic fields.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Wesley C.; Drumm, Clifton Russell; Pautz, Shawn D.; Turner, C. David

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the theoretical background on modeling electron transport in the presence of electric and magnetic fields by incorporating the effects of the Lorentz force on electron motion into the Boltzmann transport equation. Electromagnetic fields alter the electron energy and trajectory continuously, and these effects can be characterized mathematically by differential operators in terms of electron energy and direction. Numerical solution techniques, based on the discrete-ordinates and finite-element methods, are developed and implemented in an existing radiation transport code, SCEPTRE.

  13. Electric Drive Transportation Association EDTA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to: navigation, search ToolEcowareEkisolarModelElectric Drive

  14. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    battery Utility electricity consumption Electricity providedis expressed in electricity consumption of the electricis expressed in electricity consumption of the electric

  15. Electronic transport in Lithium Nickel Manganese Oxide, a high-voltage cathode material for Lithium-Ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ransil, Alan Patrick Adams

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential routes by which the energy densities of lithium-ion batteries may be improved abound. However, the introduction of Lithium Nickel Manganese Oxide (LixNi1i/2Mn3/2O4, or LNMO) as a positive electrode material appears ...

  16. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The FY 1980 program continued to involve full-size, prototype cell, module and battery fabrication and evaluation, aimed at advancing the technical capabilities of the nickel-iron battery, while simultaneously reducing its potential cost in materials and process areas. Improved Electroprecipitation Process (EPP) nickel electrodes of design thickness (2.5 mm) are now being prepared that display stable capacities of 23 to 25 Ah for the C/3 drain rate at 200+ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are delivering 24 Ah at the target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron electrodes are displaying capacity stability for > 1000 test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Finished cells have delivered 57 to 61 Wh/kg at C/3, and have demonstrated cyclic stability to 500+ cycles at 80% depth of discharge profiles at Westinghouse. A 6-cell module that demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 48 Wh/kg at the C/3 drain rate has also been evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory, ANL. It operated for 327 test cycles, to a level of 161 Ah at the C/3 rate, before being removed from test. Reduction in nickel electrode swelling (and concurrent stack starvation), to improve cycling, continues to be an area of major effort to reach the final battery cycle life objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes continue to show promise for meeting the life objectives while, simultaneously, providing a low manufacturing cost. Refinements have occurred in the areas of cell hardware, module manifolding and cell interconnections. These improvements have been incorporated into the construction and testing of the cells and modules for this program. Temperature tests at 0/sup 0/C were performed on a 6-cell module and showed a decrease in capacity of only 25% in Ah and .29% in Wh as compared to 25/sup 0/C performance. Additional tests are planned to demonstrate performance at -15/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C.

  17. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (Evs) are restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery cost via reuse in other applications after the battery is retired from service in the vehicle, if the battery can still meet the performance requirements of other energy storage applications. In several current and emerging applications, the secondary use of PHEV and EV batteries may be beneficial; these applications range from utility peak load reduction to home energy storage appliances. However, neither the full scope of possible opportunities nor the feasibility or profitability of secondary use battery opportunities have been quantified. Therefore, with support from the Energy Storage activity of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is addressing this issue. NREL will bring to bear its expertise and capabilities in energy storage for transportation and in distributed grids, advanced vehicles, utilities, solar energy, wind energy, and grid interfaces as well as its understanding of stakeholder dynamics. This presentation introduces NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use project.

  18. Electrochemical Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Present Status and Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    batteries and ultracapacitors for electric vehicles. EVS24Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposiumpublications on electric and hybrid vehicle technology and

  19. advanced battery technologies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: diesel engine, an electric motor, a Lithium-Ion battery, and an Eaton automated manual transmission. The electric motor, clutch, transmission, inverter,...

  20. advanced battery technology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: diesel engine, an electric motor, a Lithium-Ion battery, and an Eaton automated manual transmission. The electric motor, clutch, transmission, inverter,...

  1. Optimization of blended battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erb, Dylan C. (Dylan Charles)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reviews the traditional battery pack design process for hybrid and electric vehicles, and presents a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm that eases the process of cell selection and pack design, especially ...

  2. Lithium-Air Battery: High Performance Cathodes for Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEEST Project: Researchers at Missouri S&T are developing an affordable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery that could enable an EV to travel up to 350 miles on a single charge. Today’s EVs run on Li-Ion batteries, which are expensive and suffer from low energy density compared with gasoline. This new Li-Air battery could perform as well as gasoline and store 3 times more energy than current Li-Ion batteries. A Li-Air battery uses an air cathode to breathe oxygen into the battery from the surrounding air, like a human lung. The oxygen and lithium react in the battery to produce electricity. Current Li-Air batteries are limited by the rate at which they can draw oxygen from the air. The team is designing a battery using hierarchical electrode structures to enhance air breathing and effective catalysts to accelerate electricity production.

  3. Bubbles Help Break Energy Storage Record for Lithium Air-Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bubbles Help Break Energy Storage Record for Lithium Air-Batteries Foam-base graphene keeps oxygen flowing in batteries that holds promise for electric vehicles January...

  4. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  5. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  6. Hierarchical Models for Batteries: Overview with Some Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL; Allu, Srikanth [ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Martha, Surendra K [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Turner, John A [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Batteries are complex multiscale systems and a hierarchy of models has been employed to study different aspects of batteries at different resolutions. For the electrochemistry and charge transport, the models span from electric circuits, single-particle, pseudo 2D, detailed 3D, and microstructure resolved at the continuum scales and various techniques such as molecular dynamics and density functional theory to resolve the atomistic structure. Similar analogies exist for the thermal, mechanical, and electrical aspects of the batteries. We have been recently working on the development of a unified formulation for the continuum scales across the electrode-electrolyte-electrode system - using a rigorous volume averaging approach typical of multiphase formulation. This formulation accounts for any spatio-temporal variation of the different properties such as electrode/void volume fractions and anisotropic conductivities. In this talk the following will be presented: The background and the hierarchy of models that need to be integrated into a battery modeling framework to carry out predictive simulations, Our recent work on the unified 3D formulation addressing the missing links in the multiscale description of the batteries, Our work on microstructure resolved simulations for diffusion processes, Upscaling of quantities of interest to construct closures for the 3D continuum description, Sample results for a standard Carbon/Spinel cell will be presented and compared to experimental data, Finally, the infrastructure we are building to bring together components with different physics operating at different resolution will be presented. The presentation will also include details about how this generalized approach can be applied to other electrochemical storage systems such as supercapacitors, Li-Air batteries, and Lithium batteries with 3D architectures.

  7. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bockelmann, Thomas R. (Battle Creek, MI); Hope, Mark E. (Marshall, MI); Zou, Zhanjiang (Battle Creek, MI); Kang, Xiaosong (Battle Creek, MI)

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  8. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing EnerDel technology, and helps DOE to evaluate the merits of underlying technology. The successful completion of this program demonstrated the capability of EnerDel battery packs to satisfactorily supply all power and energy requirements of a real-world HEV-Bus drive profile. This program supports green solutions to metropolitan public transportation problems by demonstrating the effectiveness of EnerDel lithium ion batteries for HEV-Bus applications.

  9. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in work at Exide in three main development areas, i.e., battery design and development, nickel cathode study, and electrochemical studies is reported. Battery design and development concentrated on the optimization of design parameters, including electrode spacing, charging methods, electrolyte concentration, the design and fabrication of prototype cells and modules, and testing to verify these parameters. Initial experiments indicated that an interelectrode spacing of 2.5 mm was optimum when normal (D.C.) charging is used. It was during these experiments that a high rate charging technique was developed to deposit a dense active zinc which did not shed during vibration. A 4 cell - 300 Ah experimental module was built and sent to NBTL for testing. Initial testing on this module and a 300 Ah cell are reported. Experiments on electrolyte concentration indicate that higher concentrations of KOH (8M, 9M or 10M) are beneficial to capacity maintenance. Available nickel cathodes were evaluated for possible use in the VIBROCEL. These included pocket, sintered plaque impregnated, nickel plated steel wool impregnated, plastic bonded and CMG (multifoil) electrodes. These electrodes have Coulombic densities ranging from 70 Ah/Kg for pocket plates to 190 Ah/Kg for CMG electrodes. Detailed test data are presented for each type including rate capability, effect of zincate on performance, and capacity maintenance with cycling. Work on zinc deposition emphasized the special charging technique. This is a deposition using special waveforms of charging current, to deposit dense crystalline zinc on the anode substrate.

  10. Abstract--This paper examines the impact of battery sizing on the performance and efficiency of power management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krstic, Miroslav

    paper examines plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which typically utilize onboard battery storage

  11. Design of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries for Long Life and Low Cost: Robustness to Geographic and Consumer-Usage Variation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Markel, T.; Kim, G. H.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes a battery optimization and trade-off analysis for Li-ion batteries used in EVs and PHEVs to extend their life and/or reduce cost.

  12. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  13. Electrical conductivity in Li2O2 and its role in determining capacity limitations in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thygesen, Kristian

    -O2 batteries V. Viswanathan, K. S. Thygesen, J. S. Hummelshřj, J. K. Nřrskov, G. Girishkumar et al limitations in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries V. Viswanathan,1 K. S. Thygesen,2 J. S. Hummelshřj,3 J. K. Nřrskov energy density battery couple. Such cells, however, show sudden death at capacities far below

  14. Effect of conductive additives in LiFePO4 cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shim, J.; Guerfi, A.; Zaghib, K.; Striebel, K.A.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries J. Shim a , A. Guerfi b ,material for Li rechargeable batteries because of low-cost,is a part of BATT (Batteries for Advanced Transportation

  15. EA-1723: General Motors LLC Electric Drive Vehicle Battery and Component Manufacturing Initiative Application White Marsh, Maryland and Wixom, Michigan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Proposed Action is to provide GM with $105,387,000 in financial assistance in a cost sharing arrangement to facilitate construction and operation of a manufacturing facility to produce electric motor components and assemble an electric drive unit. This Proposed Action through the Vehicle Technologies Program will accelerate the development and production of electric-drive vehicle systems and reduce the United States’ consumption of petroleum. This Proposed Action will also meaningfully assist in the nation’s economic recovery by creating manufacturing jobs in the United States in accordance with the objectives of the Recovery Act.

