Sample records for battelle-cascade reverse osmosis

  1. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  2. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

  3. Reverse osmosis desalination with osmotic polyelectrolyte intermediate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Thomas Theodore

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Loeb (27, 29) is the most promising membrane produced to date for reverse osmosis desalination. For production of potable water from saline water a salt rejection of 98. 6 per cent is necessary (15). In ac- tual pra-t. i. ce a greater salt... in comparison to a conventional reverse osmoti- cell with the same water flux. CHAP TER I I SURVEY OF THE LTTERATURE Research on desalination by reverse. osmotic means i. s a relatively new area of study. Most of the work in this field has been done...

  4. U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - Energy Proiect Title: 0289-1628 Battelle - Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Reverse Absorption Osmosis Cycle Location: Ohio Proposed Action or Project Description: American...

  5. Reverse Osmosis Optimization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofitting Doors on OpenRevenue FromReverse

  6. The design of a controllable energy recovery device for solar powered reverse osmosis desalination with experimental validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Elizabeth Anne, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis is to design and validate a controllable energy recovery device with application to photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis (PVRO). The energy consumption of a reverse osmosis plant depends significantly ...

  7. Nanofiltration/reverse osmosis for treatment of coproduced waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondal, S.; Hsiao, C.L.; Wickramasinghe, S.R. [Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Current high oil and gas prices have lead to renewed interest in exploration of nonconventional energy sources such as coal bed methane, tar sand, and oil shale. However oil and gas production from these nonconventional sources has lead to the coproduction of large quantities of produced water. While produced water is a waste product from oil and gas exploration it is a very valuable natural resource in the arid Western United States. Thus treated produced water could be a valuable new source of water. Commercially available nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes have been used to treat three produced waters. The results obtained here indicate that the permeate could be put to beneficial uses such as crop and livestock watering. However minimizing membrane fouling will be essential for the development of a practical process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging may be used to observe membrane fouling.

  8. The design and control of a thermal management system for a photovoltaic reverse osmosis system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Leah C. (Leah Camille)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a well-known process for desalinating seawater and brackish groundwater. Desalination is energy-intensive, so using photovoltaic (PV) panels to power the process is an attractive environmentally ...

  9. A reverse osmosis treatment process for produced water: optimization, process control, and renewable energy application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mareth, Brett

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    resources (wind and solar) are analyzed as potential power sources for the process, and an overview of reverse osmosis membrane fouling is presented. A computer model of the process was created using a dynamic simulator, Aspen Dynamics, to determine energy...

  10. A reverse osmosis treatment process for produced water: optimization, process control, and renewable energy application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mareth, Brett

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    resources (wind and solar) are analyzed as potential power sources for the process, and an overview of reverse osmosis membrane fouling is presented. A computer model of the process was created using a dynamic simulator, Aspen Dynamics, to determine energy...

  11. Reclamation of Cleaning Water Using Ultrafiltration and Double Pass Reverse Osmosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuman, T.; Long, G.; Tinter, M.

    RECLAMATION OF CLEANING WATER USING ULTRAFll...TRATION AND DOUBLE PASS REVERSE OSMOSIS Tom Neuman Gary Long Maura Tinter PPG Industries, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio ABSTRACT In the production of electrodeposition primers, water is used.... Because of the commitment to minimize process generated wastes, an integrated ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) system was installed to reclaim the cleaning water at the PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) Cleveland, Ohio plant. The recovered water...

  12. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The membranes generally exhibited reasonable stable rejection rates over time for chloride for a range of concentrations between 0.01 and 2.5 M. One membrane ran in excess of three months with no apparent loss of usability. This suggests that clay membranes may have a long useable life. Twenty different hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation experiments were either attempted or completed and are reported here. The results of these experiments suggest that hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation is possible, even for very soluble substances such as NaCl. However, the precipitation rates obtained in the laboratory do not appear to be adequate for commercial application at this time. Future experiments will focus on making the clay membranes more compact and thinner in order to obtain higher flux rates. Two alternative methods of removing solutes from solution, for which the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation is preparing patent applications, are also being investigated. These methods will be described in the next annual report after the patent applications are filed. Technology transfer efforts included two meetings (one in Farmington NM, and one in Hobbs, NM) where the results of this research were presented to independent oil producers and other interested parties. In addition, members of the research team gave seven presentations concerning this research and because of this research project T. M. (Mike) Whitworth was asked to sit on the advisory board for development of a new water treatment facility for the City of El Paso, Texas. Several papers are in preparation for submission to peer-reviewed journals based on the data presented in this report.

  13. Processing Woman Creek runoff water by reverse osmosis. [From Rocky Flats oil shale plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plock, C.E.; Travis, T.N.; Dickman, A.A.; Marshall, S.C.; Esquibel, N.S.

    1981-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A mobil reverse osmosis pilot plant facility was used to evaluate cleanup of surface runoff water from the Rocky Flats Plant. The ability of the reverse osmosis process had been tested previously for removal of chemical of radionuclide contamination that could be picked up in water impounded from flood conditions at the Plant. The objective of the work was to evaluate the ability of pretreatment equipment to remove silt and colloids and to determine if membrane scaling would result. Membrane scaling did take place, and modifications will be needed to improve the pretreatment equipment.

