National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for batteries performance characterization

  1. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, S. Turner, J. A.; Allu, S.; Elwasif, W. R.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Kumar, A.; Billings, J. J.; Wang, H.; Nanda, J.

    2015-08-21

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. Gaining an understanding of the role of these processes as well as development of predictive capabilities for design of better performing batteries requires synergy between theory, modeling, and simulation, and fundamental experimental work to support the models. This paper presents the overview of the work performed by the authors aligned with both experimental and computational efforts. In this paper, we describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulations with an initial focus on lithium-ion systems but designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This system has been used to create a three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. This paper also provides an overview of the experimental techniques to obtain crucial validation data to benchmark the simulations at various scales for performance as well as abuse. We detail some initial validation using characterization experiments such as infrared and neutron imaging and micro-Raman mapping. In addition, we identify opportunities for future integration of theory, modeling, and experiments.

  2. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-09

    This presentation provides an update of NREL's battery thermal characterization efforts for the 2015 U.S. Department of Energy Annual Merit Reviews.

  3. Electric Vehicle Battery Performance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-20

    DIANE is used to analyze battery performance in electric vehicle (EV) applications. The principal objective of DIANE is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile. Two releases are included with the package. Diane21 has a graphics capability; DIANENP has no graphics capability.

  4. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A.; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-08-19

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The modelmore » development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.« less

  5. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A.; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-08-19

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The model development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.

  6. Performance of the Lester battery charger in electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivian, H.C.; Bryant, J.A.

    1984-04-15

    Tests were performed on an improved battery charger manufactured by Lester Electrical of Nebraska, Inc. This charger was installed in a South Coast Technology Rabbit No. 4, which was equipped with lead-acid batteries produced by ESB Company. The primary purpose of the testing was to develop test methodologies for battery charger evaluation. To this end tests were developed to characterize the charger in terms of its charge algorithm and to assess the effects of battery initial state of charge and temperature on charger and battery efficiency. Tests showed this charger to be a considerable improvement in the state of the art for electric vehicle chargers.

  7. Performance Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Performance characterization efforts within the SunShot Systems Integration activities focus on collaborations with U.S. solar companies to:

  8. In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High Energy Density Li-Air Batteries In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of ...

  9. USABC Development of Advanced High-Performance Batteries for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Advanced High-Performance Batteries for EV Applications USABC Development of Advanced High-Performance Batteries for EV Applications 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  10. In situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Characterization of New Cathode Materials using Synchrotron-based X-ray Techniques and the Studies of Li-Air Batteries In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the ...

  11. In-House Facility for Building Batteries and Performance Behavior...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In-House Facility for Building Batteries and Performance Behavior of SNL-Built 18650 Li... Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 76th Lithium Battery Technical...

  12. Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical ... Specifically, the surfaces of lithium-ion battery electrodes evolve simultaneously with ...

  13. Argonne continues to pave way to improved battery performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    continues to pave way to improved battery performance testing By Angela Hardin * March 31, ... of information that can be extracted from lithium-ion battery cells during cycling. ...

  14. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML User Program Success Stories Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: ...

  15. Performance Characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thus, the high-fidelity modeling to come from exascale computing will provide major ... methods lest future performance be limited by the lethargic trends inmemory bandwidth. ...

  16. High Power Performance Lithium Ion Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High Power Performance Lithium Ion Battery Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization Test (HPPC) results for 3 coin cells of various AB:PVDF ratios. Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization Test (HPPC) results for 3 coin cells of various AB:PVDF ratios. Technology Marketing SummaryGao Liu and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Battery Thermal Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by NREL at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about battery thermal characterization.

  18. Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from the High...

  19. Lithium-Air Battery: High Performance Cathodes for Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-01

    BEEST Project: Researchers at Missouri S&T are developing an affordable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery that could enable an EV to travel up to 350 miles on a single charge. Todays EVs run on Li-Ion batteries, which are expensive and suffer from low energy density compared with gasoline. This new Li-Air battery could perform as well as gasoline and store 3 times more energy than current Li-Ion batteries. A Li-Air battery uses an air cathode to breathe oxygen into the battery from the surrounding air, like a human lung. The oxygen and lithium react in the battery to produce electricity. Current Li-Air batteries are limited by the rate at which they can draw oxygen from the air. The team is designing a battery using hierarchical electrode structures to enhance air breathing and effective catalysts to accelerate electricity production.

  20. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.

    1992-12-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  1. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  2. High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen

    2012-08-07

    The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

  3. Characterization studies and defect analysis of thermal battery components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antepenko, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A very brief discussion on thermal batteries and the analytical techniques and procedures used in obtaining data characterizing the various battery components is given. The information is taken from four publications: GEPP-189, GEPP-299, GEPP-260, and GEPP-TM-459. 4 figures. (RWR)

  4. Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-03-29

    The Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model allows for the computer prediction of the basic thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of a lithium ion cell with simplified geometry. The model solves governing equations describing the movement of lithium ions within and between the negative and positive electrodes. The governing equations were first formulated by Fuller, Doyle, and Newman and published in J. Electrochemical Society in 1994. The present model solves the partial differential equations governingmore » charge transfer kinetics and charge, species, heat transports in a computationally-efficient manner using the finite volume method, with special consideration given for solving the model under conditions of applied current, voltage, power, and load resistance.« less

  5. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lake, Carla

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  6. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es002_alamgir _2011_p.pdf (628.94 KB) More Documents & Publications A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2013: A High-Performance PHEV

  7. Characterization of cathodic corrosion products in the Ca/CaCrO/sub 4/ thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.; Venturini, E.L.; Rogers, J.W. Jr.; Cathey, W.N.

    1985-05-01

    Using thermal analysis techniques, we investigated the corrosion process resulting from the reaction of iron, nickel, and stainless steel (used as current collectors in Ca/CaCrO/sub 4/ thermal batteries) with CaCrO/sub 4/ dissolved in LiCl-KCl eutectic. The reaction product for iron was synthesized in bulk external to the battery and was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, static magnetization, and electrical conductivity. This characterization provides a better understanding of the cathodic corrosion processes that occur in the Ca/CaCrO/sub 4/ thermal battery, and how the properties of the reaction layer at the catholyte-current collector interface influence battery performance.

  8. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  9. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  10. Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance Technology available for licensing: Li4Ti5O12 spinel is a promising alternative to graphite electrodes with ...

  11. High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, Yangchuan

    2013-08-22

    The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

  12. High Performance Batteries Based on Hybrid Magnesium and Lithium Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yingwen; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium and lithium (Mg/Li) hybrid batteries that combine Mg and Li electrochemistry, consisting of a Mg anode, a lithium-intercalation cathode and a dual-salt electrolyte with both Mg2+ and Li+ ions, were constructed and examined in this work. Our results show that hybrid (Mg/Li) batteries were able to combine the advantages of Li-ion and Mg batteries, and delivered outstanding rate performance (83% for capacities at 15C and 0.1C) and superior cyclic stability (~5% fade after 3000 cycles).

  13. Silver particles improve performance of battery material | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Silver particles improve performance of battery material December 16, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory are working to create an electric car battery that is smaller, cheaper and allows drivers to go farther on a charge. Materials scientist Larry Curtiss is part of an Argonne team working on a new battery architecture that uses lithium-oxygen bonds as it stores and releases energy, and silver as the metal catalyst that

  14. Thermal Characterization and Analysis of A123 Systems Battery Cells, Modules and Packs: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-243

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.

    2012-03-01

    In support of the A123 Systems battery development program with USABC/DOE, NREL provided technical support in thermal characterization, analysis and management of batteries. NREL's effort was part of Energy Storage Project funded by DOE Vehicle Technologies Program. The purpose of this work was for NREL to perform thermal characterization and analysis of A123 Systems cells and modules with the aim for Al23 Systems to improve the thermal performance of their battery cells, modules and packs.

  15. SC15 High Performance Computing (HPC) Transforms Batteries - Joint Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Energy Storage Research September 21, 2015, Videos SC15 High Performance Computing (HPC) Transforms Batteries A new breakthrough battery-one that has significantly higher energy, lasts longer, and is cheaper and safer-will likely be impossible without a new material discovery. Kristin Persson and other JCESR scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are taking some of the guesswork out of the discovery process with the Electrolyte Genome Project. Electrolyte Genome

  16. Nanotube composite anode materials improve lithium-ion battery performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ANL-09-034) - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Nanotube composite anode materials improve lithium-ion battery performance (ANL-09-034) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are a critical technology for many applications, including consumer electronics and electric vehicles. As the demand for hybrid and

  17. Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Ion Battery Performance Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-05-07

    The Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Lithium Ion Battery Model allows for computer prediction and engineering optimization of thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of lithium ion cells with realistic geometries. The model introduces separate simulation domains for different scale physics, achieving much higher computational efficiency compared to the single domain approach. It solves a one dimensional electrochemistry model in a micro sub-grid system, and captures the impacts of macro-scale battery design factors on cell performance and materialmore » usage by solving cell-level electron and heat transports in a macro grid system.« less

  18. Field investigation of the relationship between battery size and PV system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, J.; Kratochvil, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harrington, S. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Four photovoltaic-powered lighting systems were installed in a National Forest Service campground in June of 1991. These systems have identical arrays, loads and charge controllers. The only difference was in the rated capacity of the battery bank for each system. The battery banks all use the same basic battery as a building block with the four systems utilizing either one battery, two batteries, three batteries or four batteries. The purpose of the experiment is to examine the effect of the various battery sizes on the ability of the system to charge the battery, energy available to the load, and battery lifetime. Results show an important trend in system performance concerning the impact of charge controllers on the relation between array size and battery size which results in an inability to achieve the days of battery storage originally designed for.

  19. In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Density Li-Air Batteries | Department of Energy In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High Energy Density Li-Air Batteries In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High Energy Density Li-Air Batteries 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. es059_yang_2010_p.pdf (2.37 MB) More Documents & Publications Characterization of New

  20. Development and In Situ Characterization of New Electrolyte and Electrode materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X -Q; Xing, X K; Daroux, M

    2000-01-03

    The object of this project is to develop new electrolyte and cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries, especially for lithium ion and lithium polymer batteries. Enhancing performance, reducing cost, and replacing toxic materials by environmentally benign materials, are strategic goals of DOE in lithium battery research. This proposed project will address these goals on two important material studies, namely the new electrolytes and new cathode materials. For the new electrolyte materials, aza based anion receptors as additives, organic lithium salts and plasticizers which have been developed by BNL team under Energy Research programs of DOE, will be evaluated by Gould for potential use in commercial battery cells. All of these three types of compounds are aimed to enhance the conductivity and lithium transference number of lithium battery electrolytes and reduce the use of toxic salts in these electrolytes. BNL group will be working closely with Gould to further develop these compounds for commercialization. For the cathode material studies, BNL efforts wi U be focused on developing new superior characterization methclds, especially in situ techniques utilize the unique user facility of DOE at BNL, namely the National Synchrotrons Light Source (NSLS). In situ x-ray absorption and x-ray diftlaction spectroscopy will be used to study the relationship between performance and the electronic and structural characteristics of intercalation compounds such as LiNi02, LiCo02, and LiMn204 spinel. The study will be focused on LiMn204 spinel materials. Gould team will contribute their expertise in choosing the most promising compounds, providing overall performance requirements, and will use the results of this study to guide their procedure for quality control. The knowledge gained through this project will not only benefit Gould and BNL, but will be very valuable to the scientific community in

  1. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical ...

  2. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Wednesday, 28 October 2015 00:00 Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and

  3. Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2013-12-06

    Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g-1 for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g-1 when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal.. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

  4. Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance Technology available for licensing: Li4Ti5O12 spinel is a promising alternative to graphite electrodes with enhanced conductivity, voltage and energy density. Enhanced stability at lower cost Li4Ti5O12 spinel is a promising alternative to graphite electrodes with enhanced conductivity, voltage and energy density PDF icon LTO_anodes

  5. CNEEC - Batteries Tutorial by Prof. Cui

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries

  6. Nanofilm Coatings Improve Battery Performance - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanofilm Coatings Improve Battery Performance Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> TEM 2.5-nm-thick nano-coated ultrathin film on lithium-ion cathode particle surface; coating is highly uniform, in contrast to films applied through conventional technology (for reference, bar in lower-left corner measures 5 nm)</p> TEM 2.5-nm-thick nano-coated ultrathin

  7. Evaluation residual moisture in lithium-ion battery electrodes and its effect on electrode performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L.; An, Seong Jin

    2016-01-11

    Removing residual moisture in lithium-ion battery electrodes is essential for desired electrochemical performance. In this manuscript, the residual moisture in LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 cathodes produced by conventional solvent-based and aqueous processing is characterized and compared. The electrochemical performance has also been investigated for various residual moisture contents. As a result, it has been demonstrated that the residual moisture lowers the first cycle coulombic efficiency, but its effect on short term cycle life is insignificant.

  8. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and discharge in an extremely reversible manner, but the precise mechanism responsible for their performance

  9. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and discharge in an extremely reversible manner, but the precise mechanism responsible for their performance

  10. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and discharge in an extremely reversible manner, but the precise mechanism responsible for their performance

  11. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and discharge in an extremely reversible manner, but the precise mechanism responsible for their performance

  12. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and discharge in an extremely reversible manner, but the precise mechanism responsible for their performance

  13. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and discharge in an extremely reversible manner, but the precise mechanism responsible for their performance has

  14. Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From consumer electronics to laptops to vehicles, batteries are an important part of our everyday life. Learn about the Energy Department's innovative research and development in different energy storage options.

  15. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Meyer III, Harry M; Howe, Jane Y; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Payzant, E Andrew; Lance, Michael J; Yoon, Steve; Denlinger, Matthew; Wood III, David L

    2014-01-01

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Battery Thermal Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about battery...

  17. Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Crawford, Aladsair J.; Stephenson, David E.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Coffey, Greg W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Graff, Gordon L.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-02-01

    A cost model was developed for all vanadium and iron-vanadium redox flow batteries. Electrochemical performance modeling was done to estimate stack performance at various power densities as a function of state of charge. This was supplemented with a shunt current model and a pumping loss model to estimate actual system efficiency. The operating parameters such as power density, flow rates and design parameters such as electrode aspect ratio, electrolyte flow channel dimensions were adjusted to maximize efficiency and minimize capital costs. Detailed cost estimates were obtained from various vendors to calculate cost estimates for present, realistic and optimistic scenarios. The main drivers for cost reduction for various chemistries were identified as a function of the energy to power ratio of the storage system. Levelized cost analysis further guided suitability of various chemistries for different applications.

  18. DC Fast Charge Impacts on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy DC Fast Charge Impacts on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance DC Fast Charge Impacts on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting vss113_francfort_2013_o.pdf (1.71 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE Efficiency and Security Testing AVTA: 2011 Honda CRZ HEV Testing

  19. DC Fast Charge Impacts on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE Efficiency and Security Testing AVTA: 2011 Honda CRZ HEV Testing Results AVTA: 2011 ...

  20. Implications of NiMH Hysteresis on HEV Battery Testing and Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Hunt, Gary Lynn; Ashton, Clair Kirkendall; Murphy, Timothy Collins; Miller, Ted J.; Coates, Calvin; Tataria, H. S.; Lucas, Glenn E.; Duong, T.Q.; Barnes, J.A.; Sutula, Raymond

    2002-08-01

    Nickel Metal-Hydride (NiMH) is an advanced high-power battery technology that is presently employed in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and is one of several technologies undergoing continuing research and development by FreedomCAR. Unlike some other HEV battery technologies, NiMH exhibits a strong hysteresis effect upon charge and discharge. This hysteresis has a profound impact on the ability to monitor state-of-charge and battery performance. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have been investigating the implications of NiMH hysteresis on HEV battery testing and performance. Experimental results, insights, and recommendations are presented.

  1. Characterization of MgO powders for use in thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, W.

    1996-09-01

    Ten commercial MgO powders were evaluated for their suitability to act as a binder in the separator of thermal batteries to immobilize the electrolyte when it is molten. One brand in particular, Maglite S from Calgon, outperformed all the others. This report describes the results of a characterization study of this MgO as well as similar materials from other commercial vendors. The study objective was to define the critical properties of Maglite S MgO that are responsible for its superior performance in thermal-battery separators. Separator mixes were prepared with the various MgO powders and the resulting powders and pellets were characterized, to correlate key physical properties of these materials to select physical and chemical properties of the MgO powders used in their preparation. The MgO pore-size distribution was the only parameter that could be related to the deformation and electrolyte-leakage behavior of separator pellets. A potential replacement for the Maglite S is currently being qualified, since Maglite S MgO is no longer available.

  2. Intel compiler performance optimization and characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compiler performance optimization and characterization Intel compiler performance optimization and characterization May 13, 2015 NERSC will host an in-depth training presentation...

  3. Performance characterization of the NASA standard detonator ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Performance characterization of the NASA standard detonator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance characterization of the NASA standard detonator ...

  4. NREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Scientists from NREL and the University of Toledo have combined theoretical and experimental studies to demonstrate a promising approach to significantly enhance the performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Improving the Performance of Lithium Ion Batteries at Low Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trung H. Nguyen; Peter Marren; Kevin Gering

    2007-04-20

    The ability for Li-ion batteries to operate at low temperatures is extremely critical for the development of energy storage for electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Currently, Li-ion cells have limited success in operating at temperature below –10 deg C. Electrolyte conductivity at low temperature is not the main cause of the poor performance of Li-ion cells. Rather the formation of a tight interfacial film between the electrolyte and the electrodes has often been an issue that resulted in a progressive capacity fading and limited discharge rate capability. The objective of our Phase I work is to develop novel electrolytes that can form low interfacial resistance solid electrolyte interface (SEI) films on carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes. From the results of our Phase I work, we found that the interfacial impedance of Fluoro Ethylene Carbonate (FEC) electrolyte at the low temperature of –20degC is astonishingly low, compared to the baseline 1.2M LiPFEMC:EC:PC:DMC (10:20:10:60) electrolyte. We found that electrolyte formulations with fluorinated carbonate co-solvent have excellent film forming properties and better de-solvation characteristics to decrease the interfacial SEI film resistance and facilitate the Li-ion diffusion across the SEI film. The very overwhelming low interfacial impedance for FEC electrolytes will translate into Li-ion cells with much higher power for cold cranking and high Regen/charge at the low temperature. Further, since the SEI film resistance is low, Li interaction kinetics into the electrode will remain very fast and thus Li plating during Regen/charge period be will less likely to happen.

  6. The Role of FeS in Initial Activation and Performance Degradation of Na-NiCl2 Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-12-25

    The role of iron sulfide (FeS) in initial cell activation and degradation in the Na-NiCl2 battery was investigated in this work. The research focused on identifying the effects of the FeS level on the electrochemical performance and morphological changes in the cathode. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study along with battery tests revealed that FeS plays a critical role in initial battery activation by removing passivation layers on Ni particles. It was also found that the optimum level of FeS in the cathode resulted in minimum Ni particle growth and improved battery cycling performance. The results of electrochemical characterization indicated that sulfur species generated in situ during initial charging, such as polysulfide and sulfur, are responsible for removing the passivation layer. Consequently, the cells containing elemental sulfur in the cathode exhibited similar electrochemical behavior during initial charging compared to that of the cells containing FeS.

  7. Highlighting High Performance: Twenty River Terrace: Battery Park City, New York. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Brochure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2002-08-01

    Case study on high performance building features of the Twenty River Terrace, Battery Park City building.

  8. Performance data for a lithium-silicon/iron disulfide, long-life, primary thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, R.K.; Baldwin, A.R.; Armijo, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently been involved in the development of a 60-minute, 28 volt, primary thermal battery with a volume of 400 cm/sup 3/. The feasibility of Li(Si)/LiCl.KCl/FeS/sub 2/ battery was previously demonstrated at a current of 0.5 A. In this paper, the effects of various environmental tests on battery performance are reported. In order to simulate possible nuclear ordnance environments, batteries have been subjected to shock, rhythmic and random vibration, and longitudinal and lateral acceleration in the unactivated and activated state. The level and duration of these tests varied, but the performance remained good. The effects of variation in current density from open circuit to 1 A/cm/sup 2/, as well as various pulse loads, have been examined. Also presented are results of stabilizing the batteries at temperatures in the range of -54/sup 0/C to +70/sup 0/C as reflected in various performance parameters. The Li(Si)/LiCl.KCl/FeS/sub 2/ electrochemical system has also been applied to two new Sandia-designed batteries requiring rugged, medium-life performance, i.e., activated lives of 2.5 and 4 minutes. Encouraging initial results of this application are included here.

  9. Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformations | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical Transformations Wednesday, April 30, 2014 Chemical evolution and structural transformations in a material directly influence characteristics relevant to a wide range of prominent applications including rechargeable batteries for energy storage. Structural and/or chemical rearrangements at surfaces determine the way a material interacts with its environment,

  10. Fluorinated Phosphazene Co-solvents for Improved Thermal and Safety Performance in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry W. Rollins; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; David K. Jamison; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Dayna L. Daubaras

    2014-10-01

    The safety of lithium-ion batteries is coming under increased scrutiny as they are being adopted for large format applications especially in the vehicle transportation industry and for grid-scale energy storage. The primary short-comings of lithium-ion batteries are the flammability of the liquid electrolyte and sensitivity to high voltage and elevated temperatures. We have synthesized a series of non-flammable fluorinated phosphazene liquids and blended them with conventional carbonate solvents. While the use of these phosphazenes as standalone electrolytes is highly desirable, they simply do not satisfy all of the many requirements that must be met such as high LiPF6 solubility and low viscosity, thus we have used them as additives and co-solvents in blends with typical carbonates. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrolyte blends were characterized, and then the blends were used to build 2032-type coin cells which were evaluated at constant current cycling rates from C/10 to C/1. We have evaluated the performance of the electrolytes by determining the conductivity, viscosity, flash point, vapor pressure, thermal stability, electrochemical window, cell cycling data, and the ability to form solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. This paper presents our results on a series of chemically similar fluorinated cyclic phosphazene trimers, the FM series, which has exhibited numerous beneficial effects on battery performance, lifetimes, and safety aspects.

  11. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Karim, Hasanul; Lin, Yirong; Islam, Md Tariqul; Noveron, Juan C.; Ramabadran, Navaneet

    2015-09-28

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO{sub 2} nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode–electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge–discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  12. Characterization of energetic devices for thermal battery applications by high-speed photography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosser, L.R.; Guidotti, R.

    1993-12-31

    High-speed photography at rates of up to 20,000 images per second was used to measure these properties in thermal battery igniters and also the ignition of thermal battery itself. By synchronizing a copper vapor laser to the high-speed camera, laser-illuminated images recorded details of the performance of a component. Output characteristics of several types of hermetically-sealed igniters using a TiH{chi}/KCIO{sub 4} pyrotechnic blend were measured as a function of the particle size of the pyrotechnic fuel and the closure disc thickness. The igniters were filmed under both ambient (i.e., unconfined) and confined conditions. Recently, the function of the igniter in a cut-away section of a ``mock`` thermal battery has been filmed. Partial details of these films are discussed in this paper, and selected examples of the films will be displayed via video tape during the presentation of the paper.

  13. Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Li, Guosheng; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; et al

    2013-11-04

    Magnesium battery is potentially a safe, cost-effective, and high energy density technology for large scale energy storage. However, the development of magnesium battery has been hindered by the limited performance and the lack of fundamental understandings of electrolytes. Here, we present a coordination chemistry study of Mg(BH4)2 in ethereal solvents. The O donor denticity, i.e. ligand strength of the ethereal solvents which act as ligands to form solvated Mg complexes, plays a significant role in enhancing coulombic efficiency of the corresponding solvated Mg complex electrolytes. A new and safer electrolyte is developed based on Mg(BH4)2, diglyme and optimized LiBH4 additive.more » The new electrolyte demonstrates 100% coulombic efficiency, no dendrite formation, and stable cycling performance with the cathode capacity retention of ~90% for 300 cycles in a prototype magnesium battery.« less

  14. Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Li, Guosheng; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2013-11-04

    Magnesium battery is potentially a safe, cost-effective, and high energy density technology for large scale energy storage. However, the development of magnesium battery has been hindered by the limited performance and the lack of fundamental understandings of electrolytes. Here, we present a coordination chemistry study of Mg(BH4)2 in ethereal solvents. The O donor denticity, i.e. ligand strength of the ethereal solvents which act as ligands to form solvated Mg complexes, plays a significant role in enhancing coulombic efficiency of the corresponding solvated Mg complex electrolytes. A new and safer electrolyte is developed based on Mg(BH4)2, diglyme and optimized LiBH4 additive. The new electrolyte demonstrates 100% coulombic efficiency, no dendrite formation, and stable cycling performance with the cathode capacity retention of ~90% for 300 cycles in a prototype magnesium battery.