  16. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  17. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  18. SEM technique for imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael (Brooktondale, NY) [Brooktondale, NY

    2009-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for SEM imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast. A method includes mounting a sample onto a sample holder, the sample including a sample material; wire bonding leads from the sample holder onto the sample; placing the sample holder in a vacuum chamber of a scanning electron microscope; connecting leads from the sample holder to a power source located outside the vacuum chamber; controlling secondary electron emission from the sample by applying a predetermined voltage to the sample through the leads; and generating an image of the secondary electron emission from the sample. An apparatus includes a sample holder for a scanning electron microscope having an electrical interconnect and leads on top of the sample holder electrically connected to the electrical interconnect; a power source and a controller connected to the electrical interconnect for applying voltage to the sample holder to control the secondary electron emission from a sample mounted on the sample holder; and a computer coupled to a secondary electron detector to generate images of the secondary electron emission from the sample.

  19. Measuring Energy Efficiency Improvements in Industrial Battery Chargers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matley, R.

    Measuring Energy Efficiency Improvements in Industrial Battery Chargers Ryan Matley, Sr. Program Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, San Francisco, CA ABSTRACT Industrial battery chargers have provided the energy requirements... to 100 GWh per year. There are three areas of energy losses in the battery and charger system: ? Power Conversion Efficiency (energy out of charger vs. energy into charger) ? Charge Return (energy out of battery vs. energy into battery): some...

  20. Batteries for energy storage: part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, D.L.; Birk, J.R.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Explores 4 large battery RandD programs. Two are individual electrochemical systems for electric utility energy storage: zinc-chlorine and sodium sulfur. The third is a high-temperature battery, lithium-iron sulfide, which is expected to be applicable in electric vehicles. Reviews the nearer term EV battery development programs, which include zinc-nickel oxide, iron-nickel oxide, and lead-acid batteries. Suggests that batteries appear to be an ideal companion to coal- and nuclear power-derived electrical energy, to play a key role in electrical generation and distribution networks and to power vehicles. Batteries could augment solarderived electrical energy to attain continuity and reliability of power. Battery systems now under development represent a broad range of possible approaches encompassing extremes of the periodical table, a wide variety of operating temperatures, and limitless design concepts. Along with substantial international emphasis on battery development, this range of approaches suggests that one or more candidate systems can be demonstrated to have commercial viability. While commercial viability can be demonstrated, actual implementation will be deterred by high capital cost, substantial commercialization costs, and buyer reluctance. Concludes that because oil has an unstable future, legislation or regulation coupled with personal inconvenience (rationing or waiting in gas lines) can override the economics of utility battery energy storage.

  1. Evaluation of the Effects of Thermal Management on Battery Life in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Tugce Yuksel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    consumption in the transportation sector. One of the most important factors affecting the commercialization-mail: tyuksel@andrew.cmu.edu Jeremy Michalek Associate Professor Mechanical Engineering Engineering and Public and stand-by scenarios. The temperature profile and the energy requirement required to achieve a driving

  2. Circulating current battery heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  3. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

  4. Zinc-chlorine battery plant system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whittlesey, Curtis C. (Birmingham, MI); Mashikian, Matthew S. (Huntington Woods, MI)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A zinc-chlorine battery plant system and method of redirecting the electrical current around a failed battery module. The battery plant includes a power conditioning unit, a plurality of battery modules connected electrically in series to form battery strings, a plurality of battery strings electrically connected in parallel to the power conditioning unit, and a bypass switch for each battery module in the battery plant. The bypass switch includes a normally open main contact across the power terminals of the battery module, and a set of normally closed auxiliary contacts for controlling the supply of reactants electrochemically transformed in the cells of the battery module. Upon the determination of a failure condition, the bypass switch for the failed battery module is energized to close the main contact and open the auxiliary contacts. Within a short time, the electrical current through the battery module will substantially decrease due to the cutoff of the supply of reactants, and the electrical current flow through the battery string will be redirected through the main contact of the bypass switch.

  5. Low-temperature electrical transport in B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lin; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Zhaosheng; Quan, Baogang; Li, Junjie, E-mail: jjli@iphy.ac.cn; Gu, Changzhi, E-mail: czgu@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institution of Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films are grown using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition method, and their electrical transport properties varying with temperature are investigated. When the B-doped concentration of UNCD film is low, a step-like increase feature of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature, reflecting at least three temperature-modified electronic state densities at the Fermi level according to three-dimensional Mott's variable range hopping transport mechanism, which is very different from that of reported B-doped nanodiamond. With increasing B-doped concentration, a superconductive transformation occurs in the UNCD film and the highest transformation temperature of 5.3?K is observed, which is higher than that reported for superconducting nanodiamond films. In addition, the superconducting coherence length is about 0.63?nm, which breaks a reported theoretical and experimental prediction about ultra-nanoscale diamond's superconductivity.

  6. Should we transport coal, gas, or electricity: cost, efficiency, and environmental implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joule A. Bergerson; Lester B. Lave [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (US)

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors examine the life cycle costs, environmental discharges, and deaths of moving coal via rail, coal to synthetic natural gas via pipeline, and electricity via wire from the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming to Texas. Which method has least social cost depends on how much additional investment in rail line, transmission, or pipeline infrastructure is required, as well as how much and how far energy is transported. If the existing rail lines have unused capacity, coal by rail is the cheapest method (up to 200 miles of additional track could be added). If no infrastructure exists, greater distances and larger amounts of energy favor coal by rail and gasified coal by pipeline over electricity transmission. For 1,000 miles and 9 gigawatts of power, a gas pipeline is cheapest, has less environmental discharges, uses less land, and is least obtrusive. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceElectrical Engineering and Computer Science Many-to-One Transport Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Mingyan

    1 Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceElectrical Engineering and Computer Science Daniel Marco, Enrique J. Duarte-Melo Mingyan Liu, David L. Neuhoff Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Michigan, Ann Arbor #12;2 Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceElectrical

  8. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  9. Electric Vehicles: Performances, Life Cycle Costs, Emissions, and Recharging Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sealed lead-acid electric and vehicle battery development.A. (1987a) ture for electric vehicles. In Resources ElectricInternational Conference. Electric Vehicle De- Universityof

  10. Safety Hazards of Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety Hazards of Batteries Battery technology is at the heart of much of our technological revolution. One of the most prevalent rechargeable batteries in use today is the...

  11. Battery research at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thackeray, M.M.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has, for many years, been engaged in battery-related R and D programs for DOE and the transportation industry. In particular, from 1973 to 1995, ANL played a pioneering role in the technological development of the high-temperature (400 C) lithium-iron disulfide battery. With the emphasis of battery research moving away from high temperature systems toward ambient temperature lithium-based systems for the longer term, ANL has redirected its efforts toward the development of a lithium-polymer battery (60--80 C operation) and room temperature systems based on lithium-ion technologies. ANL`s lithium-polymer battery program is supported by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), 3M and Hydro-Quebec, and the lithium-ion battery R and D efforts by US industry and by DOE.

  12. ThermoElectric Transport Properties of a Chain of Quantum Dots with Self-Consistent Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philippe A. Jacquet

    2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a model for charge and heat transport based on the Landauer-Buttiker scattering approach. The system consists of a chain of $N$ quantum dots, each of them being coupled to a particle reservoir. Additionally, the left and right ends of the chain are coupled to two particle reservoirs. All these reservoirs are independent and can be described by any of the standard physical distributions: Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein. In the linear response regime, and under some assumptions, we first describe the general transport properties of the system. Then we impose the self-consistency condition, i.e. we fix the boundary values (T_L,\\mu_L) and (T_R,mu_R), and adjust the parameters (T_i,mu_i), for i = 1,...,N, so that the net average electric and heat currents into all the intermediate reservoirs vanish. This condition leads to expressions for the temperature and chemical potential profiles along the system, which turn out to be independent of the distribution describing the reservoirs. We also determine the average electric and heat currents flowing through the system and present some numerical results, using random matrix theory, showing that these currents are typically governed by Ohm and Fourier laws.

  13. Dynamic transport simulation code including plasma rotation and radial electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: honda.mitsuru@jaea.go.jp; Fukuyama, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2008-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A new one-dimensional transport code named TASK/TX, which is able to describe dynamic behavior of tokamak plasmas, has been developed. It solves simultaneously a set of flux-surface averaged equations composed of Maxwell's equations, continuity equations, equations of motion, heat transport equations, fast-particle slowing-down equations and two-group neutral diffusion equations. The set of equations describes plasma rotations in both toroidal and poloidal directions through momentum transfer and evaluates the radial electric field self-consistently. The finite element method with a piecewise linear interpolation function is employed with a fine radial mesh near the plasma surface. The Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin method is also used for robust calculation. We have confirmed that the neoclassical properties are well described by the poloidal neoclassical viscous force. The modification of density profile during neutral beam injection is presented. In the presence of ion orbit loss, the generation of the inward radial electric field and torque due to radial current is self-consistently calculated.

