National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for battery charging facilities

  1. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle...

  2. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  3. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery charging and discharging. Researchers first charged commercial-grade battery cells to 50% full in 30 minutes, mimicking real world conditions. Then, the battery cell...

  4. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks...

  5. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  6. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  7. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  8. Alternator control for battery charging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  9. A User Programmable Battery Charging System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07

    , have to be replenished or recharged once their energy is depleted. Battery charging systems must perform this replenishment by using very fast and efficient methods to extend battery life and to increase periods between charges. In this regard...

  10. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  11. Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling with Bursty Workloads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    1 Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling with Bursty Workloads Dylan Lexie , Shan Lin, and Jie Wu.wu@temple.edu Abstract--Battery-powered wireless sensor devices need to be charged to provide the desired functionality after deployment. Task or even device failures can occur if the voltage of the battery is low

  12. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  13. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the porous electrode. Using the STXM lithium maps and the high-resolution TEM images, researchers found that LFP battery particles do not charge simultaneously....

  14. State of charge indicators for a battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to state of charge indicators for a battery. One aspect of the present invention utilizes expansion and contraction displacements of an electrode plate of a battery to gauge the state of charge in the battery. One embodiment of a battery of the present invention includes an anodic plate; a cathodic plate; an electrolyte in contact with the anodic and cathodic plates; plural terminals individually coupled with one of the anodic and cathodic plates; a separator intermediate the anodic and cathodic plates; an indicator configured to indicate an energy level of the battery responsive to movement of the separator; and a casing configured to house the anodic and cathodic plates, electrolyte, and separator.

  15. LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA 1. Abstract This report introduces how. Battery Pack 1 · Cycle 1 : 2334 mAh · Cycle 2: 2312 mAh #12;LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT 3 · Cycle to handle the Powerizer Li-Ion rechargeable Battery Packs. It will bring reveal battery specifications

  16. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.

  17. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode Jun Liu,Modeling of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power SourcesBehavior of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources

  18. Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Dischargin...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Discharging Technology available for licensing: Coating increases electrical conductivity of cathode materials Coating...

  19. AVTA: Battery Testing- DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report describes DC fast charging's effects on plug-in electric vehicle batteries. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  20. Self-Charging Battery Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yager, Eric

    2007-07-25

    In March 2006, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was formed between Fauton Tech, Inc. and INL to develop a prototype for a commercial application that incorporates some INL-developed Intellectual Properties (IP). This report presents the results of the work performed at INL during Phase 1. The objective of Phase 1 was to construct a prototype battery in a “D” cell form factor, determine optimized internal components for a baseline configuration using a standard coil design, perform a series of tests on the baseline configuration, and document the test results in a logbook.

  1. Quantacell: Powerful charging of quantum batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix C. Binder; Sai Vinjanampathy; Kavan Modi; John Goold

    2015-03-24

    We study the problem of charging a quantum battery in finite time. We demonstrate an analytical optimal protocol for the case of a single qubit. Extending this analysis to an array of N qubits, we demonstrate that an N-fold advantage in power per qubit can be achieved when global operations are permitted. The exemplary analytic argument for this quantum advantage in the charging power is backed up by numerical analysis using optimal control techniques. It is demonstrated that the quantum advantage for power holds when, with cyclic operation in mind, initial and final states are required to be separable.

  2. Quantacell: Powerful charging of quantum batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix C. Binder; Sai Vinjanampathy; Kavan Modi; John Goold

    2015-07-27

    We study the problem of charging a quantum battery in finite time. We demonstrate an analytical optimal protocol for the case of a single qubit. Extending this analysis to an array of N qubits, we demonstrate that an N-fold advantage in power per qubit can be achieved when global operations are permitted. The exemplary analytic argument for this quantum advantage in the charging power is backed up by numerical analysis using optimal control techniques. It is demonstrated that the quantum advantage for power holds when, with cyclic operation in mind, initial and final states are required to be separable.

  3. A Study of Lead-Acid Battery Efficiency Near Top-of-Charge

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of charge for the specific battery under test. Specific charge versus state of charge information is particularly important for systems where a very large battery (that is, one...

  4. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  5. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery...

  6. Fuzzy Logic-Based Smart Battery State-of-Charge (SOC) Monitor for SLI Batteries Pritpal Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Pritpal

    1 Fuzzy Logic-Based Smart Battery State-of-Charge (SOC) Monitor for SLI Batteries Pritpal Singh. Monitoring and charge control of these batteries can be improved by using the concept of a smart battery system (SBS). In the present work, a smart battery monitor has been designed and manufactured

  7. In-House Facility for Building Batteries and Performance Behavior...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In-House Facility for Building Batteries and Performance Behavior of SNL-Built 18650 Li(CFx)n Cells. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In-House Facility for Building...

  8. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion...

  9. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  10. Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickelemetal hydride batteries during fast charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickelemetal hydride batteries during fast (LAEC), Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey charging of batteries Charging efficiency Integral-transformation technique Nickelemetal hydride battery

  11. Optimization of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Charging and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misic, Aleksandar

    The goal of this project is to efficiently and safely charge a 5kWh battery pack in 15 minutes. Since the project is still in progress, this report describes experiments on a 56Wh battery. Experiments were performed to ...

  12. Optical state-of-charge monitor for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cell or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  13. Battery charger and state of charge indicator. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latos, T.S.

    1984-04-15

    The battery charger has a full-wave rectifier in series with a transformer isolated 20 kHz dc-dc converter with high frequency switches which are programmed to actively shape the input ac line current to be a mirror image of the ac line voltage. The power circuit is capable of operating at 2 kW peak and 1 kW average power. The BC/SCI has two major subsystems: (1) the battery charger power electronics with its controls; and (2) a microcomputer subsystem which is used to acquire battery terminal data and exercise the state-of-charge software programs. The state-of-charge definition employed is the energy remaining in the battery when extracted at a 10 kW rate divided by the energy capacity of a fully charged new battery. The battery charger circuit is an isolated boost converter operating at an internal frequency of 20 kHz. The switches selected for the battery charger are the single most important item in determining its efficiency. The combination of voltage and current requirements dictated the use of high power NPN Darlington switching transistors. The power circuit topology developed is a three switch design utilizing a power FET on the center tap of the isolation transformer and the power Darlingtons on each of the two ends. An analog control system is employed to accomplish active input current waveshaping as well as the necessary regulation.

  14. Charging system and method for multicell storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, Jay A. (Rolling Hills Estates, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A battery-charging system includes a first charging circuit connected in series with a plurality of battery cells for controlled current charging. A second charging circuit applies a controlled voltage across each individual cell for equalization of the cells to the fully charged condition. This controlled voltage is determined at a level above the fully charged open-circuit voltage but at a sufficiently low level to prevent corrosion of cell components by electrochemical reaction. In this second circuit for cell equalization, a transformer primary receives closely regulated, square-wave voltage which is coupled to a plurality of equal secondary coil windings. Each secondary winding is connected in parallel to each cell of a series-connected pair of cells through half-wave rectifiers and a shared, intermediate conductor.

  15. A Universal State-of-Charge Algorithm for Batteries Bingjun Xiao Yiyu Shi Lei He

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    A Universal State-of-Charge Algorithm for Batteries Bingjun Xiao Yiyu Shi Lei He Electrical-of-charge (SOC) measures energy left in a battery, and it is critical for modeling and managing batteries to different types of batteries. Knowing open-circuit voltage (OCV) leads to SOC due to the well known mapping

  16. American Battery Charging Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolarOpen5AllEnergyAmeriPower LLC Jump to: navigation,BarBattery

  17. Optimum Charging Profile for Lithium-ion Batteries to Maximize Energy Storage and Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Optimum Charging Profile for Lithium-ion Batteries to Maximize Energy Storage and Utilization Ravi The optimal profile of charging current for a lithium-ion battery is estimated using dynamic optimization sources such as lithium-ion batteries have had significant improvements in design, modeling, and operating

  18. Cell Equalization In Battery Stacks Through State Of Charge Estimation Polling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Cell Equalization In Battery Stacks Through State Of Charge Estimation Polling Carmelo Speltino, Anna Stefanopoulou and Giovanni Fiengo Abstract-- Battery packs are charged and discharged as a single battery, therefore it is possible that differences between cells (i.e. chemical characteristics, operating

  19. Stanford's nanowire battery holds 10 times the charge of existing ones Stanford Report, December 18, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Stanford's nanowire battery holds 10 times the charge of existing ones Stanford Report, December 18, 2007 Stanford's nanowire battery holds 10 times the charge of existing ones BY DAN STOBER Stanford researchers have found a way to use silicon nanowires to reinvent the rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

  20. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality of controllers each monitoring input variables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2013-10-15

    A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger is connected to a power supply. A plurality of controllers in communication with one and another are provided, each of the controllers monitoring a subset of input variables. A set of charging constraints may then generated for each controller as a function of the subset of input variables. A set of objectives for each controller may also be generated. A preferred charge rate for each controller is generated as a function of either the set of objectives, the charging constraints, or both, using an algorithm that accounts for each of the preferred charge rates for each of the controllers and/or that does not violate any of the charging constraints. A current flow between the battery and the battery charger is then provided at the actual charge rate.

  1. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    microdiffraction. Lithium ion batteries have made a greatthose used in lithium-ion batteries. Dynamic potentiometricrechargeable lithium ion batteries consist of many layers of

  2. Reconfiguration-Assisted Charging in Large-Scale Lithium-ion Battery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reconfiguration-Assisted Charging in Large-Scale Lithium-ion Battery Systems Liang He1 , Linghe, TX, USA ABSTRACT Large-scale Lithium-ion batteries are widely adopted in many systems and heterogeneous discharging con- ditions, cells in the battery system may have differ- ent statuses

  3. Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge, Massachusetts 02138 Evidence has accumulated recently that a high-capacity elec- trode of a lithium-ion battery in the particle is high, possibly leading to fracture and cavitation. I. Introduction LITHIUM-ION batteries

  4. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources 2006, 163,of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources 2008, 180,Up of a Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources 2009,

  5. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries (Management Publication)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  6. Home > Robots > Robot Ranger walks 40.5 miles on solitary battery charge, setting a new world record in the process Robot Ranger walks 40.5 miles on solitary battery charge,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    17 Home > Robots > Robot Ranger walks 40.5 miles on solitary battery charge, setting a new world record in the process Robot Ranger walks 40.5 miles on solitary battery charge, setting a new world battery charge without getting any external help or stopping. The Ranger was specially built

  7. Method and apparatus for measuring the state of charge in a battery based on volume of battery components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-10-22

    The state of charge of electrochemical batteries of different kinds is determined by measuring the incremental change in the total volume of the reactive masses in the battery. The invention is based on the principle that all electrochemical batteries, either primary or secondary (rechargeable), produce electricity through a chemical reaction with at least one electrode, and the chemical reactions produce certain changes in the composition and density of the electrode. The reactive masses of the electrodes, the electrolyte, and any separator or spacers are usually contained inside a battery casing of a certain volume. As the battery is used, or recharged, the specific volume of at least one of the electrode masses will change and, since the masses of the materials do not change considerably, the total volume occupied by at least one of the electrodes will change. These volume changes may be measured in many different ways and related to the state of charge in the battery. In one embodiment, the volume change can be measured by monitoring the small changes in one of the principal dimensions of the battery casing as it expands or shrinks to accommodate the combined volumes of its components.

  8. PSM: Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge (SOC) and Critical Surface Charge (CSC) Estimation using an Electrochemical Model-driven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    PSM: Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge (SOC) and Critical Surface Charge (CSC) Estimation using. INTRODUCTION Lithium-ion battery is the core of new plug-in hybrid- electrical vehicles (PHEV) as well transient loads [22]. The importance of lithium-ion battery has grown in the past years. Based

  9. A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive extended Kalman filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive a SOC estimator for suitable for multiple lithium ion battery chemistries. Proved the system robustness of charge (SoC) of multiple types of lithium ion battery (LiB) cells with adaptive extended Kalman filter

  10. National Labs Leading Charge on Building Better Batteries | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Department's Office of Science. Addthis Related Articles California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity, Wins R&D 100 Award Transformative Battery Technology...

  11. Sensitivity of Battery Electric Vehicle Economics to Drive Patterns, Vehicle Range, and Charge Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.

    2012-07-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs discourage many potential purchasers. Making an economic comparison with conventional alternatives is complicated in part by strong sensitivity to drive patterns, vehicle range, and charge strategies that affect vehicle utilization and battery wear. Identifying justifiable battery replacement schedules and sufficiently accounting for the limited range of a BEV add further complexity to the issue. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Battery Ownership Model to address these and related questions. The Battery Ownership Model is applied here to examine the sensitivity of BEV economics to drive patterns, vehicle range, and charge strategies when a high-fidelity battery degradation model, financially justified battery replacement schedules, and two different means of accounting for a BEV's unachievable vehicle miles traveled (VMT) are employed. We find that the value of unachievable VMT with a BEV has a strong impact on the cost-optimal range, charge strategy, and battery replacement schedule; that the overall cost competitiveness of a BEV is highly sensitive to vehicle-specific drive patterns; and that common cross-sectional drive patterns do not provide consistent representation of the relative cost of a BEV.

  12. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2003-06-24

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  13. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S.Z.

    1996-12-03

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery. 35 figs.

  14. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery.

  15. Experimental Validation of a Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation with an Extended Kalman Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Experimental Validation of a Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation with an Extended Kalman-- In this paper an averaged electrochemical lithium- ion battery model, presented and discussed in [2] and [3 estimation. I. INTRODUCTION Lithium-ion batteries play an important role in the area of hybrid vehicle design

  16. Lithium-Ion battery State of Charge estimation with a Kalman Filter based on a electrochemical model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Lithium-Ion battery State of Charge estimation with a Kalman Filter based on a electrochemical model Domenico Di Domenico, Giovanni Fiengo and Anna Stefanopoulou Abstract-- Lithium-ion battery hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). In most cases the lithium-ion battery performance plays an important role

  17. A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive extended Kalman filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive 48128, USA h i g h l i g h t s Proposed a dynamic universal battery model based on second-order RC a SOC estimator for suitable for multiple lithium ion battery chemistries. Proved the system robustness

  18. Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4- Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge, a simplified electrochemical and thermal model of LiFePO4-graphite based Li-ion batteries is developed for battery management system (BMS) applications and comprehensive aging investigations. Based on a modified

  19. Robustness analysis of State-of-Charge estimation methods for two types of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Robustness analysis of State-of-Charge estimation methods for two types of Li-ion batteries i g h l i g h t s battery model parameters are optimized. 2012 Accepted 1 June 2012 Available online 9 June 2012 Keywords: Battery management systems SOC

  20. Fracture of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries caused by fast charging Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost J. Vlassak, and Zhigang Suoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Fracture of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries caused by fast charging Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr; published online 8 October 2010 During charging or discharging of a lithium-ion battery, lithium batteries.3 A lithium-ion battery contains an electrolyte and two electrodes. Each electrode is an atomic

  1. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2010-07-02

    We describe a method for direct determination and visualization of the distribution of charge in a composite electrode. Using synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction, state-of-charge profiles in-plane and normal to the current collector were measured. In electrodes charged at high rate, the signatures of nonuniform current distribution were evident. The portion of a prismatic cell electrode closest to the current collector tab had the highest state of charge due to electronic resistance in the composite electrode and supporting foil. In a coin cell electrode, the active material at the electrode surface was more fully charged than that close to the current collector because the limiting factor in this case is ion conduction in the electrolyte contained within the porous electrode.

  2. Aalborg Universitet Electric vehicle battery charging algorithm using PMSM windings and an inverter as an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathe, Laszlo

    windings and an inverter as an active rectifier. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE Vehicle Power windings as grid side inductors and controlling the inverter to operate as an active boost rectifierAalborg Universitet Electric vehicle battery charging algorithm using PMSM windings and an inverter

  3. The Influence of Catalysts on Discharge and Charge Voltages of Rechargeable Li–Oxygen Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasteiger, Hubert A.

    This study revealed the strong influence of carbon, Au/C, and Pt/C catalysts on the charge and discharge voltages of rechargeable Li–O[subscript 2] batteries. Li–O[subscript 2] single-cell measurements showed that Au/C had ...

  4. NREL Battery Thermal and Life Test Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX FOrigin ofAllen LichvarAREVA NOPRDepartmentof4NREL Battery

  5. 2/6/2014 Micro-windmills mayone daycharge your phone battery| Cimeq | Inovation, electronic, Quebec http://www2.cimeq.qc.ca/en/monitoring/micro-windmills-may-one-day-charge-your-phone-battery 1/4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    2/6/2014 Micro-windmills mayone daycharge your phone battery| Cimeq | Inovation, electronic, Quebec http://www2.cimeq.qc.ca/en/monitoring/micro-windmills-may-one-day-charge-your-phone-battery 1/4 Micro-windmills may one day charge your phone battery Energy generated from wind turbines or windmills is seen

  6. Electrochemical-acoustic time of flight: in operando correlation of physical dynamics with battery charge and health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, AG; Bhadra, S; Hertzberg, BJ; Gjeltema, PJ; Goy, A; Fleischer, JW; Steingart, DA

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a simple acoustic time-of-flight experiment can measure the state of charge and state of health of almost any closed battery. An acoustic conservation law model describing the state of charge of a standard battery is proposed, and experimental acoustic results verify the simulated trends; furthermore, a framework relating changes in sound speed, via density and modulus changes, to state of charge and state of health within a battery is discussed. Regardless of the chemistry, the distribution of density within a battery must change as a function of state of charge and, along with density, the bulk moduli of the anode and cathode changes as well. The shifts in density and modulus also change the acoustic attenuation in a battery. Experimental results indicating both state-of-charge determination and irreversible physical changes are presented for two of the most ubiquitous batteries in the world, the lithium-ion 18650 and the alkaline LR6 (AA). Overall, a one-or two-point acoustic measurement can be related to the interaction of a pressure wave at multiple discrete interfaces within a battery, which in turn provides insights into state of charge, state of health, and mechanical evolution/degradation.

  7. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  8. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are readylithium ion batteries (i.e. , to lithiate graphite anodes soGraphite Electrodes Due to the Deposition of Manganese Ions on Them in Li-Ion Batteries.

  9. Microwave-driven ferromagnettopological-insulator heterostructures: The prospect for giant spin battery effect and quantized charge pump devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Branislav K.

    battery effect and quantized charge pump devices Farzad Mahfouzi,1 Branislav K. Nikoli,1,2 Son-Hsien Chen battery with giant output current even at very small microwave power input driving the precession. When" edge states of 2D TIs, where the time- reversal invariance forces electrons of opposite spin to flow

  10. A Unified Open-Circuit-Voltage Model of Lithium-ion Batteries for State-of-Charge Estimation and State-of-Health Monitoring $

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    A Unified Open-Circuit-Voltage Model of Lithium-ion Batteries for State-of-Charge Estimation. Keywords: Electric vehicles, Lithium-ion batteries, Open-Circuit-Voltage, State-of-Charge, State is widely used for characterizing battery properties under different conditions. It contains important

  11. Fracture of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries caused by fast charging Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr, Joost J. Vlassak, and Zhigang Suoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fracture of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries caused by fast charging Kejie Zhao, Matt Pharr; published online 8 October 2010 During charging or discharging of a lithium-ion battery, lithium the electrodes to deform. An electrode is often composed of small active particles in a matrix. If the battery

  12. Experimental Validation of Voltage-Based State-of-Charge Algorithm for Power Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    for nickel metal hydride batteries including hysteresis” ,Control of Lithium-Ion Batteries”, Control Systems, IEEE,modeling of lead acid batteries”, Applied Power Electronics

  13. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV demonstrations. One such previous study was a PHEV demonstration conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). AVTA's PHEV demonstration involved over 250 vehicles in the United States, Canada, and Finland. This paper summarizes driving and charging behavior observed in that demonstration, including the distribution of distance driven between charging events, charging frequency, and resulting proportion of operation charge depleting mode. Charging demand relative to time of day and day of the week will also be shown. Conclusions from the PHEV demonstration will be given which highlight the need for expanded analysis in The EV Project. For example, the AVTA PHEV demonstration showed that in the absence of controlled charging by the vehicle owner or electric utility, the majority of vehicles were charged in the evening hours, coincident with typical utility peak demand. Given this baseline, The EV Project will demonstrate the effects of consumer charge control and grid-side charge management on electricity demand. This paper will outline further analyses which will be performed by eTec and INL to documenting driving and charging behavior of vehicles operated in a infrastructure-rich environment.