  15. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin

    2014-11-10

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles.

  16. Intel compiler performance optimization and characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compiler performance optimization and characterization Intel compiler performance optimization and characterization May 13, 2015 NERSC will host an in-depth training presentation on using the Intel compiler as a performance optimization and characterization tool. The presentation will be May 13th from 10am to 12pm Pacific time. The speaker will be Rakesh Krishnaiyer of Intel. Abstract For identified hotspots/analysis done using performance profiling tools (such as VTune), we will discuss how to

  17. A high performance hybrid battery based on aluminum anode and LiFePO4 cathode

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Bi, Zhonghe; Liu, Hansan; Bridges, Craig A.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2015-12-07

    A unique battery hybrid utilizes an aluminum anode, a LiFePO4 cathode and an acidic ionic liquid electrolyte based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl 3) (EMImCl-AlCl 3, 1-1.1 in molar ratio) with or without LiAlCl4 is proposed. This hybrid ion battery delivers an initial high capacity of 160 mAh g-1 at a current rate of C/5. It also shows good rate capability and cycling performance.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2013: A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by LG Chem at 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a high-performance battery pack the company is researching for plug-in electric vehicles.

  19. Modular Approach for Continuous Cell-Level Balancing to Improve Performance of Large Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muneed ur Rehman, M.; Evzelman, M.; Hathaway, K.; Zane, R.; Plett, G. L.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Maksimovic, D.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage systems require battery cell balancing circuits to avoid divergence of cell state of charge (SOC). A modular approach based on distributed continuous cell-level control is presented that extends the balancing function to higher level pack performance objectives such as improving power capability and increasing pack lifetime. This is achieved by adding DC-DC converters in parallel with cells and using state estimation and control to autonomously bias individual cell SOC and SOC range, forcing healthier cells to be cycled deeper than weaker cells. The result is a pack with improved degradation characteristics and extended lifetime. The modular architecture and control concepts are developed and hardware results are demonstrated for a 91.2-Wh battery pack consisting of four series Li-ion battery cells and four dual active bridge (DAB) bypass DC-DC converters.

  20. Chemically Bonded Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid as a High Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail; Hu, Shilin; Yi, Ran; Tang, Duihai; Walter, Timothy; Regula, Michael; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wang, Donghai

    2014-11-12

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries are of great interest for high-energy-density energy storage systems because of low-cost, natural abundance of sodium. Here, we report a novel graphene nanosheets-wrapped phosphorus composite as an anode for high performance sodium-ion batteries though a facile ball-milling of red phosphorus and graphene nanosheets. Not only can the graphene nanosheets significantly improve the electrical conductivity, but they also serve as a buffer layer to accommodate the large volume change of phosphorus in the charge-discharge process. As a result, the graphene wrapped phosphorus composite anode delivers a high reversible capacity of 2077 mAh/g with excellent cycling stability (1700 mAh/g after 60 cycles) and high Coulombic efficiency (>98%). This simple synthesis approach and unique nanostructure can potentially extend to other electrode materials with unstable solid electrolyte interphases in sodium-ion batteries.

  1. DC Fast Charge Effects on Battery Life and Performance Study - 50,000 Mile Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    11 L2 4582 L2 2183 DCFC 2078 DCFC 0-10k Miles (Oct-Jan) 28.6 28.6 32.7 32.5 10-20k Miles (Jan-Mar) 22.7 22.5 27.6 27.3 20-30k Miles (Apr-Jul) 35.7 36.0 39.8 39.5 30-40k Miles (Jul-Oct) 38.2 38.4 40.8 40.6 40-50k Miles (Oct-Mar) 23.2 23.6 27.3 26.8 1. Capacity and Peak Power tests based on tests from USABC Electric Vehicle Battery Test Procedures Manual Revision 2. Electric Vehicle Power Characterization test adapted from the Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization Test from the FreedomCAR Battery

  2. Effect of electrode manufacturing defects on electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries: Cognizance of the battery failure sources

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohanty, D.; Hockaday, E.; Li, J.; Hensley, D. K.; Daniel, C.; Wood, D. L.

    2016-02-21

    During LIB electrode manufacturing, it is difficult to avoid the certain defects that diminish LIB performance and shorten the life span of the batteries. This study provides a systematic investigation correlating the different plausible defects (agglomeration/blisters, pinholes/divots, metal particle contamination, and non-uniform coating) in a LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 positive electrode with its electrochemical performance. Additionally, an infrared thermography technique was demonstrated as a nondestructive tool to detect these defects. The findings show that cathode agglomerates aggravated cycle efficiency, and resulted in faster capacity fading at high current density. Electrode pinholes showed substantially lower discharge capacities at higher current densities than baseline NMCmore » 532 electrodes. Metal particle contaminants have an extremely negative effect on performance, at higher C-rates. The electrodes with more coated and uncoated interfaces (non-uniform coatings) showed poor cycle life compared with electrodes with fewer coated and uncoated interfaces. Further, microstructural investigation provided evidence of presence of carbon-rich region in the agglomerated region and uneven electrode coating thickness in the coated and uncoated interfacial regions that may lead to the inferior electrochemical performance. In conclusion, this study provides the importance of monitoring and early detection of the electrode defects during LIB manufacturing processes to minimize the cell rejection rate after fabrication and testing.« less

  3. Effect of electrode manufacturing defects on electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries: Cognizance of the battery failure sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, D.; Hockaday, E.; Li, J.; Hensley, D. K.; Daniel, C.; Wood, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    During LIB electrode manufacturing, it is difficult to avoid the certain defects that diminish LIB performance and shorten the life span of the batteries. This study provides a systematic investigation correlating the different plausible defects (agglomeration/blisters, pinholes/divots, metal particle contamination, and non-uniform coating) in a LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 positive electrode with its electrochemical performance. Additionally, an infrared thermography technique was demonstrated as a nondestructive tool to detect these defects. The findings show that cathode agglomerates aggravated cycle efficiency, and resulted in faster capacity fading at high current density. Electrode pinholes showed substantially lower discharge capacities at higher current densities than baseline NMC 532 electrodes. Metal particle contaminants have an extremely negative effect on performance, at higher C-rates. The electrodes with more coated and uncoated interfaces (non-uniform coatings) showed poor cycle life compared with electrodes with fewer coated and uncoated interfaces. Further, microstructural investigation provided evidence of presence of carbon-rich region in the agglomerated region and uneven electrode coating thickness in the coated and uncoated interfacial regions that may lead to the inferior electrochemical performance. In conclusion, this study provides the importance of monitoring and early detection of the electrode defects during LIB manufacturing processes to minimize the cell rejection rate after fabrication and testing.

  4. Highlighting High Performance: Twenty River Terrace, Battery Park City, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-08-01

    Case study on high performance building features of the Twenty River Terrace, Battery Park City building. Breezes off the Hudson River waft through Battery Park City, a planned development of residential and commercial buildings and open space at the tip of lower Manhattan. A riverfront walkway and several connecting public parks sprinkled with public art flank Battery Park City on one side, and New York's busy financial district vibrates on the other. Construction continues on Battery Park's newest building, Twenty River Terrace, the first residential apartment building to embrace sustainable design in a systematic way, and the first to follow the Hugh L. Carey Battery Park City Authority Residential Environmental Guidelines. According to the guidelines, which all future Battery Park City development must follow, they ''establish a process for the creation of environmentally responsible residential buildings that are appreciably ahead of current standards and practices for development.'' As a result of the guidelines, and the architects' commitment to incorporating best practices, this 27-story apartment building operates 35% more efficiently than required by the New York State Energy Code, and generates some of its own electricity from building-integrated photovoltaics, especially in the summer when New York power plants struggle to keep up with air-conditioning demands. The Authority hopes the guidelines will be a good model for other developments, in Manhattan and across the world, for incorporating energy-efficient design and renewable energy. The principles of environmentally sound, people-centered planning and development addressed by Twenty River Terrace continue to be a focus of the redevelopment of lower Manhattan.

  5. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A. Gallagher, K. G. Bloom, I. Dees, D. W.

    2011-10-20

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the

  6. Lithium/Manganese Dioxide (Li/MnO(2)) Battery Performance Evaluation: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingersoll, D.; Clark, N.H.

    1999-04-01

    In February 1997, under the auspices of the Product Realization Program, an initiative to develop performance models for lithium/manganese dioxide-based batteries began. As a part of this initiative, the performance characteristics of the cells under a variety of conditions were determined, both for model development and for model validation. As a direct result of this work, it became apparent that possible Defense Program (DP) uses for batteries based on this cell chemistry existed. A larger effort aimed at mapping the performance envelope of this chemistry was initiated in order to assess the practicality of this cell chemistry, not only for DP applications, but also for other uses. The work performed included an evaluation of the cell performance as a function of a number of variables, including cell size, manufacturer, current, pulse loads, constant current loads, safety, etc. In addition, the development of new evaluation techniques that would apply to any battery system, such as those related to reliability assessments began. This report describes the results of these evaluations.

  7. Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Xu, Wu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Burton, Sarah D.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Gross, Mark E.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-02-05

    It is well known that the stability of nonaqueous electrolyte is critical for the rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. Although stability of many solvents used in the electrolytes has been investigated, considerably less attention has been paid to the stability of electrolyte salt which is the second major component. Herein, we report the systematic investigation of the stability of seven common lithium salts in tetraglyme used as electrolytes for Li-O2 batteries. The discharge products of Li-O2 reaction were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The performance of Li-O2 batteries was strongly affected by the salt used in the electrolyte. Lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) decompose and form LiF and lithium borates, respectively during the discharge of Li-O2 batteries. Several other salts, including lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (LiTFSI), lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) , and lithium bromide (LiBr) led to the discharge products which mainly consisted of Li2O2 and only minor signs of decomposition of LiTFSI, LiTf, LPF6 and LiClO4 were detected. LiBr showed the best stability during the discharge process. As for the cycling performance, LiTf and LiTFSI were the best among the studied salts. In addition to the instability of lithium salts, decomposition of tetraglyme solvent was a more significant factor contributing to the limited cycling stability. Thus a more stable nonaqueous electrolyte including organic solvent and lithium salt still need to be further developed to reach a fully reversible Li-O2 battery.

  8. A High-Performance Rechargeable Iron Electrode for Large-Scale Battery-Based Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Yang, C; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Inexpensive, robust and efficient large-scale electrical energy storage systems are vital to the utilization of electricity generated from solar and wind resources. In this regard, the low cost, robustness, and eco-friendliness of aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries are particularly attractive and compelling. However, wasteful evolution of hydrogen during charging and the inability to discharge at high rates have limited the deployment of iron-based aqueous batteries. We report here new chemical formulations of the rechargeable iron battery electrode to achieve a ten-fold reduction in the hydrogen evolution rate, an unprecedented charging efficiency of 96%, a high specific capacity of 0.3 Ah/g, and a twenty-fold increase in discharge rate capability. We show that modifying high-purity carbonyl iron by in situ electro-deposition of bismuth leads to substantial inhibition of the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The in situ formation of conductive iron sulfides mitigates the passivation by iron hydroxide thereby allowing high discharge rates and high specific capacity to be simultaneously achieved. These major performance improvements are crucial to advancing the prospect of a sustainable large-scale energy storage solution based on aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.034208jes] All rights reserved.

  9. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  10. Electrochemical performance studies of MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers recovered from spent battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Gomaa A.M.; Tan, Ling Ling; Jose, Rajan; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Chong, Kwok Feng

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: MnO{sub 2} is recovered from spent zinccarbon batteries as nanoflowers structure. Recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers show high specific capacitance. Recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers show stable electrochemical cycling up to 900 cycles. Recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers show low resistance in EIS data. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance of MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers recovered from spent household zinccarbon battery is studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers are recovered from spent zinccarbon battery by combination of solution leaching and electrowinning techniques. In an effort to utilize recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers as energy storage supercapacitor, it is crucial to understand their structure and electrochemical performance. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the recovery of MnO{sub 2} in birnessite phase, while electron microscopy analysis shows the MnO{sub 2} is recovered as 3D nanostructure with nanoflower morphology. The recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers exhibit high specific capacitance (294 F g{sup ?1} at 10 mV s{sup ?1}; 208.5 F g{sup ?1} at 0.1 A g{sup ?1}) in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, with stable electrochemical cycling. Electrochemical data analysis reveal the great potential of MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers recovered from spent zinccarbon battery in the development of high performance energy storage supercapacitor system.

  11. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for battery

  12. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Wednesday, 29 January 2014 00:00 Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray

  13. Performance Evaluation of Microporous Separator in Fe/V Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Miller, Eric; Chambers, Jeff; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-04-08

    The newly developed Fe/V redox flow battery has demonstrated attractive cell performance. However, the deliverable energy density is relatively inferior due to the low cell voltage. To compensate this disadvantage and compete with other redox flow battery systems, cost reduction of the Fe/V system is necessary. This paper describes evaluation of hydrocarbon-based Daramic® microporous separators for use in the Fe/V system. The separator B having ion exchange capacity demonstrated excellent capacity retention capability. Separator B exhibited energy efficiency above 65% over a broad temperature range of 5-50oC and at current densities up to 80mA/cm2. Plus, separator B is very inexpensive and has exceptional mechanical properties. Therefore, this separator shows great potential to replace the expensive Nafion® membrane. This will drive down the capital cost and make the Fe/V system a promising low-cost energy storage technology.

  14. Comparative analysis for various redox flow batteries chemistries using a cost performance model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Aladsair J.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Stephenson, David E.; Wang, Wei; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Reed, David M.; Li, Bin; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-10-20

    A robust performance-based cost model is developed for all-vanadium, iron-vanadium and iron chromium redox flow batteries. Systems aspects such as shunt current losses, pumping losses and thermal management are accounted for. The objective function, set to minimize system cost, allows determination of stack design and operating parameters such as current density, flow rate and depth of discharge (DOD). Component costs obtained from vendors are used to calculate system costs for various time frames. A 2 kW stack data was used to estimate unit energy costs and compared with model estimates for the same size electrodes. The tool has been shared with the redox flow battery community to both validate their stack data and guide future direction.

  15. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  16. Green synthesis of boron doped graphene and its application as high performance anode material in Li ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sreena, K.P.; Vinayan, B.P.; Ramaprabhu, S.

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Boron doped graphene (B-G), synthesized by simple hydrogen induced reduction technique using boric acid as boron precursor, have more uneven surface as a result of smaller bonding distance of boron compared to carbon, showed high capacity and high rate capability compared to pristine graphene as an anode material for Li ion battery application. - Abstract: The present work demonstrates a facile route for the large-scale, catalyst free, and green synthesis approach of boron doped graphene (B-G) and its use as high performance anode material for Li ion battery (LIB) application. Boron atoms were doped into graphene framework with an atomic percentage of 5.93% via hydrogen induced thermal reduction technique using graphite oxide and boric acid as precursors. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm the boron doping in graphene sheets. B-G as anode material shows a discharge capacity of 548 mAh g{sup ?1} at 100 mA g{sup ?1} after 30th cycles. At high current density value of 1 A g{sup ?1}, B-G as anode material enhances the specific capacity by about 1.7 times compared to pristine graphene. The present study shows a simplistic way of boron doping in graphene leading to an enhanced Li ion adsorption due to the change in electronic states.

  17. Methods for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T

    2013-05-21

    Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.

  18. Discharge Performance of Li-O2 Batteries Using a Multiscale Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Stewart, Mark L.; Zhang, Jiguang; Pan, Wenxiao

    2015-06-10

    To study the discharge performance of Li–O2 batteries, we propose a multiscale modeling framework that links models in an upscaling fashion from the nanoscale to mesoscale and finally to the device scale. We have effectively reconstructed the microstructure of a Li–O2 air electrode in silico, conserving the porosity, surface-to-volume ratio, and pore size distribution of the real air electrode structure. The mechanism of rate-dependent morphology of Li2O2 growth is incorporated into the mesoscale model. The correlation between the active-surface-to-volume ratio and averaged Li2O2 concentration is derived to link different scales. The proposed approach’s accuracy is first demonstrated by comparing the predicted discharge curves of Li–O2 batteries with experimental results at the high current density. Next, the validated modeling approach effectively captures the significant improvement in discharge capacity due to the formation of Li2O2 particles. Finally, it predicts the discharge capacities of Li–O2 batteries with different air electrode microstructure designs and operating conditions.

  19. Characterization of electrolyte-binder mixes for use in thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1991-03-01

    A number of metal oxides were evaluated for their ability to immobilize molten LiCl-KCl eutectic in electrolyte-binder (EB) mixes used in thermally activated batteries. These metal oxides included fumed silicas, alumina, and a titania (all prepared by steam hydrolysis of the halides), floated silicas, MgO, and an alumina molecular sieve. The characteristics of the EB powders that were used as metrics were flow properties, homogeneity, BET surface area, particle-size distribution, and moisture content. The characteristics of EB pellets used as metrics were deformation at 530{degrees}C under an applied pressure and tendency for electrolyte leakage at 400{degrees}C. Many of the same characterization techniques used for EB powders were applied to the LiCl-KCl eutectic, its component halides, and the metal oxides as well. The reproducibility of the properties of several of the standard Sandia EB mixes was evaluated for materials prepared at a number of thermal-battery manufacturing facilities following the same processing procedures. 13 refs., 14 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of ionic liquid (EMImBF{sub 4})/Li{sup +} - chitosan membranes for ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasaribu, Marvin H. Arcana, I Made Wahyuningrum, Deana

    2015-09-30

    Lithium ion battery has been currently developed and produced because it has a longer life time, high energycapacity, and the efficient use of lithium ion battery that is suitable for storing electrical energy. However, this battery has some drawbacks such as use liquid electrolytes that are prone to leakage and flammability during the battery charging process in high temperature. In this study, an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF4) containing Li{sup +} ions was synthesized and combined with chitosan polymer host as a polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium-ion batteries to solve this problems. This ionic liquid was obtained from the anion metathesis reaction between EMImBr and LiBF4 salt, while EMImBr was synthesized from the reaction between 1-methylimidazole and ethyl bromide utilizing Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. The ionic liquid obtained was characterized by microstructure analysis with using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The polymer electrolyte membrane was characterized by analysis functional groups (FTIR), ionic conductivity (EIS), and surface morphology (SEM). The analysis results of ion conductivity by the EIS method showed the increase the ionic conductivity value of membranes from 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan to 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan with EMImBF4/Li{sup +}, and this result was supported by analysis the surface morphology (SEM)

  1. The Influence of Electrode and Channel Configurations on Flow Battery Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darling, RM; Perry, ML

    2014-05-21

    Flow batteries with flow-through porous electrodes are compared to cells with porous electrodes adjacent to either parallel or interdigitated channels. Resistances and pressure drops are measured for different configurations to augment the electrochemical data. Cell tests are done with an electrolyte containing VO2+ and VO2+ in sulfuric acid that is circulated through both anode and cathode from a single reservoir. Performance is found to depend sensitively on the combination of electrode and flow field. Theoretical explanations for this dependence are provided. Scale-up of flow through and interdigitated designs to large active areas is also discussed. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Anodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-ion Batteries - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Anodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-ion Batteries Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language:

  3. Ramping Performance Analysis of the Kahuku Wind-Energy Battery Storage System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ramping Performance Analysis of the Kahuku Wind-Energy Battery Storage System V. Gevorgian and D. Corbus Management Report NREL/MP-5D00-59003 November 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National Renewable Energy

  4. NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries A genomics approach to materials research could speed up advancements in battery performance December ...

  5. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric-Drive Vehicles - SECOND EDITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Bloom, Ira D.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publicly available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publicly peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on

  6. Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Power’s flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

  7. Porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells with enhanced anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping Shi, Huimin; Lou, Feijian; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Tongge; Zhou, Yiming Lu, Tianhong

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • In situ magnesiothermic reduction route for the formation of porous Si@C spheres. • Unique microstructural characteristics of both porous sphere and carbon matrix. • Enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel type of porous Si–C micro/nano-hybrids, i.e., porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells (porous Si@C spheres), has been constructed through the pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and subsequent magnesiothermic reduction methodology by using SiO{sub 2} spheres as precursors. The as-synthesized porous Si@C spheres have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and exhibit enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability compared with bare Si spheres. For example, the porous Si@C spheres are able to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 900.0 mA h g{sup −1} after 20 cycles at a current density of 0.05 C (1 C = 4200 mA g{sup −1}), which is much higher than that of bare Si spheres (430.7 mA h g{sup −1})

  8. Characterization of the Li(Si)/CoS(2) couple for a high-voltage, high-power thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    2000-02-01

    In order to determined the capabilities of a thermal battery with high-voltage and high-power requirements, a detailed characterization of the candidate LiSi/LiCl-LiBr-LiF/CoS{sub 2} electrochemical couple was conducted. The rate capability of this system was investigated using 0.75 inch-dia. and 1.25 inch-dia. single and multiple cells under isothermal conditions, where the cells were regularly pulsed at increasingly higher currents. Limitations of the electronic loads and power supplies necessitated using batteries to obtain the desired maximum current densities possible for this system. Both 1.25 inch-dia. and 3 inch-dia. stacks were used with the number of cells ranging from 5 to 20. Initial tests involved 1.25 inch-dia. cells, where current densities in excess of 15 A/cm{sup 2} (>200 W/cm{sup 2}) were attained with 20-cell batteries during 1-s pulses. In subsequent follow-up tests with 3 inch-dia., 10-cell batteries, ten 400-A 1-s pulses were delivered over an operating period often minutes. These tests formed the foundation for subsequent full-sized battery tests with 125 cells with this chemistry.

  9. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Ji -Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) with highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.

  10. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Ji -Guang; Liu, Jun; et al

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) withmore » highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.« less

  11. Requirements for Defining Utility Drive Cycles: An Exploratory Analysis of Grid Frequency Regulation Data for Establishing Battery Performance Testing Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-10-19

    Battery testing procedures are important for understanding battery performance, including degradation over the life of the battery. Standards are important to provide clear rules and uniformity to an industry. The work described in this report addresses the need for standard battery testing procedures that reflect real-world applications of energy storage systems to provide regulation services to grid operators. This work was motivated by the need to develop Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) testing procedures, or V2G drive cycles. Likewise, the stationary energy storage community is equally interested in standardized testing protocols that reflect real-world grid applications for providing regulation services. As the first of several steps toward standardizing battery testing cycles, this work focused on a statistical analysis of frequency regulation signals from the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnect with the goal to identify patterns in the regulation signal that would be representative of the entire signal as a typical regulation data set. Results from an extensive time-series analysis are discussed, and the results are explained from both the statistical and the battery-testing perspectives. The results then are interpreted in the context of defining a small set of V2G drive cycles for standardization, offering some recommendations for the next steps toward standardizing testing protocols.

  12. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gapsmore » in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAh·cm–2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 µm-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g–1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.« less

  13. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gaps in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAh·cm–2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 µm-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g–1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.

  14. ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0

  15. Characterization of Filtration Scale-Up Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Luna, Maria L.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Jagoda, Lynette K.

    2009-03-09

    The scale-up performance of sintered stainless steel crossflow filter elements planned for use at the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) and at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were characterized in partial fulfillment (see Table S.1) of the requirements of Test Plan TP RPP WTP 509. This test report details the results of experimental activities related only to filter scale-up characterization. These tests were performed under the Simulant Testing Program supporting Phase 1 of the demonstration of the pretreatment leaching processes at PEP. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the tests discussed herein for Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) to address the data needs of Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-07-004. Scale-up characterization tests employ high-level waste (HLW) simulants developed under the Test Plan TP-RPP-WTP-469. The experimental activities outlined in TP-RPP-WTP-509 examined specific processes from two broad areas of simulant behavior: 1) leaching performance of the boehmite simulant as a function of suspending phase chemistry and 2) filtration performance of the blended simulant with respect to filter scale-up and fouling. With regard to leaching behavior, the effect of anions on the kinetics of boehmite leaching was examined. Two experiments were conducted: 1) one examined the effect of the aluminate anion on the rate of boehmite dissolution and 2) another determined the effect of secondary anions typical of Hanford tank wastes on the rate of boehmite dissolution. Both experiments provide insight into how compositional variations in the suspending phase impact the effectiveness of the leaching processes. In addition, the aluminate anion studies provide information on the consequences of gibbsite in waste. The latter derives from the expected fast dissolution of gibbsite relative to boehmite. This test report concerns only results of the filtration performance with respect to scale-up. Test results for boehmite

  16. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. ... calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ionbattery manufacturing process. ...