  14. A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

  15. Dirac fermions in strong electric field and quantum transport in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Gavrilov; D. M. Gitman; N. Yokomizo

    2012-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Our previous results on the nonperturbative calculations of the mean current and of the energy-momentum tensor in QED with the T-constant electric field are generalized to arbitrary dimensions. The renormalized mean values are found; the vacuum polarization and particle creation contributions to these mean values are isolated in the large T-limit, the vacuum polarization contributions being related to the one-loop effective Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian. Peculiarities in odd dimensions are considered in detail. We adapt general results obtained in 2+1 dimensions to the conditions which are realized in the Dirac model for graphene. We study the quantum electronic and energy transport in the graphene at low carrier density and low temperatures when quantum interference effects are important. Our description of the quantum transport in the graphene is based on the so-called generalized Furry picture in QED where the strong external field is taken into account nonperturbatively; this approach is not restricted to a semiclassical approximation for carriers and does not use any statistical assumtions inherent in the Boltzmann transport theory. In addition, we consider the evolution of the mean electromagnetic field in the graphene, taking into account the backreaction of the matter field to the applied external field. We find solutions of the corresponding Dirac-Maxwell set of equations and with their help we calculate the effective mean electromagnetic field and effective mean values of the current and the energy-momentum tensor. The nonlinear and linear I-V characteristics experimentally observed in both low and high mobility graphene samples is quite well explained in the framework of the proposed approach, their peculiarities being essentially due to the carrier creation from the vacuum by the applied electric field.

  16. Diagnostic evaluation of power fade phenomena and calendar life reduction in high-power lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostecki, Robert; McLarnon, Frank

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HIGH-POWER LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES Robert Kostecki and FrankAFM Introduction Lithium-ion batteries are being seriously1.2 M LiPF 6 /graphite batteries for hybrid electric vehicle

  17. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    optimal could be acquired. Battery storage costs are roughlylead/acid battery) and thermal storage, capabilities, withcell electric storage heat storage flow battery abs. chiller

  18. The future of electric two-wheelers and electric vehicles in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006.Quality of Lead-acid Batteries for Electric-Assistof the lead from lead-acid batteries in China is releaseduse valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, though E2Ws

  19. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  20. ELECTROCHEMICAL POWER FOR TRANSPORTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Symposium on Power Systems for Electric Vehicles, Columbiaelectric vehicle must be considered as a total system which includes the primary energy source, electric powerpower for urban driving (32 W/kg), (130, Flow schematic for an electric vehicle battery system.

  1. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia Battery Abuse Testing Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Battery Abuse Testing Laboratory Sandia Transportation-Energy Research Project Funded as a Part of DOE's "EV Everywhere" Funding Program On January 21, 2014, in...

  3. USING WEIGHTED SUM METHOD FOR THE CHOICE OF THE NIGHT VISION GOGGLES BATTERY POWER SUPPLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mustakerov, Ivan

    electrical battery power supply lifetime, pric and weight. © ~1mKeHepllH llayKH, rOA. XUV, 2007,.N'] I into account device working range, weight and price and also electrical battery power supply lifetime, temperature working range and its mechanics. The multicriteria optimization choice of the electrical battery

  4. Saft America Advanced Batteries Plant Celebrates Grand Opening...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Florida, factory, which will produce advanced lithium-ion batteries to power electric vehicles and other applications. Saft America estimates it will create nearly 280...

  5. AVTA: Battery Testing - Best Practices for Responding to Emergency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Idaho National Laboratory. Best Practices for Emergency Response to Incidents Involving Electric Vehicles Battery Hazards: A Report on Full-Scale Testing Results - June 2013...

  6. Battery Choices for Different Plug-in HEV Configurations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.

    2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents battery choices for different plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configurations to reduce cost and to improve performance and life.

  7. Overview and Progress of the Applied Battery Research (ABR) Activity

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview and Progress of the Applied Battery Research (ABR) Activity Peter Faguy Energy Storage R&D Hybrid and Electric Systems Team Vehicle Technologies Program Tuesday, May 10,...

  8. Overview and Progress of United States Advanced Battery Consortium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    es097snyder2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Power Electrochemical Storage Devices and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Development Overview of...

  9. By losing their shape, material fails batteries | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    longer lasting materials for rechargeable batteries in devices including cell phones and electric cars. The international team of scientists worked at EMSL, and their findings...

  10. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  11. Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

  12. STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    electric vehicle driveline that utilizes ultracapacitors for load leveling the main storage battery and decouples the maximum capacitor, nominal battery pack, and driveline...

  13. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  14. NREL/CCSE PEV Battery Second Use Project (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes the Battery Second Use Project. Preliminary analysis results show (1) the impact of competing technologies, (2) potential revenue generation, and (3) supply and demand of the second use of plug-in electric vehicle batteries. The impact of competing technologies are: maximum salve value of a used battery will be limited by future battery prices, under favorable conditions, second use can only discount today's battery prices by 12% or less, however, second use will offer batteries to second applications at reduced cost (typically < $170/kWh). Revenue streams are highly variable, allowable battery costs are highly sensitive to balance-of-system costs, and batteries need to be very cheap for these applications to be viable. Supply and demand show that high-value applications have both competition and small markets, and supply from plug-in electric vehicles has the potential to overwhelm many second use markets.

  15. advanced lithium-ion batteries: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: diesel engine, an electric motor, a Lithium-Ion battery, and an Eaton automated manual transmission. The electric motor, clutch, transmission, inverter,...

  16. Composite Battery Boost | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Se) sulfides that act as the positive electrode in a rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery could boost the range of electric vehicles by up to five times, according to...

  17. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    battery configuration. Lead-acid batteries do not shuttleincluding lead-acid, nickel-based, and lithium-ion batteries

  18. Oxygen Transport Kinetics in Infiltrated SOFCs Cathode by Electrical Conductivity Relaxation Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yihong; Gerdes, Kirk; Liu, Xingbo

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infiltration has attracted increasing attention as an effective technique to modify SOFC cathodes to improve cell electrochemical performance while maintaining material compatibility and long-term stability. However, the infiltrated material's effect on oxygen transport is still not clear and detailed knowledge of the oxygen reduction reaction in infiltrated cathodes is lacking. In this work, the technique of electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) is used to evaluate oxygen exchange in two common infiltrated materials, Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-?}. The ECR technique is also used to examine the transport processes in a composite material formed with a backbone of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-?} and possessing a thin, dense surface layer composed of the representative infiltrate material. Both the surface oxygen exchange process and the oxygen exchange coefficient at infiltrate/LSCF interface are reported. ECR testing results indicate that the application of infiltrate under certain oxygen partial pressure conditions produces a measureable increase in the fitted oxygen exchange parameter. It is presently only possible to generate hypotheses to explain the observation. However the correlation between improved electrochemical performance and increased oxygen transport measured by ECR is reliably demonstrated. The simple and inexpensive ECR technique is utilized as a direct method to optimize the selection of specific infiltrate/backbone material systems for superior performance.

  19. Power Conditioning for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farhangi, Babak

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) propel from the electric energy stored in the batteries and gasoline stored in the fuel tank. PHEVs and Electric Vehicles (EVs) connect to external sources to charge the batteries. Moreover, PHEVs can supply...

  20. The Seventh Cell of a Six-Cell Battery Delyan Raychev, Youhuizi Li and Weisong Shi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Weisong

    to maximize the energy utilization of any devices that could be powered by Lithium Ion batteries. Experimental to charge and safe to use. The most familiar battery is lithium-ion battery, which has twice energy density]. Therefore, many applications use lithium-ion battery as their power supply, such as electrical vehicles

  1. With a new type of lithium battery that has been developed at TU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    With a new type of lithium battery that has been developed at TU Delft electric cars can drive thick without reducing the performance of the battery: recharging the battery, where lithium needs: with the invention at TU Delft of a new way to realize a lithium battery it is possible to enlarge the electrode

  2. A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes Nian Liu1 lithium-ion batteries and in more recent Li­O2 and Li­S batteries as a replacement for the dendrite to the level of commercial lithium-ion batteries (3.7 mAh cm22 ). Particle fracture and loss of electrical

  3. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  4. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [165 Ah, 36. 5 Wh/kg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodamer, G.W.; Branca, G.C.; Cash, H.R.; Chrastina, J.R.; Yurick, E.M.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress during the 1979 fiscal year is reported. All the tooling and capital equipment required for the pilot line production has been installed. A limited amount of plate production has been realized. A highly automated and versatile testing facility was established. The fabrication and testing of the initial calculated design is discussed. Cell component adjustments and the trade-offs associated with those changes are presented. Cells are being evaluated at the 3-hour rate. They have a capacity of 165 Ah and an energy density of 36.5 Wh/kg, and have completed 105 cycles to date. Experimental results being pursued under the advanced battery development program to enhance energy density and cycle life are presented. Data on the effects of different electrolyte specific gravity, separators, retainers, paste densities, battery additives and grid alloy composition on battery performance are presented and evaluated. Advanced battery prototype cells are under construction. Quality Assurance activities are summarized. They include monitoring the cell and battery fabrication and testing operations as well as all relevant documentation procedures. 12 figures, 28 tables.

  5. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  6. Electrical system for a motor vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tamor, Michael Alan (Toledo, OH)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor.

  7. Electrical system for a motor vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tamor, M.A.

    1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In one embodiment of the present invention, an electrical system for a motor vehicle comprises a capacitor, an engine cranking motor coupled to receive motive power from the capacitor, a storage battery and an electrical generator having an electrical power output, the output coupled to provide electrical energy to the capacitor and to the storage battery. The electrical system also includes a resistor which limits current flow from the battery to the engine cranking motor. The electrical system further includes a diode which allows current flow through the diode from the generator to the battery but which blocks current flow through the diode from the battery to the cranking motor. 2 figs.

  8. Taking Battery Technology from the Lab to the Big City

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy; Shmukler, Michael; Martin, Cheryl

    2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Urban Electric Power, a startup formed by researchers from the City University of New York (CUNY) Energy Institute, is taking breakthroughs in battery technology from the lab to the market. With industry and government funding, including a grant from the Energy Department, Urban Electric Power developed a zinc-nickel oxide battery electrolyte that circulates constantly, eliminating dendrite formation and preventing battery shortages. Their new challenge is to take this technology to the market, where they can scale up the batteries for reducing peak energy demand in urban areas and storing variable renewable electricity.