  14. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

    2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

  15. Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being con-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being for RO Treatment of CAP Water PROJECT TEAM This Arizona Water Institute PROJECT FACT SHEET is part to treat CAP water and to minimize the amount of concentrate produced. More research and significant

  16. Sidestream treatment of high silica cooling water and reverse osmosis desalination in geothermal power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mindler, A.B.; Bateman, S.T.

    1981-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Bench scale and pilot plant test work has been performed on cooling water for silica reduction and water reuse, at DOE's Raft River Geothermal Site, Malta, Idaho in cooperation with EG and G (Idaho), Inc. Technical supervision was by Permutit. A novel process of rusting iron shavings was found effective and economical in reducing silica to less than 20 mg/l. Reverse Osmosis was investigated for water reuse after pretreatment and ion exchange softening.

  17. CX-004923: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Categorical Exclusion Determination Battelle-Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Reverse Absorption Osmosis Cycle CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08042010 Location(s): Columbus, Ohio...

  18. Watts nickel and rinse water recovery via an advanced reverse osmosis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, C.; White, I.E.; Ludwig, R.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report summarizes the results of an eight month test program conducted at the Hewlett Packard Printed Circuit Board Production Plant, Sunnyvale, CA (H.P.) to assess the effectiveness of an advanced reverse osmosis system (AROS). The AROS unit, manufactured by Water Technologies, Inc. (WTI) of Minneapolis, MN, incorporates membrane materials and system components designed to treat metal plating rinse water and produce two product streams; (1) a concentrated metal solution suitable for the plating bath, and (2) rinse water suitable for reuse as final rinse. Waste water discharge can be virtually eliminated and significant reductions realized in the need for new plating bath solution and rinse water.

  19. Particle count monitoring of reverse osmosis water treatment for removal of low-level radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.; Hergert, T.R.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser diode particle counting technology and analytical measurements were used to evaluate a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment system for removal of particulate matter and sub-picocurie low-level radionuclides. Stormwater mixed with Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), formerly a Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facility, were treated. No chemical pretreatment of the water was utilized during this study. The treatment system was staged as follows: multimedia filtration, granular activated carbon adsorption, hollow tube ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membrane filtration. Various recovery rates and two RO membrane models were tested. Analytical measurements included total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), gross alpha ({alpha}) and gross beta ({beta}) activity, uranium isotopes {sup 233/234}U and {sup 238}U, plutonium {sup 239/240}Pu, and americium {sup 241}Am. Particle measurement between 1--150 microns ({mu}) included differential particle counts (DPC), and total particle counts (TPC) before and after treatment at various sampling points throughout the test. Performance testing showed this treatment system produced a high quality effluent in clarity and purity. Compared to raw water levels, TSS was reduced to below detection of 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and TDS reduced by 98%. Gross {alpha} was essentially removed 100%, and gross {beta} was reduced an average of 94%. Uranium activity was reduced by 99%. TPC between 1-150{mu} were reduced by an average 99.8% to less than 1,000 counts per milliliter (mL), similar in purity to a good drinking water treatment plant. Raw water levels of {sup 239/240}Pu and {sup 241}Am were below reliable quantitation limits and thus no removal efficiencies could be determined for these species.

  20. An evaluation of membrane materials for the treatment of highly concentrated suspended salt solutions in reverse osmosis and nanofiltration processes for desalination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Trenton Whiting

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2006 Major Subject: Civil Engineering AN EVALUATION OF MEMBRANE MATERIALS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HIGHLY... CONCENTRATED SUSPENDED SALT SOLUTIONS IN REVERSE OSMOSIS AND NANOFILTRATION PROCESSES FOR DESALINATION A Thesis by TRENTON WHITING HUGHES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  1. On-Site Pilot Study - Removal of Uranium, Radium-226 and Arsenic from Impacted Leachate by Reverse Osmosis - 13155

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurray, Allan; Everest, Chris; Rilling, Ken [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Dr, Waterloo, ON (Canada)] [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Dr, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Vandergaast, Gary [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON (Canada); LaMonica, David [RoChem Membrane Systems Inc., 430 30th Street, Hermosa Beach, CA (United States)] [RoChem Membrane Systems Inc., 430 30th Street, Hermosa Beach, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conestoga-Rovers and Associates (CRA-LTD) performed an on-site pilot study at the Welcome Waste Management Facility in Port Hope, Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the effectiveness of a unique leachate treatment process for the removal of radioactive contaminants from leachate impacted by low-level radioactive waste. Results from the study also provided the parameters needed for the design of the CRA-LTD full scale leachate treatment process design. The final effluent water quality discharged from the process to meet the local surface water discharge criteria. A statistical software package was utilized to obtain the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the results from design of experiment applied to determine the effect of the evaluated factors on the measured responses. The factors considered in the study were: percent of reverse osmosis permeate water recovery, influent coagulant dosage, and influent total dissolved solids (TDS) dosage. The measured responses evaluated were: operating time, average specific flux, and rejection of radioactive contaminants along with other elements. The ANOVA for the design of experiment results revealed that the operating time is affected by the percent water recovery to be achieved and the flocculant dosage over the range studied. The average specific flux and rejection for the radioactive contaminants were not affected by the factors evaluated over the range studied. The 3 month long on-site pilot testing on the impacted leachate revealed that the CRA-LTD leachate treatment process was robust and produced an effluent water quality that met the surface water discharge criteria mandated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and the local municipality. (authors)

  2. Development of a new feed channel spacer for reverse osmosis elements. Phase 2 final report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milstead, C.E.; Riley, R.L.