  17. A high performance hybrid battery based on aluminum anode and LiFePO4 cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Bi, Zhonghe; Liu, Hansan; Bridges, Craig A.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2015-12-07

    A unique battery hybrid utilizes an aluminum anode, a LiFePO4 cathode and an acidic ionic liquid electrolyte based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl 3) (EMImCl-AlCl 3, 1-1.1 in molar ratio) with or without LiAlCl4 is proposed. This hybrid ion battery delivers an initial high capacity of 160 mAh g-1 at a current rate of C/5. It also shows good rate capability and cycling performance.

  18. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for

  19. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for

  20. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for

  1. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for

  2. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for

  3. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for

  4. Methods and systems for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T

    2014-12-02

    Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.

  5. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  6. Performance data for a lithium-silicon/iron disulfide, long-life, primary thermal battery. [28 V, 0. 5 A, -54 to +75/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, R.K.; Baldwin, A.R.; Armijo, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    A 60-minute, 28-volt, 0.5-ampere, primary thermal battery with a volume of 400 cm/sup 3/ was developed in the Li(Si)/LiCl-KCl/FeS/sub 2/ electrochemical system. The effects of various simulated environmental tests on the performance of this battery are described. 8 figures, 1 table.

  7. Electroactive polyaniline film deposited from nonaqueous media; Effect of mixed organic solvent on polyaniline deposition and its battery performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osaka, T.; Nakajima, T.; Shiota, K.; Momma, T. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports on electroactive polyaniline (PAn) films which were deposited from PC (propylene carbonate)-Ec (thylene carbonate) and PC-DME (1, 2-dimethoxyethane) mixed polymerization solutions containing aniline, CF{sub 3}COOH, and LiClO{sub 4}. Higher dielectric constant solvents are necessary to deposit the PAn film where protons, dissociated from the acid, initiate the polymerization of aniline. Various PAn films deposited in the PC, the PC-EC (50 mole percent), and the PC-DME (50 volume percent) solutions were used for the cathode materials of the rechargeable lithium batteries. Charge capacity and discharge ability of the Li/PAn batteries in the PC-LiClO{sub 4} electrolyte solution are almost the same, regardless of the polymerization solvents such as PC {approx} PC-EC {ge} PC-DME and PC-EC {ge} PC-DME {approx} PC. The mixed solvent electrolyte solution effect on the Li/PAn (polymerized in the PC solution) batteries becomes much larger such as PC-DME {gt} PC-EC {gt} PC. Moreover, the electrochemical kinetic factors of the PAn films deposited in the various mixed polymerization solutions and also in the different electrolytes were experimentally determined by measuring the ac impedance. The results of the ac impedance analysis of each PAn film correlate well with the battery performances of Li/PAn cells.

  8. Characterization of vacuum-multifoil insulation for long-life thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; KAUN,THOMAS

    2000-04-17

    The use of vacuum multifoil (VMF) container for thermal insulation in long-life thermal batteries was investigated in a proof-of-concept demonstration. An InvenTek-designed VMF container 4.9 inches in diameter by 10 inches long was used with an internally heated aluminum block, to simulate a thermal-battery stack. The block was heated to 525 C or 600 C and allowed to cool while monitoring the temperature of the block and the external case at three locations with time. The data indicate that it should be possible to build an equivalent-sized thermal battery that should last up to six hours, which would meet the requirements for a long-life sonobuoy application.

  9. SnCo–CMK nanocomposite with improved electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Lingxing; Deng, Cuilin; Zheng, Cheng; Qiu, Heyuan; Qian, Qingrong; Chen, Qinghua; Wei, Mingdeng

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The SnCo–CMK nanocomposite was synthesized using mesoporous carbon as nano-reactor. • Ultrafine SnCo nanoparticles distribute both inside and outside of mesopore channels. • The SnCo–CMK nanocomposite is an alternative anode material for Li-ion intercalation. • A high reversible capacity of 562 mAh g{sup −1} is maintained after 60 cycles at 100 mA g{sup −1}. - Abstract: In the present work, SnCo–CMK nanocomposite was successfully synthesized for the first time via a simple nanocasting route by using mesoporous carbon as nano-reactor. The nanocomposite was then characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) respectively. Furthermore, the SnCo–CMK nanocomposite exhibited large reversible capacities, excellent cycling stability and enhanced rate capability when employed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. A large reversible capacity of 562 mA h g{sup −1} was obtained after 60 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1} which is attributed to the structure of ‘meso-nano’ SnCo–CMK composite. This unique structure ensures the intimate contact between CMK and SnCo nanoparticles, buffers the large volume expansion and prevents the aggregation of the SnCo nanoparticles during cycling, leading to the excellent cycling stability and enhanced rate capability.

  10. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  11. Leading experts to speak at battery & energy storage technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including: new battery chemistries, battery longevity and performance, energy storage in electric grid applications and the latest developments in fuel cells and flow batteries. ...

  12. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, Apurva; Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource; Doeff, Marca M.; Chen, Guoying; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas J.; Mehta, Apurva; Shirpour, Mona; Duncan, Hugues; Kim, Chunjoong; Kam, Kinson C.; Conry, Thomas

    2013-04-30

    We describe the use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to probe details of intercalation/deintercalation processes in electrode materials for Li ion and Na ion batteries. Both in situ and ex situ experiments are used to understand structural behavior relevant to the operation of devices.

  13. Characterization of semiconductor bridges (SCB) igniters for use in thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W.; Guidotti, R.A.; McCampbell, C.B.

    1996-05-01

    Semiconductor bridges (SCB) igniters were evaluated as possible replacements for conventional hot-wire igniters for use in thermal batteries. The all-fire and no-fire characteristics were determined using an up-down scheme; the Neyer/SENSIT program was used to analyze the data. The SCB igniters functioned with a higher no-fire level, relative to a hot-wire igniter, for a given all-fire level. This makes the SCB igniter safer and more reliable than its hot-wire counterpart. The SCB is very resistant to electrostatic discharge and does not require a sensitization mixture for ignition of the primary pyrotechnic charge. These factors, along with its amenability to large-scale production, make the SCB igniter ideally suited for use in thermal batteries.

  14. Enhancing the Performance of the Rechargeable Iron Electrode in Alkaline Batteries with Bismuth Oxide and Iron Sulfide Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-09-07

    Iron-based alkaline rechargeable batteries have the potential of meeting the needs of large-scale electrical energy storage because of their low-cost, robustness and eco-friendliness. However, the widespread commercial deployment of iron-based batteries has been limited by the low charging efficiency and the poor discharge rate capability of the iron electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated iron electrodes containing bismuth oxide and iron sulfide with a charging efficiency of 92% and capable of being discharged at the 3C rate. Such a high value of charging efficiency combined with the ability to discharge at high rates is being reported for the first time. The bismuth oxide additive led to the in situ formation of elemental bismuth and a consequent increase in the overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction leading to an increase in the charging efficiency. We observed that the sulfide ions added to the electrolyte and iron sulfide added to the electrode mitigated-electrode passivation and allowed for continuous discharge at high rates. At the 3C discharge rate, a utilization of 0.2 Ah/g was achieved. The performance level of the rechargeable iron electrode demonstrated here is attractive for designing economically-viable large-scale energy storage systems based on alkaline nickel-iron and iron-air batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Simmons, Kevin L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-09-02

    Driven by the motivation of searching for low-cost membrane alternatives, a novel nanoporous polytetrafluoroethylene/silica composite separator has been prepared and evaluated for its use in all-vanadium mixed-acid redox flow battery. This separator consisting of silica particles enmeshed in a polytetrafluoroethylene fibril matrix has no ion exchange capacity and is featured with unique nanoporous structures, which function as the ion transport channels in redox flow battery operation, with an average pore size of 38nm and a porosity of 48%. This separator has produced excellent electrochemical performance in the all-vanadium mixed-acid system with energy efficiency delivery comparable to Nafion membrane and superior rate capability and temperature tolerance. The separator also demonstrates an exceptional capacity retention capability over extended cycling, offering additional operational latitude towards conveniently mitigating the capacity decay that is inevitable for Nafion. Because of the inexpensive raw materials and simple preparation protocol, the separator is particularly low-cost, estimated to be at least an order of magnitude more inexpensive than Nafion. Plus the proven chemical stability due to the same backbone material as Nafion, this separator possesses a good combination of critical membrane requirements and shows great potential to promote market penetration of the all-vanadium redox flow battery by enabling significant reduction of capital and cycle costs.

  16. Thermal Evaluation of the Honda Insight Battery Pack: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolot, M.D.; Kelly, K.; Keyser, M.; Mihalic, M.; Pesaran, A.; Hieronymus, A.

    2001-06-18

    The hybrid vehicle test efforts at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with a focus on the Honda Insight's battery thermal management system, are presented. The performance of the Insight's high voltage NiMH battery pack was characterized by conducting in-vehicle dynamometer testing at Environmental Testing Corporation's high altitude dynamometer test facility, on-road testing in the Denver area, and out-of-car testing in NREL's Battery Thermal Management Laboratory. It is concluded that performance does vary considerably due to thermal conditions the pack encounters. The performance variations are due to both inherent NiMH characteristics, and the Insight's thermal management system.

  17. Batteries and energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantell, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A historical review of the galvanic concept and a brief description of the theory of operation of batteries are followed by chapters on specific types of batteries and energy systems. Chapters contain a section on basic theory, performance and applications. Secondary cells discussed are: SLI batteries, lead-acid storage batteries, lead secondary cells, alkaline secondary cells, nickel and silver-cadmium systems and solid electrolyte systems. Other chapters discuss battery charging, regenerative electrochemical systems, solar cells, fuel cells, electric vehicles and windmills. (KAW)

  18. Improved electrochemical performances of CuO nanotube array prepared via electrodeposition as anode for lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: CuO nanotube array electrodes prepared by electrodeposition method exhibit an excellent lithium ion storage ability as anode of Li-ion battery. - Highlights: • CuO nanotube arrays are synthesized by an electrodeposition method. • CuO nanotube shows a high-rate performance. • CuO nanotube shows an excellent cycling performance. - Abstract: We report a facile strategy to prepared CuO nanotube arrays directly grown on Cu plate through the electrodeposition method. The as-prepared CuO nanotubes show a quasi-cylinder nanostructure with internal diameters of ca. ∼100 nm, external diameters of ca. ∼120 nm, and average length of ∼3 μm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the CuO nanotube arrays are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Due to the unique nanotube nanostructure, the as-prepared CuO electrodes exhibit good rate performance (550 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 464 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C) and cycling performance (581 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 538 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 C)

  19. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    under Freezing Conditions | Department of Energy Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. 2_rit.pdf (20.71 KB) More Documents & Publications Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Characterization under Freezing Conditions

  20. Comparison of Module Performance Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KROPOSKI,B.; MARION,W.; KING,DAVID L.; BOYSON,WILLIAM EARL; KRATOCHVIL,JAY A.

    2000-10-03

    The rating and modeling of photovoltaic PW module performance has been of concern to manufacturers and system designers for over 20 years. Both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have developed methodologies to predict module and array performance under actual operating conditions. This paper compares the two methods of determining the performance of PV modules, The methods translate module performance to actual or reference conditions using slightly different approaches. The accuracy of both methods is compared for both hourly, daily, and annual energy production over a year of data recorded at NREL in Golden, CO. The comparison of the two methods will be presented for five different PV module technologies.

  1. Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance ...

  2. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Edward V. Thomas; Kevin L. Gering; Gary L. Henriksen; Vincent S. Battaglia; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed performance testing of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells, with a baseline and variant chemistry, were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOCs) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar- and accelerated-life cells were clamped at an open-circuit voltage corresponding to the designated SOC and were subjected to a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells were continuously pulsed using a profile that was centered around 60% SOC. Life testing was interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which were used to quantify changes in cell degradation as a function of aging. The RPTs generally consisted of C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The rate of cell degradation generally increased with increasing test temperature, and SOC. It was also usually slowest for the calendar-life cells and fastest for the accelerated-life cells. Detailed capacity-, power-, and impedance-based performance results are reported.

  3. Ramping Performance Analysis of the Kahuku Wind-Energy Battery Storage System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gevorgian, V.; Corbus, D.

    2013-11-01

    High penetrations of wind power on the electrical grid can introduce technical challenges caused by resource variability. Such variability can have undesirable effects on the frequency, voltage, and transient stability of the grid. Energy storage devices can be an effective tool in reducing variability impacts on the power grid in the form of power smoothing and ramp control. Integrating anenergy storage system with a wind power plant can help smooth the variable power produced from wind. This paper explores the fast-response, megawatt-scale, wind-energy battery storage systems that were recently deployed throughout the Hawaiian islands to support wind and solar projects.

  4. Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naskar, Amit K; Bi,; Saha, Dipendu; Chi, Miaofang; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2014-01-01

    Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

  5. Measurements and Characterization: Cell and Module Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization -- Cell and Module Performance. One-sided sheet that includes Scope, Core Competencies and Capabilities, and Contact/Web information.

  6. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid

  7. Battery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B; Andrew, Michael G

    2013-08-27

    A battery module includes a plurality of battery cells and a system configured for passing a fluid past at least a portion of the plurality of battery cells in a parallel manner.

  8. PROJECT PROFILE: Cell and Module Performance Characterization | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Cell and Module Performance Characterization PROJECT PROFILE: Cell and Module Performance Characterization Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $9,000,000 The project supports the cell and module measurement lab at NREL, which provides the only recognized, accredited efficiency measurements in the U.S. for the photovoltaic (PV) industry, and provides direct support to all SunShot

  9. First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes as a High-Performance Cathode for Li-S Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Niu, Xinyue; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun; Gao, Fei

    2013-07-16

    The insulating nature of sulfur and the solubility of the polysulfide in organic electrolyte are two main factors that limit the application of lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery systems. Enhancement of Li conductivity, identification of a strong adsorption agent of polysulfides and the improvement of the whole sulfur-based electrode are of great technological importance. The diffusion of Li atoms on the outer-wall, inner-wall and inter-wall spaces in nitrogen-doped double-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and penetrations of Li and S atoms through the walls are studied using density functional theory. We find that N-doping does not alternate the diffusion behaviors of Li atoms throughout the CNTs, but the energy barrier for Li atoms to penetrate the wall is greatly decreased by N-doping (from ~9.0 eV to ~ 1.0 eV). On the other hand, the energy barrier for S atoms to penetrate the wall remains very high, which is caused by the formation of the chemical bonds between the S and nearby N atoms. The results indicate that Li atoms are able to diffuse freely, whereas S atoms can be encapsulated inside the N-doped CNTs, suggesting that the N-doped CNTs can be potentially used in high performance Li-S batteries.

  10. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information...

  11. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  12. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  13. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaolin; Gu, Meng; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Kennard, Rhiannon; Yan, Pengfei; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Sailor, Michael J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-08

    Nanostructured silicon is a promising anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries, yet scalable synthesis of such materials, and retaining good cycling stability in high loading electrode remain significant challenges. Here, we combine in-situ transmission electron microscopy and continuum media mechanical calculations to demonstrate that large (>20 micron) mesoporous silicon sponge (MSS) prepared by the scalable anodization method can eliminate the pulverization of the conventional bulk silicon and limit particle volume expansion at full lithiation to ~30% instead of ~300% as observed in bulk silicon particles. The MSS can deliver a capacity of ~750 mAh/g based on the total electrode weight with >80% capacity retention over 1000 cycles. The first-cycle irreversible capacity loss of pre-lithiated MSS based anode is only <5%. The insight obtained from MSS also provides guidance for the design of other materials that may experience large volume variation during operations.

  14. Reduced order modeling of mechanical degradation induced performance decay in lithium-ion battery porous electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barai, Pallab; Smith, Kandler; Chen, Chien -Fan; Kim, Gi -Heon; Mukherjee, Partha P.

    2015-06-17

    In this paper, a one-dimensional computational framework is developed that can solve for the evolution of voltage and current in a lithium-ion battery electrode under different operating conditions. A reduced order model is specifically constructed to predict the growth of mechanical degradation within the active particles of the carbon anode as a function of particle size and C-rate. Using an effective diffusivity relation, the impact of microcracks on the diffusivity of the active particles has been captured. Reduction in capacity due to formation of microcracks within the negative electrode under different operating conditions (constant current discharge and constant current constant voltage charge) has been investigated. At the beginning of constant current discharge, mechanical damage to electrode particles predominantly occurs near the separator. As the reaction front shifts, mechanical damage spreads across the thickness of the negative electrode and becomes relatively uniform under multiple discharge/charge cycles. Mechanical degradation under different drive cycle conditions has been explored. It is observed that electrodes with larger particle sizes are prone to capacity fade due to microcrack formation. Finally, under drive cycle conditions, small particles close to the separator and large particles close to the current collector can help in reducing the capacity fade due to mechanical degradation.

  15. Reduced order modeling of mechanical degradation induced performance decay in lithium-ion battery porous electrodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barai, Pallab; Smith, Kandler; Chen, Chien -Fan; Kim, Gi -Heon; Mukherjee, Partha P.

    2015-06-17

    In this paper, a one-dimensional computational framework is developed that can solve for the evolution of voltage and current in a lithium-ion battery electrode under different operating conditions. A reduced order model is specifically constructed to predict the growth of mechanical degradation within the active particles of the carbon anode as a function of particle size and C-rate. Using an effective diffusivity relation, the impact of microcracks on the diffusivity of the active particles has been captured. Reduction in capacity due to formation of microcracks within the negative electrode under different operating conditions (constant current discharge and constant current constantmore » voltage charge) has been investigated. At the beginning of constant current discharge, mechanical damage to electrode particles predominantly occurs near the separator. As the reaction front shifts, mechanical damage spreads across the thickness of the negative electrode and becomes relatively uniform under multiple discharge/charge cycles. Mechanical degradation under different drive cycle conditions has been explored. It is observed that electrodes with larger particle sizes are prone to capacity fade due to microcrack formation. Finally, under drive cycle conditions, small particles close to the separator and large particles close to the current collector can help in reducing the capacity fade due to mechanical degradation.« less

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: New Lamination and Doping Concepts for Enhanced Lithium-Sulfur Battery Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Pittsburgh at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Development of Advanced High-Performance Batteries for 12V Start Stop Vehicle Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Maxwell at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  18. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print ... are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly ...

  19. A Comparison of the Performance Capabilities of Radioisotope Energy Conversion Systems, Betavoltaic Cells, and other Nuclear Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfelds, Eric V; Prelas, Mark A.; Sudarshan, Loyalka K.; Tompson, Robert V.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we compare the potential performance capabilities of several types of nuclear batteries to the Radioisotope Thermocouple Generators (RTG's) currently in use. There have been theoretical evaluations of, and some experimental testing of, several types of nuclear batteries including Radioisotope Energy Conversion Systems (RECS), Direct Energy Conversion (DEC) systems, and Betavoltaic Power Cells (BPC's). It has been theoretically shown, and to some extent experimentally demonstrated, that RECS, capacitive DEC systems, and possibly BPC's are all potentially capable of efficiencies well above the 9% maximum efficiency demonstrated to date in RTG's customized for deep space probe applications. Even though RTG's have proven their reliability and have respectable power to mass ratios, it is desirable to attain efficiencies of at least 25% in typical applications. High fuel efficiency is needed to minimize the quantities of radioisotopic or nuclear fuels in the systems, to maximize power to mass ratios, and to minimize housing requirements. It has been shown that RECS can attain electric power generation efficiencies greater than 18% for devices which use Sr-90 fuel and where the accompanying material is less than roughly twice the mass of the Sr-90 fuel. Other radioisotopic fuels such as Pu-238 or Kr-85 can also be placed into RECS in order to attain efficiencies over 18%. With the likely exception of one fuel investigated by the authors, all of the promising candidates for RECS fuels can attain electric power to mass ratios greater than 15 W kg{sup -1}. It has been claimed recently [1] that the efficiency of tritium-fueled BPC's can be as high as 25%. While this is impressive and tritium has the benefit of being a 'soft' radioisotopic fuel, the silicon wafer that holds the tritium would have to be considerably more massive than the tritium contained within it and immediately adjacent to the wafer. Considering realistic mass requirements for the presence of

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Lithium Bis(fluoromalonato)borate (LiBFMB) for Lithium Ion Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Chen; Han, Kee Sung; Baggetto, Loic; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Custelcean, Radu; Lee, Dr. Eun-Sung; Guo, Bingkun; Bi, Zhonghe; Jiang, Deen; Veith, Gabriel M; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W; Brown, Gilbert M; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manthiram, Arumugam; Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2014-01-01

    A new orthochelated salt, lithium bis(monofluoromalonato)borate (LiBFMB), has been synthesized and purified for the first time for application in lithium ion batteries. The presence of fluorine in the borate anion of LiBFMB increases its oxidation potential and also facilitates ion dissociation, as reflected by the ratio of ionic conductivity measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy ( exp) and that by ion diffusivity coefficients obtained using pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) technique ( NMR). Half-cell tests using 5.0 V lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) as a cathode and EC/DMC/DEC as a solvent reveals that the impedance of the LiBFMB cell is much larger than those of LiPF6 and LiBOB based cells, which results in lower capacity and poor cycling performance of the former. XPS spectra of the cycled cathode electrode suggest that because of the stability of the LiBFMB salt, the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the cathode surface is significantly different from those of LiPF6 and LiBOB based electrolytes, resulting in more solvent decomposition and thicker SEI layer. Initial results also indicate that using high dielectric constant solvent PC alters the surface chemistry, reduces the interfacial impedance, and enhances the performance of LiBFMB based 5.0V cell.

  1. Porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jinxue; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xiao Chen, Haoxin

    2014-05-01

    In this manuscript, porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are prepared through a two-step approach which is composed of hydrothermal process and heating treatment as high performance anode for lithium-ion battery. Benefiting from the porous structure and 1-dimensional features, the product becomes robust and exhibits high reversible capability, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. - Graphical abstract: 1D porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • A two-step route has been applied to prepare 1D porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure. • Its porous feature facilitates the fast transport of electron and lithium ion. • Its porous structure endows it with capacities higher than its theoretical capacity. • 1D nanostructure can tolerate volume changes during lithation/delithiation cycles. • It exhibits high capacity, good cyclability and excellent rate performance.

  2. In situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SOURCEBOOK FOR INDUSTRY ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Improving Motor and Drive System Performance DISCLAIMER This publication was prepared by the Washington State University Energy Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Neither the United States, DOE, the Copper Development Association, the Washington State University Energy Program, National Electrical Manufacturers Association, nor any of their

  3. Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiaolin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-04

    The selection of electrode materials plays a great role in improving performances of all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs). Low-cost graphite felt (GF) as traditional electrode material has to be modified to address its issue of low electrocatalytic activity. In our paper, low-cost and highly conductive bismuth nanoparticles, as a powerful alternative electrocatalyst to noble metal, are proposed and synchronously electro-deposited onto the surface of GF while running flow cells employing the electrolytes containing suitable Bi3+. Although bismuth is proved to only take effect on the redox reaction of V(II)/V(III) and present at negative half-cell side, the whole cell electrochemical performances are significantly improved. In particular, the energy efficiency is increased by 11% owing to faster charge transfer as compared with one without Bi at high charge/discharge rate of 150 mA/cm2, which is prone to reduce stack size, thus dramatically reducing the cost. The excellent results show great promise of Bi nano-catalysts in the commercialization of VRBs in terms of product cost as well as electrochemical properties.

  4. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  5. Instruction-level performance modeling and characterization of multimedia applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Y.; Cameron, K.W.

    1999-06-01

    One of the challenges for characterizing and modeling realistic multimedia applications is the lack of access to source codes. On-chip performance counters effectively resolve this problem by monitoring run-time behaviors at the instruction-level. This paper presents a novel technique of characterizing and modeling workloads at the instruction level for realistic multimedia applications using hardware performance counters. A variety of instruction counts are collected from some multimedia applications, such as RealPlayer, GSM Vocoder, MPEG encoder/decoder, and speech synthesizer. These instruction counts can be used to form a set of abstract characteristic parameters directly related to a processor`s architectural features. Based on microprocessor architectural constraints and these calculated abstract parameters, the architectural performance bottleneck for a specific application can be estimated. Meanwhile, the bottleneck estimation can provide suggestions about viable architectural/functional improvement for certain workloads. The biggest advantage of this new characterization technique is a better understanding of processor utilization efficiency and architectural bottleneck for each application. This technique also provides predictive insight of future architectural enhancements and their affect on current codes. In this paper the authors also attempt to model architectural effect on processor utilization without memory influence. They derive formulas for calculating CPI{sub 0}, CPI without memory effect, and they quantify utilization of architectural parameters. These equations are architecturally diagnostic and predictive in nature. Results provide promise in code characterization, and empirical/analytical modeling.