  14. Dynamic data-driven identification of battery state-of-charge via symbolic analysis of inputoutput pairs q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    for diverse applications (e.g., plug-in electric vehicles and hybrid locomotives). The underlying theory-charged and over-discharged. Many applications (e.g., plug-in electric vehicles and hybrid locomotives) require, which depicts the battery system's current capac- ity (i.e., the maximum charge that can be drawn from

  15. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    reliable warranty for the batteries. In addition, they woulda price for the reused batteries that would foster both thevehicles and the second-use batteries. An analysis of these

  16. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of VariousResults with Lithium-ion Batteries, paper presented at EET-performance of lithium-ion batteries of several chemistries

  17. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    batteries for vehicle applications. Unfortunately the graphite/graphite/NiCoMn chemistry. In general, it seems possible to design high power batteries (graphite/NiCoMn chemistry. In general, it is possible to design high power batteries (

  18. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    of the different lithium battery chemistries are presentedMiller, M. , Emerging Lithium-ion Battery Technologies forMid-size Full (1) Lithium-ion battery with an energy density

  19. Experimental Validation of Voltage-Based State-of-Charge Algorithm for Power Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Lithium Ion Battery..of OCV on SOC for a Lithium Ion battery is shown in figure 1of OCV on SOC for a Lithium Ion Battery In EV application,

  20. 2/1/2014 Mini windmill could charge handset batteries and more -FierceWirelessTech http://www.fiercewireless.com/tech/node/61872/print 1/1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    2/1/2014 Mini windmill could charge handset batteries and more - FierceWirelessTech http://www.fiercewireless.com/tech/node/61872/print 1/1 Published on FierceWirelessTech (http://www.fiercewireless.com/tech) Mini windmill could charge handset batteries and more January 15, 2014 | By Tammy Parker A tiny windmill created

  1. Experimental Validation of Voltage-Based State-of-Charge Algorithm for Power Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Control of Lithium-Ion Batteries”, Control Systems, IEEE,is one type of Lithium-Ion batteries with voltage around

  2. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  3. A New Charging Method for Li-ion Batteries: Dependence of the charging time on the Direction of an Additional Oscillating Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamad, I Abou; Wipf, D O; Rikvold, P A

    2010-01-01

    We have recently proposed a new method for charging Li-ion batteries based on large-scale molecular dynamics studies (I. Abou Hamad et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 2740 (2010)). Applying an additional oscillating electric field in the direction perpendicular to the graphite sheets of the anode showed an exponential decrease in charging time with increasing amplitude of the applied oscillating field. Here we present new results exploring the effect on the charging time of changing the orientation of the oscillating field. Results for oscillating fields in three orthogonal directions are compared.

  4. Advanced Materials Facilities & Capabilites | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Building Battery Processing Facility Battery and Capacitor Test Facility Nuclear Analytical Chemistry and Isotopics Laboratories Manufacturing Manufacturing Demonstration...

  5. Implications of Rapid Charging and Chemo-Mechanical Degradation in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Mohammed Fouad

    2014-04-23

    Li-ion batteries, owing to their unique characteristics with high power and energy density, are broadly considered a leading candidate for vehicle electrification. A pivotal performance drawback of the Li-ion batteries manifests in the lengthy...

  6. An Intelligent Solar Powered Battery Buffered EV Charging Station with Solar Electricity Forecasting and EV Charging Load Projection Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    PV energy used for EV charging and reducing grid peak power7. Measured PV power and EV charging load Fig. 6. Chargingthe measured PV power and EV charging load. The actual grid

  7. Failure Mechanism for Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries with Liquid Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, DP; Shao, YY; Lozano, T; Bennett, WD; Graff, GL; Polzin, B; Zhang, JG; Engelhard, MH; Saenz, NT; Henderson, WA; Bhattacharya, P; Liu, J; Xiao, J

    2014-09-11

    In recent years, the Li metal anode has regained a position of paramount research interest because of the necessity for employing Li metal in next-generation battery technologies such as Li-S and Li-O-2. Severely limiting this utilization, however, are the rapid capacity degradation and safety issues associated with rechargeable Li metal anodes. A fundamental understanding of the failure mechanism of Li metal at high charge rates has remained elusive due to the complicated interfacial chemistry that occurs between Li metal and liquid electrolytes. Here, it is demonstrated that at high current density the quick formation of a highly resistive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) entangled with Li metal, which grows towards the bulk Li, dramatically increases up the cell impedance and this is the actual origin of the onset of cell degradation and failure. This is instead of dendritic or mossy Li growing outwards from the metal surface towards/through the separator and/or the consumption of the Li and electrolyte through side reactions. Interphase, in this context, refers to a substantive layer rather than a thin interfacial layer. Discerning the mechanisms and consequences for this interphase formation is crucial for resolving the stability and safety issues associated with Li metal anodes.

  8. Optimal Charging Profiles with Minimal Intercalation-Induced Stresses for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Reformulated Pseudo 2-Dimensional Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suthar, B; Northrop, PWC; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-07-30

    This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery by restricting the intercalation-induced stresses to a pre-determined limit estimated using a pseudo 2-dimensional (P2D). model. This paper focuses on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting capacity fade due to intercalation-induced stresses. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage or CC-CV) are not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms, which are not only inefficient in terms of life-time usage of the batteries but are also slower by not taking into account the changing dynamics of the system. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is not changed in any way and is properly cited. For permission for commercial reuse, please email: oa@electrochem.org. All rights reserved.

  9. An Intelligent Solar Powered Battery Buffered EV Charging Station with Solar Electricity Forecasting and EV Charging Load Projection Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    eliminate the charging station peak power demand for EVcan lower the station’s peak power demand and reduce thefor a workplace charging station, solar PV power cannot be

  10. Facile synthesis of nanostructured vanadium oxide as cathode materials for efficient Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    -ion batteries Yanyi Liu,a Evan Uchaker,a Nan Zhou,ab Jiangang Li,ac Qifeng Zhanga and Guozhong Cao*a Received 23 and VO2 (B) nanorods were tested as active cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. The V2O5 sheet for efficient Li-ion batteries. Introduction The expansion and demands for energy use in the past several

  11. The relationship between coefficient of restitution and state of charge of zinc alkaline primary LR6 batteries [Bouncing alkaline batteries: A basic solution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhadra, S.; Hertzberg, B. J.; Croft, M.; Gallaway, J. W.; Van Tassell, B. J.; Chamoun, M.; Erdonmez, C.; Zhong, Z.; Steingart, D. A.

    2015-03-13

    The coefficient of restitution of alkaline batteries had been shown to increase as a function of depth of discharge. In this work, using non-destructive mechanical testing, the change in coefficient of restitution is compared to in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction data to determine the cause of the macroscopic change in coefficient of restitution. The increase in coefficient of restitution correlates to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO within the anode of the cell, and that the coefficient of restitution saturates at a value of 0.63 ± .05 at 50% state if charge when the anode has densified intomore »porous ZnO solid. Of note is the sensitivity of coefficient of restitution to the amount of ZnO formation that rivals the sensitivity on in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction spectroscopy.« less

  12. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals andE. , Plug-in Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Powertrain Design andLithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Andrew Burke

  13. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    2007 7. Bottling Electricity: Storage as a Strategic Toolgiven at the The Electricity Storage Association Meeting,electricity for propulsion. The batteries in those vehicles are sized by the energy storage

  14. An Intelligent Solar Powered Battery Buffered EV Charging Station with Solar Electricity Forecasting and EV Charging Load Projection Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    power source from inherent intermittent solar PV power.B. Solar PV Electricity Forecasting Fig. 1. Charging stationForecasting Power Output of Solar Photovoltaic System Using

  15. Savings Potential of ENERGY STAR(R) External Power Adapters and Battery Chargers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, Carrie; Korn, David; Sanchez, Marla

    2007-01-01

    than converted into useful energy. Battery charging systemscharging – directly useful energy or “battery energy”) –

  16. Tuning charge–discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during charge–discharge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of M–M bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking M–O as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials.more »The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  17. Tuning charge–discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during charge–discharge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of M–M bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking M–O as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Office of Emergency Management UCF Facilities and Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    is lost. Bring extra batteries Fully charge cell phones and lap tops and keep chargers with you #12;Office, and charger Fire extinguisher Important documents #12;Office of Emergency Management UCF Facilities and Safety

  19. An Intelligent Solar Powered Battery Buffered EV Charging Station with Solar Electricity Forecasting and EV Charging Load Projection Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    fast charging, and solar power availability pose a challengeevent to a fixed SOC from solar power and/or the grid in athem without considering solar power availability and the

  20. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of TheSalts Formed on the Lithium-Ion Battery Negative Electrodeion batteries In a lithium ion battery, positively charged

  1. Charging a Battery-Powered Device with a Fiber-Optically Connected Photonic Power System for Achieving High-Voltage Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizon, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gioria, Jack G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Snyder, Hans R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a system to provide isolated power to the cathode-subsystem electronics of an x-ray tube. These components are located at the cathode potential of several hundred kilovolts, requiring a supply of power isolated from this high voltage. In this design a fiber-optically connected photonic power system (PPS) is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack, which will subsequently supply power to the cathode-subsystem electronics. The suitability of the commercially available JDSU PPS for this application is evaluated. The output of the ppe converter is characterized. The technical aspects of its use for charging a variety of Li-Ion batteries are discussed. Battery charge protection requirements and safety concerns are also addressed.

  2. The relationship between coefficient of restitution and state of charge of zinc alkaline primary LR6 batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhadra, S; Hertzberg, BJ; Hsieh, AG; Croft, M; Gallaway, JW; Van Tassell, BJ; Chamoun, M; Erdonmez, C; Zhong, Z; Sholklapper, T; Steingart, DA

    2015-01-01

    The coefficient of restitution of alkaline batteries has been shown to increase as a function of depth of discharge. In this work, using non-destructive mechanical testing, the change in coefficient of restitution is compared to in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction data to determine the cause of the macroscopic change in coefficient of restitution. The increase in coefficient of restitution correlates to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO within the anode of the cell, and the coefficient of restitution levels off at a value of 0.66 +/- 0.02 at 50% state of charge when the anode has densified into porous ZnO solid. Of note is the sensitivity of coefficient of restitution to the amount of ZnO formation that rivals the sensitivity of in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction.

  3. Mesoscale Phase-Field Modeling of Charge Transport in Nanocomposite Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sushko, Maria L.

    2013-01-10

    A phase-field model is developed to investigate the influence of microstructure, thermodynamic and kinetic properties, and charging conditions on charged particle transport in nanocomposite electrodes. Two sets of field variables are used to describe the microstructure. One is comprised of the order parameters describing size, orientation and spatial distributions of nanoparticles, and the other is comprised of the concentrations of mobile species. A porous nanoparticle microstructure filled with electrolyte is taken as a model system to test the phase-field model. Inhomogeneous and anisotropic dielectric constants and mobilities of charged particles, and stresses associated with lattice deformation due to Li-ion insertion/extraction are considered in the model. Iteration methods are used to find the elastic and electric fields in an elastically and electrically inhomogeneous medium. The results demonstrate that the model is capable of predicting charge separation associated with the formation of a double layer at the electrochemical interface between solid and electrolyte, and the effect of microstructure, inhomogeneous and anisotropic thermodynamic and kinetic properties, charge rates, and stresses on voltage versus current density and capacity during charging and discharging.

  4. Facile Synthesis of Free-Standing Silicon Membranes with Three-Dimensional Nanoarchitecture for Anodes of Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    for Anodes of Lithium Ion Batteries Fan Xia, Seong Been Kim, Huanyu Cheng, Jung Min Lee, Taeseup Song that is capable of accommodating the large volume changes associated with lithiation in lithium ion battery-performance lithium ion batteries. KEYWORDS: Silicon, lithium ion batteries, 3D membrane, volume expansion The demand

  5. Utilities and offsites design baseline. Outside Battery Limits Facility 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1984-05-25

    As part of the overall Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-1) project baseline being prepared by International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), the RUST Engineering Company is providing necessary input for the Outside Battery Limits (OSBL) Facilities. The project baseline is comprised of: design baseline - technical definition of work; schedule baseline - detailed and management level 1 schedules; and cost baseline - estimates and cost/manpower plan. The design baseline (technical definition) for the OSBL Facilities has been completed and is presented in Volumes I, II, III, IV, V and VI. The OSBL technical definition is based on, and compatible with, the ICRC defined statement of work, design basis memorandum, master project procedures, process and mechanical design criteria, and baseline guidance documents. The design basis memorandum is included in Paragraph 1.3 of Volume I. The baseline design data is presented in 6 volumes. Volume I contains the introduction section and utility systems data through steam and feedwater. Volume II continues with utility systems data through fuel system, and contains the interconnecting systems and utility system integration information. Volume III contains the offsites data through water and waste treatment. Volume IV continues with offsites data, including site development and buildings, and contains raw materials and product handling and storage information. Volume V contains wastewater treatment and solid wastes landfill systems developed by Catalytic, Inc. to supplement the information contained in Volume III. Volume VI contains proprietary information of Resources Conservation Company related to the evaporator/crystallizer system of the wastewater treatment area.

  6. DC power supply for charging of a 12 KV 200 KJ energy storage capacitor battery of a 500 KA pulse system for the magnetic horn and reflectors of the CERN neutrino beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langeseth, B

    1968-01-01

    DC power supply for charging of a 12 KV 200 KJ energy storage capacitor battery of a 500 KA pulse system for the magnetic horn and reflectors of the CERN neutrino beam

  7. SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract -This paper proposes new solar battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    SOLAR BATTERY CHARGERS FOR NIMH BATTERIES1 Abstract - This paper proposes new solar battery chargers for NiMH batteries. Used with portable solar panels, existing charge control methods are shown of consumer portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, and flexible and have been

  8. Battery State Estimation for a Single Particle Model with Electrolyte Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, Scott J; Bribiesca Argomedo, Federico; Klein, Reinhardt; Mirtabatabaei, Anahita; Krstic, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    and G. Fiengo, “Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge andestimation of the lithium-ion battery using an adaptiveelectrochemical model for lithium ion battery on electric

  9. Battery State Estimation for a Single Particle Model with Electrolyte Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, Scott J; Bribiesca Argomedo, Federico; Klein, Reinhardt; Mirtabatabaei, Anahita; Krstic, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Algorithms for advanced battery-management systems,” IEEEG. Fiengo, “Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge and CriticalExtended Kalman filtering for battery management systems of

  10. Savings Potential of ENERGY STAR(R) External Power Adapters and Battery Chargers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, Carrie; Korn, David; Sanchez, Marla

    2007-01-01

    Requirements for Products with Battery Charging Systems (Power Tools Slow Charger Battery Energy No load (stdby) FastWorkshop on Power Supply and Battery Test Procedures, San

  11. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Replacing lithium with other metals with multiple charges could greatly increase battery capacity. But first researchers need to understand how to keep multiply charged...

  12. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease payments for space to the IDA. A commercial venture is being formed to utilize the LiFeBATT product for consumer use in enabling photovoltaic powered boat lifts. Field tests of the system have proven to be very effective and commercially promising. This venture is expected to result in significant sales within the next six months.

  13. GE Uses DOE Advanced Light Sources to Develop Revolutionary Battery...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    chemistry of an actual commercial battery while charging and discharging in real time. Additional studies of battery cross-sections at APS helped engineers further...

  14. The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Wishart

    2012-02-01

    This document reports the work performed under Task 1.2.1.1: 'The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities'. The work involved in this task included understanding the experimental results of the other tasks of SOW-5799 in order to take advantage of the economics of electricity pricing differences between on- and off-peak hours and the demonstrated charging and facility energy demand profiles. To undertake this task and to demonstrate the feasibility of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) bi-directional electricity exchange potential, BEA has subcontracted Electric Transportation Applications (now known as ECOtality North America and hereafter ECOtality NA) to use the data from the demand and energy study to focus on reducing the electrical power demand of the charging facility. The use of delayed charging as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) operations were to be considered.

  15. Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D Program...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D Program Argonne's Materials Engineering Research Facility (MERF) supports the laboratory's Advanced Battery Materials...

  16. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    4 show PV+ system power flows, battery charge state and netPV+ system power flows (a,b,c), the battery charge state (d,reverse power flow (i.e. the battery is charging from the

  17. Optimal management of batteries in electric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Corey, Garth P. (Albuquerque, NM); Symons, Philip C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

  18. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bockelmann, Thomas R. (Battle Creek, MI); Hope, Mark E. (Marshall, MI); Zou, Zhanjiang (Battle Creek, MI); Kang, Xiaosong (Battle Creek, MI)

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  19. Progress on ARRA-funded Facility & Capability Upgrades for the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ARRA-funded Facility & Capability Upgrades for the Battery AbuseSafety Laboratory Progress on ARRA-funded Facility & Capability Upgrades for the Battery AbuseSafety Laboratory...

  20. Automated Battery Swap and Recharge to Enable Persistent UAV Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toksoz, Tuna

    This paper introduces a hardware platform for automated battery changing and charging for multiple UAV agents. The automated station holds a bu er of 8 batteries in a novel dual-drum structure that enables a "hot" battery ...

  1. 1020 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 62, NO. 3, MARCH 2013 State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles Using Extended Kalman Filtering Zheng Chen. Index Terms--Extended Kalman filter (EKF), hardware-in- the-loop, lithium-ion battery, nonlinear battery], a modeling approach for the scale-up of a lithium- ion polymer battery (LIPB) is reported. A comparison

  2. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    M=Mn, Ni, Co) in Lithium Batteries at 50°C. Electrochem.Electrodes for Lithium Batteries. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82:S CIENCE AND T ECHNOLOGY Batteries: Overview of Battery

  3. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    Challenges in Future Li-Battery Research. Phil Trans. RoyalBatteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes Marca M. Doeffduring cell discharge. Battery-a device consisting of one or

  4. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Tanaka, K. [Department of Technology Management for Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-10

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE Efficiency and Security Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Idaho National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about DC fast charging...

  6. A Phenomenological Model of Bulk Force in a Li-Ion Battery Pack and Its Application to State of Charge Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, S; Kim, Y; Siegel, JB; Samad, NA; Stefanopoulou, AG

    2014-09-19

    A phenomenological model of the bulk force exerted by a lithium ion cell during various charge, discharge, and temperature operating conditions is developed. The measured and modeled force resembles the carbon expansion behavior associated with the phase changes during intercalation, as there are ranges of state of charge (SOC) with a gradual force increase and ranges of SOC with very small change in force. The model includes the influence of temperature on the observed force capturing the underlying thermal expansion phenomena. Moreover the model is capable of describing the changes in force during thermal transients, when internal battery heating due to high C-rates or rapid changes in the ambient temperature, which create a mismatch in the temperature of the cell and the holding fixture. It is finally shown that the bulk force model can be very useful for a more accurate and robust SOC estimation based on fusing information from voltage and force (or pressure) measurements. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is not changed in any way and is properly cited. For permission for commercial reuse, please email oa@electrochem.org. All rights reserved.