    1998-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    During Phase 1, computer modeling techniques were used as the prime instrument of evaluation of designs for a new feed channel spacer to replace the 30 mil thick standard mesh (Vexar) spacer currently used in ROWPU [Reverse Osmosis Water Processing Unit] spiral-wound elements. A hemispherical peg model, based on a Bed of Nails concept developed in Phase 1, was selected for prototype production of spiral-wound elements for field testing. Evaluation in the See-Thru test cell to observe pressure drops through the spacer, feed mixing patterns and ease of cleaning fouled membrane samples showed considerable benefit over Vexar. This design would be suitable for production by roll embossing (or rotary punching) methods instead of expensive injection molding techniques. A 10{1/2} inch die set was fabricated to prove this concept using a 12 ton press brake. Due to a number of factors, however, the equipment did not work as anticipated and numerous modifications are currently in progress. This work will continue at no cost to the government until completed. A seawater test system has been constructed for field testing of various commercially available feed channel spacers for comparison with the Vexar spacer.

  3. Reverse osmosis desalination with osmotic polyelectrolyte intermediate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Thomas Theodore

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the structure and properties of the cellulose diacetate membrane. Bank= and Sharpies (3, 4, 5) have al. so worked on the membrane structure and proper- ties along with modifying the complex casting and immer- sion procedure for production of the membrane...' he stainless stee. l backing. The 26 HIGH PRESSURE GELL TUBE ? MALE-TUBE TEE BORED THROUGH REOUOER + I/O IN JECT ION TUBE I/4 OUTLET TUBE Figure 2. Injection Tube Design. CONGENTRATEO SOLUTION INITIAL SOLVT. "3N HIGH PRESSURE PUINP...

  4. Reverse Osmosis Optimization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 <Department of ii iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This studyRevenues

  5. Osmosis Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany OilInformationPre-Tax ChargeOsmosis Capital Jump

  6. Osmosis : a molecular dynamics computer simulation study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lion, Thomas

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Osmosis is a phenomenon of critical importance in a variety of processes ranging from the transport of ions across cell membranes and the regulation of blood salt levels by the kidneys to the desalination of water and ...

  7. Dynamics of osmosis in a porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, Silvana S. S.; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    of the molecular behaviour to a mesoscale involving many pore lengths, connecting the atomic scale and the macroscopic scale, that is of utmost importance for the understanding of the role of osmosis in all its manifold applications in physics, chemistry...

  8. Final Report: Computer Simulation of Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis in Structured Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohail Murad

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular simulation methods were developed as part of this project to increase our fundamental understanding of membrane based separation systems. Our simulations clarified for example that steric (size) effects had a significant impact on the desalination membranes. Previously it was thought the separation was entirely driven by coulombic force (attractive/repulsive forces at the membrane surfaces). Steric effects played an important role, because salt ions in brackish water are never present alone, but are strongly hydrated which effectively increases their size, and makes it impossible to enter a membrane, while the smaller water molecules can enter more readily. Membrane surface effects did play a role in increasing the flux of water, but not in the separation itself. In addition we also developed simulation methods to study ion exchange, gas separations, and pervaporation. The methods developed were used to once again increase our fundamental understanding of these separation processes. For example our studies showed that when the separation factor of gases in membranes can be significantly affected by the presence of another gas, it is generally because the separation mechanism has changed. For example in the case of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, in their pure state the separation factor is determined by diffusion, while in mixtures it is influenced more by adsorption in the membrane (zeolite in our case) Finally we developed a new technique using the NMR chemical shift to determine intermolecular interactions for mixtures. For polar-nonpolar systems such as Xe dissolved in water we were able to significantly improve the accuracy of gas solubilities, which are very sensitive to the cross interaction between water and Xe.

  9. Osmosis, colligative properties, entropy, free energy and the chemical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Hugo Nelson

    2014-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A diffusive model of osmosis is presented that explains currently available experimental data. It makes predictions that distinguish it from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis, some of which have already been confirmed experimentally and others have yet to be tested. It also provides a simple kinetic explanation of Raoult's law and the colligative properties of dilute aqueous solutions. The diffusive model explains that when a water molecule jumps from low to high osmolarity at equilibrium, the free energy change is zero because the work done pressurizing the water molecule is balanced by the entropy of mixing. It also explains that equal chemical potentials are required for particle exchange equilibrium in analogy with the familiar requirement of equal temperatures at thermal equilibrium.