  6. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Testing Reports DC Fast Charge Impacts on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance INL Efficiency and Security Testing of EVSE, DC Fast Chargers, and Wireless Charging Systems

  7. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Energy Storage R&D Progress Report, Sections 4-6 Analysis of Electric Vehicle Battery Performance Targets Building America Whole-House Solutions ...

  8. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    information about thin-film lithium batteries is available in full-text and on the Web. ... Additional Web Pages: Thin Films for Advanced Batteries Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium, ...

  9. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sally Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the

  10. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Battery Chargers Marine and RV battery chargers differ from power tool and small appliance chargers CEC Testing assumes all variables are known - battery chemistry, battery size. ...

  11. The Science of Battery Degradation. (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Science of Battery Degradation. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Science of Battery Degradation. This report documents work that was performed under the ...

  12. Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries > Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance ...

  13. Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries (IN-11...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries (IN-11-024) Low-Cost Phosphate Compounds Enhance Lithium Battery Performance Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About ...

  14. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  15. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  16. Characterization of Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries using Synchrotron Based In Situ X-ray Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2007-05-23

    The emergence of portable telecommunication, computer equipment and ultimately hybrid electric vehicles has created a substantial interest in manufacturing rechargeable batteries that are less expensive, non-toxic, operate for longer time, small in size and weigh less. Li-ion batteries are taking an increasing share of the rechargeable battery market. The present commercial battery is based on a layered LiCoO{sub 2} cathode and a graphitized carbon anode. LiCoO{sub 2} is expensive but it has the advantage being easily manufactured in a reproducible manner. Other low cost layered compounds such as LiNiO{sub 2}, LiNi{sub 0.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} or cubic spinels such as LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been considered. However, these suffer from cycle life and thermal stability problems. Recently, some battery companies have demonstrated a new concept of mixing two different types of insertion compounds to make a composite cathode, aimed at reducing cost and improving self-discharge. Reports clearly showed that this blending technique can prevent the decline in ·capacity caused by cycling or storage at elevated temperatures. However, not much work has been reported on the charge-discharge characteristics and phase transitions for these composite cathodes. Understanding the structure and structural changes of electrode materials during the electrochemical cycling is the key to develop better .lithium ion batteries. The successful commercialization of the· lithium-ion battery is mainly built on the advances in solid state chemistry of the intercalation compounds. Most of the progress in understanding the lithium ion battery materials has been obtained from x-ray diffraction studies. Up to now, most XRD studies on lithium-ion battery materials have been done ex situ. Although these ex situ XRD studies have provided important information· about the structures of battery materials, they do face three major problems. First of all, the pre-selected charge (discharge) states may

  17. Mixed ether electrolytes for secondary lithium batteries with improved low temperature performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, K.M.; Pasquariello, D.M.; Martin, F.J.

    1986-04-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF): 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2Me-THF)/LiAsF/sub 6/ mixed solutions, despite their lower conductivity, have allowed significantly better low temperature performance in Li/TiS/sub 2/ cells than have THF/LiAsF/sub 6/, /sup 13/C NMR data suggest that this may be related to the structurally disordered Li/sup +/-solvates that exist in the mixed ether solutions. High cycling efficiencies for the Li electrode in THF:2Me-THF/LiAsF/sub 6/ solutions have been achieved by the use of 2Me-F as an additive. A 5 Ah capacity Li/TiS/sub 2/ cell has been cycled more than 100 times at 100, depth-of-discharge, with the cell capacity remaining at over 3 Ah at the 100th cycle.

  18. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  19. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Charger Efficiency Issues with Marine and Recreational Vehicle Battery Chargers Marine and RV battery chargers differ from power tool and small appliance chargers CEC Testing assumes all variables are known - battery chemistry, battery size. This is not the case in Marine and RV applications. * The battery charger manufacturer has no influence on the selection of batteries. * The battery charger could be used to charge a single battery, single battery bank, multiple batteries or multiple

  20. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  1. Spectroradiometer Intercomparison and Impact on Characterizing Photovoltaic Device Performance: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, E.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

    2014-11-01

    Indoor and outdoor testing of photovoltaic (PV) device performance requires the use of solar simulators and natural solar radiation, respectively. This performance characterization requires accurate knowledge of spectral irradiance distribution that is incident on the devices. Spectroradiometers are used to measure the spectral distribution of solar simulators and solar radiation. On September 17, 2013, a global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers was organized by the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This paper presents highlights of the results of this first intercomparison, which will help to decrease systematic inter-laboratory differences in the measurements of the outputs or efficiencies of PV devices and harmonize laboratory experimental procedures.

  2. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This greatly expands the potential medical uses of the batteries, including transdermal applications for heart regulation.' -Edited excerpt from Medical Applications of Non-medical ...

  3. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Missert, Nancy A.; Brunke, Lyle Brent

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  4. Evaluation of lithium-ion synergetic battery pack as battery charger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, A.; Salameh, Z.M.; Eaves, S.S.

    1999-09-01

    A new battery configuration technique and accompanying control circuitry, termed a Synergetic Battery Pack (SBP), is designed to work with Lithium batteries, and can be used as both an inverter for an electric vehicle AC induction motor drive and a battery charger. In this paper, the authors compare the performance of the Synergetic Battery Pack as a battery charger with several simple conventional battery charging circuits via computer simulation. The factors of comparison were power factor, harmonic distortion, and circuit efficiency. The simulations showed that the SBP is superior to the conventional charging circuits since the power factor is unity and harmonic distortion is negligible.

  5. Innovation Meets Performance Demands of Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advancements in high capacity and high density battery technologies have led to a growing need for battery materials with greater charge capacity and therefore stability. NREL's developments in ALD and MLD allow for thin film coatings to battery composite electrodes, which can improve battery lifespan, high charge capacity, and stability. Key Result Silicon, one of the best high-energy anode materials for Li-ion batteries, can experience capacity fade from volumetric expansion. Using ALD and MLD

  6. Using all energy in a battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudney, Nancy J.; Li, Juchuan

    2015-01-09

    It is not simple to pull all the energy from a battery. For a battery to discharge, electrons and ions have to reach the same place in the active electrode material at the same moment. To reach the entire volume of the battery and maximize energy use, internal pathways for both electrons and ions must be low-resistance and continuous, connecting all regions of the battery electrode. Traditional batteries consist of a randomly distributed mixture of conductive phases within the active battery material. In these materials, bottlenecks and poor contacts may impede effective access to parts of the battery. On page 149 of this issue, Kirshenbaum et al. (1) explore a different approach, in which silver electronic pathways form on internal surfaces as the battery is discharged. Finally, the electronic pathways are well distributed throughout the electrode, improving battery performance.

  7. Using all energy in a battery

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dudney, Nancy J.; Li, Juchuan

    2015-01-09

    It is not simple to pull all the energy from a battery. For a battery to discharge, electrons and ions have to reach the same place in the active electrode material at the same moment. To reach the entire volume of the battery and maximize energy use, internal pathways for both electrons and ions must be low-resistance and continuous, connecting all regions of the battery electrode. Traditional batteries consist of a randomly distributed mixture of conductive phases within the active battery material. In these materials, bottlenecks and poor contacts may impede effective access to parts of the battery. On pagemore » 149 of this issue, Kirshenbaum et al. (1) explore a different approach, in which silver electronic pathways form on internal surfaces as the battery is discharged. Finally, the electronic pathways are well distributed throughout the electrode, improving battery performance.« less

  8. KAir Battery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    KAir Battery, from Ohio State University, is commercializing highly energy efficient cost-effective potassium air batteries for use in the electrical stationary storage systems market (ESSS). Beyond, the ESSS market potential applications range from temporary power stations and electric vehicle.

  9. High Performance Binderless Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance Binderless Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries National ... Electrode for fast-charging Lithium Ion Batteries, Accelerating Innovation Webinar ...

  10. The role of electronic and ionic conductivities in the rate performance of tunnel structured manganese oxides in Li-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Byles, B. W.; Palapati, N. K. R.; Subramanian, A.; Pomerantseva, E.

    2016-04-29

    Single nanowires of two manganese oxide polymorphs (α-MnO2 and todorokite manganese oxide), which display a controlled size variation in terms of their square structural tunnels, were isolated onto nanofabricated platforms using dielectrophoresis. This platform allowed for the measurement of the electronic conductivity of these manganese oxides, which was found to be higher in α-MnO2 as compared to that of the todorokite phase by a factor of similar to 46. Despite this observation of substantially higher electronic conductivity in α-MnO2, the todorokite manganese oxide exhibited better electrochemical rate performance as a Li-ion battery cathode. The relationship between this electrochemical performance, themore » electronic conductivities of the manganese oxides, and their reported ionic conductivities is discussed for the first time, clearly revealing that the rate performance of these materials is limited by their Li+ diffusivity, and not by their electronic conductivity. This result reveals important new insights relevant for improving the power density of manganese oxides, which have shown promise as a low-cost, abundant, and safe alternative for next-generation cathode materials. Moreover, the presented experimental approach is suitable for assessing a broader family of one-dimensional electrode active materials (in terms of their electronic and ionic conductivities) for both Li-ion batteries and for electrochemical systems utilizing charge-carrying ions beyond Li+.« less

  11. Lithium battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, H.; Nakaido, S.; Narukara, S.

    1983-08-16

    In a lithium battery having a negative electrode formed with lithium as active material and the positive electrode formed with manganese dioxide, carbon fluoride or the like as the active material, the discharge capacity of the negative electrode is made smaller than the discharge capacity of the positive electrode, whereby a drop in the battery voltage during the final discharge stage is steepened, and prevents a device using such a lithium battery as a power supply from operating in an unstable manner, thereby improving the reliability of such device.

  12. Flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lipka, Stephen M.; Swartz, Christopher R.

    2016-02-23

    An electrolyte system for a flow battery has an anolyte including [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.3- and [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.4- and a catholyte including Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+.

  13. Crash Models for Automotive Batteries (DOT/NHTSA Project Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, John A; Allu, Srikanth; Gorti, Sarma B; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T; Pannala, Dr. Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan; Slattery, Stuart R; Wang, Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Safety is a critical aspect of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery design. Impact/crash conditions can trigger a complex interplay of mechanical contact, heat generation and electrical discharge which can result in thermal events. Thermal events have been linked to internal short circuits that are initiated by a critical size of short-circuit area. Different loading conditions and battery states may lead to micro (soft) shorts where burnout due to generated heat eliminates contact between the electrodes, or persistent (hard) shorts which can lead to more significant thermal events and potentially damage the entire battery system and beyond. Experimental characterization of individual battery components for the onset of internal shorts is limited, since it is impractical to canvas all possible variations in battery state of charge, operating conditions, and impact loading in a timely manner. This report provides a survey of modeling and simulation approaches and documents the first phase of a project initiated and funded by DOT/NHTSA to improve modeling and simulation capabilities in order to design tests that provide leading indicators of failure in batteries. In this phase, ORNL has demonstrated a computational infrastructure to conduct impact simulations of Li-ion batteries using models that resolve internal structures and electro-thermo-chemical and mechanical conditions. Initial comparisons to abuse experiments on cells and cell strings conducted at ORNL and Carderock for parameter estimation and model validation have been performed. This research has provided unique insight into the underlying kinematic mechanisms of deformation (both at cell and electrode level) and their relationship to the safety of batteries. The second step was to conduct higher-speed crush experiments and simulations to more closely approximate the effect of vehicle impact.

  14. Simulated annealing reconstruction and characterization of the three-dimensional microstructure of a LiCoO{sub 2} Lithium-ion battery cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Wei; Jiang, Fangming

    2013-06-15

    We adapt the simulated annealing approach for reconstruction of the 3D microstructure of a LiCoO{sub 2} cathode from a commercial Li-ion battery. The real size distribution curve of LiCoO{sub 2} particles is applied to regulate the reconstruction process. By discretizing a 40 × 40 × 40 μm cathode volume with 8,000,000 numerical cubes, the cathode involving three individual phases: 1) LiCoO{sub 2} as active material, 2) pores or electrolyte, and 3) additives (polyvinylidene fluoride + carbon black) is reconstructed. The microstructural statistical properties required in the reconstruction process are extracted from 2D focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy images or obtained by analyzing the powder mixture used to make the cathode. Characterization of the reconstructed cathode gives important structural and transport properties including the two-point correlation functions, volume-specific surface area between phases, tortuosity and geometrical connectivity of individual phase. - Highlights: • Simulated annealing approach is adapted for 3D reconstruction of LiCoO{sub 2} cathode. • Real size distribution of LiCoO{sub 2} particles is applied in reconstruction process. • Reconstructed cathode accords with real one at important statistical properties. • Effective electrode-characterization approaches have been established. • Extensive characterization gives important structural properties, say, tortuosity.

  15. Bipolar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  16. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries ... In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the ... characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to ...

  17. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries ... In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the ... characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to ...

  18. 99Tc Process Monitoring System In-Lab Performance Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Hara, Matthew J.; Niver, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Executive Summary A 99Tc Process Monitoring (Tc-Mon) System has been designed and built for deployment at the recently constructed 200 West Pump & Treat (200W P&T) Plant in the 200 West Area ZP-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site. The plant is operated by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). The Tc-Mon system was created through collaboration between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Burge Environmental, Inc. The new systems design has been optimized based on experience from an earlier field test (2011) of a prototype system at the 200W-ZP-1 Interim Pump & Treat Plant. A portion of the new 200W P&T Plant is dedicated to removal of 99Tc from contaminated groundwater in the 200 West Area. 99Tc, as the pertechnetate anion (99TcO4-), is remediated through delivery of water into two trains (Trains A and B) of three tandem extraction columns filled with Purolite A530E resin. The resin columns cannot be regenerated; therefore, once they have reached their maximum useful capacity, the columns must be disposed of as radioactive waste. The Tc-Mon systems primary duty will be to periodically sample and analyze the effluents from each of the two primary extraction columns to determine 99Tc breakthrough. The Tc-Mon system will enable the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to measure primary extraction column breakthrough on demand. In this manner, CHPRC will be able to utilize each extraction column to its maximum capacity. This will significantly reduce column disposal and replacement costs over the life of the plant. The Tc-Mon system was constructed by Burge Environmental, Inc. and was delivered to PNNL in June 2013 for setup and initial hardware and software performance testing in the 325 Building. By early July, PNNL had initiated an in-laboratory performance characterization study on the system. The objective was to fully calibrate the system and then evaluate the quality of the analytical outputs 1) against a series of clean

  19. Electrochemical performance of polyaniline coated LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode active material for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?ahan, Halil Dokan, Fatma K?l?c Ayd?n, Abdlhamit zdemir, Burcu zdemir, Nazl? Patat, ?aban

    2013-12-16

    LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} compound are synthesized by combustion method using glycine as a fuel at temperature (T), 800C which was coated by a polyaniline. The goal of this procedure is to promote better electronic conductivity of the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles in order to improve their electrochemical performance for their application as cathodes in secondary lithium ion batteries. The structures of prepared products have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To investigate the effect of polyaniline coating galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling (148 mA g{sup ?1}) studies are made in the voltage range of 3.5-4.5 V vs. Li at room temperature. Electrochemical performance of the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} was significantly improved by the polaniline coating.

  20. Strong Lithium Polysulfide Chemisorption on Electroactive Sites of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Composites For High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Gordin, Mikhail L.; Xu, Terrence; Chen, Shuru; Yu, Zhaoxin; Sohn, Hiesang; Lu, Jun; Ren, Yang; Duan, Yuhua; Wang, Donghai

    2015-03-27

    Despite the high theoretical capacity of lithium–sulfur batteries, their practical applications are severely hindered by a fast capacity decay, stemming from the dissolution and diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte. A novel functional carbon composite (carbon-nanotube-interpenetrated mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon spheres, MNCS/CNT), which can strongly adsorb lithium polysulfides, is now reported to act as a sulfur host. The nitrogen functional groups of this composite enable the effective trapping of lithium polysulfides on electroactive sites within the cathode, leading to a much improved electrochemical performance (1200 mAhg-1after 200 cycles). The enhancement in adsorption can be attributed to the chemical bonding of lithium ions by nitrogen functional groups in the MNCS/CNT framework. Furthermore, the micrometer-sized spherical structure of the material yields a high areal capacity (ca.6 mAhcm-2) with a high sulfur loading of approximately 5 mgcm-2, which is ideal for practical applications of the lithium–sulfur batteries.

  1. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling City University of New York (CUNY): Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage (Performer Video)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None Available

    2012-03-21

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video are Sanjoy Banerjee, Director of CUNY Energy Institute and Dan Steingart (Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering, CUNY). The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  2. Strong Lithium Polysulfide Chemisorption on Electroactive Sites of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Composites For High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Gordin, Mikhail; Xu, Terrence; Chen, Shuru; Yu, Zhaoxin; Sohn, Hiesang; Lu, Jun; Ren, Yang; Duan, Yuhua; wang, Donghai

    2015-03-27

    Despite the high theoretical capacity of lithium–sulfur batteries, their practical applications are severely hindered by a fast capacity decay, stemming from the dissolution and diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte. A novel functional carbon composite (carbon-nanotube-interpenetrated mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon spheres, MNCS/CNT), which can strongly adsorb lithium polysulfides, is now reported to act as a sulfur host. The nitrogen functional groups of this composite enable the effective trapping of lithium polysulfides on electroactive sites within the cathode, leading to a much improved electrochemical performance (1200 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles). The enhancement in adsorption can be attributed to the chemical bonding of lithium ions by nitrogen functional groups in the MNCS/CNT framework. Furthermore, the micrometer-sized spherical structure of the material yields a high areal capacity (ca. 6 mAh cm-2) with a high sulfur loading of approximately 5 mg cm-2, which is ideal for practical applications of the lithium–sulfur batteries.

  3. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling City University of New York (CUNY): Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage (Performer Video)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None Available

    2012-02-28

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video are Sanjoy Banerjee, Director of CUNY Energy Institute and Dan Steingart (Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering, CUNY). The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  4. Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2008-05-01

    Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.

  5. Coordination Chemistry in Magnesium Battery Electrolytes: How...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 3, 2014, Research Highlights Coordination Chemistry in Magnesium Battery Electrolytes: How Ligands Affect Their Performance (Top) Schematic illustration of the solution ...

  6. Ultracapacitors and Batteries in Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Zolot, M.; Sprik, S.

    2005-08-01

    Using an ultracapacitor in conjunction with a battery in a hybrid vehicle combines the power performance of the former with the greater energy storage capability of the latter.

  7. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  8. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  9. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE-supported graphene nanostructures increases capacity of batteries, improves performance and convenience of electric vehicles.

  10. Thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.T.; Winchester, C.S.; Jolson, J.D.

    1989-06-20

    A thermal battery is described comprising at least one electrochemical cell comprising an anode of alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or alloys thereof, a fusible salt electrolyte, a fluorocarbon polymer or fluorochlorocarbon polymer depolarizer, and means for heating the cell to melt the electrolyte.

  11. BOUT++: Performance Characterization and Recent Advances in Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    et al. "BOUT++: A framework for parallel plasma fluid simulations". In: Computer Physics Communications 180.9 (2009), pp. 1467-1480. 2 P Narayanan et al. "Performance...

  12. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  13. Electro-Thermal Modeling to Improve Battery Design: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.; Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Vlahinos, A.

    2005-09-01

    Operating temperature greatly affects the performance and life of batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Increased attention is necessary to battery thermal management. Electrochemical models and finite element analysis tools are available for predicting the thermal performance of batteries, but each has limitations. This study describes an electro-thermal finite element approach that predicts the thermal performance of a battery cell or module with realistic geometry.

  14. Hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites: Towards cost-effective and high performance binder free lithium ion batteries anode materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, G. Z.; Wang, Y.; Wong, J. I.; Shi, Y. M.; Huang, Z. X.; Yang, H. Y.; Li, S.

    2014-10-06

    Hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites are synthesized by a facile thermal annealing method on Cu foils. Compared to pristine CuO and SnO{sub 2} nanostructures, hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites exhibit the enhanced electrochemical performances as the anode material of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity and excellent rate capability. The binder free CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites deliver a specific capacity of 718 mA h g{sup ?1} at a current density of 500?mA g{sup ?1} even after 200 cycles. The enhanced electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergistic effect between SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and CuO nanoarchitectures. Such hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites could open up a new route for the development of next-generation high-performance and cost-effective binder free anode material of LIBs for mass production.

  15. Multicell Li/SOCl/sub 2/ reserve battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, A.R.; Garoutte, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    Recent development work on reserve lithium thionyl chloride (RLTC) batteries at SNLA and Honeywell has included safety and performance evaluations. The RLTC battery is being considered for applications that have traditionally been fulfilled by state-of-the-art thermal batteries and reserve silver oxide zinc electrochemical systems. These applications typically demand a reserve battery having a rapid voltage rise, high reliability, operational safety and useful active lifetime ranging from minutes to hours. The RLTC work reported here was directed toward a power battery capable of meeting or exceeding the design requirements. Performance and safety test data indicate that the RLTC battery may be better suited than thermal batteries for some long-life applications. Table II presents a comparison between a Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermal battery and an RLTC battery, both of which were designed to fulfill the requirements.

  16. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  17. Batteries Breakout Session

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EV Everywhere Workshop July 26, 2012 Breakout Session #1 - Discussion of Performance Targets and Barriers Comments on the Achievability of the Targets * Reasonable for EV100 and EV300, Power/energy does not box well for PHEV40 * Need to look at whole system view of EV300 (utilization is not high) * EV100 has much better utilization * Target needs to capture external conditions (consumer and infrastructure) * Capture Secondary use of batteries * EV100 Primary Vehicle, felt not practical? Barriers

  18. Performance and discharge characteristics of Ca/LiCl, LiNO/sub 3//LiNO/sub 3/, AgNO/sub 3//Ni thermal battery cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMains, G.E.; Fletcher, A.N.; Miles, M.H.

    1984-02-01

    Thermal battery cells utilizing molten LiNO/sub 3/ as an oxidizing electrolyte with calcium anodes have been characterized for high rate discharge conditions. The presence of small amounts of AgNO/sub 3/ greatly improves the cathode reaction. Half-cell studies of anode characteristics show little variation of anode potential with temperature. Gassing at the anode-electrolyte interface increases with temperature and current density. Overall anode consumption rates increase with increasing temperature, while anode coulombic efficiencies drop at high rates of discharge (300 mA/cm/sup -2/). Cathode half-cell data reveal that high rate reduction of AgNO/sub 3/ dissolved in LiNO/sub 3/ yields masses of dendritic growth at low temperatures (260/sup 0/-275/sup 0/C) while at higher temperatures (>400/sup 0/C) correspondingly fewer dendritic structures are observed. Cell experiments show anticipated current-voltage-temperature relationships, effectively mirroring half-cell experiments. Cell voltages sustain over 2V at 75 mA/cm/sup -2/ for periods which vary according to temperature of discharge.

  19. Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Li-ion Batteries Monday, February 13, 2012 - 1:30pm SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Stephen J. Harris, General Motors R&D While battery performance is well predicted by the...

  20. NREL Bolsters Batteries with Nanotubes - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Scientist Chunmei Ban assembles a lithium-ion battery in the materials lab at the ... If successful, the batteries will last longer and perform better, leading to a cost ...

  1. battery2.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-1982J Solid-State Environmentally Safe Battery for Replacing Lithium Batteries 1. ... Signature 2. Joint Entry with High Power Battery Systems Company 5 Silkin Street, Apt. 40 ...

  2. Characterization and estimation of permeability correlation structure from performance data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ershaghi, I.; Al-Qahtani, M.

    1997-08-01

    In this study, the influence of permeability structure and correlation length on the system effective permeability and recovery factors of 2-D cross-sectional reservoir models, under waterflood, is investigated. Reservoirs with identical statistical representation of permeability attributes are shown to exhibit different system effective permeability and production characteristics which can be expressed by a mean and variance. The mean and variance are shown to be significantly influenced by the correlation length. Detailed quantification of the influence of horizontal and vertical correlation lengths for different permeability distributions is presented. The effect of capillary pressure, P{sub c1} on the production characteristics and saturation profiles at different correlation lengths is also investigated. It is observed that neglecting P{sub c} causes considerable error at large horizontal and short vertical correlation lengths. The effect of using constant as opposed to variable relative permeability attributes is also investigated at different correlation lengths. Next we studied the influence of correlation anisotropy in 2-D reservoir models. For a reservoir under five-spot waterflood pattern, it is shown that the ratios of breakthrough times and recovery factors of the wells in each direction of correlation are greatly influenced by the degree of anisotropy. In fully developed fields, performance data can aid in the recognition of reservoir anisotropy. Finally, a procedure for estimating the spatial correlation length from performance data is presented. Both the production performance data and the system`s effective permeability are required in estimating the correlation length.