  9. Taking Battery Technology from the Lab to the Big City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy; Shmukler, Michael; Martin, Cheryl

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Urban Electric Power, a startup formed by researchers from the City University of New York (CUNY) Energy Institute, is taking breakthroughs in battery technology from the lab to the market. With industry and government funding, including a grant from the Energy Department, Urban Electric Power developed a zinc-nickel oxide battery electrolyte that circulates constantly, eliminating dendrite formation and preventing battery shortages. Their new challenge is to take this technology to the market, where they can scale up the batteries for reducing peak energy demand in urban areas and storing variable renewable electricity.

  10. Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackin, Thomas

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT) was established to advance the state of the art in knowledge and education on critical technologies that support a renewable energy future. Our research and education efforts have focused on alternative energy systems, energy storage systems, and research on battery and hybrid energy storage systems.This report details the Center's progress in the following specific areas: Development of a battery laboratory; Development of a demonstration system for compressed air energy storage; Development of electric propulsion test systems; Battery storage systems; Thermal management of battery packs; and Construction of a micro-grid to support real-world performance monitoring of a renewable energy system.

  11. Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries and Introduction to Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Lee, K. J.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This 2012 Annual Merit Review presentation gives an overview of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) project and introduces the Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional model for modeling lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  12. Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Lithium-ion Battery Electrodes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An, Kai

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing electric vehicles is widely considered as a direct approach to resolve the energy and environmental challenges faced by the human race. As one of the most promising power solutions to electric cars, the lithium ion battery is expected...

  13. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease payments for space to the IDA. A commercial venture is being formed to utilize the LiFeBATT product for consumer use in enabling photovoltaic powered boat lifts. Field tests of the system have proven to be very effective and commercially promising. This venture is expected to result in significant sales within the next six months.

  14. Electric Vehicles: Performance, Life-Cycle Costs, Emissions, and Recharging Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sealed lead-acid electric and vehicle battery development.A. (1987a) ture for electric vehicles. In Resources ElectricInternational Conference. Electric Vehicle De- Universityof

  15. The Transition To Electric Bikes In China: History And Key Reasons For Rapid Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Ma, Chaktan; Cherry, Chris

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that ushers in small battery electric cars. In any case, thethe Manufacture of Mini Electric Cars Based on Experience

  16. Addressing the Impact of Temperature Extremes on Large Format Li-Ion Batteries for Vehicle Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the effects of temperature on large format lithium-ion batteries in electric drive vehicles.

  17. Electric transport and oxygen permeation properties of lanthanum cobaltite membranes synthesized by different methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, X.; Lin, Y.S.; Swartz, S.L.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dense perovskite-structured membranes with desired composition of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}} (LSCF) were prepared from powders produced by four different methods. LSCF powders prepared by citrate, solid-state, and spray-pyrolysis methods had compositions close to the desired stoichiometry with a slight difference in cobalt concentration, whereas coprecipitated powders had a large strontium deficiency. The membrane composition was a determining factor that affected the electronic conductivity and therefore oxygen permeability. The membrane with a large strontium deficiency had much lower electronic conductivity and oxygen permeability (ionic conductivity) than the other three membranes with compositions close to the desired stoichiometry. The electronic conductivity of membranes prepared from citrate, solid-state, and spray-pyrolysis methods increases with the cobalt concentration of the membrane. For the three membranes with similar composition, the activation energy of oxygen flux decreases with increasing grain size. Oxygen pressure dependency of oxygen vacancy concentration is also influenced by the membrane microstructure and composition. LSCF membranes with same composition and similar microstructure should have similar electric and oxygen transport properties.

  18. Multiple-Filled Skutterudites: High Thermoelectric Figure of Merit through Separately Optimizing Electrical and Thermal Transports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Weiqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yang, Jiong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yang, Jihui [General Motors Corporation; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Salvador, James R. [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Shi, Xun [General Motors Corporation-R& D; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Cho, Jung Y [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Skutterudites CoSb{sub 3} with multiple cofillers Ba, La, and Yb were synthesized and very high thermoelectric figure of merit ZT = 1.7 at 850 K was realized. X-ray diffraction of the densified multiple-filled bulk samples reveals all samples are phase pure. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirm that multiple guest fillers occupy the nanoscale-cages in the skutterudites. The fillers are further shown to be uniformly distributed and the Co-Sb skutterudite framework is virtually unperturbed from atomic scale to a few micrometers. Our results firmly show that high power factors can be realized by adjusting the total filling fraction of fillers with different charge states to reach the optimum carrier density, at the same time, lattice thermal conductivity can also be significantly reduced, to values near the glass limit of these materials, through combining filler species of different rattling frequencies to achieve broad-frequency phonon scattering. Therefore, partially filled skutterudites with multiple fillers of different chemical nature render unique structural characteristics for optimizing electrical and thermal transports in a relatively independent way, leading to continually enhanced ZT values from single- to double-, and finally to multiple-filled skutterudites. The idea of combining multiple fillers with different charge states and rattling frequencies for performance optimization is also expected to be valid for other caged TE compounds.

  19. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  20. Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Home Agenda Awards Exhibitors Lodging Posters Registration Transportation Workshops Contact Us User Meeting Archives Users' Executive Committee Getting to Berkeley...

  1. Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Print Home Agenda Awards Exhibitors Lodging Posters Registration Transportation Workshops Contact Us User Meeting Archives Users' Executive Committee Getting to...

  2. EVS-25 Shenzhen, China, Nov. 5-9, 2010 The 25th World Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    indicate significant regional difference for the cost impacts and the CO2 emissions. Battery charging during the day may have twice the cost impacts than charging during the night. The CO2 emissions impacts emission intensity (ton CO2/MWh), while in others regions with significant clean generation (hydro

  3. Hardware Architecture for Measurements for 50-V Battery Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Bald; Evan Juras; Jon P. Christophersen; William Morrison

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy storage devices, especially batteries, have become critical for several industries including automotive, electric utilities, military and consumer electronics. With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. Because many of the systems these batteries integrated into are critical, there is an increased need for an accurate in-situ method of monitoring battery state-of-health. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of a compact IMB system that will perform rapid accurate measurements of a battery impedance spectrum working with higher voltage batteries of up to 300 volts. This paper discusses the successful realization of a system that will work up to 50 volts.

  4. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  5. battery materials | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery materials battery materials Leads No leads are available at this time. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations. Abstract: The...

  6. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  7. Characteristics and development report for the MC3573 thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Street, H.K.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the design intent, product characteristics, and development history of the MC3573 high-current, electrically activated thermal battery. This battery is required to operate five to six times longer than the usual weapon system power battery. The MC3573 employs the Li(Si)/LiCl.KCl/FeS/sub 2/ electrochemical system. The battery is a right-circular cylinder with attached mounting brackets. It measures 122.1 mm in length, 88.9 mm in diameter, and stands 96.2 mm high. The battery is the power supply for the W81 and W85 JTA telemetry systems.

  8. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  9. Technological assessment and evaluation of high power batteries and their commercial values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teo, Seh Kiat

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium Ion (Li-ion) battery technology has the potential to compete with the more matured Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery technology in the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) energy storage market as it has higher specific ...

  10. Ab initio prediction of thermodynamics in alkali metal-air batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, ShinYoung

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric vehicles ("EVs") require high-energy-density batteries with reliable cyclability and rate capability. However, the current state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries only exhibit energy densities near ~150 Wh/kg, limiting ...

  11. High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    and/or self-heating, which ultimately limit the max provide the required electrical output for a given application. It is the cells making up the battery (e.g. fast charging electric vehicles and consumer electronics, high power portable tools, power grid

  12. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  13. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector energy system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the CO2-emission reduction achievable in the overall have direct implications for the road transport emissions. Options in the power sector, as to reduce CO2-emissions in particular, may become options for the transportation sector as well. Based

  14. A hybrid model for particle transport and electron energy distributions in positive column electrical discharges using equivalent species transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    A hybrid model for particle transport and electron energy distributions in positive column species are generated in the kinetic module. The hybrid model has been used to examine electron energy which has discrete negative energies representing bound states, and a positive continuum representing

  15. Katech (Lithium Polymer) 4-Passenger NEV - Range and Battery Testing Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) received a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) from the Korea Automotive Technology Institute (KATECH) for vehicle and battery characterization testing. The KATECH NEV (called the Invita) was equipped with a lithium polymer battery pack from Kokam Engineering. The Invita was to be baseline performance tested by AVTA’s testing partner, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA), at ETA’s contract testing facilities and test track in Phoenix, Arizona, to AVTA’s NEVAmerica testing specifications and procedures. Before and during initial constant speed range testing, the Invita battery pack experienced cell failures, and the onboard charger failed. A Kokamsupplied off-board charger was used in place of the onboard charger to successfully perform a constant speed range test on the Invita. The Invita traveled a total of 47.9 miles in 1 hour 47 minutes, consuming 91.3 amp-hours and 6.19 kilowatt-hours. The Kokam Engineering lithium polymer battery was also scheduled for battery pack characterization testing, including the C/3 energy capacity, dynamic stress, and peak power tests. Testing was stopped during the initial C/3 energy capacity test, however, because the battery pack failed to withstand cycling without cell failures. After the third discharge/charge sequence was completed, it was discovered that Cell 6 had failed, with a voltage reading of 0.5 volts. Cell 6 was replaced, and the testing sequence was restarted. After the second discharge/charge sequence was complete, it was discovered that Cell 1 had failed, with its voltage reading 0.2 volts. At this point it was decided to stop all battery pack testing. During the discharge cycles, the battery pack supplied 102.21, 94.34, and 96.05 amp-hours consecutively before Cell 6 failed. After replacing Cell 6, the battery pack supplied 98.34 and 98.11 amp-hours before Cell 1 failed. The Idaho National Laboratory managed these testing activities for the AVTA, as part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  16. Identification of Dominant Mechanisms for Capacity Fade of Lithium-Ion Batteries Nancy A. Burns*, Ruthvik Basavaraj**, Venkatasailanathan Ramadesigan***, Folarin Latinwo**, Ravi N. Methekar***,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Identification of Dominant Mechanisms for Capacity Fade of Lithium-Ion Batteries Nancy A. Burns- + 6C LixC6 Lithium-ion battery, chemistry and reactions Electric motor Engine Fuel tank Electric candidate for high-power/high-energy secondary batteries and commercial batteries of up to 75 Ah have been