  10. Removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in water recycling process using reverse osmosis systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Rifai, Jawad H.; Khabbazb, Hadi; Schäfer, Andrea

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed investigation was carried out to evaluate the occurrence, persistence and fate of a range of micropollutants at different processing points at a full-scale water recycling plant (WRP) in Queensland, Australia. ...

  11. Critical risk points of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis processes in water recycling applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nghiem, Long D.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NF/RO membrane filtration processes have been recognized as an important technology to facilitate water recycling. Those processes are well-proven technologies, which can be used to remove a wide range of contaminants including trace contaminants...

  12. The Development of a Synthesis Approach for Optimal Design of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alnouri, Sabla

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    on the developed representation, by accounting for detailed water quality information, within the SWRO desalination network optimization problem. The superstructures were modified to incorporate models that capture the performance of common membrane elements...

  13. Renewable energy powered membrane technology: Salt and inorganic contaminant removal by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Laura A.; Richards, Bryce S.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fluctuating energy and pH on retention of dissolved contaminants from real Australian groundwaters using a solar (photovoltaic) powered ultrafiltration – ...

  14. Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2010 Reverse Osmosis: Valve Performance Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    with Electroless Nickel. The best solution in the market is to use super duplex stainless steel to coat the ductile

  15. The Development of a Synthesis Approach for Optimal Design of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alnouri, Sabla

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    . Had it not been for my parents, their continuous prayers, and their deep faith in me, I would never have been able to successfully accomplish any of my studies. vii vii NOMENCLATURE I Set of components in the feedwater stream I... splitting node j to outlet reject stream mixer viii viii Total inlet feedwater flowrate into the network Composition of component i in inlet feedwater stream Total composition of dissolved solids in the inlet feedwater stream...

  16. A modular design architecture for application to community-scale photovoltaic-powered reverse osmosis systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilton, Amy M. (Amy Marlou)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Access to safe, clean drinking water is a major challenge for many communities. These communities are often near seawater and/or brackish groundwater sources, making desalination a possible solution. Unfortunately, ...

  17. Autonomous control and membrane maintenance optimization of photovoltaic reverse osmosis systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhujle, Aditya Sarvanand

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supply of clean water in remote and off-grid areas has been a major global challenge for humanity. Over 780 million people lack access to clean water [1]. However, a significant fraction of these people have access to ...

  18. Control of residual aluminum from conventional treatment to improve reverse osmosis performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabelich, C J; Ishida, K P; Gerringer, F W; Evangelista, R; Kalyan, M; Suffet, I H

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005. The Role of Dissolved Aluminum in Silica Chemistry forDraft Public Health Goal for Aluminum in Drinking Water .1994. Control of Residual Aluminum in Filtered Water . AWWA,

  19. Characterisation and prediction of crystallisation fouling in reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alhseinat, Emad Yousef Mahmoud

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Membrane technologies are considered a promising solution for water scarcity in arid regions. However, fouling is a major challenge facing the application of membrane technologies. Fouling limits the economic viability ...

  20. Effects of Transmembrane Hydraulic Pressure on Performance of Forward Osmosis Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Forward osmosis of oil and gas exploration and production wastewater.13 The continuous pursuit of advanced industrial

  1. Hybrid joule heating/electro-osmosis process for extracting contaminants from soil layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Nitao, John J.

    2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Joule (ohmic) heating and electro-osmosis are combined in a hybrid process for removal of both water-soluble contaminants and non-aqueous phase liquids from contaminated, low-permeability soil formations that are saturated. Central to this hybrid process is the partial desaturation of the formation or layer using electro-osmosis to remove a portion of the pore fluids by induction of a ground water flow to extraction wells. Joule heating is then performed on a partially desaturated formation. The joule heating and electro-osmosis operations can be carried out simultaneously or sequentially if the desaturation by electro-osmosis occurs initially. Joule heating of the desaturated formation results in a very effective transfer or partitioning of liquid state contaminants to the vapor phase. The heating also substantially increases the vapor phase pressure in the porous formation. As a result, the contaminant laden vapor phase is forced out into soil layers of a higher permeability where other conventional removal processes, such as steam stripping or ground water extraction can be used to capture the contaminants. This hybrid process is more energy efficient than joule heating or steam stripping for cleaning low permeability formations and can share electrodes to minimize facility costs.

  2. Forward osmosis treatment of drilling mud and fracturing wastewater from oil and gas operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forward osmosis treatment of drilling mud and fracturing wastewater from oil and gas operations) was tested for treatment and reclamation of water from drilling waste to facilitate beneficial water reuse recover more than 80% of the water from the drilling waste. Osmotic backwashing was demonstrated

  3. Adsorption of small organic solutes from beet distillery condensates on reverse-osmosis membranes: consequences on the process performances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    at the fermentation stage. However, transfer mechanisms through dense NF and RO membranes are still not well of the sorption isotherms of five target inhibitory compounds (acetic and butanoic acids, furfural, 2-phenethyl alone as well as mixed in order to evaluate the competition effects. Results reveal that acetic acid

  4. Remote community drinking water supply : mechanisms of uranium retention and adsorption by ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulte-Herbruggen, Helfrid Maria Albertina

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Worldwide, around 884 million people lack access to safe drinking water. To address this, groundwater sources such as boreholes and wells are often installed in remote locations especially in developing countries. However, ...