  3. NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries A genomics approach to materials research could speed up advancements in battery performance December 18, 2012 Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 XBD201110-01310.jpg Kristin Persson To reduce the United States' reliance on foreign oil and lower consumer energy costs, the Department of Energy (DOE) is bringing together five national laboratories, five universities and four private firms to revolutionize

  4. Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium-Ion Batteries Predictive computer models for lithium-ion battery performance under standard and potentially abusive conditions National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Design. Build. Test. Break. Repeat. Developing batteries is an expensive and time-intensive process. Testing costs the

  5. Self-Regulating, Nonflamable Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2010-06-23

    Rechargeable lithium batteries are superior to other rechargeable batteries due to their ability to store more energy per unit size and weight and to operate at higher voltages. The performance of lithium ion batteries available today, however, has been compromised by their tendency to overheat during operation. This condition, called “thermal runaway,” can melt the battery’s lithium metal and, in the most serious cases, result in explosive chemical reactions....

  6. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  7. battery electrode percolating network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery electrode percolating network - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ...

  8. Characterization of UMT2013 Performance on Advanced Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, Louis

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents part of a larger effort to make detailed assessments of several proxy applications on various advanced architectures, with the eventual goal of extending these assessments to codes of programmatic interest running more realistic simulations. The focus here is on UMT2013, a proxy implementation of deterministic transport for unstructured meshes. I present weak and strong MPI scaling results and studies of OpenMP efficiency on the Sequoia BG/Q system at LLNL, with comparison against similar tests on an Intel Sandy Bridge TLCC2 system. The hardware counters on BG/Q provide detailed information on many aspects of on-node performance, while information from the mpiP tool gives insight into the reasons for the differing scaling behavior on these two different architectures. Preliminary tests that exploit NVRAM as extended memory on an Ivy Bridge machine designed for “Big Data” applications are also included.

  9. Molten-Salt Batteries for Medium and Large-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-12-01

    This chapter discusses two types of molten salt batteries. Both of them are based on a beta-alumina solid electrolyte and molten sodium anode, i.e., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. The chapter first reviews the basic electrochemistries and materials for various battery components. It then describes the performance of state-of-the-art batteries and future direction in material development for these batteries.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of lithium manganese nickel oxide sputtered thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baggetto, Loic; Unocic, Raymond R; Dudney, Nancy J; Veith, Gabriel M

    2012-01-01

    Li-rich and stoichiometric Li1Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (LMNO) cathode films have been prepared by magnetron sputtering. Sputtering from a Li stoichiometric target yields Li-rich films composed of spinel, layered and monoclinic phases. Films obtained from a Li deficient target are mostly made of a spinel phase and little layered material. The resulting cathode thin films have good capacity retention and very high rate capability. The reaction mechanism has been investigated by XRD and HRTEM and evidences the reversible formation of a spinel phase, as is also found for the powder samples. The film geometry enables to understand the effect of coatings (ZnO or LiPON). Coating high voltage cathodes reduces the coulombic losses but at the price of rate performance. Nonetheless, these coated sputtered electrode thin films offer a higher rate capability than other LMNO thin films obtained by other physical vapor deposition techniques.

  11. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  12. Piezonuclear battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  13. Battery Test Manual For Electric Vehicles, Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christophersen, Jon P.

    2015-06-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Electric Vehicles (EV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for EVs. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Chul Bae of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  14. Characterization and modification of particulate properties to enhance filtration performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Vann Bush, P.

    1989-06-22

    This report describes the results of project activities that occurred during the period from March 1 through May 31, 1989. The organization of this report generally follows the outline of work presented in the Project Work Plan. Work performed during this period included tests under Task 2 -- Parametric Tests of Ashes and Fabrics, and Task 3 -- Survey of Methods to Modify Particle Filtration Properties. Discussion of the Task 2 work has been organized topically, rather than adhering to the activities specified in the Work Plan. Cohesive ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority's 160 MW Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustor at the Shawnee Plant in Paducah, Kentucky was obtained during this quarter and has been analyzed in the laboratory. The second phase of the abstract search and review of pertinent articles included in activity 3.1 is nearly complete. A summary of this phase of the literature search is included in this report. A variety of potential conditioning agents have been evaluated during this reporting period. These agents include sodium bicarbonate, hydrated lime, various grades of fine silica powder, gasifier char, glass beads and glass fibers. The three source ashes have been mixed with these agents in different concentrations and using various mixing techniques. These tests are continuing, and this report contains a summary of the combinations evaluated during this past quarter. 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. MECHANICAL PROPERTY CHARACTERIZATIONS AND PERFORMANCE MODELING OF SOFC SEALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koeppel, Brian J.; Vetrano, John S.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-03-26

    This study provides modeling tools for the design of reliable seals for SOFC stacks. The work consists of 1) experimental testing to determine fundamental properties of SOFC sealing materials, and 2) numerical modeling of stacks and sealing systems. The material tests capture relevant temperature-dependent physical and mechanical data needed by the analytical models such as thermal expansion, strength, fracture toughness, and relaxation behavior for glass-ceramic seals and other materials. Testing has been performed on both homogenous specimens and multiple material assemblies to investigate the effect of interfacial reactions. A viscoelastic continuum damage model for a glass-ceramic seal was developed to capture the nonlinear behavior of this material at high temperatures. This model was implemented in the MSC MARC finite element code and was used for a detailed analysis of a planar SOFC stack under thermal cycling conditions. Realistic thermal loads for the stack were obtained using PNNLs in-house multiphysics solver. The accumulated seal damage and component stresses were evaluated for multiple thermal loading cycles, and regions of high seal damage susceptible to cracking were identified. Selected test results, numerical model development, and analysis results will be presented.

  16. Performance Characterization of the Production Facility Prototype Helium Flow System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Dalmas, Dale Allen; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2015-12-16

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. Blower performance (mass flow rate as a function of loop pressure drop) was measured at 4 blower speeds. Results are reported below.

  17. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  18. The fabrication of foam-like 3D mesoporous NiO-Ni as anode for high performance Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Peng; Zhang, Xin; Wei, Jumeng; Pan, Jiaqi; Sheng, Yingzhou; Feng, Boxue

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Foam-like 3 dimensional (3D) mesoporous NiO on 3D micro-porous Ni was fabricated. - Highlights: We prepare NiO-Ni foam composite via hydrothermal etching and subsequent annealing. The NiO exhibits novel foam-like 3D mesoporous architecture. The NiO-Ni anode shows good cycle stability. - Abstract: Foam-like three dimensional mesoporous NiO on Ni foam was fabricated via facile hydrothermal etching and subsequent annealing treatment. The porous NiO consists of a large number of nanosheets with mean thickness about 50 nm, among which a large number of mesoscopic pores with size ranges from 100 nm to 1 ?m distribute. The electrochemical performance of the as-prepared NiO-Ni as anode for lithium ion battery was studied by conventional charge/discharge test, which shows excellent cycle stability and rate capability. It exhibits initial discharge and charge capacities of 979 and 707 mA h g{sup ?1} at a charge/discharge rate of 0.7 C, which maintain of 747 and 738 mA h g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles. Even after 60 cycles at various rates from 0.06 to 14 C, the 10th discharge and charge capacities of the NiO-Ni electrode can revert to 699 and 683 mA h g{sup ?1} when lowering the charge/discharge rate to 0.06 C.

  19. Fault-tolerant battery system employing intra-battery network architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagen, Ronald A.; Chen, Kenneth W.; Comte, Christophe; Knudson, Orlin B.; Rouillard, Jean

    2000-01-01

    A distributed energy storing system employing a communications network is disclosed. A distributed battery system includes a number of energy storing modules, each of which includes a processor and communications interface. In a network mode of operation, a battery computer communicates with each of the module processors over an intra-battery network and cooperates with individual module processors to coordinate module monitoring and control operations. The battery computer monitors a number of battery and module conditions, including the potential and current state of the battery and individual modules, and the conditions of the battery's thermal management system. An over-discharge protection system, equalization adjustment system, and communications system are also controlled by the battery computer. The battery computer logs and reports various status data on battery level conditions which may be reported to a separate system platform computer. A module transitions to a stand-alone mode of operation if the module detects an absence of communication connectivity with the battery computer. A module which operates in a stand-alone mode performs various monitoring and control functions locally within the module to ensure safe and continued operation.

  20. EERE Success Story—Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    EERE-supported graphene nanostructures increases capacity of batteries, improves performance and convenience of electric vehicles.

  1. Comparison of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, B.E.; Lalk, T.R.; Swan, D.H.

    1993-12-31

    Battery technologies of different chemistries, manufacture and geometry were evaluated as candidates for use in Electric Vehicles (EV). The candidate batteries that were evaluated include four single cell and seven multi-cell modules representing four technologies: Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual battery types were used in the evaluations. The batteries were evaluated by conducting performance tests, and by subjecting them to cyclical loading, using a computer controlled charge--discharge cycler, to simulate typical EV driving cycles. Criteria for comparison of batteries were: performance, projected vehicle range, cost, and applicability to various types of EVs. The four battery technologies have individual strengths and weaknesses and each is suited to fill a particular application. None of the batteries tested can fill every EV application.

  2. Sodium Battery | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sodium Battery Technology Improves Performance and Safety Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Sodium Battery Technology Improves Performance and Safety Imagination and innovation have always been in GE's DNA. While exploring the expanded use of hybrid power in the rail, mining and marine industries, GE began

  3. Performance of Nafion® N115, Nafion® NR-212, and Nafion® NR-211 in a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, David M.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Koeppel, Brian J.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-07-01

    Three Nafion membranes of similar composition but different thicknesses were operated in a 3-cell 1kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery. The influence of current density on the charge/discharge characteristics, coulombic and energy efficiency, capacity fade, operating temperature and pressure drop in the flow circuit will be discussed and correlated to the Nafion membrane thickness. Material costs associated with the Nafion membranes, ease of handling the membranes, and performance impacts will also be discussed.

  4. NREL Model Licensed to Improve Accuracy of Battery Simulations - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Model Licensed to Improve Accuracy of Battery Simulations January 14, 2014 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has licensed its Equivalent Circuit Battery Model to software developer ThermoAnalytics for use in its recently updated RadTherm software package. The model is a part of the Battery Module within RadTherm, which is used by engineers to simulate the performance of battery cells and optimize multi-cell pack designs. Before the addition

  5. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile systems, electric vehicles in particular. Battery performance depends on the dynamics of

  6. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile systems, electric vehicles in particular. Battery performance depends on the dynamics of

  7. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile systems, electric vehicles in particular. Battery performance depends on the dynamics of

  8. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile systems, electric vehicles in particular. Battery performance depends on the dynamics of

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Battery Testing Data | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Battery Testing Data Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Battery Testing Data For plug-in electric vehicles to achieve widespread market adoption, vehicle batteries must have excellent real-world performance. Through the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, the Vehicle Technologies Office supports work to test vehicles, including battery packs, in on-road, real-world conditions. The procedure manuals for the pack-level testing are available from the USCAR Electrochemical Energy Storage

  10. Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Discharging |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Discharging Technology available for licensing: Coating increases electrical conductivity of cathode materials Coating does not hinder battery performance Provides two coating processes that yield surface-treated, electro-active materials for a variety of applications, such as in a rechargeable lithium battery in both processes, and primary and secondary lithium battery applications in another process.

  11. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  12. Optima Batteries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Optima Batteries Jump to: navigation, search Name: Optima Batteries Place: Milwaukee, WI Website: www.optimabatteries.com References: Optima Batteries1 Information About...

  13. Improved Electrochemical Performance of Carbon-Coated LiFeBO3 Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhaoping; Wang, Yiping; Hu, Querui; Yang, Ying; Wu, Zhuangchun; Ban, Chunmei

    2015-09-01

    Carbon-coated LiFeBO3 nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling and a size selection process based on centrifugal separation. We observed monodispersed LiFeBO3 nanoparticles with dimensions of 10–20 nm by transmission electron microscope. The introduced surfactant acts as the dispersant as well as the carbon source for LiFeBO3 nanoparticles. Greatly improved discharge capacities of 190.4 mA h g–1 at 0.1 C and 106.6 mA h g–1 at 1 C rate have been achieved in the LiFeBO3 nanoparticles when cycling the cells between 1.0 V and 4.8 V. Meanwhile, the as-prepared micro-size LiFeBO3 electrodes show lower discharge capacities of 142 mA h g–1 and 93.3 mA h g–1 at 0.1 C and 1 C rates. Moreover, the post-treated LiFeBO3 nanostructure has drastically enhanced the electrochemical performance due to the short diffusion length and ameliorated electrical contract between LiFeBO3 nano particles.

  14. A thermal battery operational reliability evaluation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herzberg, M.; Jaeger, M.; Shalev, H.

    1994-12-31

    A thermal battery is a one shot device. Its overall reliability is given as the product of its technical and operational reliability. This work evaluates operational reliability. The operational reliability for various performance requirements was estimated by analyzing data received from qualification tests of a certain thermal battery. A lower bound of its operational reliability was evaluated by use of the statistical tolerance method for each specific electrical performance requirement. A conservative overall lower bound for the operational reliability of the thermal battery was calculated as the product of the individual operational reliability estimates corresponding to each performance requirement.

  15. Lead-acid battery companies join forces with Argonne National Laboratory to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    enhance battery performance | Argonne National Laboratory Lead-acid battery companies join forces with Argonne National Laboratory to enhance battery performance September 1, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint Exploring the unrealized potential of lead batteries is the goal of a new collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and two leading lead recycling and lead battery manufacturing companies, RSR Technologies and East Penn Manufacturing. The collaboration will

  16. Characterization of New Cathode Materials using Synchrotron-based...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of High Energy Density Li-Air Batteries In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High Energy Density Li-Air Batteries Diagnostic Studies to Improve ...

  17. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  18. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2015-07-07

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  19. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2015-09-01

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  20. Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane, Rodney

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the research that was completed under project title Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.

  1. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Xia, Guanguang

    2014-01-14

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  2. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  3. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  4. Improving Battery Design with Electro-Thermal Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Kim, G.-H.; Duong, T.

    2005-08-01

    Temperature greatly affects the performance and life of batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles under real driving conditions, so increased attention is being paid to battery thermal management. Sophisticated electrochemical models and finite element analysis tools are available for predicting the thermal performance of batteries, but each has limitations. In this study we describe an electro-thermal finite element approach that predicts the thermal performance of a cell or module with realistic geometry, material properties, loads, and boundary conditions.

  5. AEA Battery Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom Zip: KW14 7XW Product: Designs, manufactures and supplies specialist lithium-ion high performance cells and batteries. Coordinates: 36.482929, -94.323563 Show...

  6. The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lerner, Louise

    2011-03-28

    A revolutionary breakthrough cathode for lithium-ion batteries—the kind in your cell phone, laptop and new hybrid cars—makes them last longer, run more safely and perform better than batteries currently on the market.

  7. Battery components employing a silicate binder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.; Odinek, Judy G.

    2011-05-24

    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  8. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  9. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign | Department of Energy Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Evaluation of in-use DPFs shows levels of reduction within in-use testing objectives: PM emission reductions >90%, elemental/black

  10. Characterizing the In-Use Emissions Performance of Novel PM and NOx Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies on Diesel Construction Equipment | Department of Energy the In-Use Emissions Performance of Novel PM and NOx Control Technologies on Diesel Construction Equipment Characterizing the In-Use Emissions Performance of Novel PM and NOx Control Technologies on Diesel Construction Equipment Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)

  11. EaglePicher Horizon Batteries LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Place: Dearborn, Michigan Zip: MI 48126 Product: Joint Venture developing, manufacturing and distributing a breakthrough, high performance sealed lead-acid battery....

  12. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... this composite anode exhibits the best performance so far in lithium-ion batteries, while retaining an economical cost and compatibility with existing manufacturing ...

  13. Battery Choices for Different Plug-in HEV Configurations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.

    2006-07-12

    Presents battery choices for different plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configurations to reduce cost and to improve performance and life.

  14. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Mitigating Performance Degradation of High-Energy Lithium-Ion Cells Diagnostic studies on Li-battery cells and cell components Cell Fabrication Facility Team Production and ...

  15. NREL Bolsters Batteries with Nanotubes - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    approach represents an exciting opportunity-improving the performance of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries while make them last longer," Pesaran said. "Increasing the life and...

  16. Innovative Way to Test Batteries Fills a Market Niche | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (IBC 284), developed by NREL and NETZSCH researchers, performs precise thermal measurements needed to design safer, longer-lasting, and more cost-effective battery systems. ...

  17. Four things you may not know about batteries | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... A battery must balance safety, cost, energy, power and overall lifetime for supreme performance. Many of these properties will have to be improved, depending on the intended ...

  18. Anodes for Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, Charles F.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss, "constructive corrosion" as it occurs in power generated devices, specifically batteries.

  19. Katech (Lithium Polymer) 4-Passenger NEV - Range and Battery Testing Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) received a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) from the Korea Automotive Technology Institute (KATECH) for vehicle and battery characterization testing. The KATECH NEV (called the Invita) was equipped with a lithium polymer battery pack from Kokam Engineering. The Invita was to be baseline performance tested by AVTA’s testing partner, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA), at ETA’s contract testing facilities and test track in Phoenix, Arizona, to AVTA’s NEVAmerica testing specifications and procedures. Before and during initial constant speed range testing, the Invita battery pack experienced cell failures, and the onboard charger failed. A Kokamsupplied off-board charger was used in place of the onboard charger to successfully perform a constant speed range test on the Invita. The Invita traveled a total of 47.9 miles in 1 hour 47 minutes, consuming 91.3 amp-hours and 6.19 kilowatt-hours. The Kokam Engineering lithium polymer battery was also scheduled for battery pack characterization testing, including the C/3 energy capacity, dynamic stress, and peak power tests. Testing was stopped during the initial C/3 energy capacity test, however, because the battery pack failed to withstand cycling without cell failures. After the third discharge/charge sequence was completed, it was discovered that Cell 6 had failed, with a voltage reading of 0.5 volts. Cell 6 was replaced, and the testing sequence was restarted. After the second discharge/charge sequence was complete, it was discovered that Cell 1 had failed, with its voltage reading 0.2 volts. At this point it was decided to stop all battery pack testing. During the discharge cycles, the battery pack supplied 102.21, 94.34, and 96.05 amp-hours consecutively before Cell 6 failed. After replacing Cell 6, the battery pack supplied 98.34 and 98.11 amp-hours before Cell 1 failed. The Idaho National Laboratory managed these

  20. Will Your Battery Survive a World With Fast Chargers?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.

    2015-05-04

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that result could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's development of BLAST-V-the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles-to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. We present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. We find that the impact of realistic fast charging on battery degradation is minimal for most drivers, due to the low frequency of use. However, in the absence of active battery cooling systems, a driver's desired utilization of a BEV and fast charging infrastructure can result in unsafe peak battery temperatures. We find that active battery cooling systems can control peak battery temperatures to safe limits while allowing the desired use of the vehicle.

  1. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  2. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-10-29

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  3. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-08-03

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  4. A smart control system for electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arikara, M.P.; Dickinson, B.E.; Branum, B.

    1993-12-31

    A smart control system for electric vehicle (EV) batteries was designed and its performance was evaluated. The hardware for the system was based on the Motorola MC68HC11ENB micro controller. A zinc bromide (Zn/Br{sub 2}) battery was chosen since it is a good candidate as an EV battery and has a large number of user variable parameters that affect its performance. The flexibility of the system arises from the fact that the system can be programmed to do a wide variety of jobs. The use of real time interrupts and other features makes the system safe for use along with the battery systems. Test data indicates that real time control of the different parameters can increase the performance of the battery by 15%. In addition to optimizing the performance of the battery the control system incorporates essential safety features.

  5. Hardware Architecture for Measurements for 50-V Battery Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Bald; Evan Juras; Jon P. Christophersen; William Morrison

    2012-06-01

    Energy storage devices, especially batteries, have become critical for several industries including automotive, electric utilities, military and consumer electronics. With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. Because many of the systems these batteries integrated into are critical, there is an increased need for an accurate in-situ method of monitoring battery state-of-health. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of a compact IMB system that will perform rapid accurate measurements of a battery impedance spectrum working with higher voltage batteries of up to 300 volts. This paper discusses the successful realization of a system that will work up to 50 volts.

  6. AGM Batteries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: AGM Batteries Ltd Place: United Kingdom Product: Manufactures lithium-ion cells and batteries for AEA Battery Systems Ltd. References: AGM Batteries Ltd1...

  7. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-09-25

    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles (EV), including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electrical vehicles. With the increasing demand on devices of high energy densities (>500 Wh/kg) , new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB also attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performances of these energy storage systems depend not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performances characteristics of batteries often have conflict requirements on the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflict requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li-O2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate 1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and 2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties, prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime.

  8. Overview of Battery R&D Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Parker Ranch installation in Hawaii US Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program Overview of Battery R&D Activities May 15, 2012 David Howell Team Lead, Hybrid & Electric Systems Vehicle Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue Washington DC 20585 eere.energy.gov VTP Battery R&D  Battery affordability and performance are the keys. Program targets include: - Increase performance (power, energy, durability) - Reduce weight & volume -

  9. Battery Life Data Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    The FreedomCar Partnership has established life goals for batteries. Among them is a 15 year calendar life. The software and the underlying methodology attempt to predict cell and battery life using, at most, two years of test data. The software uses statistical models based on data from accelerated aging experiments to estimate cell life. The life model reflects the average cell performance under a given set of stress conditions with time. No specific form ofmore » the life model is assumed. The software will fit the model to experimental data. An error model, reflecting the cell-to-cell variability and measurement errors, is included in the software. Monte Carlo simulations, based on the developed models, are used to assess Lack-of-fit and develop uncertainty limis for the average cell life. The software has three operating modes: fit only, fit and simulation and simulation only. The user is given these options by means of means and alert boxes.« less

  10. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

    2013-10-01

    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

  11. Redox Flow Batteries: An Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalamala, Babu R.; Soundappan, Thiagarajan; Fisher, Graham R.; Anstey, Mitchell A.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Perry, Mike L.

    2014-10-01

    Redox flow batteries are well suited to provide modular and scalable energy storage systems for a wide range of energy storage applications. In this paper, we review the development of redox flow battery technology including recent advances in new redox active materials and systems. We discuss cost, performance, and reliability metrics that are critical for deployment of large flow battery systems. The technology, while relatively young, has the potential for significant improvement through reduced materials costs, improved energy and power efficiency, and significant reduction in the overall system cost.

  12. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  13. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-10-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single-blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. Different PDPs evaluate the analyses of simulated headspace gases (HSGs), constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  14. Standard Missile Block IV battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.

    1996-11-01

    During the 1980`s a trend in automatic primary battery technologies was the replacement of silver-zinc batteries by thermal battery designs. The Standard missile (SM 2) Block IV development is a noteworthy reversal of this trend. The SM2, Block IV battery was originally attempted as a thermal battery with multiple companies attempting to develop a thermal battery design. These attempts resulted in failure to obtain a production thermal battery. A decision to pursue a silver-zinc battery design resulted in the development of a battery to supply the SM 2, Block IV (thermal battery design goal) and also the projected power requirements of the evolving SM 2, Block IVA in a single silver-zinc battery design. Several advancements in silver-zinc battery technology were utilized in this design that improve the producibility and extend the boundaries of silver-zinc batteries.

  15. U.S. DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chet Motloch; Ira D. Bloom; Vince Battaglia; Ganesan Nagasubramanian; Tien Q. Duong

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program is currently evaluating the performance of the second generation of Lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells consist of a baseline chemistry and one variant chemistry. These cells were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOC) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar-life cells are clamped at an opencircuit voltage corresponding to 60% SOC and undergo a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells are continuously pulsed using a profile that is centered around 60% SOC. The accelerated-life cells are following the calendar-life test procedures, but using the cycle-life pulse profile. Life testing is interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to quantify changes in capacity, resistance, and power. The RPTs consist of a C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at 60% SOC. Capacity-, power-, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-based performance results are reported.