  17. 1020 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 62, NO. 3, MARCH 2013 State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles Using Extended Kalman Filtering Zheng Chen. Index Terms--Extended Kalman filter (EKF), hardware-in- the-loop, lithium-ion battery, nonlinear battery accurate battery state of charge (SOC) estimation method for electric drive vehicles is developed based

  18. Enhanced molecular dynamics for simulating porous interphase layers in batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Wong, Bryan Matthew; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Lee, Jonathan (Rice University, Houston, TX)

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding charge transport processes at a molecular level using computational techniques is currently hindered by a lack of appropriate models for incorporating anistropic electric fields in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. An important technological example is ion transport through solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers that form in many common types of batteries. These layers regulate the rate at which electro-chemical reactions occur, affecting power, safety, and reliability. In this work, we develop a model for incorporating electric fields in MD using an atomistic-to-continuum framework. This framework provides the mathematical and algorithmic infrastructure to couple finite element (FE) representations of continuous data with atomic data. In this application, the electric potential is represented on a FE mesh and is calculated from a Poisson equation with source terms determined by the distribution of the atomic charges. Boundary conditions can be imposed naturally using the FE description of the potential, which then propagates to each atom through modified forces. The method is verified using simulations where analytical or theoretical solutions are known. Calculations of salt water solutions in complex domains are performed to understand how ions are attracted to charged surfaces in the presence of electric fields and interfering media.

  19. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  20. Lithium-Polysulfide Flow Battery Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Wesley

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this video, Stanford graduate student Wesley Zheng demonstrates the new low-cost, long-lived flow battery he helped create. The researchers created this miniature system using simple glassware. Adding a lithium polysulfide solution to the flask immediately produces electricity that lights an LED. A utility version of the new battery would be scaled up to store many megawatt-hours of energy.

  1. Lithium-Polysulfide Flow Battery Demonstration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zheng, Wesley

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this video, Stanford graduate student Wesley Zheng demonstrates the new low-cost, long-lived flow battery he helped create. The researchers created this miniature system using simple glassware. Adding a lithium polysulfide solution to the flask immediately produces electricity that lights an LED. A utility version of the new battery would be scaled up to store many megawatt-hours of energy.

  2. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is limited by battery size - Heat storage is limited bybattery discharging efficiency, dimensionless electricity storagefor other non-storage technologies, $ EV battery degradation

  3. Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Lifecycle Cost and Energy-Use Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark; Burke, Andy; Lipman, Timothy; Miller, Marshall

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel-cell-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs); and methanolvehicle, of the battery, fuel cell, and hydrogen or methanolvehicle, of the battery, fuel cell, and hydrogen or methanol

  4. Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vinson, Steve

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation in ancient Egypt entailed the use of boats2007 Land transport in Roman Egypt: A study of economics andDieter 1991 Building in Egypt: Pharaonic stone masonry. New

  5. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity...

  6. Smith Electric Vehicles: Advanced Vehicle Electrification + Transporta...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smith Electric Vehicles: Advanced Vehicle Electrification + Transportation Sector Electrification Smith Electric Vehicles: Advanced Vehicle Electrification + Transportation Sector...

  7. Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than today’s flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRC’s flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

  8. Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, Jeff [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent research and development of high temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential of converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as an important area for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is Part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main focuses in Part I are on two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

  9. Electrical, thermal, and species transport properties of liquid eutectic Ga-In and Ga-In-Sn from first principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Seungho; Kaviany, Massoud, E-mail: kaviany@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics, the atomic structure and transport properties of eutectic Ga-In and Ga-In-Sn are investigated. The Kubo-Greenwood (K-G) and the Ziman-Faber (Z-F) formulations and the Wiedemann-Franz (W-F) law are used for the electrical and electronic thermal conductivity. The species diffusivity and the viscosity are also predicted using the mean square displacement and the Stokes-Einstein (S-E) relation. Alloying Ga causes more disordered structure, i.e., broadening the atomic distance near the In and Sn atoms, which reduces the transport properties and the melting temperature. The K-G treatment shows excellent agreement with the experimental results while Z-F treatment formula slightly overestimates the electrical conductivity. The predicted thermal conductivity also shows good agreement with the experiments. The species diffusivity and the viscosity are slightly reduced by the alloying of Ga with In and Sn atoms. Good agreements are found with available experimental results and new predicted transport-property results are provided.

  10. Tunable Electrical and Thermal Transport in Ice-Templated MultiLayer Graphene Nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    to electrical energy storage,1­3 thermal energy storage,4­13 and composite materials.14­21 Ice applications in thermal and electrical energy storage. Phase change thermal storage seeks to reduce building offsets in energy supply and demand.6 Thermal energy storage is also an appealing way to cool power

  11. Towards a low carbon transport sector: electricity or hydrogen?y y g

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    emission - electric 40 45 [Mton CO2 (W-t-W)] Other innovations 30 35 Other innovations (e.g. biofu-30% biofuels and some energy saving innovations 12 #12;Hydrogen Well-to-Wheel CO2 emission - hydrogen 40 45 or RES! 13 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 #12;Electricity Well-to-Wheel CO2

  12. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    you nay give us will be greatly uppreckted. VPry truly your23, 9. IX. Sin0j3, Mtinager lclectronics and Nuclear Physics Dept. omh , WESTINGHOUSE-THE NAT KING IN ELECTRICITY...

  13. Random Walks and Electrical Networks Electrical Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathon Peterson

    2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 4, 2008 ... Random Walks and Electrical Networks. Hitting Probabilities and Voltage. Voltage. Connect a 1V battery to nodes a and b. ix,y is the current ...

  14. The Wavedriver integrated drive and charger system for electric buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shemmans, D.J.; Green, R.M. [Wavedriver Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric propulsion presents a realistic economic alternative to hydro-carbon fuelled passenger transport. Progress continues to reduce the major cost element - the battery - but other expensive systems, on-board and off-board, are still needed for an electric bus to function. The power conversion systems can be improved considerably, and this paper describes the Wavedriver combined field oriented AC motor drive and high rate charger. The field-oriented control gives high performance as a traction drive, and similar vector control strategies are used for the charging processes; advanced fabrication methods realise low costs. By using the drive system components for charging, the off-board electrical infrastructure components are extremely simple and cost-effective, meaning that opportunistic recharging at convenient locations around a route is feasible. This means that the on-board battery can be optimally sized, without restricting the service range, while reducing capital costs. 4 refs.

  15. Power and capacity fade mechanism of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.0502 composite cathodes in high-power lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostecki, Robert; McLarnon, Frank

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HIGH-POWER LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES Robert Kostecki and FrankAFM Introduction Lithium-ion batteries are being seriously1.2 M LiPF 6 /graphite batteries for hybrid electric vehicle

  16. California Lithium Battery, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California Lithium Battery (CaLBattery), based in Los Angeles, California, is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined with other advanced battery materials, it could effectively lower battery life cycle cost by up to 70 percent. Over the next year, CALBattery will be working with Argonne National Laboratory to combine their patented silicon-graphene anode material process together with other advanced ANL cathode and electrolyte battery materials.

  17. EA-1869: Supplement to General Motors Corp., Electric Vehicle/Battery Manufacturing Application, White Marsh, Maryland, and Wixom, Michigan (DOE/EA-1723-S1)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Based on the analysis in the Environmental Assessment DOE determined that its proposed action, to award a federal grant to General Motors to establish an electric motor components manufacturing and electric drive assembly facility would result in no significant adverse impacts.

  18. EA-1939: Reese Technology Center Wind and Battery Integration Project, Lubbock County, TX

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a proposal by the Center for Commercialization of Electric Technologies to demonstrate battery technology integration with wind generated electricity by deploying and evaluating utility-scale lithium battery technology to improve grid performance and thereby aid in the integration of wind generation into the local electricity supply.

  19. Interactions between Electric-drive Vehicles and the Power Sector in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle SymposiumSystem. 23rd International Electric Vehicle Symposium andof Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Volume 1: Nationwide

  20. Materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion II -- Batteries, capacitors and fuel cells. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings, Volume 496

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginley, D.S.; Doughty, D.H.; Scrosati, B.; Takamura, T.; Zhang, Z.J. [eds.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our energy-hungry world is increasingly relying on new methods to store and convert energy for portable electronics, as well as new, environmentally friendly modes of transportation and electrical energy generation. The availability of advanced materials is linked to the commercial success of improved power sources such as batteries, fuel cells and capacitors with higher specific energy and power, longer cycle life and rapid change/discharge rates. The papers in this symposium were heavily weighted toward lithium batteries. The proceedings volume is organized into six sections highlighting: general papers on a wide variety of rechargeable battery technologies; new approaches to modeling of Li batteries; advances in fuel-cell technology; new work on Li battery cathodes; anodes and electrolytes; and work on super-capacitors. The authors think the volume is an excellent snapshot of the current state of the art in energy storage and conversion technologies, many of which will make a significant impact on society. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

  1. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  2. Electron Irradiation Induced Changes of the Electrical Transport Properties of Graphene 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Sung Oh

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This research investigates the effect of electron irradiation on transport properties in graphene Field Effect Transistor (FET) devices. Upon irradiation, graphene is doped with electrons and adsorbs molecules by transfer of accumulated electrons...