  5. Impact of speciation on fluoride, arsenic and magnesium retention by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis in remote Australian communities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, L. A.; Richards, B. S.; Rossiter, H.M.A.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to provide safe drinking water in isolated communities where water supply and electrical infrastructure is limited, a system combining solar energy and advanced water treatment technology (a two-staged membrane ...

  6. Quantum Operation Time Reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of an open quantum system can be described by a quantum operation: A linear, complete positive map of operators. Here, I exhibit a compact expression for the time reversal of a quantum operation, which is closely analogous to the time reversal of a classical Markov transition matrix. Since open quantum dynamics are stochastic, and not, in general, deterministic, the time reversal is not, in general, an inversion of the dynamics. Rather, the system relaxes toward equilibrium in both the forward and reverse time directions. The probability of a quantum trajectory and the conjugate, time reversed trajectory are related by the heat exchanged with the environment.

  7. Wastewater treatment, energy recovery and desalination using a forward osmosis membrane in an air-cathode microbial osmotic fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -cathode microbial osmotic fuel cell Craig M. Werner a,n , Bruce E. Logan b , Pascal E. Saikaly a , Gary L. Amy Keywords: Forward osmosis Desalination Fouling Microbial osmotic fuel cell a b s t r a c t A microbial was compared to conventional microbial fuel cells containing a cation (CEM) or anion exchange membrane (AEM

  8. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  9. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  10. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore »FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  11. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gingerich, Daniel B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  12. A Study of Novel Hexavalent Phosphazene Salts as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two novel multi-valent salts based on phosphazene chemistry have been synthesized and characterized as forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes. Commercially obtained hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene was reacted with the sodium salt of 4-ethylhydroxybenzoate to yield hexa(4-ethylcarboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene. Hydrolysis, followed by and neutralization with NaOH or LiOH, of the resulting acidic moieties yielded water soluble sodium and lithium phosphazene salts, respectively. Degrees of dissociation were determined through osmometry over the range of 0.05-0.5 m, giving degrees of 3.08-4.95 per mole, suggesting a high osmotic potential. The Li salt was found to be more ionized in solution than the sodium salt, and this was reflected in FO experiments where the Li salt gave higher initial fluxes (~ 7 L/m2h) as compared to the sodium salt (~6 L/m2h) at identical 0.07 m draw solution concentrations at 30 °C. Longer term experiments revealed no detectable degradation of the salts; however some hydrolysis of the cellulose acetate membrane was observed, presumably due to the pH of the phosphazene salt draw solution (pH = ~8).

  13. All Skate, Now Reverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glover, Angela l.

    2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    command given at a roller- skating rink. When the phrase “All skate, now reverse” is announced over the loudspeaker, skaters know that everyone is allowed to skate, but instead of moving around the oblong rink in a counter-clockwise motion, which... around the rink. vii The collection as a whole seeks to convey a greater truth about this feeling of reversal, and how family and place inform the development of an individual. The first sentence of William Zinsser’s Inventing the Truth: the Art and Craft...

  14. Time reversal communication system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candy, James V. (Danville, CA); Meyer, Alan W. (Danville, CA)

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  15. Reversible brazing process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jim D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, John J. (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  16. Reversal bending fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

  17. An Analysis of the Economic and Financial Life-Cycle Costs of Reverse-Osmosis Desalination in South Texas: A Case Study of the Southmost Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sturdivant, A.; Rister, M.; Rogers, C.; Lacewell, R.; Norris, J.; Leal, J.; Garza, J.; Adams, J.

    for $26.2 million, an implicit commitment for another $39.1 million (basis 2006 dollars) was also made for Continued and Capital Replacement costs. Investigation into life-cycle costs during the design and planning stages of a desalination facility can...

  18. An Analysis of the Economic and Financial Life-Cycle Costs of Reverse-Osmosis Desalination in South Texas: A Case Study of the Southmost Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sturdivant, A.; Rister, M.; Rogers, C.; Lacewell, R.; Norris, J.; Leal, J.; Garza, J.; Adams, J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to include sensitivity analyses of useful life, initial construction costs, annual energy costs, and production efficiency rate, amongst others. The current estimated total annual life-cycle costs (in 2006 dollars) to produce and deliver desalinated water...

  19. An evaluation of membrane materials for the treatment of highly concentrated suspended salt solutions in reverse osmosis and nanofiltration processes for desalination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Trenton Whiting

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    constant by adjusting a back pressure valve on the concentrate outlet. The results illustrate that if potable drinking water is the intended use, then the nanofiltration cellulose acetate membrane should be used. If irrigation is the desired use...