  7. Particle-Level Modeling of the Charge-Discharge Behavior of Nanoparticulate Phase-Separating Li-Ion Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orvananos, Bernardo; Yu, Hui-Chia; Bazant, Martin Z; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2013-01-01

    In nanoparticulate phase-separating electrodes, phase separation inside the particles can be hindered during their charge/discharge cycles even when a thermodynamic driving force for phase separation exists. In such cases, particles may (de)lithiate discretely in a process referred to as mosaic instability. This instability could be the key to elucidating the complex charge/discharge dynamics in nanoparticulate phase-separating electrodes. In this paper, the dynamics of the mosaic instability is studied using Smoothed Boundary Method simulations at the particle level, where the concentration and electrostatic potential fields are spatially resolved around individual particles. Two sets of configurations consisting of spherical particles with an identical radius are employed to study the instability in detail. The effect of an activity-dependent exchange current density on the mosaic instability, which leads to asymmetric charge/discharge, is also studied. While we show that our model reproduces the results of...

  8. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writ

  9. Studies on the Local State of Charge (SOC) and Underlying Structures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Local State of Charge (SOC) and Underlying Structures in Lithium Battery Electrodes Studies on the Local State of Charge (SOC) and Underlying Structures in Lithium Battery...

  10. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for...

  11. Battery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B; Andrew, Michael G

    2013-08-27

    A battery module includes a plurality of battery cells and a system configured for passing a fluid past at least a portion of the plurality of battery cells in a parallel manner.

  12. Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information...

  13. Functional and operational requirements document : building 1012, Battery and Energy Storage Device Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johns, William H.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides an overview of information, prior studies, and analyses relevant to the development of functional and operational requirements for electrochemical testing of batteries and energy storage devices carried out by Sandia Organization 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D. Electrochemical operations for this group are scheduled to transition from Sandia Building 894 to a new Building located in Sandia TA-II referred to as Building 1012. This report also provides background on select design considerations and identifies the Safety Goals, Stakeholder Objectives, and Design Objectives required by the Sandia Design Team to develop the Performance Criteria necessary to the design of Building 1012. This document recognizes the Architecture-Engineering (A-E) Team as the primary design entity. Where safety considerations are identified, suggestions are provided to provide context for the corresponding operational requirement(s).

  14. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    2000) Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles. Report,for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries. J. Power Sources 128:in High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.

  15. Facile and Green Preparation for the Formation of MoO2GO Composites as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the MoO2-GO composites exhibited an improved storage capacity for lithium-ion batteries. 1. INTRODUCTION With the fast-growing demand on petroleum resources and gaseous cycling life, and environmental benignity, lithium- ion batteries (LIBs) have been regarded as one

  16. Maxim > App Notes > BATTERY MANAGEMENT INTERFACE CIRCUITS Keywords: USB, USB Charger, Li+ USB charger, Lithium Ion USB charger, NiMH USB charger, USB battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Jont

    charger, Lithium Ion USB charger, NiMH USB charger, USB battery charger, charging batteries from USB, and cabling. An overview of nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium battery technologies, charging methodsMaxim > App Notes > BATTERY MANAGEMENT INTERFACE CIRCUITS Keywords: USB, USB Charger, Li+ USB

  17. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Management for Urban EV Charging Systems”, 2013 IEEEfor Large Scale Public EV Charging Facilities”, 2013 IEEESmart Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging and Grid Integration

  18. 1600 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 22, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2007 Solar Battery Chargers for NiMH Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    1600 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 22, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2007 Solar Battery Chargers for NiMH Batteries Florent Boico, Brad Lehman, Member, IEEE, and Khalil Shujaee Abstract--This paper proposes new solar battery chargers for NiMH batteries. First, it is shown that existing charge

  19. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode. J. Phys.Aluminum is used for lithium ion battery cathodes and alland copper is used for lithium ion battery anodes. After the

  20. Microsoft Word - WRFMAIN-#13788450-v4-Memorandum_to_DOE_re_battery...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and typically results in lower battery charger efficiency due to losses in the form of heat in the battery cells. The charge rate of a battery charger is often based on usage...

  1. A High-Performance Transcutaneous Battery Charger for Medical N. Sertac Artan, Hitesh Vanjani, Gurudath Vashist, Zhen Fu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Jonathan

    A High-Performance Transcutaneous Battery Charger for Medical Implants N. Sertac Artan, Hitesh-rechargeable batteries. This result in a need for frequent surgeries to replace these batteries. Rechargeable batteries to the patients, the recharging of the batteries should be as infrequent as possible. Traditional battery charging

  2. Design and implementation of an automated battery management platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toksoz, Tuna

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and the implementation of the hardware platform for automated battery management with battery changing/charging capability for autonomous UAV missions with persistency requirement that ...

  3. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for...

  4. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing...

  5. A comparison of lead-acid and lithium-based battery behavior and capacity fade in off-grid renewable charging applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Craig B.

    September 2013 Keywords: Off-grid renewables Lead-acid Lithium-ion Capacity fade Wind Variable charge a b phosphate) cells charged with wind-based charging protocols. Poor pulse charge acceptance, particularly have electricity away from the grid typically rely on diesel generators, renewable energy systems

  6. Field investigation of the relationship between battery size and PV system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, J.; Kratochvil, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harrington, S. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Four photovoltaic-powered lighting systems were installed in a National Forest Service campground in June of 1991. These systems have identical arrays, loads and charge controllers. The only difference was in the rated capacity of the battery bank for each system. The battery banks all use the same basic battery as a building block with the four systems utilizing either one battery, two batteries, three batteries or four batteries. The purpose of the experiment is to examine the effect of the various battery sizes on the ability of the system to charge the battery, energy available to the load, and battery lifetime. Results show an important trend in system performance concerning the impact of charge controllers on the relation between array size and battery size which results in an inability to achieve the days of battery storage originally designed for.

  7. Lithium-Air Battery: High Performance Cathodes for Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-01

    BEEST Project: Researchers at Missouri S&T are developing an affordable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery that could enable an EV to travel up to 350 miles on a single charge. Today’s EVs run on Li-Ion batteries, which are expensive and suffer from low energy density compared with gasoline. This new Li-Air battery could perform as well as gasoline and store 3 times more energy than current Li-Ion batteries. A Li-Air battery uses an air cathode to breathe oxygen into the battery from the surrounding air, like a human lung. The oxygen and lithium react in the battery to produce electricity. Current Li-Air batteries are limited by the rate at which they can draw oxygen from the air. The team is designing a battery using hierarchical electrode structures to enhance air breathing and effective catalysts to accelerate electricity production.

  8. EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles & Batteries EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge Join the...

  9. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    investment for reducing US gasoline consumption Scott B. Peterson a , Jeremy J. Michalek a,b,n a Dept per gal than oil premium estimates. c Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium

  10. Lithium-ion battery diagnostic and prognostic techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2009-11-03

    Embodiments provide a method and a system for determining cell imbalance condition of a multi-cell battery including a plurality of cell strings. To determine a cell imbalance condition, a charge current is applied to the battery and is monitored during charging. The charging time for each cell string is determined based on the monitor of the charge current. A charge time difference of any two cell strings in the battery is used to determine the cell imbalance condition by comparing with a predetermined acceptable charge time difference for the cell strings.

  11. Chemically Bonded Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid as a High Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail; Hu, Shilin; Yi, Ran; Tang, Duihai; Walter, Timothy; Regula, Michael; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wang, Donghai

    2014-11-12

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries are of great interest for high-energy-density energy storage systems because of low-cost, natural abundance of sodium. Here, we report a novel graphene nanosheets-wrapped phosphorus composite as an anode for high performance sodium-ion batteries though a facile ball-milling of red phosphorus and graphene nanosheets. Not only can the graphene nanosheets significantly improve the electrical conductivity, but they also serve as a buffer layer to accommodate the large volume change of phosphorus in the charge-discharge process. As a result, the graphene wrapped phosphorus composite anode delivers a high reversible capacity of 2077 mAh/g with excellent cycling stability (1700 mAh/g after 60 cycles) and high Coulombic efficiency (>98%). This simple synthesis approach and unique nanostructure can potentially extend to other electrode materials with unstable solid electrolyte interphases in sodium-ion batteries.

  12. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M

    2011-01-01

    for Li-ion batteries. Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI)-athe formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) onElectrolyte Solutions, Temperatures). Electrochem. and Solid-

  13. KAir Battery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    KAir Battery, from Ohio State University, is commercializing highly energy efficient cost-effective potassium air batteries for use in the electrical stationary storage systems market (ESSS). Beyond, the ESSS market potential applications range from temporary power stations and electric vehicle.

  14. Testing three 90Whr Dell Batteries for Latitude E6410 I have been able, for complicated reasons, to test three batteries sold as 9cell 90Whr batteries for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloman, Aaron

    Testing three 90Whr Dell Batteries for Latitude E6410 I have been able, for complicated reasons, to test three batteries sold as 9cell 90Whr batteries for the Dell Latitude E6410 computer, one made battery was fully charged then allowed to discharge while the laptop was on, and not doing very much

  15. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  16. Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    charge, giving it potential as a more efficient energy source. Magnesium has a high volumetric capacity, which could mean more battery power in a smaller space. However, to bring...

  17. Towards Scalable Monitoring and Maintenance of Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zambreno, Joseph A.

    Towards Scalable Monitoring and Maintenance of Rechargeable Batteries Aaron Mills, Joseph Zambreno}@iastate.edu Abstract--Current research on State-of-Charge (SOC) track- ing for rechargeable batteries focuses primarily on analyzing batteries consisting of a single cell, or otherwise treat a set of series-connected cells

  18. On the Accuracy and Simplifications of Battery Models using In Situ Measurements of Lithium Concentration in Operational Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    . INTRODUCTION Accurate estimates of Lithium Ion Battery State of Charge (SOC) are critical for constraining of the critical limitations of Lithium ion batteries is the rate at which they can safely be charged

  19. Performance of the Lester battery charger in electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivian, H.C.; Bryant, J.A.

    1984-04-15

    Tests were performed on an improved battery charger manufactured by Lester Electrical of Nebraska, Inc. This charger was installed in a South Coast Technology Rabbit No. 4, which was equipped with lead-acid batteries produced by ESB Company. The primary purpose of the testing was to develop test methodologies for battery charger evaluation. To this end tests were developed to characterize the charger in terms of its charge algorithm and to assess the effects of battery initial state of charge and temperature on charger and battery efficiency. Tests showed this charger to be a considerable improvement in the state of the art for electric vehicle chargers.

  20. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

  1. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Charger Efficiency Issues with Marine and Recreational Vehicle Battery Chargers Marine and RV battery chargers differ from power tool and small appliance chargers CEC...

  2. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eidler, Phillip

    1999-07-01

    The Zinc/Bromine Load-Leveling Battery Development contract (No. 40-8965) was partitioned at the outset into two phases of equal length. Phase 1 started in September 1990 and continued through December 1991. In Phase 1, zinc/bromine battery technology was to be advanced to the point that it would be clear that the technology was viable and would be an appropriate choice for electric utilities wishing to establish stationary energy-storage facilities. Criteria were established that addressed most of the concerns that had been observed in the previous development efforts. The performances of 8-cell and 100-cell laboratory batteries demonstrated that the criteria were met or exceeded. In Phase 2, 100-kWh batteries will be built and demonstrated, and a conceptual design for a load-leveling plant will be presented. At the same time, work will continue to identify improved assembly techniques and operating conditions. This report details the results of the efforts carried out in Phase 1. The highlights are: (1) Four 1-kWh stacks achieved over 100 cycles, One l-kWh stack achieved over 200 cycles, One 1-kWh stack achieved over 300 cycles; (2) Less than 10% degradation in performance occurred in the four stacks that achieved over 100 cycles; (3) The battery used for the zinc loading investigation exhibited virtually no loss in performance for loadings up to 130 mAh/cm{sup 2}; (4) Charge-current densities of 50 ma/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in minicells; (5) Fourteen consecutive no-strip cycles have been conducted on the stack with 300+ cycles; (6) A mass and energy balance spreadsheet that describes battery operation was completed; (7) Materials research has continued to provide improvements in the electrode, activation layer, and separator; and (8) A battery made of two 50-cell stacks (15 kWh) was produced and delivered to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for testing. The most critical development was the ability to assemble a battery stack that remained leak free. The task of sealing the battery stack using vibration welding has undergone significant improvement resulting in a viable production process. Through several design iterations, a solid technology base for larger battery stack designs was established. Internal stack stresses can now be modeled, in addition to fluid velocity and fluid pressure distribution, through the use of a finite element analysis computer program. Additionally, the Johnson Controls Battery Group, Inc. (JCBGI) proprietary FORTRAN model has been improved significantly, enabling accurate performance predictions. This modeling was used to improve the integrity and performance of the battery stacks, and should be instrumental in reducing the turnaround time from concept to assembly.

  3. MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS on the maximum deliverable power is essential to protect lithium-ion batteries from over- charge Terminal voltage Voc Open circuit voltage of a battery 1 INTRODUCTION Lithium-ion batteries have been used

  4. With a new type of lithium battery that has been developed at TU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    When charging and discharging the battery lithium ions and electrons should be able to move easilyWith a new type of lithium battery that has been developed at TU Delft electric cars can drive thick without reducing the performance of the battery: recharging the battery, where lithium needs

  5. The Charging-Scheduling Problem for Electric Vehicle Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    method to reduce the total charging time for EVs. We study the Electric Vehicle Charging-Scheduling (EVCS the classic greedy nearest scheduling algorithm: assign each EV to its nearest charging station, then choose]. The capacity of EV battery is limited, which requires frequent charging. EV battery swapping is well known

  6. Ultrathin Graphite Foam: A Three-Dimensional Conductive Network for Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    graphite foam (UGF), loaded with lithium iron phosphate (LFP), as a cathode in a lithium ion battery in lithium ion batteries. Moreover, preparation of the UGF electrode was facile, cost-dimensional electrode, conductive network, lithium ion battery Advanced battery technologies are known to suffer from

  7. FADEC: Fast Authentication for Dynamic Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    charging [1], [2] is a promising technol- ogy for charging electric vehicles (EV) while driving. The basic idea is to place charging coils under the charging pads on the road and attach charging coils to the EV the road and the coils in the EV can charge the EV battery. Dynamic charging is only possible with proper

  8. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bockelmann, Thomas R. (Battle Creek, MI); Beaty, Kevin D. (Kalamazoo, MI); Zou, Zhanijang (Battle Creek, MI); Kang, Xiaosong (Battle Creek, MI)

    2009-07-21

    A battery control system for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery includes a detecting arrangement for determining a vehicle operating state or an intended vehicle operating state and a controller for setting a target state of charge level of the battery based on the vehicle operating state or the intended vehicle operating state. The controller is operable to set a target state of charge level at a first level during a mobile vehicle operating state and at a second level during a stationary vehicle operating state or in anticipation of the vehicle operating in the stationary vehicle operating state. The invention further includes a method for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery.

  9. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  10. Cover: PNNL's Photovoltaic array produces electricity for our super-computing facility and adjacent car charging stations. IN THIS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Cover: PNNL's Photovoltaic array produces electricity for our super-computing facility. And we will not rest with the milestones in sustainability that you are about to read in this, our third environment Transferring technology that makes a difference Fostering the next generation of scientists

  11. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  12. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies 2012 DOE...

  13. Energy Storage Systems Considerations for Grid-Charged Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

    2005-09-01

    This paper calculates battery power and energy requirements for grid-charged hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with different operating strategies.

  14. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  15. Katech (Lithium Polymer) 4-Passenger NEV - Range and Battery Testing Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) received a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) from the Korea Automotive Technology Institute (KATECH) for vehicle and battery characterization testing. The KATECH NEV (called the Invita) was equipped with a lithium polymer battery pack from Kokam Engineering. The Invita was to be baseline performance tested by AVTA’s testing partner, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA), at ETA’s contract testing facilities and test track in Phoenix, Arizona, to AVTA’s NEVAmerica testing specifications and procedures. Before and during initial constant speed range testing, the Invita battery pack experienced cell failures, and the onboard charger failed. A Kokamsupplied off-board charger was used in place of the onboard charger to successfully perform a constant speed range test on the Invita. The Invita traveled a total of 47.9 miles in 1 hour 47 minutes, consuming 91.3 amp-hours and 6.19 kilowatt-hours. The Kokam Engineering lithium polymer battery was also scheduled for battery pack characterization testing, including the C/3 energy capacity, dynamic stress, and peak power tests. Testing was stopped during the initial C/3 energy capacity test, however, because the battery pack failed to withstand cycling without cell failures. After the third discharge/charge sequence was completed, it was discovered that Cell 6 had failed, with a voltage reading of 0.5 volts. Cell 6 was replaced, and the testing sequence was restarted. After the second discharge/charge sequence was complete, it was discovered that Cell 1 had failed, with its voltage reading 0.2 volts. At this point it was decided to stop all battery pack testing. During the discharge cycles, the battery pack supplied 102.21, 94.34, and 96.05 amp-hours consecutively before Cell 6 failed. After replacing Cell 6, the battery pack supplied 98.34 and 98.11 amp-hours before Cell 1 failed. The Idaho National Laboratory managed these testing activities for the AVTA, as part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  16. AVTA: Battery Testing- Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The AVTA runs the Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed to capture batteries’ real-world performance. The Testbed simulates battery charging as well as on-road driving. Researchers run the Testbed on a daily basis on cycles that represent typical driving and charging patterns. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  17. Comparison of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, B.E.; Lalk, T.R.; Swan, D.H.

    1993-12-31

    Battery technologies of different chemistries, manufacture and geometry were evaluated as candidates for use in Electric Vehicles (EV). The candidate batteries that were evaluated include four single cell and seven multi-cell modules representing four technologies: Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual battery types were used in the evaluations. The batteries were evaluated by conducting performance tests, and by subjecting them to cyclical loading, using a computer controlled charge--discharge cycler, to simulate typical EV driving cycles. Criteria for comparison of batteries were: performance, projected vehicle range, cost, and applicability to various types of EVs. The four battery technologies have individual strengths and weaknesses and each is suited to fill a particular application. None of the batteries tested can fill every EV application.

  18. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  19. Methods for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T

    2013-05-21

    Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.

  20. A Look Inside SLAC's Battery Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Seh, Zhi

    2014-07-17

    In this video, Stanford materials science and engineering graduate student Zhi Wei Seh shows how he prepares battery materials in SLAC's energy storage laboratory, assembles dime-sized prototype "coin cells" and then tests them to see how many charge-discharge cycles they can endure without losing their ability to hold a charge. Results to date have already set records: After 1,000 cycles, they retain 70 percent of their original charge.

  1. A Look Inside SLAC's Battery Lab

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wei Seh, Zhi

    2014-07-21

    In this video, Stanford materials science and engineering graduate student Zhi Wei Seh shows how he prepares battery materials in SLAC's energy storage laboratory, assembles dime-sized prototype "coin cells" and then tests them to see how many charge-discharge cycles they can endure without losing their ability to hold a charge. Results to date have already set records: After 1,000 cycles, they retain 70 percent of their original charge.