  3. Electron Irradiation Induced Changes of the Electrical Transport Properties of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Sung Oh

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This research investigates the effect of electron irradiation on transport properties in graphene Field Effect Transistor (FET) devices. Upon irradiation, graphene is doped with electrons and adsorbs molecules by transfer of accumulated electrons...

  4. Pore-scale modeling of electrical and fluid transport in Berea sandstone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Xin

    The purpose of this paper is to test how well numerical calculations can predict transport properties of porous permeable rock, given its 3D digital microtomography (?CT) image. For this study, a Berea 500 sandstone sample ...

  5. Anti-Idling Battery for Truck Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith Kelly

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance to the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001036, the objective of this project was to develop an advanced high voltage lithium-ion battery for use in an all-electric HVAC system for Class-7-8 heavy duty trucks. This system will help heavy duty truck drivers meet the tough new anti-idling laws being implemented by over 23 states. Quallion will be partnering with a major OEM supplier of HVAC systems to develop this system. The major OEM supplier will provide Quallion the necessary interface requirements and HVAC hardware to ensure successful testing of the all-electric system. At the end of the program, Quallion will deliver test data on three (3) batteries as well as test data for the prototype HVAC system. The objectives of the program are: (1) Battery Development - Objective 1 - Define battery and electronics specifications in preparation for building the prototype module. (Completed - summary included in report) and Objective 2 - Establish a functional prototype battery and characterize three batteries in-house. (Completed - photos and data included in report); (2) HVAC Development - Objective 1 - Collaborate with manufacturers to define HVAC components, layout, and electronics in preparation for establishing the prototype system. (Completed - photos and data included in report) and Objective 2 - Acquire components for three functional prototypes for use by Quallion. (Completed - photos and data included in report).

  6. Secretary Chu to Kick-off the Electric Drive Transportation Associatio...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    that will start at the Department of Energy and travel around the city. Supporting electric vehicles will help the U.S. reach President Obama's bold but achievable goal of...

  7. Optimal Energy Management Strategy including Battery Health through Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Optimal Energy Management Strategy including Battery Health through Thermal Management for Hybrid: Energy management strategy, Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, Li-ion battery aging, thermal management, Pontryagin's Minimum Principle. 1. INTRODUCTION The interest for energy management strategy (EMS) of Hybrid

  8. Ion implantation of highly corrosive electrolyte battery components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muller, R.H.; Zhang, S.

    1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing corrosion resistant electrodes and other surfaces in corrosive batteries using ion implantation is described. Solid electrically conductive material is used as the ion implantation source. Battery electrode grids, especially anode grids, can be produced with greatly increased corrosion resistance for use in lead acid, molten salt, and sodium sulfur. 6 figs.

  9. Ion implantation of highly corrosive electrolyte battery components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muller, Rolf H. (Berkeley, CA); Zhang, Shengtao (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing corrosion resistant electrodes and other surfaces in corrosive batteries using ion implantation is described. Solid electrically conductive material is used as the ion implantation source. Battery electrode grids, especially anode grids, can be produced with greatly increased corrosion resistance for use in lead acid, molten salt, end sodium sulfur.

  10. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power Systems Laboratory and performs research and teaches graduate courses on advanced electric driveline technologies, specializing in batteries, ultracapacitors, fuel cells and hybrid vehicle

  11. Flexographically Printed Rechargeable Zinc-based Battery for Grid Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zuoqian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. O. Energy, “Energy Storage-A Key Enabler of the Smartof storage [electric energy storage],” Power and EnergyJ. Řstergaard, “Battery energy storage technology for power

  12. PHEV Battery Trade-Off Study and Standby Thermal Control (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Describes NREL's R&D to optimize the design of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to meet established requirements at minimum cost.

  13. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  14. Parameter Estimation and Capacity Fade Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Reformulated Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Parameter Estimation and Capacity Fade Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Reformulated Models and characterize capacity fade in lithium-ion batteries. As a comple- ment to approaches to mathematically model been made in developing lithium-ion battery models that incor- porate transport phenomena

  15. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Electric Drive (Power Electronics...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Drive Workshop EV Everywhere EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Electric Drive (Power Electronics and Electric Machines) Workshop Agenda EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery...

  16. Toward Real-Time Simulation of Physics Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Toward Real-Time Simulation of Physics Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models Venkat R. Subramanian Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505, USA Recent interest in lithium-ion batteries for electric on the computational efficiency of lithium-ion battery models. This paper presents an effective approach to simulate

  17. Degradation of Li/S Battery Electrodes Studied Using X-ray Phase Contrast Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    in lithium-ion battery systems. This technology is thus drawing attention from academic and industrial researchers intensively studied rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, since the energy demand of electric1 Degradation of Li/S Battery Electrodes Studied Using X-ray Phase Contrast Tomography L. Zielkea

  18. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo, Seung Sae Hong as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance for higher specific energy lithium ion batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, next generation

  19. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Karner

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UltraBattery retrofit project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs).

  20. Optimal Control of Multi-battery Energy-aware Systems Tao Wang and Christos G. Cassandras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cassandras, Christos G.

    Optimal Control of Multi-battery Energy-aware Systems Tao Wang and Christos G. Cassandras Division or connecting to the grid for electric vehicles adds an extra level of flexibility and power control. Energy-aware Battery Model (KBM) [12], [13]. Since an efficient battery model in energy-aware systems requires not only

  1. Drug Discovery Approach to Breakthroughs in Batteries September 8th and 9th, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    for Zinc Air Power Corporation, a start-up company developing a commercial electric vehicle battery a technical team advancing silver-zinc battery chemistry for mobile electronics applications. Prior to joiningDrug Discovery Approach to Breakthroughs in Batteries September 8th and 9th, 2008 Massachusetts

  2. Perfect electrical switching of edge channel transport in HgTe quantum wells controlled by gate voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Hua-Hua, E-mail: hhfu@mail.hust.edu.cn; Wu, Dan-Dan; Gu, Lei [College of Physics and Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a proposal to realize a perfect electrical switching of topological edge-state transport in a HgTe quantum well (QW). In our device design, we place a strip-like top gate voltage in a conventional quantum-point-contact (QPC) region in the HgTe QW. The numerical calculations show that upon increasing the gate voltage, two new conductance channels are developed in the transport direction and just neighbouring the boundaries of the top gate. The quantum states in the new channels can couple with the edge states to open a gap in energy spectrum, and in turn the gap width can be adjusted by the gate voltage, indicating that switch-on/off of the edge channels can be manipulated in a controllable way. Our device can not only be considered as a development of the conventional QPC structure based on the HgTe QW but also provides a new route to realize topological electrical switchers.

  3. Impact of defects on the electrical transport, optical properties and failure mechanisms of GaN nanowires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Aubry, Sylvie; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Siegal, Michael P.; Li, Qiming; Jones, Reese E.; Westover, Tyler; Wang, George T.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Talin, Albert Alec; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Harris, C. Thomas; Huang, Jian Yu

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that focused on understanding the impact of defects on the electrical, optical and thermal properties of GaN-based nanowires (NWs). We describe the development and application of a host of experimental techniques to quantify and understand the physics of defects and thermal transport in GaN NWs. We also present the development of analytical models and computational studies of thermal conductivity in GaN NWs. Finally, we present an atomistic model for GaN NW electrical breakdown supported with experimental evidence. GaN-based nanowires are attractive for applications requiring compact, high-current density devices such as ultraviolet laser arrays. Understanding GaN nanowire failure at high-current density is crucial to developing nanowire (NW) devices. Nanowire device failure is likely more complex than thin film due to the prominence of surface effects and enhanced interaction among point defects. Understanding the impact of surfaces and point defects on nanowire thermal and electrical transport is the first step toward rational control and mitigation of device failure mechanisms. However, investigating defects in GaN NWs is extremely challenging because conventional defect spectroscopy techniques are unsuitable for wide-bandgap nanostructures. To understand NW breakdown, the influence of pre-existing and emergent defects during high current stress on NW properties will be investigated. Acute sensitivity of NW thermal conductivity to point-defect density is expected due to the lack of threading dislocation (TD) gettering sites, and enhanced phonon-surface scattering further inhibits thermal transport. Excess defect creation during Joule heating could further degrade thermal conductivity, producing a viscous cycle culminating in catastrophic breakdown. To investigate these issues, a unique combination of electron microscopy, scanning luminescence and photoconductivity implemented at the nanoscale will be used in concert with sophisticated molecular-dynamics calculations of surface and defect-mediated NW thermal transport. This proposal seeks to elucidate long standing material science questions for GaN while addressing issues critical to realizing reliable GaN NW devices.

  4. Development of a constitutive model predicting the point of short-circuit within lithium-ion battery cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, John Earl, Jr

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of Lithium Ion batteries continues to grow in electronic devices, the automotive industry in hybrid and electric vehicles, as well as marine applications. Such batteries are the current best for these applications ...

  5. Impact of the 3Cs of Batteries on PHEV Value Proposition: Cost, Calendar Life, and Cycle Life (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.; Markel, T.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery cost, calendar life, and cycle life are three important challenges for those commercializing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; battery life is sensitive to temperature and solar loading.

  6. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  7. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  8. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia Transportation-Energy Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical, Electrical and (Electro)chemical Processes" project under the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) for Electric Drive Batteries area in the DOE "EV Everywhere" program....

  10. Rubber meets the road with new ORNL carbon, battery technologies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aug. 27, 2014 - Recycled tires could see new life in lithium-ion batteries that provide power to plug-in electric vehicles and store energy produced by wind and solar, say...

  11. Secretary Chu Visits Advanced Battery Plant in Michigan, Announces...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    we'll have the capacity to manufacture enough batteries and components for 500,000 electric vehicles annually by 2015. To compete in the global economy, the United States...

  12. Silver particles improve performance of battery material | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory are working to create an electric car battery that is smaller, cheaper and allows drivers to go farther on a...