  16. The Science of Battery Degradation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, John P; Fenton, Kyle R; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Harris, Charles Thomas; Hayden, Carl C.; Hudak, Nicholas; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse; Leung, Kevin; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Sugar, Joshua Daniel; Talin, Albert Alec; Tenney, Craig M; Zavadil, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  17. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  18. Battery/Heat Engine Vehicle Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-03-01

    MARVEL performs least-life-cycle-cost analyses of battery/heat engine/hybrid vehicle systems to determine the combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and missions. Simplified models are used for the transmission, motor/generator, controller, and other vehicle components, while a rather comprehensive model is used for the battery. Battery relationships available include the Ragone curve, peak power versus specific energy and depth-of-discharge (DOD), cycle life versus DOD, effects of battery scale, and capacity recuperation duemore » to intermittent driving patterns. Energy management in the operation of the vehicle is based on the specified mission requirements, type and size of the battery, allowable DOD, size of the heat engine, and the management strategy employed. Several optional management strategies are available in MARVEL. The program can be used to analyze a pure electric vehicle, a pure heat engine vehicle, or a hybrid vehicle that employs batteries as well as a heat engine. Cost comparisons for these vehicles can be made on the same basis. Input data for MARVEL are contained in three files generated by the user using three preprocessors which are included. MVDATA processes vehicle specification and mission requirements information, while MBDATA creates a file containing specific peak power as a function of specific energy and DOD, and MPDATA produces the file containing vehicle velocity specification data based on driving cycle information.« less

  19. Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-ion Batteries by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Mehdi, Beata L.; Parent, Lucas R.; Gu, Meng; Park, Chiwoo; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Yaohui; Arslan, Ilke; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-02-21

    One of the goals in the development of new battery technologies is to find new electrolytes with increased electrochemical stability. In-situ (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) using an electrochemical fluid cell provides the ability to rapidly and directly characterize electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactions under battery relevant electrochemical conditions. Furthermore, as the electron beam itself causes a localized electrochemical reaction when it interacts with the electrolyte, the breakdown products that occur during the first stages of battery operation can potentially be simulated and characterized using a straightforward in-situ liquid stage (without electrochemical biasing capabilities). In this paper, we have studied the breakdown of a range of inorganic/salt complexes that are used in state-of-the-art Li-ion battery systems. The results of the in-situ (S)TEM experiments matches with previous stability tests performed during battery operation and the breakdown products and mechanisms are also consistent with known mechanisms. This analysis indicates that in-situ liquid stage (S)TEM observations can be used to directly test new electrolyte designs and provide structural insights into the origin of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation mechanism.

  20. Development of 8 kWh Zinc bromide battery as a precursor of battery for electric power storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, T.; Ando, Y.; Fujii, E.; Hirotu, A.; Ito, H.; Kanazashi, M.; Misaki, H.; Yamamoto, A.

    1984-08-01

    Zinc bromide battery is characterized with its room temperature operation, simple construction and easy maintenance. After four years' research and development of electrode materials, electrolyte composition, battery stack construction and other components, we prepared 1 kW class (8 kWh) battery for the first interim official evaluation. This battery showed a good and stable energy efficiency of 80% after 130 cycles of 1.25 kW 8 hours charge and 1.0 kW 8 hours discharge.

  1. Anti-Idling Battery for Truck Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith Kelly

    2011-09-30

    In accordance to the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001036, the objective of this project was to develop an advanced high voltage lithium-ion battery for use in an all-electric HVAC system for Class-7-8 heavy duty trucks. This system will help heavy duty truck drivers meet the tough new anti-idling laws being implemented by over 23 states. Quallion will be partnering with a major OEM supplier of HVAC systems to develop this system. The major OEM supplier will provide Quallion the necessary interface requirements and HVAC hardware to ensure successful testing of the all-electric system. At the end of the program, Quallion will deliver test data on three (3) batteries as well as test data for the prototype HVAC system. The objectives of the program are: (1) Battery Development - Objective 1 - Define battery and electronics specifications in preparation for building the prototype module. (Completed - summary included in report) and Objective 2 - Establish a functional prototype battery and characterize three batteries in-house. (Completed - photos and data included in report); (2) HVAC Development - Objective 1 - Collaborate with manufacturers to define HVAC components, layout, and electronics in preparation for establishing the prototype system. (Completed - photos and data included in report) and Objective 2 - Acquire components for three functional prototypes for use by Quallion. (Completed - photos and data included in report).

  2. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  3. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  4. Lithium battery management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  5. ETA-UTP010 - Measurement and Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurement and Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Battery Charger Performance Prepared by ... 6 5.5 End of Charge Determination 6 6.0 Battery Charger Evaluation 8 7.0 Charging ...

  6. ETA-NTP010 Measurement and Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Battery Charger Performance Prepared by Electric ... 3 5.0 Charger Operation 4 6.0 Battery Charger Evaluation 7 7.0 Out Of Service ...

  7. GBP Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GBP Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: GBP Battery Place: China Product: Shenzhen-China-based maker of Li-Poly and Li-ion batteries suitable for EVs and other applications....

  8. Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture ... Contact: John Hules, JAHules@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 6008 2011-01-11-Heat-Battery.jpg A ...

  9. Ambient temperature thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, A. N.; Bliss, D. E.; McManis III

    1985-11-26

    An ambient temperature thermal battery having two relatively high temperature melting electrolytes which form a low melting temperature electrolyte upon activation.

  10. Silicon nanowires used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prosini, Pier Paolo; Rufoloni, Alessandro; Rondino, Flaminia; Santoni, Antonino

    2015-06-23

    In this paper the synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowires to be used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery cell are reported. The nanowires were synthesized by CVD and characterized by SEM. The nanostructured material was used as an electrode in a lithium cell and its electrochemical properties were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at C/10 rate as a function of the cycle number and at various rates as a function of the charge current. The electrode was then coupled with a LiFePO{sub 4} cathode to fabricate a lithium-ion battery cell and the cell performance evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles.

  11. Battery and Thermal Energy Storage | Energy Systems Integration | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery and Thermal Energy Storage Not long ago, the mantra among electric utilities was that "you can't store electricity"-instantaneous power production had to nearly equal demand. But NREL research is changing this belief, demonstrating the high performance of grid-integrated battery and thermal energy storage technologies. Photo of a battery energy storage system NREL examines how best to integrate these energy storage technologies into the electrical grid and potentially into

  12. Battery SEAB Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery SEAB Presentation Battery SEAB Presentation Battery SEAB Presentation (1.43 MB) More Documents & Publications Overview of Battery R&D Activities Hybrid Electric Systems Overview of Battery R&D Activities

  13. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion ... In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the ... characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to ...

  14. Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes ...

  15. Phylion Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phylion Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: Phylion Battery Place: Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 215011 Sector: Vehicles Product: Jiangsu-province-based producer of...

  16. Battery Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Ventures (Boston) Name: Battery Ventures (Boston) Address: 930 Winter Street, Suite 2500 Place: Waltham, Massachusetts Zip: 02451 Region: Greater Boston Area Product:...

  17. Prieto Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Zip: 80526 Product: Colorado-based startup company that is developing lithium ion batteries based on nano-structured materials. References: Prieto Battery1 This...

  18. Consortium for Advanced Battery Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery Simulation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ...

  19. Battery Anodes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center at Cornell Anodes Introduction The anode is the negative electrode of a primary cell and is always associated with the oxidation or the release of electrons into the external circuit. In a rechargeable cell, the anode is the negative pole during discharge and the positive pole during charge. Lithium Anode The anode in the battery deserves an equal say in the overall performance of a battery. For an effective development of a high energy density battery, the use of high capacity

  20. Battery separator assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faust, M.A.; Suchanski, M.R.; Osterhoudt, H.W.

    1988-05-03

    A separator assembly for use in batteries is described comprising a film bearing a thermal fuse in the form of a layer of wax coated fibers; wherein the assembly is sufficiently porous to allow continuous flow of ions in the battery.

  1. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  2. Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of Pure LiFePO 4 and Nanocomposite C- LiFePO 4 Cathodes for Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, Arun; Thomas, R.; Karan, N. K.; Saavedra-Arias, J. J.; Singh, M. K.; Majumder, S. B.; Tomar, M. S.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Pure limore » thium iron phosphate ( LiFePO 4 ) and carbon-coated LiFePO 4 (C- LiFePO 4 ) cathode materials were synthesized for Li-ion batteries. Structural and electrochemical properties of these materials were compared. X-ray diffraction revealed orthorhombic olivine structure. Micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates amorphous carbon, and TEM micrographs show carbon coating on LiFePO 4 particles. Ex situ Raman spectrum of C- LiFePO 4 at various stages of charging and discharging showed reversibility upon electrochemical cycling. The cyclic voltammograms of LiFePO 4 and C- LiFePO 4 showed only a pair of peaks corresponding to the anodic and cathodic reactions. The first discharge capacities were 63, 43, and 13 mAh/g for C/5, C/3, and C/2, respectively for LiFePO 4 where as in case of C- LiFePO 4 that were 163, 144, 118, and 70 mAh/g for C/5, C/3, C/2, and 1C, respectively. The capacity retention of pure LiFePO 4 was 69% after 25 cycles where as that of C- LiFePO 4 was around 97% after 50 cycles. These results indicate that the capacity and the rate capability improved significantly upon carbon coating.« less

  3. Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of PureLiFePO4and Nanocomposite C-LiFePO4Cathodes for Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, Arun; Thomas, R.; Karan, N. K.; Saavedra-Arias, J. J.; Singh, M. K.; Majumder, S. B.; Tomar, M. S.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Pure lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) and carbon-coatedLiFePO4(C-LiFePO4) cathode materials were synthesized for Li-ion batteries. Structural and electrochemical properties of these materials were compared. X-ray diffraction revealed orthorhombic olivine structure. Micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates amorphous carbon, and TEM micrographs show carbon coating onLiFePO4particles. Ex situ Raman spectrum of C-LiFePO4at various stages of charging and discharging showed reversibility upon electrochemical cycling. The cyclic voltammograms ofLiFePO4and C-LiFePO4showed only a pair of peaks corresponding to the anodic and cathodic reactions. The first discharge capacities were 63, 43, and 13?mAh/g for C/5, C/3, and C/2, respectively forLiFePO4where as in case of C-LiFePO4that were 163, 144,more118, and 70?mAh/g for C/5, C/3, C/2, and 1C, respectively. The capacity retention of pureLiFePO4was 69% after 25 cycles where as that of C-LiFePO4was around 97% after 50 cycles. These results indicate that the capacity and the rate capability improved significantly upon carbon coating.less

  4. An overview of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project field test program for evaluating seal performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), a participant in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, is responsible for implementing the repository sealing program. One aspect of this program is the definition and fielding of tests related to sealing components which comprise the sealing subsystem. The sealing components are identified in the Site Characterization Plan (U.S. DOE, 1988) and Fernandez et al. (1987). These include an anchor-to-bedrock plug, single dams (or single bulkheads with not settlement), general shaft fill, drift backfill, station and shaft plugs, double bulkheads, backfilled sumps, and channels in a backfilled room. The materials used to create these components are cementitious and earthen. Earthen materials will be used for as many applications as possible to minimize potential degradation of physical properties and potential adverse effects on ground-water chemistry in the repository environment. In places where low strength is acceptable, earthen materials may be used. The most likely application for cementitious materials is where high strength and low deformability may be required. (Hinkebein and Fernandez, 1989). The basis for performing seal component testing is divided into two parts: regulatory requirements and technical requirements. The regulatory requirements are derived primarily from Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 60 (10 CFR 60) (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1986). The technical requirements are defined by the uncertainties associated with seal performance and seal emplacement. Both categories of requirements are discussed below.

  5. Workload Characterization and Performance Implications of Large-Scale Blog Servers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeon, Myeongjae; Kim, Youngjae; Hwang, Jaeho; Lee, Joonwon; Seo, Euiseong

    2012-01-01

    With the ever-increasing popularity of social network services (SNSs), an understanding of the characteristics of these services and their effects on the behavior of their host servers is critical. However, there has been a lack of research on the workload characterization of servers running SNS applications such as blog services. To fill this void, we empirically characterized real-world web server logs collected from one of the largest South Korean blog hosting sites for 12 consecutive days. The logs consist of more than 96 million HTTP requests and 4.7 TB of network traffic. Our analysis reveals the followings: (i) The transfer size of non-multimedia files and blog articles can be modeled using a truncated Pareto distribution and a log-normal distribution, respectively; (ii) User access for blog articles does not show temporal locality, but is strongly biased towards those posted with image or audio files. We additionally discuss the potential performance improvement through clustering of small files on a blog page into contiguous disk blocks, which benefits from the observed file access patterns. Trace-driven simulations show that, on average, the suggested approach achieves 60.6% better system throughput and reduces the processing time for file access by 30.8% compared to the best performance of the Ext4 file system.

  6. Battery Test Manual For 12 Volt Start/Stop Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belt, Jeffrey R.

    2015-05-01

    This manual was prepared by and for the United Stated Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Electrochemical Energy Storage Team. It is based on the targets established for 12 Volt Start/Stop energy storage development and is similar (with some important changes) to an earlier manual for the former FreedomCAR program. The specific procedures were developed primarily to characterize the performance of energy storage devices relative to the USABC requirements. However, it is anticipated that these procedures will have some utility for characterizing 12 Volt Start/Stop hybrid energy storage device behavior in general.

  7. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.

    2014-12-01

    The deployment and use of lithium-ion batteries in automotive and stationary energy storage applications must be optimized to justify their high up-front costs. Given that batteries degrade with use and storage, such optimizations must evaluate many years of operation. As the degradation mechanisms are sensitive to temperature, state-of-charge histories, current levels, and cycle depth and frequency, it is important to model both the battery and the application to a high level of detail to ensure battery response is accurately predicted. To address these issues, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) suite of tools. This suite of tools pairs NREL's high-fidelity battery degradation model with a battery electrical and thermal performance model, application-specific electrical and thermal performance models of the larger system (e.g., an electric vehicle), application-specific system use data (e.g., vehicle travel patterns and driving data), and historic climate data from cities across the United States. This provides highly realistic, long-term predictions of battery response and thereby enables quantitative comparisons of varied battery use strategies.

  8. Characterizing performances of solder paste printing process at flexible manufacturing lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siew, Jit Ping; Low, Heng Chin; Teoh, Ping Chow

    2015-02-03

    Solder paste printing (SPP) has been a challenge on printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing, evident by the proliferation of solder paste inspection equipment, or substituted by rigorous non-value added activity of manual inspections. The objective of this study is to characterize the SPP performance of various products manufactured in flexible production lines with different equipment configurations, and determine areas for process improvement. The study began by collecting information on SPP performance relative to component placement (CP) process, and to the proportion of mixed products. Using a clustering algorithm to group similar elements together, SPP performance across all product-production line pairs are statistically modeled to discover the trend and the influential factors. The main findings are: (a) Ratio of overall dpku for CP and SPP processes are 2:1; (b) logistic regression models of SPP performance indicated that only effects of product-production line and solder paste printer configuration are significant; (c) PCB circuitry design with BGA components and single solder paste printer line configurations generated the highest monthly defects, with the highest variation in the latter.

  9. Performance Characterization and Remedy of Experimental CuInGaSe2 Mini-Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Mansfield, L.; Glynn, S.; Rekow, M.; Murion, R.

    2011-07-01

    We employed current-voltage (I-V), quantum efficiency (QE), photoluminescence (PL), electroluminescence (EL), lock-in thermography (LIT), and (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) to complementarily characterize the performance and remedy for two pairs of experimental CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) mini-modules. One pair had the three scribe-lines (P1/P2/P3) done by a single pulse-programmable laser, and the other had the P2/P3 lines by mechanical scribe. Localized QE measurements for each cell strip on all four mini-modules showed non-uniform distributions that correlated well with the presence of performance-degrading strips or spots revealed by PL, EL, and LIT imaging. Performance of the all-laser-scribed mini-modules improved significantly by adding a thicker Al-doped ZnO layer and reworking the P3 line. The efficiency on one of the all-laser-scribed mini-modules increased notably from 7.80% to 8.56% after the performance-degrading spots on the side regions along the cell array were isolated by manual scribes.

  10. Self-Charging Battery Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yager, Eric

    2007-07-25

    In March 2006, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was formed between Fauton Tech, Inc. and INL to develop a prototype for a commercial application that incorporates some INL-developed Intellectual Properties (IP). This report presents the results of the work performed at INL during Phase 1. The objective of Phase 1 was to construct a prototype battery in a D cell form factor, determine optimized internal components for a baseline configuration using a standard coil design, perform a series of tests on the baseline configuration, and document the test results in a logbook.

  11. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakout Session Report | Department of Energy Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree OHare, Chicago, IL. report_out-next-generation_li-ion_b.pdf (136.48 KB) More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion

  12. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  13. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Karner

    2012-04-01

    The UltraBattery retrofit project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs).

  14. Robotic thermal battery pellet fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbler, D.L.; Townsend, A.S.; Walton, R.D.; Jones, C.W.

    1985-03-01

    Thermal battery manufacturing at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) is a sequence of operations involving materials processing, component manufacture, and assembly. These operations, for the most part, have been manually performed although some operations have been computer- or fixture-assisted. The high labor intensity and the need for process consistency in these operations made the conversion to a robotic work cell appealing in that it could increase productivity while allowing the reassignment of highly-trained workers to other duties. An Alpha robot (Microbot, Inc.) was coupled with a Hewlett-Packard HP-9816 microcomputer, and custom software was developed to control the thermal battery manufacturing process. The software provided a menu-driven main program with feedback at virtually every step to allow technicians with little or no computer experience to operate the system. Previously, one or two workers were assigned to each of several industrial presses used in the manufacture of thermal batteries. With the introduction of a robotic operator and a microcomputer process control, one worker alone could support two to three presses, thus freeing as many as five workers to be assigned to other labor intensive duties. The production rate of the robotic work cell was approximately the same as the manual method, but the consistency of production and yield showed significant improvement.

  15. Polymeric battery separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchak, R. J.; Schenk, W. N.

    1985-06-11

    Configurations of cross-linked or vulcanized amphophilic or quaternized block copolymer of haloalkyl epoxides and hydroxyl terminated alkadiene polymers are useful as battery separators in both primary and secondary batteries, particularly nickel-zinc batteries. The quaternized block copolymers are prepared by polymerizing a haloalkyl epoxide in the presence of a hydroxyl terminated 1,3-alkadiene to form a block copolymer that is then reacted with an amine to form the quaternized or amphophilic block copolymer that is then cured or cross-linked with sulfur, polyamines, metal oxides, organic peroxides and the like.

  16. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: Exploratory Battery Materials R&D | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office: Exploratory Battery Materials R&D Vehicle Technologies Office: Exploratory Battery Materials R&D Lowering the cost and improving the performance of batteries for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) requires improving every part of the battery, from underlying chemistry to packaging. To reach the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge goal of making plug-in electric vehicles as affordable and practical as a 2012 baseline conventional vehicle by 2022, the

  18. GP Batteries International Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Limited is principally engaged in the development, manufacture and marketing of batteries and battery-related products. References: GP Batteries International...

  19. RPM Flywheel Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RPM Flywheel Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: RPM Flywheel Battery Place: California Product: Start-up planning to develop, produce, and market flywheel batteries for...

  20. Ford Electric Battery Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Battery Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ford Electric Battery Group Place: Dearborn, MI References: Ford Battery1 Information About Partnership with NREL...

  1. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  2. Carbon Micro Battery LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro Battery LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC Place: California Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC, technology developer of micro and...

  3. Intellect Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Intellect Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Intellect Battery Co Ltd Place: Guangdong Province, China Product: Producer of NiMH rechargeable batteries and...

  4. Advanced Battery Factory | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Factory Place: Shen Zhen City, Guangdong Province, China Product: Producers of lithium polymer batteries, established in 1958. References: Advanced Battery Factory1 This...

  5. Ningbo Veken Battery Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Ningbo Veken Battery Company Place: China Product: Ningbo-based maker of Lithium polymer, aluminum-shell and lithium power batteries. References: Ningbo Veken Battery...

  6. Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make ...

  7. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries Lithium-ion battery ...

  8. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone ...

  9. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes Computations at NERSC show how multiply charged metal ions impact battery capacity ...

  10. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    es_02_barnett.pdf (615.99 KB) More Documents & Publications PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV and LEESS Battery Cost Assessment

  11. Batteries and Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPOTLIGHT Batteries and Energy Storage Argonne's all- encompassing battery research ... We develop more robust, safer and higher-energy density lithium-ion batteries, while using ...

  12. Depletion Aggregation > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries & Fuel Cells In This Section Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation Membranes Depletion Aggregation We are exploring a number of synthetic strategies to ...

  13. Laor Batteries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laor Batteries Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Laor Batteries Ltd. Place: Upper Nazareth, Israel Zip: 17105 Product: develops and distributes lead-acid batteries for variety...

  14. Aerospatiale Batteries ASB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aerospatiale Batteries ASB Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aerospatiale Batteries (ASB) Place: France Product: Research, design and manufacture of Thermal Batteries. References:...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Dramatically Improve the Safety Performance of Li Ion Battery Separators and Reduce the Manufacturing Cost Using UV Curing and High Precision Coating Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Miltec UV International at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  16. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-01-31

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP for boxed waste assay systems. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAOs). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the boxed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a modified standard waste box (SWB) emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. An SWB is a waste box with ends designed specifically to fit the TRUPACT-II shipping container. SWBs will be used to package a substantial volume of the TRU waste for disposal. These PDP sample components

  17. Thermal Performance and Reliability Characterization of Bonded Interface Materials (BIMs): Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVoto, D.; Paret, P.; Mihalic, M.; Narumanchi, S.; Bar-Cohen, A.; Matin, K.

    2014-08-01

    Thermal interface materials are an important enabler for low thermal resistance and reliable electronics packaging for a wide array of applications. There is a trend towards bonded interface materials (BIMs) because of their potential for low thermal resistivity (< 1 mm2K/W). However, BIMs induce thermomechanical stresses in the package and can be prone to failures and integrity risks. Deteriorated interfaces can result in high thermal resistance in the package and degradation and/or failure of the electronics. DARPA's Thermal Management Technologies program has addressed this challenge, supporting the development of mechanically-compliant, low resistivity nano-thermal interface (NTI) materials. In this work, we describe the testing procedure and report the results of NREL's thermal performance and reliability characterization of an initial sample of four different NTI-BIMs.

  18. Computer model for characterizing, screening, and optimizing electrolyte systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gering, Kevin L.

    2015-06-15

    Electrolyte systems in contemporary batteries are tasked with operating under increasing performance requirements. All battery operation is in some way tied to the electrolyte and how it interacts with various regions within the cell environment. Seeing the electrolyte plays a crucial role in battery performance and longevity, it is imperative that accurate, physics-based models be developed that will characterize key electrolyte properties while keeping pace with the increasing complexity of these liquid systems. Advanced models are needed since laboratory measurements require significant resources to carry out for even a modest experimental matrix. The Advanced Electrolyte Model (AEM) developed at the INL is a proven capability designed to explore molecular-to-macroscale level aspects of electrolyte behavior, and can be used to drastically reduce the time required to characterize and optimize electrolytes. Although it is applied most frequently to lithium-ion battery systems, it is general in its theory and can be used toward numerous other targets and intended applications. This capability is unique, powerful, relevant to present and future electrolyte development, and without peer. It redefines electrolyte modeling for highly-complex contemporary systems, wherein significant steps have been taken to capture the reality of electrolyte behavior in the electrochemical cell environment. This capability can have a very positive impact on accelerating domestic battery development to support aggressive vehicle and energy goals in the 21st century.

  19. Computer model for characterizing, screening, and optimizing electrolyte systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-06-15

    Electrolyte systems in contemporary batteries are tasked with operating under increasing performance requirements. All battery operation is in some way tied to the electrolyte and how it interacts with various regions within the cell environment. Seeing the electrolyte plays a crucial role in battery performance and longevity, it is imperative that accurate, physics-based models be developed that will characterize key electrolyte properties while keeping pace with the increasing complexity of these liquid systems. Advanced modelsmore » are needed since laboratory measurements require significant resources to carry out for even a modest experimental matrix. The Advanced Electrolyte Model (AEM) developed at the INL is a proven capability designed to explore molecular-to-macroscale level aspects of electrolyte behavior, and can be used to drastically reduce the time required to characterize and optimize electrolytes. Although it is applied most frequently to lithium-ion battery systems, it is general in its theory and can be used toward numerous other targets and intended applications. This capability is unique, powerful, relevant to present and future electrolyte development, and without peer. It redefines electrolyte modeling for highly-complex contemporary systems, wherein significant steps have been taken to capture the reality of electrolyte behavior in the electrochemical cell environment. This capability can have a very positive impact on accelerating domestic battery development to support aggressive vehicle and energy goals in the 21st century.« less

  20. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  1. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. 2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima HEV, number 2351 (VIN 1N4CL21E87C172351). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec). The Idaho National Laboratory and eTec conduct the AVTA for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program.

  3. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  4. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  5. Battery Life Predictive Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a model used to predict battery capacity fade and resistance growth for arbitrary cycling and temperature profiles. It allows the user to extrapolate from experimental data to predict actual life cycle.