  2. Kinetics-controlled growth of aligned mesocrystalline SnO2 nanorod arrays for lithium-ion batteries with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Limin

    Kinetics-controlled growth of aligned mesocrystalline SnO2 nanorod arrays for lithium-ion batteries structures, lithium-ion batteries ABSTRACT A general method for facile kinetics-controlled growth of aligned material for lithium-ion batteries. 1 Introduction Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been considered

  3. Facile synthesis of mesophase pitch/exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets nanocomposite and its application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Yishuang [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang Chengyang, E-mail: cywang@tju.edu.c [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Chen Mingming; Shi Zhiqiang; Zheng Jiaming [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Mesophase pitch (MP)/exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) nanocomposite has been prepared by an efficient method with an initiation of graphite intercalation compounds (GIC). X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis techniques are used to characterize the samples. It is observed that GIC has exfoliated completely into GNPs during the formation of MP/GNPs nanocomposite and the GNPs are distributed uniformly in MP matrix, which represent a conductive path for a movement of electrons throughout the composites. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the carbonized MP/GNPs nanocomposite displays higher capacity and better cycle performance in comparison with the pure carbonized MP. It is concluded that such a large improvement of electrochemical performance within the nanocomposite may in general be related to the enhanced electronic conductivity, which is achieved by good dispersion of GNPs within MP matrix and formation of a 3D network of GNPs. - Graphical abstract: Uniform mesophase pitch/exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets nanocomposite has been efficiently fabricated with an initiation of graphite intercalation compounds. The as-prepared composite electrode exhibited high electrochemical performance for Li-ion batteries.

  4. Electrical property measurements of thin film based Lithium Ion Battery electrodes "Nanostructured Lithium Ion Batteries (LIB) are one of the most promising class of next generation energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    Electrical property measurements of thin film based Lithium Ion Battery electrodes "Nanostructured Lithium Ion Batteries (LIB) are one of the most promising class of next generation energy storage devices materials during the charging/discharging process. However, in previous graphene based LIB battery research

  5. Automating Personalized Battery Management on Smartphones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falaki, Mohamamd Hossein

    2012-01-01

    3 Automating Battery Management . . . . . . .122 Battery Goal Setting UI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Power and Battery Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  6. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  7. Piezonuclear battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bongianni, Wayne L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  8. NREL: Awards and Honors - Current Interrupt Charging Algorithm...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Interrupt Charging Algorithm for Lead-Acid Batteries Developers: Matthew A. Keyser, Ahmad A. Pesaran, and Mark M. Mihalic, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Robert F....

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE Efficiency and Security Testing Presentation given by Idaho National Laboratory at 2014...

  10. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    image of discharged 3D-Ni 25,Si 4mM Li 2 S 12 battery takenimage of discharged 3D-Ni 25,Si 4mM Li 2 S 12 battery takenbattery charging, thus protecting the cell from overcharge. 81,82 Based on the image

  11. Experimental identification and validation of an electrochemical model of a Lithium-Ion Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Experimental identification and validation of an electrochemical model of a Lithium-Ion Battery an experimental parameter iden- tification and validation for an electrochemical lithium-ion battery model. The identification procedure is based on experimental data collected from a 6.8 Ah lithium-ion battery during charge

  12. Journal of Power Sources 150 (2005) 229239 Analysis of capacity fade in a lithium ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    Journal of Power Sources 150 (2005) 229­239 Analysis of capacity fade in a lithium ion battery determination of parameter values using a simple charge/discharge model of a Sony 18650 lithium ion battery; Lithium ion batteries 1. Introduction and motivation Theoverallperformanceofbatteriesdeterioratesovertime

  13. Abstract--This paper describes experimental results aiming at analyzing lithium-ion batteries performances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Abstract--This paper describes experimental results aiming at analyzing lithium-ion batteries (SOH) of cells. Index Terms--Lithium-ion batteries, Aging, EIS, State Of Charge, State Of Health, Fuzzy Logic System. I. INTRODUCTION Lithium ion secondary batteries are now being used in wide applications

  14. Short communication Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    squares) have been applied to lead-acid [1] and lithium-ion [2] batteries. This paper proposes a dynamicShort communication Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic data of State of charge (SOC) and State of health (SOH) in lead-acid batteries. Algorithm development based

  15. Control oriented 1D electrochemical model of lithium ion battery Kandler A. Smith a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Control oriented 1D electrochemical model of lithium ion battery Kandler A. Smith a , Christopher D Available online 28 June 2007 Abstract Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries provide high energy and power density dynamics (i.e. state of charge). Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium ion battery

  16. Mar 24th 2011 | from the print edition 0 40Like Battery technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Mar 24th 2011 | from the print edition 0 40Like Battery technology Highly charged A powerful experimental battery that can be recharged completely in minutes ENGINEERS have long dreamed of shortening the time it takes to recharge batteries. Currently, that can be hours. For applications like motor vehicles

  17. SMART METER PRIVACY USING A RECHARGEABLE BATTERY: MINIMIZING THE RATE OF INFORMATION LEAKAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khisti, Ashish

    -in electric vehicle) [8]. The setup in Fig. 1 shows the flow of information left-to-right. The battery's input Fellowship. Battery Utility Company Appliances X Y Information Flow Power Flow Fig. 1. Charging and discharging the battery with power flows can partially decouple the information flows X and Y . X

  18. Comparison of Battery Life Across Real-World Automotive Drive-Cycles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-11-01

    Laboratories run around-the-clock aging tests to try to understand as quickly as possible how long new Li-ion battery designs will last under certain duty cycles. These tests may include factors such as duty cycles, climate, battery power profiles, and battery stress statistics. Such tests are generally accelerated and do not consider possible dwell time at high temperatures and states-of-charge. Battery life-predictive models provide guidance as to how long Li-ion batteries may last under real-world electric-drive vehicle applications. Worst-case aging scenarios are extracted from hundreds of real-world duty cycles developed from vehicle travel surveys. Vehicles examined included PHEV10 and PHEV40 EDVs under fixed (28 degrees C), limited cooling (forced ambient temperature), and aggressive cooling (20 degrees C chilled liquid) scenarios using either nightly charging or opportunity charging. The results show that battery life expectancy is 7.8 - 13.2 years for the PHEV10 using a nightly charge in Phoenix, AZ (hot climate), and that the 'aggressive' cooling scenario can extend battery life by 1-3 years, while the 'limited' cooling scenario shortens battery life by 1-2 years. Frequent (opportunity) charging can reduce battery life by 1 year for the PHEV10, while frequent charging can extend battery life by one-half year.

  19. Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    million in Recovery Act funding to help expand its Charlotte operations and build a new lithium-ion battery separator facility in Concord. With the help of Recovery Act-funded...

  20. The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation and Battery Management System Tutor and Y. Fuentes. Computer simulations of a lithium-ion polymer battery and implications for higher. Di Domenico, A. Stefanopoulou, and G. Fiengo., Reduced Order Lithium-ion Battery Electrochemical

  1. RECHARGEABLE HIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2014-01-01

    F. Eshman, High-Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleS. Sudar, High Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleHIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES Elton J. Cairns January 1981 TWO-

  2. Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, David Tunmin

    2012-01-01

    Xiangyun Song helped me with battery experiments. I want toMesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators by DavidMesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators by David

  3. Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

  4. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-09-25

    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles (EV), including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electrical vehicles. With the increasing demand on devices of high energy densities (>500 Wh/kg) , new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB also attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performances of these energy storage systems depend not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performances characteristics of batteries often have conflict requirements on the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflict requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li-O2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate 1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and 2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties, prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime.

  5. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  6. Section E Nuclear Facility D&D, Remainder of Hanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    months Completed annual surveillance of Redox facilities. Completed replacement of PUREX uninterruptible power supply (UPS) battery cell. EMS Objectives and Target Status...

  7. Expanded North Carolina Lithium Facility Opens, Boosting U.S...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is part of a comprehensive investment under the Recovery Act to support advanced battery and electric drive manufacturing facilities around the country. At full scale, these...

  8. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  9. Zinc-bromine batteries with improved electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kantner, E.

    1985-01-01

    The coulombic efficiency of aqueous zinc bromine batteries can be increased if, in addition to the bromide ions required to be present in the electrolyte to charge the cell to rated capacity, chloride ions are added to the electrolyte in amounts sufficient to reduce the amount of free bromine present in the electrolyte during operation of the cell.

  10. Polymer nanocomposites for lithium battery applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandi-Tapia, Giselle; Gregar, Kathleen Carrado

    2006-07-18

    A single ion-conducting nanocomposite of a substantially amorphous polyethylene ether and a negatively charged synthetic smectite clay useful as an electrolyte. Excess SiO2 improves conductivity and when combined with synthetic hectorite forms superior membranes for batteries. A method of making membranes is also disclosed.

  11. Development of 8 kWh Zinc bromide battery as a precursor of battery for electric power storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, T.; Ando, Y.; Fujii, E.; Hirotu, A.; Ito, H.; Kanazashi, M.; Misaki, H.; Yamamoto, A.

    1984-08-01

    Zinc bromide battery is characterized with its room temperature operation, simple construction and easy maintenance. After four years' research and development of electrode materials, electrolyte composition, battery stack construction and other components, we prepared 1 kW class (8 kWh) battery for the first interim official evaluation. This battery showed a good and stable energy efficiency of 80% after 130 cycles of 1.25 kW 8 hours charge and 1.0 kW 8 hours discharge.

  12. California Lithium Battery, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California Lithium Battery (CaLBattery), based in Los Angeles, California, is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined with other advanced battery materials, it could effectively lower battery life cycle cost by up to 70 percent. Over the next year, CALBattery will be working with Argonne National Laboratory to combine their patented silicon-graphene anode material process together with other advanced ANL cathode and electrolyte battery materials.

  13. Workplace Charging at Leased Facilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials 6 Third Party Sustainability Certification 12 Credentialed Management 4 Life Cycle Assessment 8 Section B: Programs Programs Describes the programs and features...

  14. Workplace Charging at Leased Facilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs SearchAMERICA'SEnergyofTheDepartment of Energy WORKPLACE

  15. Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    The demand for renewable energy sources has stimulated technological advances in solar cell development. Initially, development and fabrication were extremely costly and no encouragement for use in industrial applications was made. Today, evidence...

  16. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDS onBudget || Department ofDubeyMapping

  17. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDS onBudget || Department ofDubeyMappingMapping

  18. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport)PriceHistoricEnergy Efficiency »5 CondonSpecificMapping

  19. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport)PriceHistoricEnergy Efficiency »5

  20. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport)PriceHistoricEnergy Efficiency »5Mapping Particle

  1. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport)PriceHistoricEnergy Efficiency »5Mapping ParticleMapping

  2. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport)PriceHistoricEnergy Efficiency »5Mapping

  3. Development of vanadium redox flow battery for photovoltaic generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, Akira; Sato, Kanji; Nakajima, Masato

    1994-12-31

    Photovoltaic power generation system (PV) requires a battery for night and rainy day. A redox flow battery has advantage over a lead acid one on this application for the capability of deep discharge and needlessness of equalized charge. The authors have developed the high performance vanadium redox flow battery for this purpose and inexpensive production technology of electrolyte which occupies the majority in the battery cost by chemical reduction from boiler plant by-product. The 2 kW (10 kWh) battery, the minimum unit for practical size battery (50 kW x 50 h), achieved 1.2 kW/cm{sup 2}-electrode area at the 100 mA/cm{sup 2} current density.

  4. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  5. C Battery Corral 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    reliability. The total consumption of lead-acid batteries in the United States reported in 2008 is $2.9 billion per year and is growing at an annual rate of 8%. The utilization of Lithium-ion battery is growing rapidly. The possibility of lithium-ion... Energy Storage Parameters ............................................................................ 25 Table 2 Case I Cost Comparison ................................................................................ 27 Table 3 PHEV Battery...

  6. battery, map parcel, med

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    Attic *** book teachest Servant dictionary scarf [11] Winery demijohn battery, map AuntLair X] EastAnnex battery[4] Cupboard2 [2] mask DeadEnd rucksack AlisonWriting [16] TinyBalcony [17] gold key. [2] Need new torch battery (see [4]) to enter. Then get painting. [3] To please aunt, must move

  7. Servant dictionary battery, map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    Attic *** book teachest Servant dictionary scarf [11] Winery demijohn battery, map AuntLair X] EastAnnex battery[4] Cupboard2 [2] mask DeadEnd rucksack AlisonWriting [16] TinyBalcony [17] gold key. [2] Need new torch battery (see [4]) to enter. Then get painting. [3] To please aunt, must move

  8. Metal pad instabilities in liquid metal batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    A mechanical analogy is used to analyze the interaction between the magnetic field, electric current and deformation of interfaces in liquid metal batteries. It is found that, during charging or discharging, a sufficiently large battery is prone to instabilities of two types. One is similar to the metal pad instability known for aluminum reduction cells. Another type is new. It is related to the destabilizing effect of the Lorentz force formed by the azimuthal magnetic field induced by the base current and the current perturbations caused by the local variations of the thickness of the electrolyte layer.

  9. Thermal convection in a liquid metal battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    Generation of thermal convection flow in the liquid metal battery, a device recently proposed as a promising solution for the problem of the short-term energy storage, is analyzed using a numerical model. It is found that convection caused by Joule heating of electrolyte during charging or discharging is virtually unavoidable. It exists in laboratory prototypes larger than a few cm in size and should become much stronger in larger-scale batteries. The phenomenon needs further investigation in view of its positive (enhanced mixing of reactants) and negative (loss of efficiency and possible disruption of operation due to the flow-induced deformation of the electrolyte layer) effects.

  10. Long-Range Electric Vehicle Batteries: High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: In a battery, metal ions move between the electrodes through the electrolyte in order to store energy. Envia Systems is developing new silicon-based negative electrode materials for Li-Ion batteries. Using this technology, Envia will be able to produce commercial EV batteries that outperform today’s technology by 2-3 times. Many other programs have attempted to make anode materials based on silicon, but have not been able to produce materials that can withstand charge/discharge cycles multiple times. Envia has been able to make this material which can successfully cycle hundreds of times, on a scale that is economically viable. Today, Envia’s batteries exhibit world-record energy densities.

  11. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-01-01

    on New Sealed Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors, B.10. S. Hossain, in Handbook of Batteries, Second Edition, D.Workshop on Advanced Batteries (Lithium Batteries), February

  12. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    of a Rechargeable Lithium Battery," J. Power Sources, 24,Wada, "Rechargeable Lithium Battery Based on Pyrolytic Car-Li-Ion Battery," Lithium Battery Symposium, Electrochemical

  13. Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. Virtual tour: INL's space battery facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This virtual tour shows how INL fuels and tests nuclear power systems for deep space missions. To learn more about INL's contribution to the Mars Science Laboratory, visit http://www.inl.gov/marsrover.

  15. Virtual tour: INL's space battery facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Johnson, Steve

    2013-05-28

    This virtual tour shows how INL fuels and tests nuclear power systems for deep space missions. To learn more about INL's contribution to the Mars Science Laboratory, visit http://www.inl.gov/marsrover.

  16. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt002esflicker2011...

  17. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt002esflicker2012...

  18. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. esarravt002flicker2010...

  19. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOfficeAcqguide18pt0Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and

  20. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOfficeAcqguide18pt0Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen

  1. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOfficeAcqguide18pt0Department of Energy 2 DOE

  2. IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 19, NO. 7, JULY 2001 1385 Improving Battery Performance by Using Traffic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conditions is identified as a mechanism that can be exploited to enhance the capacity of a batteryIEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 19, NO. 7, JULY 2001 1385 Improving Battery battery management techniques that exploit the charge recovery effect inherent to many secondary storage

  3. SUBMARINE LEAD-ACID BATTERY PERFORMANCE To appear in the (refereed) proceedings of the Mathematics-in-Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuinness, Mark

    SUBMARINE LEAD-ACID BATTERY PERFORMANCE To appear in the (refereed) proceedings of the Mathematics and Basil Benjamin2 The lead-acid batteries used to power conventional submarines while they are submerged to calculate state of charge and to predict the per- formance of these batteries. Three models are considered

  4. Collecting battery data with Open Battery Gareth L. Jones1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imperial College, London

    Collecting battery data with Open Battery Gareth L. Jones1 and Peter G. Harrison2 1,2 Imperial present Open Battery, a tool for collecting data on mobile phone battery usage, describe the data we have a useful tool in future work to describe mobile phone battery traces. 1998 ACM Subject Classification D.4

  5. Battery Requirements for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Analysis and Rationale (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.

    2007-12-01

    Slide presentation to EVS-23 conference describing NREL work to help identify appropriate requirements for batteries to be useful for plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs). Suggested requirements were submitted to the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium, which used them for a 2007 request for proposals. Requirements were provided both for charge-depleting mode and charge-sustaining mode and for high power/energy ratio and hige energy/power ration batteries for each (different modes of PHEV operation), along with battery and system level requirements.

  6. Methods and systems for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T

    2014-12-02

    Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.

  7. Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-09-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies [Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid]. These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  8. Remote Control Inserting the batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Top View Rear View Inserting the batteries 1 3Press in on the arrow mark and slide in the direction of the arrow to remove the battery cover. 2 Insert two AA size batteries, making sure their polarities match the and marks inside the battery compartment. Insert the side tabs of the battery cover into their slots

  9. Monitoring apparatus and method for battery power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Harry L. (Knoxville, TN); Goodson, Raymond E. (West Lafayette, IN)

    1983-01-01

    A monitoring apparatus and method are disclosed for monitoring and/or indicating energy that a battery power source has then remaining and/or can deliver for utilization purposes as, for example, to an electric vehicle. A battery mathematical model forms the basis for monitoring with a capacity prediction determined from measurement of the discharge current rate and stored battery parameters. The predicted capacity is used to provide a state-of-charge indication. Self-calibration over the life of the battery power supply is enacted through use of a feedback voltage based upon the difference between predicted and measured voltages to correct the battery mathematical model. Through use of a microprocessor with central information storage of temperature, current and voltage, system behavior is monitored, and system flexibility is enhanced.

  10. Battery Wear from Disparate Duty-Cycles: Opportunities for Electric-Drive Vehicle Battery Health Management; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-10-01

    Electric-drive vehicles utilizing lithium-ion batteries experience wholly different degradation patterns than do conventional vehicles, depending on geographic ambient conditions and consumer driving and charging patterns. A semi-empirical life-predictive model for the lithium-ion graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum chemistry is presented that accounts for physically justified calendar and cycling fade mechanisms. An analysis of battery life for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles considers 782 duty-cycles from travel survey data superimposed with climate data from multiple geographic locations around the United States. Based on predicted wear distributions, opportunities for extending battery life including modification of battery operating limits, thermal and charge control are discussed.

  11. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  12. Lithium battery management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  13. Battery Technology Life Verification Testing and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Gary L. Hunt; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2007-12-01

    A critical component to the successful commercialization of batteries for automotive applications is accurate life prediction. The Technology Life Verification Test (TLVT) Manual was developed to project battery life with a high level of statistical confidence within only one or two years of accelerated aging. The validation effort that is presently underway has led to several improvements to the original methodology. For example, a newly developed reference performance test revealed a voltage path dependence effect on resistance for lithium-ion cells. The resistance growth seems to depend on how a target condition is reached (i.e., by a charge or a discharge). Second, the methodology for assessing the level of measurement uncertainty was improved using a propagation of errors in the fundamental measurements to the derived response (e.g., resistance). This new approach provides a more realistic assessment of measurement uncertainty. Third, the methodology for allocating batteries to the test matrix has been improved. The new methodology was developed to assign batteries to the matrix such that the average of each test group would be representative of the overall population. These changes to the TLVT methodology will help to more accurately predict a battery technology’s life capability with a high degree of confidence.

  14. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01

    P. C. Butler, "Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles andIntroduction," in Hnadbook of Batteries, 3rd Edition, D.T. B. Reddy, Handbook of Batteries, 2002). [67] R. Zito, US

  15. Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, David Tunmin

    2012-01-01

    L. C. , R. , Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles. Inpast two decades, lithium-ion batteries have emerged as anMore recently, lithium-ion batteries have been employed in

  16. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01

    of a Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery to Maintain Power Quality,"Fuel System Using Redox Flow Battery," ed: WO Patentand D. B. Hickey, "Redox Flow Battery System for Distributed

  17. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  18. Better Batteries for Transportation: Behind the Scenes @ Berkeley Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaglia, Vince

    2011-01-01

    Vince Battaglia leads a behind-the-scenes tour of Berkeley Lab's BATT, the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies Program he leads, where researchers aim to improve batteries upon which the range, efficiency, and power of tomorrow's electric cars will depend. This is the first in a forthcoming series of videos taking viewers into the laboratories and research facilities that members of the public rarely get to see.