  13. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. Bacterial batteries By Birmingham Science News Examiner, Paul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    the University of Massachusetts has isolated a strain of Geobacter sulfurreducens that is called KN400. KN400 can generate enough electricity to make a microbial fuel cell practical. Potential uses are electric production in remote areas, conversion of waste to electricity, and longer battery life in harsh environments. KN400

  15. Transport in polymer-gel composites: Theoretical methodology and response to an electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reghan J. Hill

    2006-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical model of electromigrative, diffusive and convectivetransport polymer-gel composites is presented. Bulk properties are derived from the standard electrokinetic model with an impenetrable charged sphere embedded in an electrolyte-saturated Brinkman medium. Because the microstructure can be carefully controlled, these materials are promising candidates for enhanced gel-electrophoresis, chemical sensing, drug delivery, and microfluidic pumping technologies. The methodology provides `exact' solutions for situations where perturbations from equilibrium are induced by gradients of electrostatic potential, concentration and pressure. While the volume fraction of the inclusions should be small, Maxwell's well-known theory of conduction suggests that the theory may also be accurate at moderate volume fractions. In this work, the model is used to compute ion fluxes, electrical current density, and convective flow induced by an applied electric field. The electric-field-induced (electro-osmotic) flow is a sensitive indicator of the inclusion zeta-potential and size, electrolyte concentration, and Darcy permeability of the gel, while the electrical conductivity increment is most often independent of the polymer gel, and is much less sensitive to particle and electrolyte characteristics.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Batteries & Energy Storage Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    StorageBatteries & Energy Storage Publications Batteries & Energy Storage Publications Batteries & Energy Storage Fact Sheets Achieving Higher Energy Density in Flow Batteries at...

  17. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on New Sealed Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors, B.10. S. Hossain, in Handbook of Batteries, Second Edition, D.Workshop on Advanced Batteries (Lithium Batteries), February

  18. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Rechargeable Lithium Battery," J. Power Sources, 24,Wada, "Rechargeable Lithium Battery Based on Pyrolytic Car-Li-Ion Battery," Lithium Battery Symposium, Electrochemical

  19. The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utility battery energy storage allows a utility or customer to store electrical energy for dispatch at a time when its use is more economical, strategic, or efficient. The UBS program sponsors systems analyses, technology development of subsystems and systems integration, laboratory and field evaluation, and industry outreach. Achievements and planned activities in each area are discussed.

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Redox flow batteries: a review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    conducting phase O Oxidant R Reductant 1 Introduction Renewable-energy sources, such as solar and wind · Philip N. Ross · Jeffrey T. Gostick · Qinghua Liu Received: 12 July 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 Ó batteries (RFBs) are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy

  1. The Rise of Electric Two-wheelers in China: Factors for their Success and Implications for the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pedals more often. Lead acid batteries perform worse in coldC.E.B.P.Q.M.I. Quality of Lead-acid Batteries for Electric-of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in China. Journal of

  2. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Future of Sustainable Transportation This is the January 2015 issue of the Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter. Illustration of an electric vehicle Illustration of an...

  3. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Interactions with a Small Office Building: An Economic Analysis using DER-CAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Momber, Ilan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Benefits of Electric Vehicles Integration onusing plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs for gridwith Connection of Electric Vehicles TABLE IV D ECISION V

  4. NREL-Led Team Improves and Accelerates Battery Design (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is leading some of the best minds from U.S. auto manufacturers, battery developers, and automotive simulation tool developers in a $20 million project to accelerate the development of battery packs and thus the wider adoption of electric-drive vehicles. The Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) collaboration is developing sophisticated software tools to help improve and accelerate battery design and boost the performance and consumer appeal of electric-drive vehicles with the ultimate goal of diminishing petroleum consumption and polluting emissions.

  5. This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. Content is final as presented, with the exception of pagination. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjaafar, Saifallah

    energy importing nations to be less reliant on foreign sources of energy. The transportation sector are simulated through a trip generation model based on Singapore. In such a realistic environment, an updated, battery swapping, electric ve- hicles (EVs), queuing theory, trip generation. I. INTRODUCTION ENERGY

  6. MIT Electric Vehicle Team Porsche designing a cooling system for the AC24 electric motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meenen, Jordan N

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis I worked on the design and analysis of a cooling system for the electric motor of the MIT Electric Vehicle Team's Porsche 914 Battery Electric Vehicle. The vehicle's Azure Dynamics AC24 motor tended to ...

  7. Remote Control Inserting the batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Top View Rear View Inserting the batteries 1 3Press in on the arrow mark and slide in the direction of the arrow to remove the battery cover. 2 Insert two AA size batteries, making sure their polarities match the and marks inside the battery compartment. Insert the side tabs of the battery cover into their slots

  8. NREL's PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Secondary-Use Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newbauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) is restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the Li-ion battery's cost via reuse in other applications after it is retired from service in the vehicle, when the battery may still have sufficient performance to meet the requirements of other energy storage applications.

  9. Thermo-electric transport in gauge/gravity models with momentum dissipation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Amoretti; Alessandro Braggio; Nicola Maggiore; Nicodemo Magnoli; Daniele Musso

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a systematic definition and analysis of the thermo-electric linear response in gauge/gravity systems focusing especially on models with massive gravity in the bulk and therefore momentum dissipation in the dual field theory. A precise treatment of finite counter-terms proves to be essential to yield a consistent physical picture whose hydrodynamic and beyond-hydrodynamics behaviors noticeably match with field theoretical expectations. The model furnishes a possible gauge/gravity description of the crossover from the quantum-critical to the disorder-dominated Fermi-liquid behaviors, as expected in graphene.

  10. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory BoardNucleate Boiling EfficientState Electric0-2007 August 2007

  11. Climate and Transportation Solutions: Findings from the 2009 Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Cannon, James S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of coupling to the electricity sector. The chapter examinesfrom the transportation and electricity sectors together.transportation and electricity sectors will likely interact

  12. Novel electrolyte chemistries for Mg-Ni rechargeable batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda (Savannah River National Laboratory); Kane, Marie; Au, Ming (Savannah River National Laboratory)

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) serve as means to reduce the nation's dependence on oil. Current electric vehicles use relatively heavy nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable batteries. Li-ion rechargeable batteries have been developed extensively as the replacement; however, the high cost and safety concerns are still issues to be resolved before large-scale production. In this study, we propose a new highly conductive solid polymer electrolyte for Mg-Ni high electrochemical capacity batteries. The traditional corrosive alkaline aqueous electrolyte (KOH) is replaced with a dry polymer with conductivity on the order of 10{sup -2} S/cm, as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Several potential novel polymer and polymer composite candidates are presented with the best-performing electrolyte results for full cell testing and cycling.

  13. Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems: Comparison of magnetic and electric fields of conventional and advanced electrified transportation systems. Final report, September 1992-March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietrich, F.M.; Feero, W.E.; Jacobs, W.L.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns exist regarding the potential safety, environmental and health effects on the public and on transportation workers due to electrification along new or existing rail corridors, and to proposed maglev and high speed rail operations. Therefore, the characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by both steady (dc) and alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and above, in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz) is of interest. The report summarizes and compares the results of a survey of EMF characteristics (spatial, temporal and frequency bands) for representative conventional railroad and transit and advanced high-speed systems including: the German TR-07 maglev system; the Amtrak Northeast Corridor (NEC) and North Jersey Transit (NJT) trains; the Washington, DC Metrorail (WMATA) and the Boston, MA (MBTA) transit systems; and the French TGV-A high speed rail system. This comprehensive comparative EMF survey produced both detailed data and statistical summaries of EMF profiles, and their variability in time and space. EMF ELF levels for WMATA are also compared to those produced by common environmental sources at home, work, and under power lines, but have specific frequency signatures.

  14. Gille-ESYS 10 1 Should Alex Buy a Battery-Powered Car?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    manufactures to develop electric vehicles. But car manufacturers are market driven. They can't justify how problematic electricity can be in California. Finally, when the car dies, the batteries are majorGille-ESYS 10 1 Should Alex Buy a Battery-Powered Car? The scene: Lunchtime at a crowded caf

  15. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Li-ion batteries suffer from strong self-heating, which limits their life-time and creates* Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, automotive and aerospace industries. Li-ion batteries are an essential part of the hybrid electric vehicles

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: correct transport parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia received funding for its "Mechanistic Modeling Framework for Predicting Extreme Battery Response: Coupled Hierarchical Models for Thermal, Mechanical, Electrical and...

  17. Battery Safety Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Battery Safety Testing Christopher J. Orendorff, Leigh Anna M. Steele, Josh Lamb, and Scott Spangler Sandia National Laboratories 2014 Energy Storage Annual Merit Review...

  18. EMSL - battery materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery-materials en Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsmodeling-interfacial-glass-wa...

  19. Energy Storage Systems Considerations for Grid-Charged Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper calculates battery power and energy requirements for grid-charged hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with different operating strategies.

  20. Techno-Economic Analysis of PEV Battery Second Use: Repurposed-Battery Selling Price and Commercial and Industrial End-User Value

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Williams, B.; Ferry, M.; Eyer, J.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accelerated market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and deployment of grid-connected energy storage are restricted by the high cost of lithium-ion batteries. Research, development, and manufacturing are underway to lower material costs, enhance process efficiencies, and increase production volumes. A fraction of the battery cost may be recovered after vehicular service by reusing the battery where it may have sufficient performance for other energy-storage applications. By extracting post-vehicle additional services and revenue from the battery, the total lifetime value of the battery is increased. The overall cost of energy-storage solutions for both primary (automotive) and secondary (grid) customer could be decreased. This techno-economic analysis of battery second use considers effects of battery degradation in both automotive and grid service, repurposing costs, balance-of-system costs, the value of aggregated energy-storage to commercial and industrial end users, and competitive technology. Batteries from plug-in electric vehicles can economically be used to serve the power quality and reliability needs of commercial and industrial end users. However, the value to the automotive battery owner is small (e.g., $20-$100/kWh) as declining future battery costs and other factors strongly affect salvage value. Repurposed automotive battery prices may range from $38/kWh to $132/kWh.