  6. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  7. NANOWIRE CATHODE MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Olson, PhD

    2004-07-21

    This project involved the synthesis of nanowire -MnO2 and characterization as cathode material for high-power lithium-ion batteries for EV and HEV applications. The nanowire synthesis involved the edge site decoration nanowire synthesis developed by Dr. Reginald Penner at UC Irvine (a key collaborator in this project). Figure 1 is an SEM image showing -MnO2 nanowires electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes. This technique is unique to other nanowire template synthesis techniques in that it produces long (>500 um) nanowires which could reduce or eliminate the need for conductive additives due to intertwining of fibers. Nanowire cathode for lithium-ion batteries with surface areas 100 times greater than conventional materials can enable higher power batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The synthesis of the -MnO2 nanowires was successfully achieved. However, it was not found possible to co-intercalate lithium directly in the nanowire synthesis. Based on input from proposal reviewers, the scope of the project was altered to attempt the conversion into spinel LiMn2O4 nanowire cathode material by solid state reaction of the -MnO2 nanowires with LiNO3 at elevated temperatures. Attempts to perform the conversion on the graphite template were unsuccessful due to degradation of the graphite apparently caused by oxidative attack by LiNO3. Emphasis then shifted to quantitative removal of the nanowires from the graphite, followed by the solid state reaction. Attempts to quantitatively remove the nanowires by several techniques were unsatisfactory due to co-removal of excess graphite or poor harvesting of nanowires. Intercalation of lithium into -MnO2 electrodeposited onto graphite was demonstrated, showing a partial demonstration of the -MnO2 material as a lithium-ion battery cathode material. Assuming the issues of nanowires removal can be solved, the technique does offer potential for creating high

  8. battery2.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-1982J Solid-State Environmentally Safe Battery for Replacing Lithium Batteries 1. Submitting Organization Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800, MS 1033 Albuquerque, NM USA 87158-1033 Randy A. Normann (505) 845-9675, (505) 844-3952 (fax), ranorma@sandia.gov Affi rmation I affi rm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is fair and accurate representation of this product. ________________________________________________________________ Submitter Signature

  9. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport- Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, Harold; Geelhood, Ken; Koeppel, Brian; Coleman, Justin; Bignell, John; Flores, Gregg; Wang, Jy-An; Sanborn, Scott; Spears, Robert; Klymyshyn, Nick

    2013-09-30

    This document addresses Oak Ridge National Laboratory milestone M2FT-13OR0822015 Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Nuclear Fuel Performance Characterization. This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies that have been performed. Finally, discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this initiative are provided.

  10. Sodium/nickel-chloride battery development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redey, L.; Prakash, J.; Vissers, D.R.; Dowgiallo, E.J.

    1994-02-28

    The performance of the Ni/NiCl{sub 2} positive electrode for the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery has been significantly improved compared to that of our earlier electrodes, representative for 1990. This improvement has been achieved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even at 250{degrees}C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by the conventional interrupted galvanostatic method and under simulated driving profiles. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40- to 60-kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with the already highly developed sodium/{beta}{double_prime}-alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150--400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110--200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, mid-temperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.

  11. PERFORMANCE OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE COULOMETER FOR NEPTUNIUM PROCESSACCOUNTABILITY AND NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PRODUCT CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, M; Patterson Nuessle, P; Sheldon Nichols, S; Joe Cordaro, J; George Reeves, G

    2008-06-04

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) H-Area B-Line (HB-Line) nuclear facility is processing neptunium solutions for stabilization as an oxide. The oxide will eventually be reprocessed and fabricated into target material and the 237Np irradiated to produce {sup 238}Pu in support of National Aeronautics and Space Administration space program missions. As part of nuclear materials accountability, solution concentrations were measured using a high-precision controlled-potential coulometer developed and manufactured at the SRS for plutonium accountability measurements. The Savannah River Site Coulometer system and measurement methodology for plutonium meets performance standards in ISO 12183-2005, 'Controlled-Potential Coulometric Assay of Plutonium'. The Department of Energy (DOE) does not produce or supply a neptunium metal certified reference material, which makes qualifying a measurement method and determining accuracy and precision difficult. Testing and performance of the Savannah River Site Coulometer indicates that it can be used to measure neptunium process solutions and dissolved neptunium oxide without purification for material control and accountability purposes. Savannah River Site's Material Control and Accountability organization has accepted the method uncertainty for accountability and product characterization measurements.

  12. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, María V.; Falco, Lorena R.; Peluso, Miguel A.; Sambeth, Jorge E.; Thomas, Horacio J.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Manganese oxides were synthesized using spent batteries as raw materials. • Spent alkaline and zinc–carbon size AA batteries were used. • A biohydrometallurgical process was employed to bio-lixiviate batteries. • Manganese oxides were active in the oxidation of VOCs (ethanol and heptane). - Abstract: Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO{sub 4} solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnO{sub x} synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn{sup 4+} cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200 °C, while heptane requires more than 400 °C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO{sub 2}. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  13. Update on the Battery Projects at NREL (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, S.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-10-01

    NREL collaborates with industry, universities, and other national laboratories as part of the DOE integrated Energy Storage Program to develop advanced batteries for vehicle applications. Our efforts are focused in the following areas: thermal characterization and analysis, evaluation of thermal abuse tolerance via modeling and experimental analysis, and implications on battery life and cost. Our activities support DOE goals, FreedomCAR targets, the USABC Tech Team, and battery developers. We develop tools to support the industry, both through one-on-one collaborations and by dissemination of information in the form of presentations in conferences and journal publications.

  14. Category:Battery makers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery makers Jump to: navigation, search Pages in category "Battery makers" The following 5 pages are in this category, out of 5 total. B Battery Ventures F Ford Electric Battery...

  15. Nickel coated aluminum battery cell tabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucchi, Robert S.; Casoli, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Nicotina, Joseph

    2014-07-29

    A battery cell tab is described. The battery cell tab is anodized on one end and has a metal coating on the other end. Battery cells and methods of making battery cell tabs are also described.

  16. New sealed rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, B.M. ); Dowgiallo, E. ); Halpert, G. ); Matsuda, Y. ); Takehara, Z.I. )

    1993-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: supercapacitors; nickel-metal hydride batteries; lithium polymer batteries; lithium/carbon batteries; cathode materials; and lithium batteries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers of this conference.

  17. BLE: Battery Life Estimator | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BLE: Battery Life Estimator BLE: Battery Life Estimator Argonne's Battery Life Estimator (BLE) software is a state-of-the-art tool kit for fitting battery aging data and for ...

  18. Uranium Battery Development Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunbar, Paul D; Lee-Desautels, Rhonda

    2007-06-01

    This report summarizes the research funded by the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Labs, and the Kentucky Science and Engineering Foundation. This report briefly presents the theory behind our experimental methods and the most important experiments that were performed. This research focused on the reuse of uranium materials in lithium ion batteries. The majority of experiments involved lithium salts and organic solvents.

  19. Battery Technology Life Verification Testing and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Gary L. Hunt; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2007-12-01

    A critical component to the successful commercialization of batteries for automotive applications is accurate life prediction. The Technology Life Verification Test (TLVT) Manual was developed to project battery life with a high level of statistical confidence within only one or two years of accelerated aging. The validation effort that is presently underway has led to several improvements to the original methodology. For example, a newly developed reference performance test revealed a voltage path dependence effect on resistance for lithium-ion cells. The resistance growth seems to depend on how a target condition is reached (i.e., by a charge or a discharge). Second, the methodology for assessing the level of measurement uncertainty was improved using a propagation of errors in the fundamental measurements to the derived response (e.g., resistance). This new approach provides a more realistic assessment of measurement uncertainty. Third, the methodology for allocating batteries to the test matrix has been improved. The new methodology was developed to assign batteries to the matrix such that the average of each test group would be representative of the overall population. These changes to the TLVT methodology will help to more accurately predict a battery technology’s life capability with a high degree of confidence.

  20. Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of ...

  1. Battery, heal thyself: Inventing self-repairing batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery, heal thyself: Inventing self-repairing batteries By Louise Lerner * January 11, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Imagine dropping your phone on the hard concrete sidewalk-but when...

  2. Testimonials- Partnerships in Battery Technologies- CalBattery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Phil Roberts, CEO and Founder of California Lithium Battery (CalBattery), describes the new growth and development that was possible through partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, andmore » solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.« less

  4. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  5. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  6. Battery venting system and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  7. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following

  8. AVTA: Battery Testing - Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testbed | Department of Energy Battery Testing - Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed AVTA: Battery Testing - Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future

  9. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  10. Circulating current battery heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  11. Thin-film lithium batteries highlighted at OSTI | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed just such a high-performance thin-film lithium battery for a variety of technological applications. ...

  12. Battery availability for near-term (1998) electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, A.F.

    1991-06-01

    Battery Requirements were determined for a wide spectrum of electric vehicles ranging from 2-passenger sports cars and microvans to full-size vans with a payload of 500 kg. All the vehicles utilize ac, high voltage (340--360 V) powertrains and have acceleration performance (0--80 km/h in less than 15 seconds) expected to be the norm in 1988 electric vehicles. Battery packs were configured for each of the vehicles using families of sealed lead-acid and nickel-cadmium modules which are either presently available in limited quantities or are being developed by battery companies which market a similar battery technology. It was found that the battery families available encompass the Ah cell sizes required for the various vehicles and that they could be packaged in the space available in each vehicle. The acceleration performance and range of the vehicles were calculated using the SIMPLEV simulation program. The results showed that all the vehicles had the required acceleration characteristics and ranges between 80--160 km (50--100 miles) with the ranges using nickel-cadmium batteries being 40--60% greater than those using lead-acid batteries. Significant changes in the design of electric vehicles over the last fifteen years are noted. These changes make the design of the batteries more difficult by increasing the peak power density required from about 60 W/kg to 100--150 W/kg and by reducing the Ah cell size needed from about 150 Ah to 30--70 Ah. Both of these changes in battery specifications increase the difficulty of achieving low $/kWh cost and long cycle life. This true for both lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries. 25 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Techno-Economic Analysis of PEV Battery Second Use: Repurposed-Battery Selling Price and Commercial and Industrial End-User Value

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Williams, B.; Ferry, M.; Eyer, J.

    2012-06-01

    Accelerated market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and deployment of grid-connected energy storage are restricted by the high cost of lithium-ion batteries. Research, development, and manufacturing are underway to lower material costs, enhance process efficiencies, and increase production volumes. A fraction of the battery cost may be recovered after vehicular service by reusing the battery where it may have sufficient performance for other energy-storage applications. By extracting post-vehicle additional services and revenue from the battery, the total lifetime value of the battery is increased. The overall cost of energy-storage solutions for both primary (automotive) and secondary (grid) customer could be decreased. This techno-economic analysis of battery second use considers effects of battery degradation in both automotive and grid service, repurposing costs, balance-of-system costs, the value of aggregated energy-storage to commercial and industrial end users, and competitive technology. Batteries from plug-in electric vehicles can economically be used to serve the power quality and reliability needs of commercial and industrial end users. However, the value to the automotive battery owner is small (e.g., $20-$100/kWh) as declining future battery costs and other factors strongly affect salvage value. Repurposed automotive battery prices may range from $38/kWh to $132/kWh.

  14. Safe battery solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  15. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  16. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  18. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performance of Al-substituted Li₂MnO₃

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dhital, Chetan; Huq, Ashfia; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Torres-Castro, Loraine; Shojan, Jifi; Julien, Christian M.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2015-08-08

    Li2MnO3 is known to be electrochemically inactive due to Mn in tetravalent oxidation state. Several compositions such as Li2MnO3 , Li1.5Al0.17MnO3, Li1.0Al0.33MnO3 and Li0.5Al0.5MnO3 were synthesized by a sol–gel Pechini method. All the samples were characterized with x-ray diffraction, Raman, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Tap density and BET analyzer. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated the presence of monoclinic phase for pristine Li2MnO3and mixed monoclinic/spinel phases (Li2 - xMn1 - yAlx + yO3 + z) for Al-substituted Li2MnO3compounds. The Al substitution seems to occur both at Li and Mn sites, which could explain the presence of spinel phase. X-ray photoelectronmore » spectroscopy for Mn 2p orbital reveals a significant decrease in binding energy for Li1.0Al0.33MnO3 and Li0.5Al0.5MnO3 compounds. Cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge cycles and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were also performed. A discharge capacity of 24 mAh g-1 for Li2MnO3, 68 mAh g-1 for Li1.5Al0.17MnO3, 58 mAh g-1 for Li1.0Al0.33MnO3 and 74 mAh g-1 for Li0.5Al0.5MnO3 were obtained. As a result, aluminum substitutions increased the formation of spinel phase which is responsible for cycling.« less

  20. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandlikar, S.G.; Lu, Z.; Rao, N.; Sergi, J.; Rath, C.; Dade, C.; Trabold, T.; Owejan, J.; Gagliardo, J.; Allen, J.; Yassar, R.S.; Medici, E.; Herescu, A.

    2010-05-30

    In this program, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), General Motors (GM) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) have focused on fundamental studies that address water transport, accumulation and mitigation processes in the gas diffusion layer and flow field channels of the bipolar plate. These studies have been conducted with a particular emphasis on understanding the key transport phenomena which control fuel cell operation under freezing conditions. Technical accomplishments are listed below: • Demonstrated that shutdown air purge is controlled predominantly by the water carrying capacity of the purge stream and the most practical means of reducing the purge time and energy is to reduce the volume of liquid water present in the fuel cell at shutdown. The GDL thermal conductivity has been identified as an important parameter to dictate water accumulation within a GDL. • Found that under the normal shutdown conditions most of the GDL-level water accumulation occurs on the anode side and that the mass transport resistance of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) thus plays a critically important role in understanding and optimizing purge. • Identified two-phase flow patterns (slug, film and mist flow) in flow field channel, established the features of each pattern, and created a flow pattern map to characterize the two-phase flow in GDL/channel combination. • Implemented changes to the baseline channel surface energy and GDL materials and evaluated their performance with the ex situ multi-channel experiments. It was found that the hydrophilic channel (contact angle   10⁰) facilitates the removal of liquid water by capillary effects and by reducing water accumulation at the channel exit. It was also found that GDL without MPL promotes film flow and shifts the slug-to-film flow transition to lower air flow rates, compared with the case of GDL with MPL. • Identified a new mechanism of water transport through GDLs based on Haines jump

  1. Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries & Fuel Cells Here are the details of what we're doing in the labs to improve battery & fuel cell technology. Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation ...

  2. China Hyper Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Hyper Battery Co Ltd Place: Shenzhen, China Zip: 518048 Product: Manufacturer and exporter of batteries and battery packs....

  3. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, James H.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  4. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1978-September 1979. [40 kWh, Li-Al and Li-Si anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barney, D. L.; Steunenberg, R. K.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Battles, J. E.; Hornstra, F.; Miller, W. E.; Vissers, D. R.; Roche, M. F.; Shimotake, H.; Hudson, R.; Askew, B. A.; Sudar, S.

    1980-03-01

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978 to September 1979 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte. During this reporting period, cell and battery development work has continued at ANL and contractors' laboratories. A 40 kWh electric-vehicle battery (designated Mark IA) was fabricated and delivered to ANL for testing. During the initial heat-up, one of the two modules failed due to a short circuit. A failure analysis was conducted, and the Mark IA program completed. Development work on the next electric-vehicle battery (Mark II) was initiated at Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. and Gould, Inc. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries during this period has consisted primarily of conceptual design studies. 107 figures, 67 tables.

  5. Nickel-metal hydride battery development. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    Rechargeable batteries are used as the power source for a broad range of portable equipment. Key battery selection criteria typically are weight, volume, first cost, life cycle cost, and environmental impact. Rechargeable batteries are favored from a life cycle cost and environmental impact standpoint over primary batteries. The nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery system has emerged as the battery of choice for many applications based on its superior characteristics when judged on the above criteria against other battery types. In most cases commercial Ni-MH batteries are constructed with coiled electrodes in cylindrical metal containers. Electro Energy, Inc. (EEI) has been developing a novel flat bipolar configuration of the Ni-MH system that offers weight, volume, and cost advantages when compared to cylindrical cells. The unique bipolar approach consists of fabricating individual flat wafer cells in conductive, carbon-filled, plastic face plates. The individual cells contain a nonconductive plastic border which is heat sealed around the perimeter to make a totally sealed unit cell. Multi-cell batteries are fabricated by stacking the individual wafer cells in such a way that the positive face of one cell contacts the negative face of the adjacent cell. The stack is then contained in an outer housing with end contacts. The purpose of this program was to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate the capabilities of the EEI Ni-MH battery system for consumer applications. The work was directed at the development and evaluation of the compact bipolar construction for its potential advantages of high power and energy density. Experimental investigations were performed on various nickel electrode types, hydride electrode formulations, and alternate separator materials. Studies were also directed at evaluating various oxygen recombination techniques for low pressure operation during charge and overcharge.

  6. Morphological effects on the electrochemical performance of lithium-rich layered oxide cathodes, prepared by electrospinning technique, for lithium-ion battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min, Ji Won; Kalathil, Abdul Kareem; Yim, Chul Jin; Im, Won Bin

    2014-06-01

    Li-rich Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.17}Co{sub 0.17}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} cathode materials were synthesized by electrospinning technique with different polymers, and their structural, morphological, and electrochemical performances were investigated. It was found that the electrospinning process leads to the formation of a fiber and flower-like morphology, by using different polymers and heat treatment conditions. The nanostructured morphology provided these materials with high initial discharge capacity. The cycling stability was improved with agglomerated nano-particles, as compared with porous materials. - Highlights: • Fiber and flower-like Li-rich cathode was synthesized by simple electrospinning. • Polymer dependent morphology and electrochemical performance was investigated. • Well-organized porous structure facilitates the diffusion of lithium ions. • Technique could be applicable to other cathode materials as well.

  7. Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoog, Roelof; Barbotin, Jean-Loup

    1999-11-16

    The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

  8. Techno-Economic Modeling - Building New Battery Systems on the Computer -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joint Center for Energy Storage Research October 22, 2015, Accomplishments Techno-Economic Modeling - Building New Battery Systems on the Computer JCESR is applying techno-economic models to project the performance and cost of a wide array of promising new battery systems before they are prototyped. The results from techno-economic modeling establish performance "floors" for discovery science teams looking for new anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes for a beyond lithium-ion battery,

  9. Effects of Mg doping on the remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance of Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode materials for sodium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Hui; Yu, Xiqian; Bai, Ying; Wu, Feng; Wu, Chuan; Liu, Liang-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Na3V2-xMgx(PO4)3/C composites with different Mg2+ doping contents (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1) were prepared by a facile sol-gel method. The doping effects on the crystal structure were investigated by XRD, XPS and EXAFS. The results show that low dose doping Mg2+ does not alter the structure of the material, and magnesium is successfully substituted for vanadium site. The Mg doped Na3V2-xMgx(PO4)3/C composites exhibit significant improvements on the electrochemistry performances in terms of the rate capability and cycle performance, especially for the Na3V1.95Mg0.05(PO4)3/C. For example, when the current density increased from 1 C to 30 C, the specific capacitymore » only decreased from 112.5 mAh g-1 to 94.2 mAh g-1 showing very good rate capability. Moreover, even cycling at a high rate of 20 C, an excellent capacity retention of 81% is maintained from the initial value of 106.4 mAh g-1 to 86.2 mAh g-1 at the 50th cycle. Enhanced rate capability and cycle performance can be attributed to the optimized particle size, structural stability and enhanced ionic and electronic conductivity induced by Mg doping.« less

  10. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  11. Battery Calorimetry Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calorimetry Laboratory - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  12. Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries September 9, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov Electricvehicles8331019248.jpg Electric vehicles lined up in Cascade Locks. Credit: Oregon Department of Transportation A better battery-one that is cheap and safe, but packs a lot of power-could lead to an electric vehicle that performs better than today's gasoline-powered cars, and costs about the same or less to consumers.

  13. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  14. Battery with a microcorrugated, microthin sheet of highly porous corroded metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaFollette, Rodney M.

    2005-09-27

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (i) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and (j) high specific capacitance.

  15. SAND94-2862C PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NASA STANDARD...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This effort w a s directed towards providing test results to characterize the output of ... by 17') is placed in a protective housing on the opposite side of the device under test. ...

  16. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performance of Al-substituted Li₂MnO₃

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhital, Chetan; Huq, Ashfia; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Torres-Castro, Loraine; Shojan, Jifi; Julien, Christian M.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2015-08-08

    Li2MnO3 is known to be electrochemically inactive due to Mn in tetravalent oxidation state. Several compositions such as Li2MnO3 , Li1.5Al0.17MnO3, Li1.0Al0.33MnO3 and Li0.5Al0.5MnO3 were synthesized by a sol–gel Pechini method. All the samples were characterized with x-ray diffraction, Raman, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Tap density and BET analyzer. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated the presence of monoclinic phase for pristine Li2MnO3and mixed monoclinic/spinel phases (Li2 - xMn1 - yAlx + yO3 + z) for Al-substituted Li2MnO3compounds. The Al substitution seems to occur both at Li and Mn sites, which could explain the presence of spinel phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for Mn 2p orbital reveals a significant decrease in binding energy for Li1.0Al0.33MnO3 and Li0.5Al0.5MnO3 compounds. Cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge cycles and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were also performed. A discharge capacity of 24 mAh g-1 for Li2MnO3, 68 mAh g-1 for Li1.5Al0.17MnO3, 58 mAh g-1 for Li1.0Al0.33MnO3 and 74 mAh g-1 for Li0.5Al0.5MnO3 were obtained. As a result, aluminum substitutions increased the formation of spinel phase which is responsible for cycling.

  17. 2006 Toyota Highlander-6395 Hyrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A160006395). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. 2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number 1N4CL21E27C177982). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. 2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. 2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. 2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K773007129). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Mn-doped ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with enhanced performances as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Xiaoqin; Hou, Xianhua; Yao, Lingmin; Hu, Shejun; Liu, Xiang; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Zn{sub 0.96}Mn{sub 0.04}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrode shows the highest reversible capacity of 1157 mA h g{sup −1}. • The Zn{sub 0.96}Mn{sub 0.04}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrode shows promising cycling stability. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1) have been successfully synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method. The morphologies and electrochemical performance of Mn-doped ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in various proportions were investigated at room temperature, respectively. The Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.04) electrode in the as-synthesized samples showed the highest specific capacity of 1547 mA h g{sup −1} and 1157 mA h g{sup −1} in the initial discharge/charge process, with a coulombic efficiency of 74.8%. Additionally, excellent cycling stability was performed with a 1214 mA h g{sup −1} capacity retention at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. The corresponding mechanism was proposed which indicated that the Mn-doped ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles experienced an aggregation thermochemical reaction among ZnO, MnO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} subparticles.

  3. Limiting factors to advancing thermal-battery technology for naval applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, P.B.; Winchester, C.S.

    1991-10-01

    Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and Power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

  4. Overview of PNGV Battery Development and Test Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motloch, Chester George; Murphy, Timothy Collins; Sutula, Raymond; Miller, Ted J.

    2002-02-01

    Affordable, safe, long-lasting, high-power batteries are requisites for successful commercialization of hybrid electric vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Advance Automotive Technologies and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles are funding research and development programs to address each of these issues. An overview of these areas is presented along with a summary of battery development and test programs, as well as recent performance data from several of these programs.

  5. Surface-Modified Active Materials for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Active Materials for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab researcher Gao Liu has developed a new fabrication technique for lithium ion battery electrodes that lowers binder cost without sacrificing performance and reliability. Description The innovative process evaporates a thin polymer coating on the active materials' particles and mixes these coated particles

  6. Composite Materials for Battery Applications | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials for Battery Applications Technology available for licensing: Process for the production of Si- Graphene nano-composite materials for use as anode materials in Lithium Ion Batteries Improved cycling performance in nano- composites through increased electrical conductivity and stabilization of structure during delithiation IN-10-018 US 2012/0282527 A1 Availability: Technology available for license to organizations with commercial interest. Collaborative research is available under a

  7. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Webmaster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements & Characterization Home About Measurements & Characterization Analytical Microscopy Device Performance Measurement Electro-Optical Characterization Surface...