  19. Better Batteries for Transportation: Behind the Scenes @ Berkeley Lab

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Battaglia, Vince

    2013-05-29

    Vince Battaglia leads a behind-the-scenes tour of Berkeley Lab's BATT, the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies Program he leads, where researchers aim to improve batteries upon which the range, efficiency, and power of tomorrow's electric cars will depend. This is the first in a forthcoming series of videos taking viewers into the laboratories and research facilities that members of the public rarely get to see.

  20. Grid-tied PV battery systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-09-01

    Grid tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (ALABC Advanced) proved to cycle well at a Partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

  1. Friction welded battery component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, G.K.; Zagrodnik, J.P.

    1990-07-31

    This patent describes a battery component for use in a flow battery containing fluid electrolyte. It comprises: first and second bond ribs disposed on opposite sides of and defining a channel and respective primary flash traps disposed adjacent the bond ribs opposite the channel.

  2. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  3. Storage battery systems analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Storage Battery Systems Analysis supports the battery Exploratory Technology Development and Testing Project with technical and economic analysis of battery systems in various end-use applications. Computer modeling and simulation techniques are used in the analyses. Analysis objectives are achieved through both in-house efforts and outside contracts. In-house studies during FY82 included a study of the relationship between storage battery system reliability and cost, through cost-of-investment and cost-of-service interruption inputs; revision and update of the SOLSTOR computer code in standard FORTRAN 77 form; parametric studies of residential stand-alone photovoltaic systems using the SOLSTOR code; simulation of wind turbine collector/storage battery systems for the community of Kalaupapa, Molokai, Hawaii.

  4. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  5. Battery with a microcorrugated, microthin sheet of highly porous corroded metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaFollette, Rodney M.

    2005-09-27

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (i) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and (j) high specific capacitance.

  6. Nanomaterials for Fuel cells, Batteries, and Supercapacitors Flow Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Indranath

    Nanomaterials for Fuel cells, Batteries, and Supercapacitors Flow Batteries 1. Shao Y, X Wang, MH storage in vanadium redox flow batteries." Journal of Power Sources 195(13):4375-4379. 2. Shao Y, MH nanotube electrodes for redox flow batteries." Electrochemistry Communications 11(10):2064-2067. doi:10

  7. A Wireless Power Interface for Rechargeable Battery Operated Neural Recording Implants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    A Wireless Power Interface for Rechargeable Battery Operated Neural Recording Implants Pengfei Li. The battery charger employs a new control loop that relaxes comparator resolution require- ments, provides-of- charge accuracy can be obtained under worst-case conditions for a comparator offset voltage of ±5m

  8. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed, and fuel cell. Battery EDVs can store electricity, charging during low demand times and discharging when power is scarce and prices are high. Fuel cell and hybrid EDVs are sources of new power generation

  9. Defective graphene as promising anode material for Na-ion battery and Ca-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datta, Dibakar; Shenoy, Vivek B

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated adsorption of Na and Ca on graphene with divacancy (DV) and Stone-Wales (SW) defect. Our results show that adsorption is not possible on pristine graphene. However, their adsorption on defective sheet is energetically favorable. The enhanced adsorption can be attributed to the increased charge transfer between adatoms and underlying defective sheet. With the increase in defect density until certain possible limit, maximum percentage of adsorption also increases giving higher battery capacity. For maximum possible DV defect, we can achieve maximum capacity of 1459 mAh/g for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) and 2900 mAh/g for Ca-ion batteries (CIBs). For graphene full of SW defect, we find the maximum capacity of NIBs and CIBs is around 1071 mAh/g and 2142 mAh/g respectively. Our results will help create better anode materials with much higher capacity and better cycling performance for NIBs and CIBs.

  10. Ecological and biomedical effects of effluents from near-term electric vehicle storage battery cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    An assessment of the ecological and biomedical effects due to commercialization of storage batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is given. It deals only with the near-term batteries, namely Pb/acid, Ni/Zn, and Ni/Fe, but the complete battery cycle is considered, i.e., mining and milling of raw materials, manufacture of the batteries, cases and covers; use of the batteries in electric vehicles, including the charge-discharge cycles; recycling of spent batteries; and disposal of nonrecyclable components. The gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions from various phases of the battery cycle are identified. The effluent dispersal in the environment is modeled and ecological effects are assessed in terms of biogeochemical cycles. The metabolic and toxic responses by humans and laboratory animals to constituents of the effluents are discussed. Pertinent environmental and health regulations related to the battery industry are summarized and regulatory implications for large-scale storage battery commercialization are discussed. Each of the seven sections were abstracted and indexed individually for EDB/ERA. Additional information is presented in the seven appendixes entitled; growth rate scenario for lead/acid battery development; changes in battery composition during discharge; dispersion of stack and fugitive emissions from battery-related operations; methodology for estimating population exposure to total suspended particulates and SO/sub 2/ resulting from central power station emissions for the daily battery charging demand of 10,000 electric vehicles; determination of As air emissions from Zn smelting; health effects: research related to EV battery technologies. (JGB)

  11. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key parts—a positive and negative electrode and an electrolyte—that exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a battery’s chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  12. Quantifying EV battery end-of-life through analysis of travel needs with vehicle powertrain models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saxena, Samveg; Le Floch, Caroline; MacDonald, Jason; Moura, Scott

    2015-05-15

    Electric vehicles enable clean and efficient transportation; however, concerns about range anxiety and battery degradation hinder EV adoption. The common definition for battery end-of-life is when 70-80% of original energy capacity remain;, however, little analysis is available to support this retirement threshold. By applying detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars, we show that EV batteries continue to meet daily travel needs of drivers well beyond capacity fade of 80% remaining energy storage capacity. Further, we show that EV batteries with substantial energy capacity fade continue to provide sufficient buffer charge for unexpected tripsmore »with long distances. We show that enabling charging in more locations, even if only with 120 V wall outlets, prolongs useful life of EV batteries. Battery power fade is also examined and we show EVs meet performance requirements even down to 30% remaining power capacity. Our findings show that defining battery retirement at 70-80% remaining capacity is inaccurate. Battery retirement should instead be governed by when batteries no longer satisfy daily travel needs of a driver. Using this alternative retirement metric, we present results on the fraction of EV batteries that may be retired with different levels of energy capacity fade.« less

  13. Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, David Tunmin

    2012-01-01

    image. Chapter 2 – Relationship Between Morphology and Conductivity of Block- Copolymer Based Battery

  14. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  15. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  16. Polymeric battery separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchak, R. J.; Schenk, W. N.

    1985-06-11

    Configurations of cross-linked or vulcanized amphophilic or quaternized block copolymer of haloalkyl epoxides and hydroxyl terminated alkadiene polymers are useful as battery separators in both primary and secondary batteries, particularly nickel-zinc batteries. The quaternized block copolymers are prepared by polymerizing a haloalkyl epoxide in the presence of a hydroxyl terminated 1,3-alkadiene to form a block copolymer that is then reacted with an amine to form the quaternized or amphophilic block copolymer that is then cured or cross-linked with sulfur, polyamines, metal oxides, organic peroxides and the like.

  17. PV Charging System for Remote Area Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilsemann, Frederick; Thompson, Roger

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project is to provide the public with a study of new as well existing technology to recharge batteries used in the field. A new product(s) will also be built based upon the information ascertained. American Electric Vehicles, Inc. (AEV) developed systems and methods suitable for charging state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries in remote locations under both ideal and cloudy weather conditions. Conceptual designs are described for existing and next generation technology, particularly as regards solar cells, peak power trackers and batteries. Prototype system tests are reported.

  18. Control Strategies for Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Using Renewables...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    demand charges for residential and commercial customers. The use of renewables (e.g., solar) and local storage (e.g., battery bank) can mitigate loads caused by EVSE on the...

  19. Systems and methods for initializing a charging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ransom, Ray M; Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2014-06-24

    Systems and methods are provided for initiating a charging system. The method, for example, may include, but is not limited to, providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to a battery up to a first predetermined threshold while the energy conversion module has a zero-percent duty cycle, providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to the battery from an initial voltage level of the battery up to a peak voltage of a voltage source while the energy conversion module has a zero-percent duty cycle, and providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to the battery by incrementally increasing the duty cycle of the energy conversion module.

  20. Systems and methods for initializing a charging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ransom, Ray M.; Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A.

    2014-09-09

    Systems and methods are provided for initiating a charging system. The method, for example, may include, but is not limited to, providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to a battery up to a first predetermined threshold while the energy conversion module has a zero-percent duty cycle, providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to the battery from an initial voltage level of the battery up to a peak voltage of a voltage source while the energy conversion module has a zero-percent duty cycle, and providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to the battery by incrementally increasing the duty cycle of the energy conversion module.

  1. Recycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, and alkaline batteries. All batteries need to be sorted by battery type. Each battery type must be accumulated in a clearly labeled receptacle to identify the acceptable battery type. Batteries can be dropped off

  2. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   One   of   the   challenges  of   sodium   ion   batteries   is   identification   of  for   use   in   batteries.   Our   recent   work   has  

  3. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Secondary Lithium Batteries. Journal of the Electrochemicalin Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Overcharge Protection.G. M. in Handbook of Batteries (eds Linden, D. & Reddy, T.

  4. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gabano, Ed. , Lithium Batteries, Academic Press, New York,K. V. Kordesch, "Primary Batteries 1951-1976," J. Elec- n ~.Rechargeable Lithium Batteries," J. Electrochem. Soc. , [20

  5. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414, 359-367 (lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionics 135,electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materials

  6. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca

    2014-01-01

    Company-v3832/Lithium-Ion-Batteries- Outlook-Alternative-Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Marca M. Doeff * , Jordirechargeable sodium ion batteries, particularly for large-

  7. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Anodes for Aluminum-Air Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.Anodes for Aluminum-Air Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.ALLOYS FOR ALUMINUM AIR BATTERIES. J. Electrochem. Soc.

  8. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    their use in lithium-ion batteries. However, applications atresponse of lithium rechargeable batteries,” Journal of therechargeable lithium batteries (Preliminary report, Sept.

  9. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Identification of a suitabledevelopment of sodium ion batteries, because graphite, theanode for lithium ion batteries, does not undergo sodium

  10. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Dual Intercalation Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    for Dual Intercalation Batteries Lithium supply securityinterest in sodium-ion batteries. These devices operate muchsodium-ion or lithium-ion batteries that utilize them as

  11. Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Battery Basics November 22, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Vehicle Battery Basics Batteries are essential for electric drive technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles...

  12. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vanpuzzling mysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book beginssuch importance to lithium ion batteries one is amazed that

  13. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionicselectrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materialsand side reactions in lithium-ion batteries. Journal of the

  14. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec- trochemistryOptimization of Lithium-Ion Batteries PhD thesis (Universityfor Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries. Journal of The

  15. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    K. M. Directions in secondary lithium battery research-and-runaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journalrunaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journal

  16. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene Carbonate for Lithium Ion Battery Use. Journal oflithium atoms in lithium-ion battery electrolyte. Chemicalcapacity fading of a lithium-ion battery cycled at elevated

  17. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  18. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  19. Battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1993-03-25

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) tests advanced batteries under simulated electric and hybrid vehicle operating conditions. The ADL facilities also include a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The battery evaluations and post-test examinations help identify factors that limit system performance and life, and the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming these limitations. Since 1991, performance characterizations and/or life evaluations have been conducted on eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/S, Zn/Br, Ni/MH, Ni/Zn, Ni/Cd, Ni/Fe, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy`s. Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE/OTT/EHP), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Transportation Program. The results obtained are discussed.

  20. Battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1993-03-25

    Argonne National Laboratory's Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) tests advanced batteries under simulated electric and hybrid vehicle operating conditions. The ADL facilities also include a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The battery evaluations and post-test examinations help identify factors that limit system performance and life, and the most-promising R D approaches for overcoming these limitations. Since 1991, performance characterizations and/or life evaluations have been conducted on eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/S, Zn/Br, Ni/MH, Ni/Zn, Ni/Cd, Ni/Fe, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy's. Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE/OTT/EHP), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Transportation Program. The results obtained are discussed.

  1. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  2. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiser, Eric [The German Engineering Federation (VDMA), Battery Production Industry Group, Lyoner Str. 18, 60528 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  3. Preparation of ionic membranes for zinc/bromine storage batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assink, R.A.; Arnold, C. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Zinc/bromine flow batteries are being developed for vehicular and utility load leveling applications. During charge, an aqueous zinc bromide salt is electolyzed to zinc metal and molecular bromine. During discharge, the zinc and bromine react to again form the zinc bromide salt. One serious disadvantage of the microporous separators presently used in the zinc/bromine battery is that modest amounts of bromine and negatively charged bromine moieties permeate through these materials and react with the zinc anode. This results in partial self-discharge of the battery and low coulombic efficiencies. Our approach to this problem is to impregnate the microporous separators with a soluble cationic polyelectrolyte. In laboratory screening tests a sulfonated polysulfone resin and fully fluorinated sulfonic acid polymer substantially reduced bromine permeation with only modest increases in the area resistance. 5 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Current collectors for rechargeable Li-Air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the negative influence of porous nickel foam for use as current collectors in rechargeable Li-air batteries. Uncoated nickel foam promotes the decomposition of LiPF6-organic carbonate electrolytes under normal charging conditions reported for rechargeable Li-air cells. We have identified Ni free porous carbon supports as more appropriate cathode current collectors.

  5. Savings Potential of ENERGY STAR(R) External Power Adapters andBattery Chargers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webber, Carrie; Korn, David; Sanchez, Marla

    2007-02-28

    External power adapters may lose 10 to 70 percent of theenergy they consume, dissipated as heat rather than converted into usefulenergy. Battery charging systems have more avenues for losses: inaddition to power conversion losses, power is consumed by the chargingcircuitry, and additional power may be needed after the battery is fullcharged to balance self-discharge. In 2005, the Environmental ProtectionAgency launched a new ENERGY STAR(R) label for external power supplies(EPSs) that convert line-voltage AC electricity into low-voltage DCelectricity for certain electronic devices. The specification includedpower supplies for products with battery charging functions (e.g. laptopsand cell phones), but excluded others. In January 2006, a separatespecification was issued for battery charging systems contained primarilyin small household appliances and power tools. In addition to the ENERGYSTAR(R) label, the state of California will implement minimum energyperformance standards for EPSs in 2007, and similar standards for EPSsand battery chargers are in development at the national level.Many of theproducts covered by these policies use relatively little power and havemodest per-unit savings potential compared to conventional energyefficiency targets. But with an estimated 1.5 billion adapters and 230million battery charging systems in use in the United States, theaggregate savings potential is quite high. This paper presents estimatesof the savings potential for external power adapters and battery chargingsystems through 2025.

  6. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,lithium ion batteries. The chapter on aging summarizes the effects of the chemistry on the battery

  7. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    polymer battery, lithium-ion batteries, and lithium-basedElectrolyte For Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries," LithiumK. Ozawa, "Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries with LiCo0 and

  8. Nickel coated aluminum battery cell tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bucchi, Robert S.; Casoli, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Nicotina, Joseph

    2014-07-29

    A battery cell tab is described. The battery cell tab is anodized on one end and has a metal coating on the other end. Battery cells and methods of making battery cell tabs are also described.

  9. New sealed rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, B.M. ); Dowgiallo, E. ); Halpert, G. ); Matsuda, Y. ); Takehara, Z.I. )

    1993-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: supercapacitors; nickel-metal hydride batteries; lithium polymer batteries; lithium/carbon batteries; cathode materials; and lithium batteries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers of this conference.

  10. Lithium-Assisted Electrochemical Welding in Silicon Nanowire Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Teng

    Lithium-Assisted Electrochemical Welding in Silicon Nanowire Battery Electrodes Khim Karki, Eric of lithium- assisted welding between physically contacted silicon nano- wires (SiNWs) induced by electrochemical lithiation and delithiation. This electrochemical weld between two SiNWs demonstrates facile

  11. Testimonials- Partnerships in Battery Technologies- CalBattery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Phil Roberts, CEO and Founder of California Lithium Battery (CalBattery), describes the new growth and development that was possible through partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,

  13. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  14. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, Thomas J. (Aurora, CO); Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO); Baer, Jose T. (Gaviota, CA); Swan, David H. (Monrovia, CA)

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  15. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ching, Larry K. W. (Littleton, CO)

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  16. Circulating current battery heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  17. Examination of VRLA cells sampled from a battery energy storage system (BESS) after 30-months of operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SZYMBORSKI,JOSEPH; HUNT,GEORGE; TSAGALIS,ANGELO; JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    2000-06-08

    Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries continue to be employed in a wide variety of applications for telecommunications and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). With the rapidly growing penetration of internet services, the requirements for standby power systems appear to be changing. For example, at last year's INTELEC, high voltage standby power systems up to 300-vdc were discussed as alternatives to the traditional 48-volt power plant. At the same time, battery reliability and the sensitivity of VRLAS to charging conditions (e.g., in-rush current, float voltage and temperature), continue to be argued extensively. Charge regimes which provide off-line charging or intermittent charge to the battery have been proposed. Some of these techniques go against the widely accepted rules of operation for batteries to achieve optimum lifetime. Experience in the telecom industry with high voltage systems and these charging scenarios is limited. However, GNB has several years of experience in the installation and operation of large VRLA battery systems that embody many of the power management philosophies being proposed. Early results show that positive grid corrosion is not accelerated and battery performance is maintained even when the battery is operated at a partial state-of-charge for long periods of time.

  18. Mechanical design of flow batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Brandon J. (Brandon James)

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the design of low-cost, high-efficiency flow batteries. Researchers are searching for next-generation battery materials, and this thesis presents a systems analysis encompassing ...

  19. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing EnerDel technology, and helps DOE to evaluate the merits of underlying technology. The successful completion of this program demonstrated the capability of EnerDel battery packs to satisfactorily supply all power and energy requirements of a real-world HEV-Bus drive profile. This program supports green solutions to metropolitan public transportation problems by demonstrating the effectiveness of EnerDel lithium ion batteries for HEV-Bus applications.

  20. Safe battery solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Delmastro, Joseph R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  1. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boling, Brian E. (Sugar Land, TX)

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  2. Flow Batteries A Historical Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flow Batteries A Historical Perspective Robert F. Savinell Case Western Reserve University Department of Chemical Engineering DOE Flow Battery Workshop March 2012 #12;2 OUTLINE ·The first flow cell? ·Review articles- documented progress ·Early NASA Work- some learning ·Fuel Cell and Flow Battery

  3. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  4. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and Manufactur...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond...

  5. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, James H. (New Baltimore, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  6. Technical and economic assessments of electrochemical energy storage systems: Volume 6, Zinc-Bromide battery plant description, cost estimate credible accident and efficiency assessment: Part 1, Energy Research Corporation battery design: Final report for the period September 1978-May 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Binas, G.; Del Monaco, J.L.; Pandya, D.A.; Sharp, T.E.

    1985-06-05

    This document describes the ERC zinc-bromide battery module as the basic unit in the development of a battery load-leveling facility that will accumulate the output of base-load generation during periods of low demand and provide power for periods of high demands. (DLC)

  7. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, Gerald K. (Cedarburg, WI); Andrew, Michael G. (Wauwatosa, WI); Eskra, Michael D. (Fredonia, WI)

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  8. Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works to Cut Battery Costs in Half Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works to Cut Battery Costs in Half...