  20. Reverse slapper detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weingart, Richard C. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reverse slapper detonator (70), and methodology related thereto, are provided. The detonator (70) is adapted to be driven by a pulse of electric power from an external source (80). A conductor (20) is disposed along the top (14), side (18), and bottom (16) surfaces of a sheetlike insulator (12). Part of the conductor (20) comprises a bridge (28), and an aperture (30) is positioned within the conductor (20), with the bridge (28) and the aperture (30) located on opposite sides of the insulator (12). A barrel (40) and related explosive charge (50) are positioned adjacent to and in alignment with the aperture (30), and the bridge (28) is buttressed with a backing layer (60). When the electric power pulse vaporizes the bridge (28), a portion of the insulator (12) is propelled through the aperture (30) and barrel (40), and against the explosive charge (50), thereby detonating it.

  1. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  2. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  3. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Neste, Charles W. (Kingston, TN); Senesac, Lawrence R. (Knoxville, TN); Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  4. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

  5. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, Leander J. (Los Alamos, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved.

  6. Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

  7. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients.

  8. Reverse engineering of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Gregory H. (Shorewood, IL); Eckmann, Steven T. (Colorado Springs, CO); Lain, Christopher M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Veroff, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

  9. Process of forming compounds using reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linehan, John C. (Richland, WA); Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Bean, Roger M. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for producing a nanometer-sized metal compound. The process comprises forming a reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system comprising a polar fluid in a non-polar or low-polarity fluid. A first reactant comprising a multi-component, water-soluble metal compound is introduced into the polar fluid in a non-polar or low-polarity fluid. This first reactant can be introduced into the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system during formation thereof or subsequent to the formation of the reverse micelle or microemulsion system. The water-soluble metal compound is then reacted in the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system to form the nanometer-sized metal compound. The nanometer-sized metal compound is then precipitated from the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system.

  10. Gravity controlled anti-reverse rotation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickinson, Robert J. (Shaler Township, Allegheny County, PA); Wetherill, Todd M. (Lower Burrell, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gravity assisted anti-reverse rotation device for preventing reverse rotation of pumps and the like. A horizontally mounted pawl is disposed to mesh with a fixed ratchet preventing reverse rotation when the pawl is advanced into intercourse with the ratchet by a vertically mounted lever having a lumped mass. Gravitation action on the lumped mass urges the pawl into mesh with the ratchet, while centrifugal force on the lumped mass during forward, allowed rotation retracts the pawl away from the ratchet.

  11. Engineered Osmosis for Energy Efficient Separations: Optimizing Waste Heat Utilization FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT DOE F 241.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NATHAN HANCOCK

    2013-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to design (i) a stripper system where heat is used to strip ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from a diluted draw solution; and (ii) a condensation or absorption system where the stripped NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} are captured in condensed water to form a re-concentrated draw solution. This study supports the Industrial Technologies Program of the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and their Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge award solicitation. Results from this study show that stimulated Oasys draw solutions composed of a complex electrolyte solution associated with the dissolution of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} gas in water can successfully be stripped and fully condensed under standard atmospheric pressure. Stripper bottoms NH{sub 3} concentration can reliably be reduced to < 1 mg/L, even when starting with liquids that have an NH{sub 3} mass fraction exceeding 6% to stimulate diluted draw solution from the forward osmosis membrane component of the process. Concentrated draw solution produced by fully condensing the stripper tops was show to exceed 6 M-C with nitrogen-to-carbon (N:C) molar ratios on the order of two. Reducing the operating pressure of the stripper column serves to reduce the partial vapor pressure of both NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} in solution and enables lower temperature operation towards integration of industrial low-grade of waste heat. Effective stripping of solutes was observed with operating pressures as low as 100 mbar (3-inHg). Systems operating at reduced pressure and temperature require additional design considerations to fully condense and absorb these constituents for reuse within the Oasys EO system context. Comparing empirical data with process stimulation models confirmed that several key parameters related to vapor-liquid equilibrium and intrinsic material properties were not accurate. Additional experiments and refinement of material property databases within the chosen process stimulation software was required to improve the reliability of process simulations for engineering design support. Data from experiments was also employed to calculate critical mass transfer and system design parameters (such as the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP)) to aid in process design. When measured in a less than optimal design state for the stripping of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} from a simulated dilute draw solution the HETP for one type of commercial stripper packing material was 1.88 ft/stage. During this study it was observed that the heat duty required to vaporize the draw solution solutes is substantially affected by the amount of water boilup also produced to achieve a low NH{sub 3} stripper bottoms concentration specification. Additionally, fluid loading of the stripper packing media is a critical performance parameter that affects all facets of optimum stripper column performance. Condensation of the draw solution tops vapor requires additional process considerations if being conducted in sub-atmospheric conditions and low temperature. Future work will focus on the commercialization of the Oasys EO technology platform for numerous applications in water and wastewater treatment as well as harvesting low enthalpy energy with our proprietary osmotic heat engine. Engineering design related to thermal integration of Oasys EO technology for both low and hig-grade heat applications is underway. Novel thermal recovery processes are also being investigated in addition to the conventional approaches described in this report. Oasys Water plans to deploy commercial scale systems into the energy and zero liquid discharge markets in 2013. Additional process refinement will lead to integration of low enthalpy renewable heat sources for municipal desalination applications.