  1. Hysteretic electrical transport in BaTiO{sub 3}/Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}/Ge heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngai, J. H.; Kumah, D. P.; Walker, F. J. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, 15 Prospect Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8284 (United States); Ahn, C. H. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, 15 Prospect Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8284 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, 10 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8267 (United States)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present electrical transport measurements of heterostructures comprised of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} epitaxially grown on Ge. Sr alloying imparts compressive strain to the BaTiO{sub 3}, which enables the thermal expansion mismatch between BaTiO{sub 3} and Ge to be overcome to achieve c-axis oriented growth. The conduction bands of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} are nearly aligned with the conduction band of Ge, which facilitates electron transport. Electrical transport measurements through the dielectric stack exhibit rectifying behavior and hysteresis, where the latter is consistent with ferroelectric switching.

  2. AVTA: Battery Testing - Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 A Strategic26-OPAMATTENDEEES: AshleyManagerDepartmentTestbed |

  3. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rastler, Electric Energy Storage Technology Options: A WhiteJ. Řstergaard, Battery energy storage technology for powerof advanced energy storage technologies as a means to

  4. PNGV Battery Performance Testing and Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Christophersen, Jon Petter; Wright, Randy Ben; Hunt, Gary Lynn; Sutula, Raymond; Duong, T.Q.; Barnes, J.A.; Miller, Ted J.; Haskind, H. J.; Tartamella, T. J.

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed novel testing procedures and analytical methodologies to assess the performance of batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV’s). Tests have been designed for both Power Assist and Dual Mode applications. They include both characterization and cycle life and/or calendar life. At periodic intervals during life testing, a series of Reference Performance Tests are executed to determine changes in the baseline performance of the batteries. Analytical procedures include a battery scaling methodology, the calculation of pulse resistance, pulse power, available energy, and differential capacity, and the modeling of calendar- and cycle-life data. PNGV goals, test procedures, analytical methodologies, and representative results are presented.

  5. Solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narang, S.C.; Macdonald, D.D.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SRI International has synthesized novel solid polymer electrolytes for high energy density, rechargeable lithium batteries. We have systematically replaced the oxygens in PEO with sulfur to reduce the strong hard-acid hard-base interaction, while retaining the favorable helical conformation of the polymer backbone. The best polymer electrolyte produced so far is suitable for a medium power battery. In another effort, we have synthesized single ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on polyethyleneimine, polyphosphazene, and polysiloxane backbones. The single ion conducting polymer electrolytes will allow greater depth of charge and discharge by preventing dc polarization. The best conductivity so far with single ion conductors is 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} Scm{sup {minus}1} at room temperature. Further optimization of electrical and mechanical properties will allow the use of these polymer electrolytes in the fabrication of rechargeable lithium batteries. 8 tabs.

  6. CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM BATTERIES All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include alkaline, lithium, rechargeable, coin batteries, lead are shrink wrapped and secured with bands to keep them intact during transportation to a permitted recycling

  7. On-road evaluation of advanced hybrid electric vehicles over a wide range of ambient temperatures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, R.; Duoba, M. J.; Bocci, D.; Lohse-Busch, H. (Energy Systems)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV's) have become a production viable and effective mode of efficient transportation. HEV's can provide increased fuel economy over convention technology vehicle, but these advantages can be affected dramatically by wide variations in operating temperatures. The majority of data measured for benchmarking HEV technologies is generated from ambient test cell temperatures at 22 C. To investigate cold and hot temperature affects on HEV operation and efficiency, an on-road evaluation protocol is defined and conducted over a six month study at widely varying temperatures. Two test vehicles, the 2007 Toyota Camry HEV and 2005 Ford Escape HEV, were driven on a pre-defined urban driving route in ambient temperatures ranging from -14 C to 31 C. Results from the on-road evaluation were also compared and correlated to dynamometer testing of the same drive cycle. Results from this on-road evaluation show the battery power control limits and engine operation dramatically change with temperature. These changes decrease fuel economy by more than two times at -14 C as compared to 25 C. The two vehicles control battery temperature in different manners. The Escape HEV uses the air conditioning system to provide cool air to the batteries at high temperatures and is therefore able to maintain battery temperature to less than 33 C. The Camry HEV uses cabin air to cool the batteries. The observed maximum battery temperature was 44 C.

  8. Servant dictionary battery, map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    Attic *** book teachest Servant dictionary scarf [11] Winery demijohn battery, map AuntLair X Cupboard1 wireless Potting gloves aunt[3] Storage dumbwaiter wrench OldFurn parcel, med whistle Over] EastAnnex battery[4] Cupboard2 [2] mask DeadEnd rucksack AlisonWriting [16] TinyBalcony [17] gold key

  9. battery, map parcel, med

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    Attic *** book teachest Servant dictionary scarf [11] Winery demijohn battery, map AuntLair X Cupboard1 wireless Potting gloves aunt[3] Storage dumbwaiter wrench OldFurn parcel, med whistle Over] EastAnnex battery[4] Cupboard2 [2] mask DeadEnd rucksack AlisonWriting [16] TinyBalcony [17] gold key

  10. The ANL electrochemical program for DOE on electric vehicle R D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of January 1 through March 31, 1991. The work is organized into the following six task areas: Project management; battery systems technology; lithium/sulfide batteries; advanced sodium/metal chloride battery; aqueous batteries; and EV Battery performance/life evaluation.

  11. Lithium-Ion battery State of Charge estimation with a Kalman Filter based on a electrochemical model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Lithium-Ion battery State of Charge estimation with a Kalman Filter based on a electrochemical model Domenico Di Domenico, Giovanni Fiengo and Anna Stefanopoulou Abstract-- Lithium-ion battery hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). In most cases the lithium-ion battery performance plays an important role

  12. Applied Surface Science 266 (2013) 516 Interphase chemistry of Si electrodes used as anodes in Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the lithiation of graphite, which also contributes to the increase of the energy density of the battery. Among in Li-ion batteries Catarina Pereira-Nabaisa,b , Jolanta S´wiatowskaa, , Alexandre Chagnesb, , Franc made to increase the energy density of lithium-ion batteries (LiB), namely for electric vehicle

  13. Impact of SiC Devices on Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    of battery bank can be reduced for optimum design. Keywords -- Silicon carbide (SiC), inverter, hybrid -- The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc.) in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV has rapidly expanded. The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc

  14. Enhancing Resource Sustainability by Transforming Urban and Suburban Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    battery electric LLM will have about the same life cycle costBattery contribution to retail cost (€) Average maintenance cost (€/yr) Energy cost (€/l or €/kWh) (a) Total life cycle cost (

  15. Driving Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Reports from U.S. Drivers of HEVs converted to PHEVs, circa 2006-07

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Heffner, Reid R.; Turrentine, Tom

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessment for Battery Electric Vehicles, PowerAssist Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. EPRI: Palo Alto, CA.

  16. Electrical transport properties of (BN)-rich hexagonal (BN)C semiconductor alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uddin, M. R.; Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X., E-mail: hx.jiang@ttu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Ziemer, K. S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The layer structured hexagonal boron nitride carbon semiconductor alloys, h-(BN)C, offer the unique abilities of bandgap engineering (from 0 for graphite to ?6.4 eV for h-BN) and electrical conductivity control (from semi-metal for graphite to insulator for undoped h-BN) through alloying and have the potential to complement III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors and carbon based nanostructured materials. Epilayers of (BN)-rich h-(BN){sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}){sub x} alloys were synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on (0001) sapphire substrates. Hall-effect measurements revealed that homogeneous (BN)-rich h-(BN){sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}){sub x} alloys are naturally n-type. For alloys with x = 0.032, an electron mobility of about 20 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 650?°K was measured. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the chemical composition and analyze chemical bonding states. Both composition and chemical bonding analysis confirm the formation of alloys. XPS results indicate that the carbon concentration in the alloys increases almost linearly with the flow rate of the carbon precursor (propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8})) employed during the epilayer growth. XPS chemical bonding analysis showed that these MOCVD grown alloys possess more C-N bonds than C-B bonds, which possibly renders the undoped h-(BN){sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}){sub x} alloys n-type and corroborates the Hall-effect measurement results.

  17. Monitoring apparatus and method for battery power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Harry L. (Knoxville, TN); Goodson, Raymond E. (West Lafayette, IN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monitoring apparatus and method are disclosed for monitoring and/or indicating energy that a battery power source has then remaining and/or can deliver for utilization purposes as, for example, to an electric vehicle. A battery mathematical model forms the basis for monitoring with a capacity prediction determined from measurement of the discharge current rate and stored battery parameters. The predicted capacity is used to provide a state-of-charge indication. Self-calibration over the life of the battery power supply is enacted through use of a feedback voltage based upon the difference between predicted and measured voltages to correct the battery mathematical model. Through use of a microprocessor with central information storage of temperature, current and voltage, system behavior is monitored, and system flexibility is enhanced.

  18. The structural design of electrode materials for high energy lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thackeray, M.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium batteries are used to power a diverse range of applications from small compact devices, such as smart cards and cellular telephones to large heavy duty devices such as uninterrupted power supply units and electric- and hybrid-electric vehicles. This paper briefly reviews the approaches to design advanced materials to replace the lithiated graphite and LiCoO{sub 2} electrodes that dominate today's lithium-ion batteries in order to increase their energy and safety. The technological advantages of lithium batteries are placed in the context of water-based- and high-temperature battery systems.

  19. Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scown, Corinne Donahue

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Electricity Generation Refining Fuel Transportation,Region Electricity Generation Refining Fuel Transportation,Region Electricity Generation Refining Fuel Transportation,

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ion batteries In current lithium ion battery technology,ion batteries The first commercialized lithium-ion batteryfirst lithium-ion battery. Compared to the other batteries,