  9. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles could significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependence on imported petroleum. However, for mass adoption, EV costs have historically been too high to be competitive with conventional vehicle options due to the high price of batteries, long refuel time, and a lack of charging infrastructure. A number of different technologies and business strategies have been proposed to address some of these cost and utility issues: battery leasing, battery fast-charging stations, battery swap stations, deployment of charge points for opportunity charging, etc. In order to investigate these approaches and compare their merits on a consistent basis, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a new techno-economic model. The model includes nine modules to examine the levelized cost per mile for various types of powertrain and business strategies. The various input parameters such as vehicle type, battery, gasoline, and electricity prices; battery cycle life; driving profile; and infrastructure costs can be varied. In this paper, we discuss the capabilities of the model; describe key modules; give examples of how various assumptions, powertrain configurations, and business strategies impact the cost to the end user; and show the vehicle's levelized cost per mile sensitivity to seven major operational parameters.

  10. Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging Behavior UC Davis Plug-in Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Research Center Michael Nicholas Thomas Turrentine Gil Tal #12;Project Overview · Provide most in-depth study of PEV usage and charging dynamics. Inform policy on battery size/vehicle architecture

  11. Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery: Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery Climate Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-31

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermoadsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials’ ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. The ATB is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

  12. Variability of Battery Wear in Light Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles Subject to Ambient Temperature, Battery Size, and Consumer Usage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A. D.; Gonder, J.; Smith, K. A.

    2012-08-01

    Battery wear in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is a complex function of ambient temperature, battery size, and disparate usage. Simulations capturing varying ambient temperature profiles, battery sizes, and driving patterns are of great value to battery and vehicle manufacturers. A predictive battery wear model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory captures the effects of multiple cycling and storage conditions in a representative lithium chemistry. The sensitivity of battery wear rates to ambient conditions, maximum allowable depth-of-discharge, and vehicle miles travelled is explored for two midsize vehicles: a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with a nominal range of 75 mi (121 km) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a nominal charge-depleting range of 40 mi (64 km). Driving distance distributions represent the variability of vehicle use, both vehicle-to-vehicle and day-to-day. Battery wear over an 8-year period was dominated by ambient conditions for the BEV with capacity fade ranging from 19% to 32% while the PHEV was most sensitive to maximum allowable depth-of-discharge with capacity fade ranging from 16% to 24%. The BEV and PHEV were comparable in terms of petroleum displacement potential after 8 years of service, due to the BEV?s limited utility for accomplishing long trips.

  13. Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.B.

    1999-02-16

    An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition are disclosed. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinyl sulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness. 2 figs.

  14. Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, John B. (Boulder, CO)

    1999-02-16

    An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinylsulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness.

  15. Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, John B. (Boulder, CO)

    1999-12-07

    An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinylsulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness.

  16. 2/26/2014 `Micro-windmills' could charge cellphones, inven http://luhehr.com/micro-windmills-could-charge-cellphones-inventors-say/ 1/7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    generate enough energy to charge up a cellphone or a house. "Imagine your phone is out of battery, so you together could eventually provide enough power to run a household's security, communication and lighting minutes during a windy day could power up the battery, Chiao says. "Sometimes there's not enough solar

  17. A Lighting Solution using Discarded Laptop Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    UrJar A Lighting Solution using Discarded Laptop Batteries Vikas Chandan vchanda4@in.ibm.com IBM year 3 #12;Li-Ion Batteries Li-Ion batteries power laptops, tablets and phones, form a key constituent of e-waste IBM India produced ~10 tons of discarded laptop batteries (2013) Recycling Li-Ion batteries

  18. High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun , Jiung Cho, James H. Pikul, William P. King storage Secondary batteries High energy density High power density Lithium ion battery 3D battery of rechargeable (second- ary) batteries, as this is critical for most applications. As the penetration

  19. Project Milestone. Analysis of Range Extension Techniques for Battery Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents completion of the July 2013 milestone as part of NREL’s Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy. The objective was to perform analysis on range extension techniques for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This work represents a significant advancement over previous thru-life BEV analyses using NREL’s Battery Ownership Model, FastSim,* and DRIVE.* Herein, the ability of different charging infrastructure to increase achievable travel of BEVs in response to real-world, year-long travel histories is assessed. Effects of battery and cabin thermal response to local climate, battery degradation, and vehicle auxiliary loads are captured. The results reveal the conditions under which different public infrastructure options are most effective, and encourage continued study of fast charging and electric roadway scenarios.

  20. Preliminary Design of a Smart Battery Controller for SLI Batteries Xiquan Wang and Pritpal Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Pritpal

    Preliminary Design of a Smart Battery Controller for SLI Batteries Xiquan Wang and Pritpal Singh Automotive start, light, ignition (SLI) lead acid batteries are prone to capacity loss due to low of these batteries can be improved by using the concept of a smart battery system (SBS). In a SBS, battery data from

  1. An Interleaved Dual-Battery Power Supply for Battery-Operated Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    An Interleaved Dual-Battery Power Supply for Battery-Operated Electronics QingQing Wu,Wu, Qinru VoltageAnalysis of Optimal Supply Voltage Design of Interleaved DualDesign of Interleaved Dual--Battery PowerBattery Power SupplySupply ConclusionsConclusions #12;Batteries in Mobile/Portable ElectronicsBatteries

  2. Ultracapacitor/battery electronic interface development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, R.D.; Salasoo, L.; Schwartz, J.; Cardinal, M.

    1998-06-30

    A flexible, highly efficient laboratory proof-of-concept Ultracapacitor/Battery Interface power electronic circuit with associated controls was developed on a cost-shared contract funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), and the General Electric Company (GE). This power electronic interface translates the varying dc voltage on an ultracapacitor with bi-directional power flow to the dc bus of an inverter-supplied ac propulsion system in an electric vehicle application. In a related application, the electronic interface can also be utilized to interface a low-voltage battery to a dc bus of an inverter supplied ac propulsion system. Variations in voltage for these two intended applications occur (1) while extracting energy (discharge) or supplying energy (charge) to an ultracapacitor, and (2) while extracting energy (discharge) or supplying energy (charge) to a low-voltage battery. The control electronics of this interface is designed to be operated as a stand-alone unit acting in response to an external power command. However, the interface unit`s control is not configured to provide any of the vehicle system control functions associated with load leveling or power splitting between the propulsion battery and the ultracapacitor in an electric or hybrid vehicle application. A system study/preliminary design effort established the functional specification of the interface unit, including voltage, current, and power ratings, to meet the program objectives and technical goals for the development of a highly efficient ultracapacitor/battery electronic interface unit; and performed a system/application study of a hybrid-electric transit bus including an ultracapacitor and appropriate electronic interface. The maximum power capability of the ultracapacitor/battery electronic interface unit is 25 kW.

  3. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paxton, B K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  4. System and method for charging electrochemical cells in series

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeLuca, William H. (Naperville, IL); Hornstra, Jr, Fred (St. Charles, IL); Gelb, George H. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Berman, Baruch (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Moede, Larry W. (Manhattan Beach, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A battery charging system capable of equalizing the charge of each individual cell at a selected full charge voltage includes means for regulating charger current to first increase current at a constant rate until a bulk charging level is achieved or until any cell reaches a safe reference voltage. A system controller then begins to decrease the charging rate as long as any cell exceeds the reference voltage until an equalization current level is reached. At this point, the system controller activates a plurality of shunt modules to permit shunting of current around any cell having a voltage exceeding the reference voltage. Leads extending between the battery of cells and shunt modules are time shared to permit alternate shunting of current and voltage monitoring without the voltage drop caused by the shunt current. After each cell has at one time exceeded the reference voltage, the charging current is terminated.

  5. NREL Reveals Links Among Climate Control, Battery Life, and Electric Vehicle Range (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are providing new insights into the relationships between the climate-control systems of plug-in electric vehicles and the distances these vehicles can travel on a single charge. In particular, NREL research has determined that 'preconditioning' a vehicle-achieving a comfortable cabin temperature and preheating or precooling the battery while the vehicle is still plugged in-can extend its driving range and improve battery life over the long term.

  6. Hierarchical Models for Batteries: Overview with Some Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Mukherjee, Partha P; Allu, Srikanth; Nanda, Jagjit; Martha, Surendra K; Dudney, Nancy J; Turner, John A

    2012-01-01

    Batteries are complex multiscale systems and a hierarchy of models has been employed to study different aspects of batteries at different resolutions. For the electrochemistry and charge transport, the models span from electric circuits, single-particle, pseudo 2D, detailed 3D, and microstructure resolved at the continuum scales and various techniques such as molecular dynamics and density functional theory to resolve the atomistic structure. Similar analogies exist for the thermal, mechanical, and electrical aspects of the batteries. We have been recently working on the development of a unified formulation for the continuum scales across the electrode-electrolyte-electrode system - using a rigorous volume averaging approach typical of multiphase formulation. This formulation accounts for any spatio-temporal variation of the different properties such as electrode/void volume fractions and anisotropic conductivities. In this talk the following will be presented: The background and the hierarchy of models that need to be integrated into a battery modeling framework to carry out predictive simulations, Our recent work on the unified 3D formulation addressing the missing links in the multiscale description of the batteries, Our work on microstructure resolved simulations for diffusion processes, Upscaling of quantities of interest to construct closures for the 3D continuum description, Sample results for a standard Carbon/Spinel cell will be presented and compared to experimental data, Finally, the infrastructure we are building to bring together components with different physics operating at different resolution will be presented. The presentation will also include details about how this generalized approach can be applied to other electrochemical storage systems such as supercapacitors, Li-Air batteries, and Lithium batteries with 3D architectures.

  7. Status of flow-battery research in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, R.P.; Chamberlin, J.L.; Saxton, H.J.; Symons, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    Flow batteries are defined as electrochemical energy storage devices in which at least one of the active materials is stored external to the power converting cell-stack, and in which this soluble active material is circulated via the electrolyte, through the cell-stack during system charge or discharge. Although intensive development of some of these systems has been underway for some time, they were only classified as a distinct category in the United States recently. Of the projects on flow batteries which are still being conducted, the work on the zinc/chlorine system (EDA) has been in progress since 1968; programs on zinc/bromine (Exxon, Gould), on iron/chromium Redox (NASA-Lewis Research Center), and on the iron/ferric-ferrous chloride system (NRG/GEL) have all been underway about seven years; research on the zinc/ferro-ferricyanide battery (Lockheed) has been conducted since 1978. The present paper, which reviews the 1982 status of these battery programs, appears timely since, except for the Lockheed system, the developments have all reached the stage where multi-kilowatt-hour batteries are under test.

  8. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vantolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission andmysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book begins with an

  9. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    their use in lithium-ion batteries. However, applications atfor use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities andFor rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, we require that any

  10. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    in High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybridas Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Chem. Mater. 2011,seen in magnesium or lithium ion batteries would operate at

  11. Advanced battery modeling using neural networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arikara, Muralidharan Pushpakam

    1993-01-01

    battery models are available today that can accurately predict the performance of the battery system. This thesis presents a modeling technique for batteries employing neural networks. The advantage of using neural networks is that the effect of any...

  12. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    simulate those in a lithium battery. Chapter 3 TransientModel for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of TheRole in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrochemistry.

  13. ISIS Facility: Facility Design Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    ISIS Facility: Facility Design Challenges Matt Fletcher Head, Design Division ISIS Department, FNAL #12;ISIS -- neutrons Diamond -- X-rays #12;#12;· Lifetime · Reliable Operation · Flexibility

  14. Aalborg Universitet Flexible Local Load Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Supplemented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaltz, Erik

    the charging patterns of EV batteries, thus prolonging their lifetime and increasing the drivers' comfort levelAalborg Universitet Flexible Local Load Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Supplemented with Flywheel Energy Storage System

  15. Nanocurrent oscillator indefinitely powered by a capacitor battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luigi Ragni

    2012-11-28

    Some electrolytic capacitors show dielectric behaviour that can not be entirely explained by the well known long lasting relaxation. Extra charges able to generate a useful conduction current can be detected for an indefinite time. A squarewave oscillator based on MOSFET CMOS technology and requiring less than 2 nW was powered for 80 days at 25 {\\deg}C by a 58.2 mF capacitor battery, without voltage decrease during the last 53 days of observation. The battery consisted of three series of 16 parallel, 15 years aged, capacitors with DC capacitance of 10.9 mF. Capacitors so old, stored without voltage application, were affected by degradation and thinning of the alumina layer that could promote tunnelling of the charge. The main purpose of the present study is to stimulate further investigations aimed at confirming or disputing the observed phenomenon and, if necessary, at shedding light on its physical mechanisms.

  16. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  17. Battery-Aware Power Management Based on Markovian Decision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Dynamic Power Management 101 ! Motivation and principle of operation " Rationale: Power and Smart BatteriesBattery Characteristics and Smart Batteries ! Nonlinear characteristics of batteries " Rate capacity effect # The total energy capacity that a battery can deliver during its lifetime depends

  18. Response of Lithium Polymer Batteries to Mechanical Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Response of Lithium Polymer Batteries to Mechanical Loading Karl Suabedissen1, Christina Peabody2 #12;Outline · Motivation · Battery Structure · Testing and Results · Conclusions #12;Motivation · Lithium polymer batteries are everywhere. · Efforts to create flexible batteries. · Restrictive battery

  19. The FESAC Subcommittee formed to address the DOE Office of Science charge on proposed scientific user facilities invites community input in the form of short, directed white papers. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . - Context of the facility relative to the world effort in fusion and plasma science research. Describe how

  20. Battery Manufacturing Processes Improved by Johnson Controls...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Office. The project focused on three major aspects of the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery manufacturing process: reducing process time for battery formation and...

  1. Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  2. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    molten salts as lithium battery electrolyte,” ElectrochimicaFigure 15. Rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Figure 16 showsbattery. It is essential that an ionic liquid – lithium salt

  3. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award February...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Battery Development, System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research (USCAR). It also works directly with industry battery and material suppliers through competitive research and development awards. To learn how batteries are used...

  5. Battery resource assessment. Subtask II. 5. Battery manufacturing capability recycling of battery materials. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pemsler, P.

    1981-02-01

    Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials. Each recycle process has been designed to produce a product material which can be used directly as a raw material by the battery manufacturer. Metal recoverabilities are in the range of 93 to 95% for all processes. In each case, capital and operating costs have been developed for a recycling plant which processes 100,000 electric vehicle batteries per year. These costs have been developed based on material and energy balances, equipment lists, factored installation costs, and manpower estimates. In general, there are no technological barriers for recycling in the Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine and Zinc/Bromine battery systems. The recycling processes are based on essentially conventional, demonstrate technology. The lead times required to build battery recycling plants based on these processes is comparable to that of any other new plant. The total elapsed time required from inception to plant operation is approximately 3 to 5 y. The recycling process for the sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/sulfide battery systems are not based on conventional technology. In particular, mechanical systems for dismantling these batteries must be developed.

  6. Optimized Operating Range for Large-Format LiFePO4/Graphite Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Jiuchun; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Zuo, Pengjian; Xiao, Jie; Chen, Xilin; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-06-01

    e investigated the long-term cycling performance of large format 20Ah LiFePO4/graphite batteries when they are cycled in various state-of-charge (SOC) ranges. It is found that batteries cycled in the medium SOC range (ca. 20~80% SOC) exhibit superior cycling stability than batteries cycled at both ends (0-20% or 80-100%) of the SOC even though the capcity utilized in the medium SOC range is three times as large as those cycled at both ends of the SOC. Several non-destructive techniques, including a voltage interruption approach, model-based parameter identification, electrode impedance spectra analysis, ?Q/?V analysis, and entropy change test, were used to investigate the performance of LiFePO4/graphite batteries within different SOC ranges. The results reveal that batteries at the ends of SOC exhibit much higher polarization impedance than those at the medium SOC range. These results can be attributed to the significant structural change of cathode and anode materials as revealed by the large entropy change within these ranges. The direct correlation between the polarization impedance and the cycle life of the batteries provides an effective methodology for battery management systems to control and prolong the cycle life of LiFePO4/graphite and other batteries.

  7. Flow Battery Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServices »First ObservationFast(ER1)Flow Battery

  8. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  9. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Tennessee Knoxville; U. Texas Austin; McGill U; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  10. A Desalination Battery Mauro Pasta,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    A Desalination Battery Mauro Pasta, Colin D. Wessells, Yi Cui,,§ and Fabio La Mantia Information ABSTRACT: Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse

  11. Principles of an Atomtronic Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex A. Zozulya; Dana Z. Anderson

    2013-08-06

    An asymmetric atom trap is investigated as a means to implement a "battery" that supplies ultracold atoms to an atomtronic circuit. The battery model is derived from a scheme for continuous loading of a non-dissipative atom trap proposed by Roos et al.(Europhysics Letters V61, 187 (2003)). The trap is defined by longitudinal and transverse trap frequencies and corresponding trap energy heights. The battery's ability to supply power to a load is evaluated as a function of an input atom flux and power. For given trap parameters and input flux the battery is shown to have a resonantly optimum value of input power. The battery behavior can be cast in terms of an equivalent circuit model; specifically, for fixed input flux and power the battery is modeled in terms of a Th\\'{e}venin equivalent chemical potential and internal resistance. The internal resistance establishes the maximum power that can be supplied to a circuit, the heat that will be generated by the battery, and that noise will be imposed on the circuit. We argue that any means of implementing a battery for atomtronics can be represented by a Th\\'{e}venin equivalent and that its performance will likewise be determined by an internal resistance.

  12. Understanding and managing the effects of battery charger and inverter aging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther, W. ); Aggarwal, S. )

    1992-01-01

    An aging assessment of battery chargers and inverters was conducted under the auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The intentions of this program are to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems at operating reactor facilities and to assess their impact on safety. Inverters and battery chargers are used in nuclear power plants to perform significant functions related to plant safety and availability. The specific impact of a battery charger or inverter failure varies with plant configuration. Operating experience data have demonstrated that reactor trips, safety injection system actuations, and inoperable emergency core cooling systems have resulted from inverter failures; and dc bus degradation leading to diesel generator inoperability or loss of control room annunication and indication have resulted from battery and battery charger failures. For the battery charger and inverter, the aging and service wear of subcomponents have contributed significantly to equipment failures. This paper summarizes the data and then describes methods that can be used to detect battery charger and inverter degradation prior to failure, as well as methods to minimize the failure effects. In both cases, the managing of battery charger and inverter aging is emphasized. 5 refs.

  13. Understanding and managing the effects of battery charger and inverter aging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther, W.; Aggarwal, S.

    1992-06-01

    An aging assessment of battery chargers and inverters was conducted under the auspices of the NRC`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The intentions of this program are to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems at operating reactor facilities and to assess their impact on safety. Inverters and battery chargers are used in nuclear power plants to perform significant functions related to plant safety and availability. The specific impact of a battery charger or inverter failure varies with plant configuration. Operating experience data have demonstrated that reactor trips, safety injection system actuations, and inoperable emergency core cooling systems have resulted from inverter failures; and dc bus degradation leading to diesel generator inoperability or loss of control room annunication and indication have resulted from battery and battery charger failures. For the battery charger and inverter, the aging and service wear of subcomponents have contributed significantly to equipment failures. This paper summarizes the data and then describes methods that can be used to detect battery charger and inverter degradation prior to failure, as well as methods to minimize the failure effects. In both cases, the managing of battery charger and inverter aging is emphasized. 5 refs.