  12. Diplomarbeit Reverse approximation of rate-independent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

    -discretizations have been used to construct energetic solutions, but it is also possible to reverse this process zeitdiskreten Gegenstück untersuchen. Solche Zeitdiskretisierungen werden ver- wende

  13. Current Reversals and Synchronization in Coupled Ratchets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. E. Vincent; A. Kenfack; D. V. Senthilkumar; D. Mayer; J. Kürths

    2010-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Current reversal is an intriguing phenomenon that has been central to recent experimental and theoretical investigations of transport based on ratchet mechanism. By considering a system of two interacting ratchets, we demonstrate how the coupling can be used to control the reversals. In particular, we find that current reversal that exists in a single driven ratchet system can ultimately be eliminated with the presence of a second ratchet. For specific coupling strengths a current-reversal free regime has been detected. Furthermore, in the fully synchronized state characterized by the coupling threshold $k_{th}$, a specific driving amplitude $a_{opt}$ is found for which the transport is optimum.

  14. Fuel cell system with coolant flow reversal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for cooling electrochemical fuel cell system components. Periodic reversal of the direction of flow of cooling fluid through a fuel cell stack provides greater uniformity and cell operational temperatures. Flow direction through a recirculating coolant fluid circuit is reversed through a two position valve, without requiring modulation of the pumping component.

  15. Integrated Wind Energy/Desalination System: October 11, 2004 -- July 29, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GE Global Research

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the feasibility of multiple concepts for integrating wind turbines and reverse osmosis desalination systems for water purification.

  16. Southern California Channel Islands Bibliography, through 1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydraulic version of the Biphase reaction turbine can recover reverse-osmosis reject-brine pressure energy with efficiency

  17. Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, Dean W. (Kennewick, WA); Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Consani, Keith A. (Richland, WA)

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

  18. DNA conjugation andDNA conjugation and reversibility onreversibility on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    DNA conjugation andDNA conjugation and reversibility onreversibility on chitosan surfaceschitosan surfaceschitosan surfaceschitosan surfaces Rubloff Research Group Accomplishments #12;DNA conjugation and reversibility onDNA conjugation and reversibility on chitosan surfaceschitosan surfaces Accomplishment Single

  19. Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low...

  20. Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries. Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable magnesium...

  1. Improved peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid chromatography-MS by incorporating peptide sequence Improved peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid...

  2. Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Tichler, P.R.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) undergoes a buoyancy-driven reversal of flow in the reactor core following certain postulated accidents. Uncertainties about the afterheat removal capability during the flow reversal has limited the reactor operating power to 30 MW. An experimental and analytical program to address these uncertainties is described in this report. The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and development of a criterion for dryout. The criterion is then used in simulations of reactor accidents to determine a safe operating power level. It is concluded that the limit on the HFBR operating power with respect to the issue of flow reversal is in excess of 60 MW.

  3. Low Cost Reversible fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Technology Management Inc.

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report summarizes a 3-phase program performed from March 2000 through September 2003 with a particular focus on Phase III. The overall program studied TMI's reversible solid oxide stack, system concepts, and potential applications. The TMI reversible (fuel cell-electrolyzer) system employs a stack of high temperature solid-oxide electrochemical cells to produce either electricity (from a fuel and air or oxygen) or hydrogen (from water and supplied electricity). An atmospheric pressure fuel cell system operates on natural gas (or other carbon-containing fuel) and air. A high-pressure reversible electrolyzer system is used to make high-pressure hydrogen and oxygen from water and when desired, operates in reverse to generate electricity from these gases.

  4. Discrimination reversal learning in yearling horses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiske, Jeanna Chastain

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DISCRIMINATION REVERSAL LEARNING IN YEARLING HORSES A Thesis by JEANNA CHASTAIN FISKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976... Major Subjects Animal Science DISCRIMINATION REVERSAL LEARNING IN YEARLING HORSES A Thesis by JEANNA CHASTAIN FISKE Approved as to style and content by& Chai an o Committee ad oi epartment Member Nem er December 1976 ABSTRACT Discrimination...

  5. New designs of reversible sequential devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

    2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A clear protocol for synthesis of sequential reversible circuits from any particular gate library has been provided. Using that protocol, reversible circuits for SR latch, D latch, JK latch and T latch are designed from NCT gate library. All the circuits have been optimized with the help of existing local optimization algorithms (e.g. template matching, moving rule and deletion rule). It has been shown that the present proposals have lower gate complexities, lower number of garbage bits, lower quantum cost and lower number of feedback loops compared to the earlier proposals. For a fair comparison, the optimized sequential circuits have been compared with the earlier proposals for the same after converting the earlier proposed circuits into equivalent NCT circuits. Further, we have shown that the advantage in gate count obtained in some of the earlier proposals by introduction of New gates is an artifact and if it is allowed then every reversible circuit block can be reduced to a single gate. In this context, some important conceptual issues related to the designing and optimization of sequential reversible circuits have been addressed. A protocol for minimization of quantum cost of reversible circuit has also been proposed here.