  8. Combustion synthesis of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite as a high-performance negative electrode for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rai, Alok Kumar; Thi, Trang Vu; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-09-15

    We present a facile and cost-effective urea-assisted auto-combustion method for synthesizing pure MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite samples followed by annealing at 600 C for 5 h under N{sub 2} atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the single phase formation for both samples. The obtained morphology of the nanocomposite sample shows that the MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are highly dispersed on conductive graphene nanosheets with particle size in the range of 50100 nm. When applied as an anode material, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite electrode shows a high reversible charge capacity of 764.4 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.04 C over 60 charge/discharge cycles and in spite of that it also retained a capacity of 219.9 mAh g{sup ?1} at high current rate of 4.2 C. The obtained result is much better than the synthesized pure MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle electrode. The excellent electrochemical performance of the MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite electrode can be attributed to the strong favorable synergistic interaction between MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and reduced graphene nanosheets, which supplied a large number of accessible active sites for Li{sup +}-ion insertion and short diffusion length for both Li{sup +} ions and electrons. In addition, the graphene nanosheets in the nanocomposite electrode provide high conductivity and accommodate the large volume expansion/contraction during cycling, resulting in high capacity and long cycling stability. - Highlights: MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite was synthesized by facile urea-assisted method. Such well-designed structure results in fine and strong interfacial interaction. Nanocomposite anode shows high rate capability and long cycling stability. Better performance is due to synergistic effect between MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and graphene. Simple, low cost and fast synthesis is attractive for large scale applications.

  9. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATTs products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATTs work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  10. Corrosion, passivity and breakdown of alloys used in high energy density batteries: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, J.

    1987-10-01

    The objective of this research is to further the understanding of the passivity of metals and alloys in non-aqueous and mixed solvents. There is a lack of data in this area, despite its importance to applications such as the construction materials for high energy density batteries. There have been a number of corrosion-related problems reported in the construction materials of such batteries. As demands for longevity for these batteries increase, problems associated with corrosion will become increasingly important. This work is concerned with analyzing the nature, mode of formation, and mode of breakdown of passive films that exist on alloys in non-aqueous and mixed solvents. Work during Year I has concentrated upon generating cyclic voltammograms and potentiodynamic curves as baseline data on Au and Armco Fe in water/propylene carbonate mixtures. In addition, Scanning Electron Microscopy has been performed in order to characterize the attack observed and to correlate it to the electrochemical parameters measured. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  11. Advanced Battery Materials Characterization: Success stories...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. lmp02payzant.pdf (1.61 MB) More ...

  12. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  13. New processing technique for DEB powder for thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szwarc, R.; Walton, R.D.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how material processing influences thermal battery performance, and how battery performance can be improved by changes in processing. This discussion is confined to the class of thermal batteries designed by Sandia Laboratories and built under the supervision of General Electric in St. Petersburg, Florida. The electrochemical system employed is: Ca/LiCl-KCl-CaCrO/sub 4//Fe. These batteries are primary reserve batteries which employ a pelletized cell design. Each cell consists of an electrolyte-depolarizer pellet sandwiched between an anode and a heat pellet. The anode employed may be one of two forms: sheet calcium disc, mechanically attached to an iron or steel backing; or a substrate disc of iron or steel on which 3 to 5 mils of calcium had been evaporated. The depolarizer-electrolyte, commonly referred to as DEB, is composed of CaCrO/sub 4/, LiCl-KCl eutectic and SiO/sub 2/ binder powder, which has been blended and pressed into pellets. The DEB pellet serves as electrolyte and as active cathode when the salt becomes molten upon battery activation. The heat pellet serves the dual purpose of providing the heat necessary to activate the battery and as the cathode current collector. The heat pellet is composed of iron powder and KClO/sub 4/. A battery is made up of one or more stacks of about 12 cells connected in series to produce a voltage of 28 to 32 volts. Since activated life requirements for batteries vary from seconds up to one hour, the battery must be well insulated to conserve the heat produced by the ignition of the heat pellets to maintain the electrolyte in a molten state. This insulation is also important to protect sensitive electronic components in contact with the battery case. Because the electrolyte, particularly LiCl, is hygroscopic, the batteries are hermetically sealed in stainless steel cans, and are manufactured in dryrooms maintained at 3% relative humidity or better.

  14. Feasibility study of a 200 ampere battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, A.R.

    1991-06-01

    The results of a Sandia National Laboratories program to design and develop a high-current thermal battery for the Hypersonic Weapons Technology Program are presented. The feasibility of a 200 A, 150 s, 12 Vdc primary battery was demonstrated under ambient conditions. New header feedthrough design concepts were used, and new internal current collectors and internal power leads were considered. The Li(Si)/LiBr-LiCl-LiF/FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system has shown exceptional performance at the high-current operation conditions. A high-rate Zinc/Silver Oxide secondary cell was also evaluated, and the results are presented in this report. These cells exhibited excellent high-rate discharge performance. 5 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Electrochemical Thermal Network Model for Multi-Cell Lithium Ion Battery

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-02-28

    Increasing the numbers and size of cells in a battery pack complicates electrical and thermal control of the system. In addition to keeping a battery pack in the optimal temperature range, maintaining temperature uniformity among all cells in a pack is important to prolong life and enhance safety. Electrical, electrochemical, and thermal responses of a lithium ion battery are closely coupled through macroscopic design factors of the cells and module or pack. The model hasmore » to resolve complex interaction between cell characteristics, pack design, and load conditions. Safe and durable battery pack design requires a battery thermal model that can be coupled with a battery performance more and/or safety model with good accuracy and simulation time. The model is proposed to be used for various technical purposes: Design optimization for safety and/or performance, On-board control.« less

  16. Electrochemical Thermal Network Model for Multi-Cell Lithium Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-28

    Increasing the numbers and size of cells in a battery pack complicates electrical and thermal control of the system. In addition to keeping a battery pack in the optimal temperature range, maintaining temperature uniformity among all cells in a pack is important to prolong life and enhance safety. Electrical, electrochemical, and thermal responses of a lithium ion battery are closely coupled through macroscopic design factors of the cells and module or pack. The model has to resolve complex interaction between cell characteristics, pack design, and load conditions. Safe and durable battery pack design requires a battery thermal model that can be coupled with a battery performance more and/or safety model with good accuracy and simulation time. The model is proposed to be used for various technical purposes: Design optimization for safety and/or performance, On-board control.

  17. Battery Chargers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Chargers Battery Chargers The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Battery Chargers -- v1.0 (94 KB) More Documents & Publications Illuminated Exit Signs

  18. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery...

  19. SANIK Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SANIK Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: SANIK Battery Co., Ltd. Place: China Product: Foshan City-based NiCd and NiMH rechargeable batteries producer for smaller...

  20. JYH Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    JYH Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: JYH Battery Co, Ltd Place: China Product: China-based maker of NiMH rechargeable batteries, also with some NiCd and Li-ion...

  1. Beijing Tianruichi Battery TRC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianruichi Battery TRC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Tianruichi Battery (TRC) Place: China Product: China-based maker of Li-Poly, Li-Iron and Li-Ion batteries....

  2. Category:Batteries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    9 pages are in this category, out of 9 total. * Definition:Battery B Batteries and Energy Storage Technology BEST L Definition:Lead-acid battery L cont. Definition:DIY...

  3. Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS Promising Magnesium Battery Research at ALS Print Wednesday, 23 January 2013 16:59 toyota battery a) Cross-section of the in situ ...

  4. Washington: Battery Manufacturer Brings Material Production Home...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    can be used in ultracapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and advanced lead acid batteries. ... EnerG2 Ribbon Cutting Ceremony for new battery materials plant in Albany, Oregon. Photo ...

  5. Facile synthesis and electrochemical performance of Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposite for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Bonan; Ru, Qiang; Hu, Shejun; Song, Xiong; Li, Juan

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM of Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite and the discharge curves of pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, pure Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite. - Highlights: • Novel Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite has been prepared by simple co-precipitation method. • Small spherical nanocrystals adhering to the surface of large polyhedral particles. • Formation mechanism is relate to solubility of Sn(OH){sub 6}{sup 2−} in high concentration OH{sup −} . • The composite shows better electrochemical performance than Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} - Abstract: A novel dispersed structure Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite has been successfully synthesized by a conventional co-precipitation method with certain amount of NaOH concentration. The obtained composite exhibits dispersed structure with small spherical nanocrystals adhering to the surface of large polyhedral particles, which has been studied as an anode material in lithium-ion battery. Galvanostatic charge–discharge and cyclic voltammetry has been conducted to measure the electrochemical properties of the material. The results show that Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite demonstrates good reversible capacity of 702.5 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA h g{sup −1}, much better than that of pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (375.1 mA h g{sup −1}) and pure Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} (194.1 mA h g{sup −1}). This material also presents improved rate performance with capacity retention of 71.1% when the current ranges from 100 mA g{sup −1} to 1000 mA g{sup −1}. The excellent electrochemical performance of the as-prepared dispersed structure Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite could be attributed to the good dispersibility of nanoparticles which can effectively alleviate the volume expansion and improve the conductivity, thus enhance the cycling stability.

  6. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  7. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  8. EV Everywhere Challenge Battery Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Backsplash for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree O'Hare, Chicago, IL.

  9. Emerging battery research in Indonesia: The role of nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kartini, E.

    2015-12-31

    Development of lithium ion batteries will play an important role in achieving innovative sustainable energy. To reduce the production cost of such batteries, the Indonesian government has instituted a strategy to use local resources. Therefore, this technology is now part of the National Industrial Strategic Plan. One of the most important scientific challenges is to improve performance of lithium batteries. Neutron scattering is a very important technique to investigate crystal structure of electrode materials. The unique properties of neutrons, which allow detection of light elements such as lithium ions, are indispensable. The utilization of neutron scattering facilities at the Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency will provide significant contributions to the development of improved lithium ion battery technologies.

  10. Novel electrolyte chemistries for Mg-Ni rechargeable batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda; Kane, Marie; Au, Ming

    2010-10-01

    Commercial hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) serve as means to reduce the nation's dependence on oil. Current electric vehicles use relatively heavy nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable batteries. Li-ion rechargeable batteries have been developed extensively as the replacement; however, the high cost and safety concerns are still issues to be resolved before large-scale production. In this study, we propose a new highly conductive solid polymer electrolyte for Mg-Ni high electrochemical capacity batteries. The traditional corrosive alkaline aqueous electrolyte (KOH) is replaced with a dry polymer with conductivity on the order of 10{sup -2} S/cm, as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Several potential novel polymer and polymer composite candidates are presented with the best-performing electrolyte results for full cell testing and cycling.

  11. Platforms and Methods for In Situ Characterization of Li-ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Platforms and Methods for In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Platforms and Methods for In Situ Characterization of...

  12. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  13. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  14. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  15. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  16. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how

  17. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  18. Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Basics Vehicle Battery Basics November 22, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Vehicle Battery Basics Batteries are essential for electric drive technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (AEVs). WHAT IS A BATTERY? A battery is a device that stores chemical energy and converts it on demand into electrical energy. It carries out this process through an electrochemical reaction, which is a chemical reaction involving the

  19. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes Computations at NERSC show how multiply charged metal ions impact battery capacity June 30, 2014 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov PCCPxantheascover Imagine a cell phone battery that lasted a whole week on a single charge. A car battery that worked for months between charges. A massive battery that stores the intermittent electricity from wind turbines and releases it when

  20. Advances on multijunction solar cell characterization aimed at the optimization of real concentrator performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Linares, Pablo Dominguez, César Voarino, Philippe Besson, Pierre Baudrit, Mathieu

    2014-09-26

    Multijunction solar cells (MJSC) are usually developed to maximize efficiency under test conditions and not under real operation. This is the case of anti-reflective coatings (ARC), which are meant to minimize Fresnel reflection losses for a family of incident rays at room temperature. In order to understand and quantify the discrepancies between test and operation conditions, we have experimentally analyzed the spectral response of MJSC for a variety of incidence angles that are in practice received by a concentrator cell in high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) receiver designs. Moreover, we characterize this angular dependence as a function of temperature in order to reproduce real operation conditions. As the refractive index of the silicone is dependent on temperature, an optical mismatch is expected. Regarding other characterization techniques, a method called Relative EL Homogeneity Analysis (RELHA) is applied to processed wafers prior to dicing, allowing to diagnose the wafer crystalline homogeneity for each junction. Finally, current (I)-voltage (V) characterization under strongly unbalanced light spectra has also been carried out for a number of low-level irradiances, providing insight on each junction shunt resistance and corresponding radiative coupling.

  1. Membranes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Cornell Batteries & Fuel Cells In This Section Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation Membranes Membranes Fig. 1 PEM Fuel Cell Fuel cells are highly efficient devices that convert the chemical energy stored in a fuel directly intoelectricity. Within a fuel cell, the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) serves as the conducting interface between the anode and cathode, transporting the ions (Figure 1). As a result, the PEM is a central, and often performance-limiting,

  2. Fact Sheet: Sodium-ion Battery for Grid-level Applications (August 2013) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy ion Battery for Grid-level Applications (August 2013) Fact Sheet: Sodium-ion Battery for Grid-level Applications (August 2013) In June 2012, Aquion Energy, Inc. completed the testing and demonstration requirements for the DOE's program with its low-cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature Aqueous Hybird Ion (AHI) energy storage device. For more information about how OE performs research and development on a wide variety of storage technologies, including batteries,

  3. Metallization pattern on solid electrolyte or porous support of sodium battery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin Yong; Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Lemmon, John P.

    2016-05-31

    A new battery configuration and process are detailed. The battery cell includes a solid electrolyte configured with an engineered metallization layer that distributes sodium across the surface of the electrolyte extending the active area of the cathode in contact with the anode during operation. The metallization layer enhances performance, efficiency, and capacity of sodium batteries at intermediate temperatures at or below about 200.degree. C.

  4. Fitting the Lithium-Sulfur Battery with a New Membrane - Joint Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Research October 22, 2015, Accomplishments Fitting the Lithium-Sulfur Battery with a New Membrane The lithium-sulfur battery has higher energy storage capacity and lower cost than lithium ion. But there is a serious stumbling block. Polysulfides form in the cathode during battery cycling and pass through the membrane to contaminate the lithium metal anode. This results in a rapid decline in performance. JCESR researchers appear to have found a solution to the problem - the

  5. Building Better Batteries for Long-Distance Driving and Faster-Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electronics | Department of Energy Better Batteries for Long-Distance Driving and Faster-Charging Electronics Building Better Batteries for Long-Distance Driving and Faster-Charging Electronics March 2, 2016 - 10:07am Addthis The colors show the uneven distribution of chemical elements on this particle's surface, which is key to its improved performance in batteries. | Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Karen McNulty Walsh Brookhaven National

  6. Safer Batteries through Coupled Multiscale Modeling (ICCS 2015)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, John A; Allu, Srikanth; Berrill, Mark A; Elwasif, Wael R; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Kumar, Abhishek; Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T; Pannala, Dr. Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan

    2015-01-01

    Batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems, with performance and safety governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. We describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulation known as VIBE - the Virtual Integrated Battery Environment. VIBE includes homogenized and pseudo-2D electrochemistry models such as those by Newman-Tiedemann-Gu (NTG) and Doyle- Fuller-Newman (DFN, a.k.a. DualFoil) as well as a new advanced capability known as AMPERES (Advanced MultiPhysics for Electrochemical and Renewable Energy Storage). AMPERES provides a 3D model for electrochemistry and full coupling with 3D electrical and thermal models on the same grid. VIBE/AMPERES has been used to create three-dimensional battery cell and pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical response under adverse conditions.

  7. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  8. Electric Fuel Battery Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Battery Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Electric Fuel Battery Corporation Place: Auburn, Alabama Zip: 36832 Product: Develops and manufactures BA-8180U high...

  9. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. PDF icon esarravt002flicker2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing...

  10. American Battery Charging Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Charging Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Battery Charging Inc Place: Smithfield, Rhode Island Zip: 2917 Product: Manufacturer of industrial and railroad...

  11. Kayo Battery Industries Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    started by Hong Kong Highpower Technology and Japan Kayo Group, active in producing Lithium and NiMH batteries for various applications including batteries suitable for...

  12. Bullith Batteries AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Batteries AG Place: Ismaning, Germany Zip: 85737 Product: Batteries producer using the lithium-polymer technology. Coordinates: 48.22727, 11.676305 Show Map Loading map......

  13. TCL Hyperpower Batteries Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Batteries, Inc Place: China Product: China-based subsidiary of TCL Group, they make Lithium Polymer, NiMH and Primary batteries, primarily for smaller devices. References: TCL...

  14. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries Title: Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium ...

  15. Rechargeable Nanoelectrofuels for Flow Batteries | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Nanoelectrofuels for Flow Batteries Four-page general brochure describing a groundbreaking energy storage concept that may revolutionize the world of batteries PDF...

  16. Cathode material for lithium batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Cathode material for lithium batteries A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium ...

  17. Zibo Storage Battery Factory | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Storage Battery Factory Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zibo Storage Battery Factory Place: Zibo, Shandong Province, China Zip: 255056 Product: China-based affiliate of CSIC...

  18. Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies Lawrence ... improved battery life when used in the fabrication of negative silicon electrodes. ...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Battery Research Partner Requests...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Battery Research Partner Requests Proposals for Thermal Management Systems Vehicle Technologies Office Battery Research Partner Requests Proposals for Thermal Management Systems ...

  20. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Workshop Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...2012 EV Everywhere Grand Challenge -- Battery Workshop Thursday, July 26, 2012 - ... Technologies Program 9:25-9:50 AM EV BATTERY TECHNOLOGY-CURRENT STATUS & COST ...

  1. Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies Brookhaven ... activation of the cell of a lithium battery having a primary metal sulfide additive ...

  2. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale ...

  3. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results

  4. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Washington: ... Improving charge time and these other battery characteristics could significantly expand ...

  5. Self-Regulating, Nonflamable Rechargeable Lithium Batteries ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryRechargeable lithium batteries are superior to ...

  6. Disordered Materials Hold Promise for Better Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disordered materials hold promise for better batteries Disordered Materials Hold Promise for Better Batteries February 21, 2014 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov ...

  7. Ovonic Battery Company Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Ovonic Battery Company Inc Place: Michigan Zip: 48309 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Focused on commercializing its patented and proprietary NiMH battery...

  8. electrochemical battery stress-induced degradation mechanisms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electrochemical battery stress-induced degradation mechanisms - Sandia Energy Energy ... Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ...

  9. Horizon Batteries formerly Electrosource | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Batteries formerly Electrosource Jump to: navigation, search Name: Horizon Batteries (formerly Electrosource) Place: Texas Sector: Vehicles Product: Manufacturer of high-power,...

  10. Battery resource assessment. Subtask II. 5. Battery manufacturing capability recycling of battery materials. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pemsler, P.

    1981-02-01

    Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials. Each recycle process has been designed to produce a product material which can be used directly as a raw material by the battery manufacturer. Metal recoverabilities are in the range of 93 to 95% for all processes. In each case, capital and operating costs have been developed for a recycling plant which processes 100,000 electric vehicle batteries per year. These costs have been developed based on material and energy balances, equipment lists, factored installation costs, and manpower estimates. In general, there are no technological barriers for recycling in the Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine and Zinc/Bromine battery systems. The recycling processes are based on essentially conventional, demonstrate technology. The lead times required to build battery recycling plants based on these processes is comparable to that of any other new plant. The total elapsed time required from inception to plant operation is approximately 3 to 5 y. The recycling process for the sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/sulfide battery systems are not based on conventional technology. In particular, mechanical systems for dismantling these batteries must be developed.

  11. Electrolyte additive for improved battery performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bellows, Richard J. (Hampton, NJ); Kantner, Edward (E. Brunswick, NJ)

    1989-04-04

    In one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an electrochemical cell having a metal bromine couple. The cell includes an electrode structure on which to deposit the metal of the couple and a counterelectrode at which to generate bromine. A microporous membrane separates the electrode and counterelectrode. Importantly, the aqueous electrolyte comprises an aqueous metal bromide solution containing a water soluble bromine complexing agent capable of forming a water immiscible complex with bromine and an additive capable of decreasing the wettability of the microporous separators employed in such cells by such water immiscible bromine complexes.

  12. Performance and Degradation Modeling of Batteries | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Model-Experimental Studies on Next-generation Li-ion Materials Development of Si-based High Capacity Anodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Silicon-ba...

  13. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  14. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. Analysis of Electric Vehicle Battery Performance Targets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  16. Methods for the analysis of lithium-silicon, iron disulfide thermal battery materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krall, P.R.

    1985-09-30

    Analytical methods for the characterization of the lithium-silicon/iron disulfide thermal battery materials have been developed and evaluated. The standard procedures being used for the quality control testing of the battery materials are described in this report. These procedures are based on both classical chemical methods and instrumental methods of analysis. The materials characterized include lithium-silicon alloy, iron disulfide, catholyte material, separator material, calcium disilicide, depolarizer-electrolyte-binder material, electrolyte and electrolyte binder material.

  17. INITIAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A ZIRCONIUM-BASED METALLIC WASTE FORM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, M; Robert Sindelar, R

    2008-09-30

    A metallic waste form or alloy system for immobilization of Zircaloy cladding hulls, Undissolved Solids (UDS), Technicium (Tc) metal and Transition Metal Fission Products (TMFP) waste stream materials from separations processes for commercial spent nuclear fuel has been developed, and initial characterization of the phase assemblage and composition, and corrosion testing under aqueous conditions has been completed for the waste form with various levels of surrogate waste species. The waste stream materials are those from processes being developed as part of the Separations Campaign under the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. The development of waste forms for these materials is under the Waste Form Campaign.

  18. High-performance symmetric sodium-ion batteries using a new, bipolar O3-type material, Na 0.8 Ni 0.4 Ti 0.6 O 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shaohua; Yu, Haijun; Liu, Pan; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Mingwei; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-01-01

    Based on low-cost and rich resources, sodium-ion batteries have been regarded as a promising candidate for next-generation energy storage batteries in the large-scale energy applications of renewable energy and smart grids. However, there are some critical drawbacks limiting its application, such as safety and stability problems. In this work, a stable symmetric sodium-ion battery based on the bipolar, active O3-type material, Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2, is developed. This bipolar material shows a typical O3-type layered structure, containing two electrochemically active transition metals with redox couples of Ni4+/Ni2+ and Ti4+/Ti3+, respectively. This Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2-based symmetric cell exhibits a high average voltage of 2.8 V, a reversible discharge capacity of 85 mA h g(-1), 75% capacity retention after 150 cycles and good rate capability. This full symmetric cell will greatly contribute to the development of room-temperature sodium-ion batteries with a view towards safety, low cost and long life, and it will stimulate further research on symmetric cells using the same active materials as both cathode and anode.

  19. Quantifying EV battery end-of-life through analysis of travel needs with vehicle powertrain models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxena, Samveg; Le Floch, Caroline; MacDonald, Jason; Moura, Scott

    2015-05-15

    Electric vehicles enable clean and efficient transportation; however, concerns about range anxiety and battery degradation hinder EV adoption. The common definition for battery end-of-life is when 70-80% of original energy capacity remain;, however, little analysis is available to support this retirement threshold. By applying detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars, we show that EV batteries continue to meet daily travel needs of drivers well beyond capacity fade of 80% remaining energy storage capacity. Further, we show that EV batteries with substantial energy capacity fade continue to provide sufficient buffer charge for unexpected trips with long distances. We show that enabling charging in more locations, even if only with 120 V wall outlets, prolongs useful life of EV batteries. Battery power fade is also examined and we show EVs meet performance requirements even down to 30% remaining power capacity. Our findings show that defining battery retirement at 70-80% remaining capacity is inaccurate. Battery retirement should instead be governed by when batteries no longer satisfy daily travel needs of a driver. Using this alternative retirement metric, we present results on the fraction of EV batteries that may be retired with different levels of energy capacity fade.

  20. Quantifying EV battery end-of-life through analysis of travel needs with vehicle powertrain models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saxena, Samveg; Le Floch, Caroline; MacDonald, Jason; Moura, Scott

    2015-05-15

    Electric vehicles enable clean and efficient transportation; however, concerns about range anxiety and battery degradation hinder EV adoption. The common definition for battery end-of-life is when 70-80% of original energy capacity remain;, however, little analysis is available to support this retirement threshold. By applying detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars, we show that EV batteries continue to meet daily travel needs of drivers well beyond capacity fade of 80% remaining energy storage capacity. Further, we show that EV batteries with substantial energy capacity fade continue to provide sufficient buffer charge for unexpected tripsmore » with long distances. We show that enabling charging in more locations, even if only with 120 V wall outlets, prolongs useful life of EV batteries. Battery power fade is also examined and we show EVs meet performance requirements even down to 30% remaining power capacity. Our findings show that defining battery retirement at 70-80% remaining capacity is inaccurate. Battery retirement should instead be governed by when batteries no longer satisfy daily travel needs of a driver. Using this alternative retirement metric, we present results on the fraction of EV batteries that may be retired with different levels of energy capacity fade.« less