  14. Nanowire Lithium-Ion Battery P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Alec Talin (NIST)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanowire Lithium-Ion Battery P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Alec Talin (NIST) C O L L A B O R A T O R To fabricate a single nanowire Li-ion battery and observe it charging and discharging. K E Y A C C O M P L I S H M E N T S Designed, fabricated, and tested complete Li-ion nanowire batteries measuring

  15. DFT+U Study of Polaronic Conduction in Li2O2 and Li2CO3: Implications for Li-Air Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thygesen, Kristian

    DFT+U Study of Polaronic Conduction in Li2O2 and Li2CO3: Implications for Li-Air Batteries J. M-air batteries are known to be Li2O2 and residual Li2CO3. Recent experiments indicate that the charge transport through these materials is the main limiting factor for the battery performance. It has been also shown

  16. Zinc-bromine battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellows, R.; Grimes, P.; Malachesky, P.

    1983-01-01

    Some progress in the field of zinc-bromine batteries is reviewed, and a number of successes and some difficulties are related. The direction of work includes, among other areas, testing of parametric and large batteries. The program includes the control of electrode planarity through electrode thickness and electrode support, improved cathode activation coatings to increase and maintain performance near the end of battery capacity, reduced retention of bromine in the battery cell stock at shutdown to lower capacity loss and improve sealing techniques. Projected factory cost should be competitive with lead-acid batteries. Progress has been demonstrated in scale-up and performance, as well as improving the life of the system. (LEW)

  17. Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-03-01

    Operation of sodium-nickel chloride battery at temperatures lower than 200°C reduces cell degradation and improves the cyclability. One of the main technical issues in terms of operating this battery at intermediate temperatures such as 175°C is the poor wettability of sodium melt on ?”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) causing reduced active area and limited charging . In order to overcome the problem related to poor wettability of Na melt on BASE at 175°C, Pt grid was applied on the anode side of BASE using a screen printing technique. Deeper charging and improved cycling behavior was observed on the cells with metalized BASEs due to extended active area.

  18. Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-01-01

    Operation of the sodium-nickel chloride battery at temperatures below 200°C reduces cell degradation and improves cyclability. One of the main technical issues with operating this battery at intermediate temperatures such as 175°C is the poor wettability of molten sodium on ?”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE), which causes reduced active area and limits charging. In order to overcome the poor wettability of molten sodium on BASE at 175°C, a Pt grid was applied on the anode side of the BASE using a screen printing technique. Cells with their active area increased by metallized BASEs exhibited deeper charging and stable cycling behavior.

  19. Battery Model for Embedded Systems , Gaurav Singhal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navet, Nicolas

    in design of mobile embedded sys- tems today is the battery lifetime for a given size and weight in the energy densities of the battery technologies, estimating the lifetime and energy delivered by the battery applications. Stochastic battery models [6, 8] have also been proposed which are faster than to the PDE model

  20. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2006-10-01

    Presents the objectives and motivations for a battery thermal management vehicle system design study.

  1. Battery-Powered Digital CMOS Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    1 Page 1 USC Low Power CAD Massoud Pedram Battery-Powered Digital CMOS Design Massoud Pedram Power CAD Massoud Pedram Motivation Extending the battery service life of battery-powered micro in the VLSI circuit Y The battery system is assumed to be an ideal source that delivers a fixed amount

  2. Nanocomposite protective coatings for battery anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemmon, John P; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-21

    Modified surfaces on metal anodes for batteries can help resist formation of malfunction-inducing surface defects. The modification can include application of a protective nanocomposite coating that can inhibit formation of surface defects. such as dendrites, on the anode during charge/discharge cycles. For example, for anodes having a metal (M'), the protective coating can be characterized by products of chemical or electrochemical dissociation of a nanocomposite containing a polymer and an exfoliated compound (M.sub.a'M.sub.b''X.sub.c). The metal, M', comprises Li, Na, or Zn. The exfoliated compound comprises M' among lamella of M.sub.b''X.sub.c, wherein M'' is Fe, Mo, Ta, W, or V, and X is S, O, or Se.

  3. Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-10-24

    Establishes facility safety requirements related to: nuclear safety design, criticality safety, fire protection and natural phenomena hazards mitigation.

  4. Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-11-16

    Establishes facility safety requirements related to: nuclear safety design, criticality safety, fire protection and natural phenomena hazards mitigation.

  5. Principles of an Atomtronic Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zozulya, Alex A

    2013-01-01

    An asymmetric atom trap is investigated as a means to implement a "battery" that supplies ultracold atoms to an atomtronic circuit. The battery model is derived from a scheme for continuous loading of a non-dissipative atom trap proposed by Roos et al.(Europhysics Letters V61, 187 (2003)). The trap is defined by longitudinal and transverse trap frequencies and corresponding trap energy heights. The battery's ability to supply power to a load is evaluated as a function of an input atom flux and power. For given trap parameters and input flux the battery is shown to have a resonantly optimum value of input power. The battery behavior can be cast in terms of an equivalent circuit model; specifically, for fixed input flux and power the battery is modeled in terms of a Th\\'{e}venin equivalent chemical potential and internal resistance. The internal resistance establishes the maximum power that can be supplied to a circuit, the heat that will be generated by the battery, and that noise will be imposed on the circui...

  6. A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-28

    The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

  7. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, S.J.; Liu, M.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1992-11-10

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145 C (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium trifluorate (PEO[sub 8]LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS)[sub n], and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte. 2 figs.

  8. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (2336 California St., Berkeley, CA 94703); Liu, Meilin (1121C Ninth St., #29, Albany, CA 94710); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (910 Acalanes Rd., Lafayette, CA 94549)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145.degree. C. (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium triflate (PEO.sub.8 LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS).sub.n, and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte.

  9. Solid polymer battery electrolyte and reactive metal-water battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    In one implementation, a reactive metal-water battery includes an anode comprising a metal in atomic or alloy form selected from the group consisting of periodic table Group 1A metals, periodic table Group 2A metals and mixtures thereof. The battery includes a cathode comprising water. Such also includes a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a polyphosphazene comprising ligands bonded with a phosphazene polymer backbone. The ligands comprise an aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion and a metal ion carrier portion. The metal ion carrier portion is bonded at one location with the polymer backbone and at another location with the aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion. The invention also contemplates such solid polymer electrolytes use in reactive metal/water batteries, and in any other battery.

  10. Techno-Economic Analysis of BEV Service Providers Offering Battery Swapping Services: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-03-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs, battery-limited vehicle range, and concern over high battery replacement costs may discourage potential buyers. A subscription model in which a service provider owns the battery and supplies access to battery swapping infrastructure could reduce upfront and replacement costs for batteries with a predictable monthly fee, while expanding BEV range. Assessing the costs and benefits of such a proposal are complicated by many factors, including customer drive patterns, the amount of required infrastructure, battery life, etc. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has applied its Battery Ownership Model to compare the economics and utility of BEV battery swapping service plan options to more traditional direct ownership options. Our evaluation process followed four steps: (1) identifying drive patterns best suited to battery swapping service plans, (2) modeling service usage statistics for the selected drive patterns, (3) calculating the cost-of-service plan options, and (4) evaluating the economics of individual drivers under realistically priced service plans. A service plan option can be more cost-effective than direct ownership for drivers who wish to operate a BEV as their primary vehicle where alternative options for travel beyond the single-charge range are expensive, and a full-coverage-yet-cost-effective regional infrastructure network can be deployed. However, when assumed cost of gasoline, tax structure, and absence of purchase incentives are factored in, our calculations show the service plan BEV is rarely more cost-effective than direct ownership of a conventional vehicle.

  11. Techno-Economic Analysis of BEV Service Providers Offering Battery Swapping Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-01-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs, battery-limited vehicle range, and concern over high battery replacement costs may discourage potential buyers. A subscription model in which a service provider owns the battery and supplies access to battery swapping infrastructure could reduce upfront and replacement costs for batteries with a predictable monthly fee, while expanding BEV range. Assessing the costs and benefits of such a proposal are complicated by many factors, including customer drive patterns, the amount of required infrastructure, battery life, etc. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has applied its Battery Ownership Model to compare the economics and utility of BEV battery swapping service plan options to more traditional direct ownership options. Our evaluation process followed four steps: (1) identifying drive patterns best suited to battery swapping service plans, (2) modeling service usage statistics for the selected drive patterns, (3) calculating the cost-of-service plan options, and (4) evaluating the economics of individual drivers under realistically priced service plans. A service plan option can be more cost-effective than direct ownership for drivers who wish to operate a BEV as their primary vehicle where alternative options for travel beyond the single-charge range are expensive, and a full-coverage-yet-cost-effective regional infrastructure network can be deployed. However, when assumed cost of gasoline, tax structure, and absence of purchase incentives are factored in, our calculations show the service plan BEV is rarely more cost-effective than direct ownership of a conventional vehicle.

  12. Techno-Economic Analysis of BEVs with Fast Charging Infrastructure: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs, battery-limited vehicle range, and concern over high battery replacement costs may discourage many potential purchasers. One proposed solution is to employ a subscription model under which a service provider assumes ownership of the battery while providing access to vast fast charging infrastructure. Thus, high upfront and subsequent battery replacement costs are replaced by a predictable monthly fee, and battery-limited range is replaced by a larger infrastructure-limited range. Assessing the costs and benefits of such a proposal are complicated by many factors, including customer drive patterns, the amount of required infrastructure, and battery life. Herein the National Renewable Energy Laboratory applies its Battery Ownership Model to address these challenges and compare the economics and utility of a BEV fast charging service plan to a traditional direct ownership option. In single vehicle households, where such a service is most valuable, we find that operating a BEV under a fast charge service plan can be more cost-effective than direct ownership of a BEV, but it is rarely more cost-effective than direct ownership of a conventional vehicle.

  13. DC Fast Charge Impacts on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. A battery material charges via an unexpected mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Johanna L.

    2014-09-01

    Time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments help to explain why lithium iron phosphate cathodes work so well.

  15. Battery and fuel cell electrodes containing stainless steel charging additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuckerbrod, David (Pittsburgh, PA); Gibney, Ann (Monroeville, PA)

    1984-01-01

    An electrode for use in electrochemical energy cells is made, comprising a hydrophilic layer and a hydrophobic layer, where the hydrophilic layer comprises a hydrophilic composite which includes: (i) carbon particles; (ii) stainless steel particles; (iii) a nonwetting agent; and (iv) a catalyst, where at least one current collector contacts said composite.

  16. Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Discharging |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR0987P UncertaintyInitiativesInnovative &

  17. National Labs Leading Charge on Building Better Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 |DepartmentMultimediaLaboratory ContactsEnergy Labs

  18. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  19. PEPCO turbo-Z battery charger system. Technical progress report, calendar quarter ending March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, J.

    1998-04-30

    During the First Quarter of 1998, the engineers working on this Grant have dramatically increased the rate of work. They are developing a Flexible Battery Charger Control Board, a Battery Charger Test Stand, and writing software that can be used with both. The status is as follows: (a) Flexible Battery Charger Control Board -- a preliminary electrical design is complete. They are now investigating how the control design might incorporate provisions for an additional Electric Vehicle charging feature. This additional design is based on SAE J2293 -- Recommended Practice for EV Communications. Investigation of J2293 is being considered for controlling a power supply using proprietary Capacitive Charging Coupler, and controlling the power supply with this control board. (b) Battery Test Stand -- the preliminary hardware design is complete. The design includes some very desirable additions to the specifications, including an AC line source for the charger being tested and a battery simulator. Purchasing of the equipment and materials for the test stand is underway. The engineers have been working in the SAE standards setting committees for Electric Vehicles for several years. In particular, they have been working to set the Capacitive Coupler as the standard for connecting an EV to the utility grid system. Substantial test data has been distributed to the committee members on the Conductive and Inductive Charging Systems. It is their opinion that they have a superior coupling mechanism, and they are proceeding to develop this technology.

  20. Intercalation compounds and electrodes for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Sadoway, Donald R.; Jang, Young-Il; Huang, Biyan

    2004-09-07

    This invention concerns intercalation compounds and in particular lithium intercalation compounds which have improved properties for use in batteries. Compositions of the invention include particulate metal oxide material having particles of multicomponent metal oxide, each including an oxide core of at least first and second metals in a first ratio, and each including a surface coating of metal oxide or hydroxide that does not include the first and second metals in the first ratio formed by segregation of at least one of the first and second metals from the core. The core may preferably comprise Li.sub.x M.sub.y N.sub.z O.sub.2 wherein M and N are metal atom or main group elements, x, y and z are numbers from about 0 to about 1 and y and z are such that a formal charge on M.sub.y N.sub.z portion of the compound is (4-x), and having a charging voltage of at least about 2.5V. The invention may also be characterized as a multicomponent oxide microstructure usable as a lithium intercalation material including a multiphase oxide core and a surface layer of one material, which is a component of the multiphase oxide core, that protects the underlying intercalation material from chemical dissolution or reaction. In a particular preferred example the multicomponent oxide may be an aluminum-doped lithium manganese oxide composition. Such aluminum-doped lithium manganese oxide compositions, having an orthorhombic structure, also form a part of the invention. In addition, the invention includes articles, particularly electrodes, for batteries formed from the compositions of the invention, and batteries including such electrodes. The invention further relates to a composite intercalation material comprising at least two compounds in which at least one compound has an orthorhombic structure Li.sub.x Al.sub.y Mn.sub.1-y O.sub.2, where y is nonzero, or a mixture of orthorhombic and monoclinic Li.sub.x Al.sub.y Mn.sub.1-y O.sub.2.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    electrode in lithium-ion batteries: AFM study in an ethylenelithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Carbon 1999, 37, 165-batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2001,

  2. Sodium Titanates as Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    Anodes  for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   Marca  M.  Doeff,  dual   intercalation   batteries   based   on   sodium  future   of   sodium  ion  batteries  will  be  discussed  

  3. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    beyondlithiumionb.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries...

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Alloy design for lithium-ion battery anodes. J. Electrochem.advances in lithium ion battery materials. Electrochim. Actamaterials for lithium ion battery. Journal of Nanoparticle

  5. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery,...

  6. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Variouselectrodes for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of MaterialsAdvances in Lithium-Ion Batteries (Chapter 4), Kluwer

  7. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    2000). Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles, (ANL/Lithium ion Batteries 2.1.1 Lithium versus Lithium ion Batteries Lithium systems

  8. Developing Next-Gen Batteries With Help From NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries A genomics approach to materials research could speed up advancements in battery performance December...

  9. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project Andrewto evaluate emerging lithium battery technologies for plug-vehicles. By emerging lithium battery chemistries were meant

  10. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    3 2.1.2 Lithium ion Battery2.2 Schematic of lithium ion battery operating principles (be rechargeable. The lithium ion battery is often referred

  11. New imaging capability reveals possible key to extending battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    developed for studying battery failures points to a potential next step in extending lithium ion battery lifetime and capacity, opening a path to wider use of these batteries...

  12. Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties Henderson, Wesley 25 ENERGY STORAGE battery, electrolyte, solvation, ionic association battery, electrolyte,...

  13. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation Neubauer, J. 25 ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY; LITHIUM-ION; STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE; BLAST; BATTERY DEGRADATION;...

  14. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries PolyPlus Battery Company - Berkeley, CA A...

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollard, Richard

    2012-01-01

    and J. Newman, Proc. Syrup. Battery Design and Optimization,123, 1364 (1976). Symp, Battery Design and Optimization, S.~ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  16. Psychometric properties of the penn computerized neurocognitive battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, TM; Reise, SP; Gur, RE; Hakonarson, H; Gur, RC; Gur, RC

    2015-01-01

    a computerized neurocognitive battery in children age 8 –21.based neurocog- nitive battery. Therapeutic Hypothermia anda standardized neurocognitive battery. Neuropsychology, 28,

  17. USFOE: Extended Summary - Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    There is no one lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples at our disposal as shown in the previous talks, we have the opportunity to design battery cells specific for their applications. Such applications require optimization of voltage, state of charge utilization, lifetime needs, and safety considerations. Electrochemical couples allow for designing power and energy ratios and available energy for the application. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll to roll electrode manufacturing and active material utilization. Electrodes are coated on a current collector in a composite structure comprised of active material, binders, and conductive additives which requires careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. These added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can impede or enhance battery performance. Pathways are explored to bring batteries from currently commercially available 100Wh/kg and 200Wh/L at $500/kWh to 250Wh/kg and 400Wh/L at $125/kWh.

  18. New developments in pipeline charging preheated coal at Inland Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, S.M. Jr.; Arsenault, A.A.; Rupp, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The first commercial installation of a new pipeline oven charging system for preheated coal, designed by Dynamic Air, Inc., was made at Inland Steel's C Battery in October 1979. With the Dynamic Air charging sytem, production losses due to pipeline delays have been virtually eliminated, pipeline maintenance requirements have been reduced by 90%, conveying steam requirements have been significantly reduced, and oven charge weights have been increased by 500 kg (1000 lb). A test program was subsequently conducted during November and December 1980, to evaluate the use of nitrogen as a conveying medium for pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system. The test results clearly demonstrated that the same weight of preheated coal could be charged into an oven by using either steam or nitrogen as the conveying medium. Moreover, it was found that pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system is a function of the mass flow rate of the conveying medium. With nitrogen charging, an average 9% increase in oven charge rates was obtained at comparable conveying gas mass flow rates and charging bin pressures. In addition, average oven pressure during charging was reduced by approximately 40% and solids carryover was reduced by 100 kg (220 lb) per oven charge with nitrogen charging. It was found that solids carryover during pipeline oven charging is a function of the average pressure generated in the oven during charging, but it was also found that a large oven pressure surge at the end of the charge can produce excessive carryover to completely mask the effect.

  19. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2015-04-21

    An as-prepared cathode for a secondary battery, the cathode including an alkaline source material including an alkali metal oxide, an alkali metal sulfide, an alkali metal salt, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  20. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Liu, Hansan [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.

  1. Optimization of blended battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erb, Dylan C. (Dylan Charles)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reviews the traditional battery pack design process for hybrid and electric vehicles, and presents a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm that eases the process of cell selection and pack design, especially ...

  2. Portable battery-free charger for radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manning, Frank W. (Norris, TN)

    1984-01-01

    This invention is a novel portable charger for dosimeters of the electrometer type. The charger does not require batteries or piezoelectric crystals and is of rugged construction. In a preferred embodiment, the charge includes a housing which carries means for mounting a dosimeter to be charged. The housing also includes contact means for impressing a charging voltage across the mounted dosimeter. Also, the housing carries a trigger for operating a charging system mounted in the housing. The charging system includes a magnetic loop including a permanent magnet for establishing a magnetic field through the loop. A segment of the loop is coupled to the trigger for movement thereby to positions opening and closing the loop. A coil inductively coupled with the loop generates coil-generated voltage pulses when the trigger is operated to open and close the loop. The charging system includes an electrical circuit for impressing voltage pulses from the coil across a capacitor for integrating the pulses and applying the resulting integrated voltage across the above-mentioned contact means for charging the dosimeter.

  3. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  4. High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-15

    HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.

  5. Accelerating Development of EV Batteries Through Computer-Aided Engineering (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Program has launched the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) project to work with national labs, industry and software venders to develop sophisticated software. As coordinator, NREL has teamed with a number of companies to help improve and accelerate battery design and production. This presentation provides an overview of CAEBAT, including its predictive computer simulation of Li-ion batteries known as the Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) model framework. MSMD's modular, flexible architecture connects the physics of battery charge/discharge processes, thermal control, safety and reliability in a computationally efficient manner. This allows independent development of submodels at the cell and pack levels.

  6. Thermal Analysis of the Vulnerability of the Spacesuit Battery Design to Short-Circuit Conditions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Chaney, L.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2010-04-22

    NREL researchers created a mathematical model of a full 16p-5s spacesuit battery for NASA that captures electrical/thermal behavior during shorts to assess the vulnerability of the battery to pack-internal (cell-external) shorts. They found that relocating the short from battery pack-external (experimental validation) to pack-internal (modeling study) causes substantial additional heating of cells, which can lead to cell thermal runaway. All three layers of the bank-to-bank separator must fail for the pack-internal short scenario to occur. This finding emphasizes the imperative of battery pack assembly cleanliness. The design is tolerant to pack-internal shorts when stored at 0% state of charge.

  7. Design of bipolar, flowing-electrolyte zinc-bromine electric-vehicle-battery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malachesky, P.A.; Bellows, R.J.; Einstein, H.E.; Grimes, P.G.; Newby, K.; Young, A.

    1983-01-01

    The integration of bipolar, flowing electrolyte zinc-bromine technology into a viable electric vehicle battery system requires careful analysis of the requirements placed on the battery system by the EV power train. In addition to the basic requirements of an appropriate battery voltage and power density, overall battery system energy efficiency must also be considered and parasitic losses from auxiliaries such as pumps and shunt current protection minimized. An analysis of the influence of these various factors on zinc-bromine EV battery system design has been carried out for two types of EV propulsion systems. The first of these is a nominal 100V dc system, while the second is a high voltage (200V dc) system as might be used with an advanced design ac propulsion system. Battery performance was calculated using an experimentally determined relationship which expresses battery voltage as a function of current density and state-of-charge. Based on these studies, low profile, 12 dm/sup 2/ bipolar cell components have been developed which are readily incorporated into a variety of motive power and stationary energy storage system designs.

  8. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2012-01-01

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  9. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  10. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  11. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  12. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-05-29

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  13. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Ahmad, P.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.; Smith, K.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.

    2012-05-01

    This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the application of the Battery Ownership Model for strategies for optimal battery use in electric drive vehicles (PEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs).

  14. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darling, Robert M.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Ha, Seungbum; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2014-11-01

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission services. However, the potential of batteries to meet the stringent cost and durability requirements for grid applications is largely unquantified. We investigate electrochemical systems capable of economically storing energy for hours and present an analysis of the relationships among technological performance characteristics, component cost factors, and system price for established and conceptual aqueous and nonaqueous batteries. We identified potential advantages of nonaqueous flow batteries over those based on aqueousmore »electrolytes; however, new challenging constraints burden the nonaqueous approach, including the solubility of the active material in the electrolyte. Requirements in harmony with economically effective energy storage are derived for aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The attributes of flow batteries are compared to those of aqueous and nonaqueous enclosed and hybrid (semi-flow) batteries. Flow batteries are a promising technology for reaching these challenging energy storage targets owing to their independent power and energy scaling, reliance on facile and reversible reactants, and potentially simpler manufacture as compared to established enclosed batteries such as lead–acid or lithium-ion.« less

  15. A class of polysulfide catholytes for lithium-sulfur batteries: energy density, cyclability, and voltage enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, XW; Manthiram, A

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-phase polysulfide catholytes are attracting much attention in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries as they provide a facile dispersion and homogeneous distribution of the sulfur active material in the conductive matrix. However, the organic solvents used in lithium-polysulfide (Li-PS) batteries play an important role and have an impact on the physico-chemical characteristics of polysulfides. For instance, significantly higher voltages (similar to 2.7 V) of the S/S-n(2-) (4 <= n <= 8) redox couple are observed in Li-PS batteries with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvents. Accordingly, high power Li-PS batteries are presented here with the catholyte prepared with NMP solvent and operated with the highly reversible sulfur/long-chain polysulfide redox couple. On the other hand, a remarkable cyclability enhancement of the Li-PS battery is observed with the long-chain, ether-based tetraglyme (TEGDME) solvent. The voltage enhancement and the cyclability enhancement of the Li-PS batteries are attributed to the solvation effect, viscosity, and volatility of the solvents. Finally, highly concentrated polysulfide catholytes are successfully synthesized, with which high energy density Li-PS batteries are demonstrated by employing a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) fabric electrode.

  16. The Role of FeS in Initial Activation and Performance Degradation of Na-NiCl2 Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-12-25

    The role of iron sulfide (FeS) in initial cell activation and degradation in the Na-NiCl2 battery was investigated in this work. The research focused on identifying the effects of the FeS level on the electrochemical performance and morphological changes in the cathode. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study along with battery tests revealed that FeS plays a critical role in initial battery activation by removing passivation layers on Ni particles. It was also found that the optimum level of FeS in the cathode resulted in minimum Ni particle growth and improved battery cycling performance. The results of electrochemical characterization indicated that sulfur species generated in situ during initial charging, such as polysulfide and sulfur, are responsible for removing the passivation layer. Consequently, the cells containing elemental sulfur in the cathode exhibited similar electrochemical behavior during initial charging compared to that of the cells containing FeS.

  17. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  18. Probing the Failure Mechanism of SnO2 Nanowires for Sodium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Kushima, Akihiro; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Li, Ju; Wang, Chong M.

    2013-09-30

    Non-lithium metals such as sodium have attracted wide attention as a potential charge carrying ion for rechargeable batteries, performing the same role as lithium in lithium- ion batteries. As sodium and lithium have the same +1 charge, it is assumed that what has been learnt about the operation of lithium ion batteries can be transferred directly to sodium batteries. Using in-situ TEM, in combination with DFT calculations, we probed the structural and chemical evolution of SnO2 nanowire anodes in Na-ion batteries and compared them quantitatively with results from Li-ion batteries [Science 330 (2010) 1515]. Upon Na insertion into SnO2, a displacement reaction occurs, leading to the formation of amorphous NaxSn nanoparticles covered by crystalline Na2O shell. With further Na insertion, the NaxSn core crystallized into Na15Sn4 (x=3.75). Upon extraction of Na (desodiation), the NaxSn core transforms to Sn nanoparticles. Associated with a volume shrinkage, nanopores appear and metallic Sn particles are confined in hollow shells of Na2O, mimicking a peapod structure. These pores greatly increase electrical impedance, therefore naturally accounting for the poor cyclability of SnO2. DFT calculations indicate that Na+ diffuses 30 times slower than Li+ in SnO2, in agreement with in-situ TEM measurement. Insertion of Na can chemo-mechanically soften the reaction product to greater extent than in lithiation. Therefore, in contrast to the lithiation of SnO2, no dislocation plasticity was seen ahead of the sodiation front. This direct comparison of the results from Na and Li highlights the critical role of ionic size and electronic structure of different ionic species on the charge/discharge rate and failure mechanisms in these batteries.

  19. Analysis of electric vehicle interconnection with commercial building microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    residences (homes) for EV charging: $0.138/kWh EnvironmentalStorage conclusions EV Charging / discharging pattern mainlythe healthcare facility EV battery charging efficiency EV

  20. Model based control of a coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.M.; Srour, J.M.; Zulli, P. [BHP Research, Mulgrave (Australia). Melbourne Labs.; Cunningham, R.; Hockings, K. [BHP Steel, Pt Kembla, New South Wales (Australia). Coal and Coke Technical Development Group

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a model-based strategy for coke battery control at BHP Steel`s operations in Pt Kembla, Australia. The strategy uses several models describing the battery thermal and coking behavior. A prototype controller has been installed on the Pt Kembla No. 6 Battery (PK6CO). In trials, the new controller has been well accepted by operators and has resulted in a clear improvement in battery thermal stability, with a halving of the standard deviation of average battery temperature. Along with other improvements to that battery`s operations, this implementation has contributed to a 10% decrease in specific battery energy consumption. A number of enhancements to the low level control systems on that battery are currently being undertaken in order to realize further benefits.

  1. Battery Energy Availability and Consumption during Vehicle Charging across Ambient Temperatures and Battery Temperature (conditioning)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  2. Formation of Interfacial Layer and Long-Term Cylability of Li-O-2 Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Xu, Wu; Mehdi, Beata L.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Masse, Robert C.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Gu, Meng; Bennett, Wendy D.; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Chong M.; Browning, Nigel D.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-08-27

    Extended cycling of the Li-O2 battery under full discharge/charge conditions is achievable upon selection of appropriate electrode materials and cycling protocol. However, the decomposition of the side products also contribute to the observed good cycling behavior of high capacity Li-O2 batteries. Quantitative analyses of the discharge and charge products reveals a quick switch from the predominant formation of Li2O2 to the predominant formation of side products during the first a few cycles of the Li-O2 batteries. After the switch, cycling stabilizes with a repeatable formation of Li2O2/side products at ~1:2 ratio. CNTs/Ru composite electrodes exhibits lower charge voltage and deliver 50 full discharge-charge cycles without sharp capacity drop. Ru coated glass carbon electrode can lead to more than 500 cycles without change in its cycling profiles. The better understanding on Li-O2 reaction processes developed in this work may lead to the further improvement on the long term cycling behavior of high capacity Li-O2 batteries.

  3. HypoEnergy: Hybrid supercapacitor-battery power-supply optimization for Energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HypoEnergy: Hybrid supercapacitor-battery power-supply optimization for Energy efficiency Azalia that leaks energy. Evaluations on iPhone load measurements demonstrate the efficiency and applicability, and (iii) a much higher charge and discharge efficiency. However, while the energy density

  4. Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Electrolyte Investigation and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Li, Liyu; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Yang, Zhenguo; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2013-05-01

    Recently invented Fe/V redox flow battery (IVBs) system has attracted more and more attentions due to its long-term cycling stability. In this paper, the factors (such as compositions, state of charge (SOC) and temperatures) influencing the stability of electrolytes in both positive and negative half-cells were investigated by an extensive matrix study. Thus an optimized electrolyte, which can be operated in the temperature ranges from -5oC to 50oC without any precipitations, was identified. The Fe/V flow cells using the optimized electrolytes and low-cost membranes exhibited satisfactory cycling performances at different temperatures. The efficiencies, capacities and energy densities of flow batteries with varying temperatures were discussed in detail.

  5. A Mathematical model for the iron/chromium redox battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedkiw, P.S.; Watts, R.W.

    1984-04-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the isothermal operation of a single anode-separator-cathode unit cell in a redox-flow battery and has been applied to the NASA iron/chromium system. The model, based on porous electrode theory, incorporates redox kinetics, mass transfer, and ohmic effects as well as the parasitic hydrogen reaction which occurs in the chromium electrode. A numerical parameter study was carried out to predict cel performance to aid in the rational design, scale-up, and operation of the flow battery. The calculations demonstrate: an optimum electrode thickness and electrolyte flow rate exist; the amount of hydrogen evolved and, hence, cycle faradaic efficiency, can be affected by cell geometry, flow rate, and charging procedure; countercurrent flow results in enhanced cell performance over cocurrent flow; and elevated temperature operation enhances cell performance.

  6. Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney Shane

    2011-09-30

    This report describes the research that was completed under project title â?? Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.

  7. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  8. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

    1993-09-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

  9. Facilities Management March 23, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capogna, Luca

    estimates prepared in the future for such projects will reflect the A&E hours required, if any, as wellFacilities Management March 23, 2004 Charges for Design (Architectural & Engineering) Services and/or design services directly in support of maintenance projects or alteration/renovation (i

  10. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    optimizing better battery materials. A Battery of Tests for Better Batteries The prosaic battery has often been overlooked as little more than an afterthought in a consumer-driven...

  11. New INL High Energy Battery Test Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and Reduce Carbon Pollution | Department ofEnergy 21 DOEINL High

  12. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|Programs | DepartmentDepartment ofCathy Zoi AboutEnergyDepartment

  13. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|Programs | DepartmentDepartment ofCathy Zoi

  14. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|Programs | DepartmentDepartment ofCathy ZoiSeparator | Department of

  15. Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S.Leadership on CleanUpList of EERE Waivers in10 DOEFacilities

  16. Dow Kokam Lithium Ion Battery Production Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of2 Federal Register /

  17. Dow Kokam Lithium Ion Battery Production Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of2 Federal Register /1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel

  18. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials...

  19. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01

    commercial Li-ion batteries today use graphite or a mixturein certain primary batteries). Graphite has a potential of

  20. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing...

  1. Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malati, Peter Moneir

    2013-01-01

    for powering microelectromechanical systems and otherSurvey of battery powered microelectromechanical systems.with battery powered microelectromechanical systems (MEMS),

  2. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01

    battery cathodes for portable electronics (and is even the material used in batteries for the original Tesla

  3. Facility Representatives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-04-06

    REPLACED BY DOE-STD-1063 | SUPERSEDING DOE-STD-1063-2000 (MARCH 2000) The purpose of the DOE Facility Representative Program is to ensure that competent DOE staff personnel are assigned to oversee the day-to-day contractor operations at DOE’s hazardous nuclear and non-nuclear facilities.

  4. Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-12-22

    This Order establishes facility and programmatic safety requirements for Department of Energy facilities, which includes nuclear and explosives safety design criteria, fire protection, criticality safety, natural phenomena hazards mitigation, and the System Engineer Program. Cancels DOE O 420.1A. DOE O 420.1B Chg 1 issued 4-19-10.

  5. Extended abstracts: seventh battery and electrochemical contractors' conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, D.; Hurwitch, J. (comps.)

    1985-11-01

    Seventy-two papers are arranged under the following session headings: EPRI storage program, review of key program activities, sodium/sulfur battery development, advanced battery research (two sessions), flow battery development, sodium/sulfur battery research, systems analysis and technology transfer, performance and testing (two sessions), flow battery research, metal/air batteries, and fuel cells. (DLC)

  6. What kind of charging infrastructure do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01

    This document will describe the charging behavior of Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will include aggregated data from several thousand vehicles regarding time-of-day, power level, and location of charging and driving events. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  7. An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng cycle-life tends to shrink significantly. The capacities of commercial lithium-ion batteries fade by 10 prediction model to estimate the remaining capacity of a Lithium-Ion battery. The proposed analytical model

  8. Energy Storage & Battery | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and additive components for lithium-ion, llithium-air, lithium-sulfur, sodium-ion, and flow batteries. Employing some of the most respected and cited battery researchers in the...

  9. Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award October 15, 2014 -...

  10. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    batteries are leading candidates to play an important role in the transition to a renewableBatteries by William Rodgers Hudson Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry University of California, Berkeley Professor Jeffrey Long, Chair Increasing interest in renewable

  11. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2009-09-14

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael

    2013-04-19

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Model for the Graphite Anode in Li-Ion Batteries. Journal ofgraphite Chapters 2-3 have developed a method using ferrocene to characterize the SEI in lithium- ion batteries.

  14. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2010-01-08

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    experimental data from plastic lithium ion cells. Journal ofelectrolyte additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec-Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of The

  17. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  18. High Performance Anode for Advanced Li Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lake, Carla

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  19. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  20. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing development and application of processing and process control for nanocomposite materials for lithium ion batteries

  1. Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL battery thermal modeling and testing work for the DOE Annual Merit Review, May 9, 2011.

  2. Review of flow battery testing at Sandia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, P.C.; Miller, D.W.; Robinson, C.E.; Rodriguez, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating prototype zinc/bromine, Redox, and zinc/ferricyanide flowing electrolyte batteries and cells. This paper will update previous reports of test results of two Exxon zinc/bromine batteries and one NASA Redox iron/chromium battery. Two 60-sq. cm. zinc/ferricyanide cells from Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. are also being evaluated. Performance, life, and operating data will be described for these batteries and cells.

  3. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

    2006-11-01

    Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

  4. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-31

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron–vanadium, and iron–chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantitiesmore »measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. As a result, proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.« less

  5. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-31

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron–vanadium, and iron–chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantities measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. As a result, proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.

  6. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  7. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  8. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  9. Batteries for Vehicular Applications Venkat Srinivasan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    Batteries for Vehicular Applications Venkat Srinivasan Lawrence Berkeley National Lab 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 70R 0108B Berkeley, CA 94720 Abstract. This paper will describe battery technology), and plug-in- hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV). The present status of rechargeable batteries

  10. Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries Frontiers in Materials Science Seminar / Chemistryg g g g g y University at Buffalo ­ The State University of New York (SUNY) Abstract Batteries/SVO batteries. A case study highlighting the rich chemistry and electrochemistry of the Li/SVO system providing

  11. Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program Venkat Srinivasan of the DOE/EERE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program to develop batteries for vehicular applications double the energy density of presently available Li batteries · HEV: low-T operation, cost, and abuse

  12. 0 INFORMATION BATTERIES-FOR BIOTELEMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    A -BIAC 0 INFORMATION MODULE MIO BATTERIES-FOR BIOTELEMETRY AND OTHER APPLICATIONS Prepared by go to the Applications Engineering Department of P. R. Mallory Battery Company for supplying. High vacuum or pressures of 5C00 psi have no detectable effect on mercury batteries. Momentary short

  13. Transparent lithium-ion batteries , Sangmoo Jeongb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Transparent lithium-ion batteries Yuan Yanga , Sangmoo Jeongb , Liangbing Hua , Hui Wua , Seok Woo, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transpar- ent and have to be thick

  14. Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries IMRE GYUK, PROGRAM MANAGER ENERGY STORAGE RESEARCH, DOE Flow 2011Year #12;Flow Battery Research at PNNL and Sandia #12; Iron-containing "MetIL" Redox Couples for Flow Batteries, Sandia Sandia has developed

  15. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  16. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  17. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2013-04-19

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  18. 3-Port Single-Stage PV & Battery Converter Improves Efficiency and Cost in Combined PV/Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundschuh, Paul

    2013-03-23

    Due to impressive cost reductions in recent years, photovoltaic (PV) generation is now able to produce electricity at highly competitive prices, but PV’s inherent intermittency reduces the potential value of this energy. The integration of battery storage with PV will be transformational by increasing the value of solar. Utility scale systems will benefit by firming intermittency including PV ramp smoothing, grid support and load shifting, allowing PV to compete directly with conventional generation. For distributed grid-tied PV adding storage will reduce peak demand utility charges, as well as providing backup power during power grid failures. The largest long term impact of combined PV and battery systems may be for delivering reliable off-grid power to the billions of individuals globally without access to conventional power grids, or for billions more that suffer from daily power outages. PV module costs no longer dominate installed PV system costs. Balance-of-System (BOS) costs including the PV inverter and installation now contribute the majority of installed system costs. Battery costs are also dropping faster than installation and battery power converter systems. In each of these separate systems power converters have become a bottleneck for efficiency, cost and reliability. These bottlenecks are compounded in hybrid power conversion systems that combine separate PV and battery converters. Hybrid power conversion systems have required multiple power converters hardware units and multiple power conversion steps adding to efficiency losses, product and installation costs, and reliability issues. Ideal Power Converters has developed and patented a completely new theory of operation for electronic power converters using its indirect EnergyPacket Switching™ topology. It has established successful power converter products for both PV and battery systems, and its 3-Port Hybrid Converter is the first product to exploit the topology’s capability for the industry’s first single-stage multi-port hybrid power converter. This unique low cost approach eliminates the hybrid power conversion bottlenecks when integrating batteries into PV systems. As result this product will significantly accelerate market adoption of these systems.

  19. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  20. High Energy Density Na-S/NiCl2 Hybrid Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Lemmon, John P.; Kim, Jin Yong; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-15

    High temperature (250-350°C) sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) are attractive energy storage devices for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications. Currently, two technologies are commercially available in NBBs, e.g., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. In this study, we investigated the combination of these two chemistries with a mixed cathode. In particular, the cathode of the cell consisted of molten NaAlCl4 as a catholyte and a mixture of Ni, NaCl and Na2S as active materials. During cycling, two reversible plateaus were observed in cell voltage profiles, which matched electrochemical reactions for Na-S and Na-NiCl2 redox couples. An irreversible reaction between sulfur species and Ni was identified during initial charge at 280°C, which caused a decrease in cell capacity. The final products on discharge included Na2Sn with 1< n < 3, which differed from Na2S3 found in traditional Na-S battery. Reduction of sulfur in the mixed cathode led to an increase in overall energy density over ZEBRA batteries. Despite of the initial drop in cell capacity, the mixed cathode demonstrated relatively stable cycling with more than 95% of capacity retained over 60 cycles under 10mA/cm2. Optimization of the cathode may lead to further improvements in battery performance.