  6. Reverse circling supercurrents along a superconducting ring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian De Cao

    2012-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The reason why high temperature superconductivity has been being debated is that many basic ideas in literatures are wrong. This work shows that the magnetic flux quantum in a superconducting ring have been inaccurately explained in fact, thus we suggest a reinterpretation of the magnetic flux quantum in a superconducting ring on the basis of the translations of pairs. We also predict that the internal and external surface of a superconducting tube have the reverse circling supercurrents. This means that a more thick tube could trap a larger amount of flux. Both the magnetic flux quantum and the reverse circling supercurrents could not be found with the London equation.

  7. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonant Soft X-Ray ScatteringBenefitsReversing theReversing

  8. An Explanation for Beta's Mean-reversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodkin, Connor Matthew

    2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    -reversion in beta values. They find that 26 companies do not have a constant beta and that 14 of the non-constant betas are mean reverting. Their model is the modified Kalman filter that Harvey et al. (1992) developed. De Bondt and Thaler’s paper finds...

  9. Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, L.Y.; Tichler, P.R.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) is a pressurized heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor that began operation at 40 MW. The reactor was subsequently upgraded to 60 MW and operated at that level for several years. The reactor undergoes a buoyancy-driven reversal of flow in the reactor core following certain postulated accidents. Questions which were raised about the afterheat removal capability during the flow reversal transition led to a reactor shutdown and subsequent resumption of operation at a reduced power of 30 MW. An experimental and analytical program to address these questions is described in this report. The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and development of a criterion for dryout. The criterion is then used in simulations of reactor accidents to determine a safe operating power level. It is concluded that the limit on the HFBR operating power with respect to the issue of flow reversal is in excess of 60 MW. Direct use of the experimental results and an understanding of the governing phenomenology supports this conclusion.

  10. REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorkendorff2 and Torben Jacobsen3 1 Fuel Cell and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø National Laboratory The reversibility of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), i.e. that they could also work in the solid oxide electrolyser at a cell voltage of 1.48 V, which is the overall thermo-neutral voltage. Assuming an electricity cost of 3

  11. Reverse Top-k Queries [DRAFT VERSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reverse Top-k Queries [DRAFT VERSION] Akrivi Vlachou # , Christos Doulkeridis # , Yannis Kotidis become essential for many applications that return to the user only the top-k objects based on the individual user's preferences. Top-k queries have been mainly studied from the perspective of the user

  12. ccsd00001476, NEGATIVE ENERGIES AND TIME REVERSAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kinetic energy, so-called phantom #12;elds, have recently been proposed [1] [2] [3] as new sources leadingccsd­00001476, version 6 ­ 31 Mar 2005 NEGATIVE ENERGIES AND TIME REVERSAL IN QUANTUM FIELD THEORY The theoretical and phenomenological status of negative energies is reviewed in Quantum Field Theory leading

  13. An analysis of reversible multiplier circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiplier circuits play an important role in reversible computation, which is helpful in diverse areas such as low power CMOS design, optical computing, DNA computing and bioinformatics. Here we propose a new reversible multiplier circuit with optimized hardware complexity. The optimized multiplier circuit is compared with the earlier proposals. We have shown that the quantum cost of earlier proposals can be further reduced with the help of existing local optimization algorithms (e.g. template matching, moving rule and deletion rule). A systematic protocol for reduction of quantum cost has been proposed. It has also been shown that the advantage in gate count obtained in some of the earlier proposals by introduction of new reversible gates is an artifact and if it is allowed then every circuit block can be reduced to a single gate. Further, it is shown that the 4x4 reversible gates proposed for designing of a component of multiplier circuit (full adder) is neither unique nor special and many such 4x4 gates may be proposed. As example three such new gates have been presented here and it is shown that the proposed gates are universal. It is also shown that the total cost of our design is minimum.

  14. Species Interactions Reverse Grassland Responses to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilmers, Chris

    droughts. Eco- logical responses to climate change in regions with Mediterranean climate regimes maySpecies Interactions Reverse Grassland Responses to Changing Climate K. B. Suttle,1 * Meredith A. Thomsen,2 Mary E. Power1 Predictions of ecological response to climate change are based largely on direct

  15. BIOINFORMATICS Comparative Evaluation of Reverse Engineering Gene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babu, M. Madan

    BIOINFORMATICS Comparative Evaluation of Reverse Engineering Gene Regulatory Networks of Statistics, University of Dortmund, Germany ABSTRACT Motivation: An important problem in systems biology into account. This suggests that the higher computational costs of infe- rence with BNs over GGMs and RNs

  16. A REVERSE SHOCK IN GRB 130427A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laskar, T.; Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Chakraborti, S.; Lunnan, R.; Chornock, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chandra, P. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Ray, A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present extensive radio and millimeter observations of the unusually bright GRB 130427A at z = 0.340, spanning 0.67-12 days after the burst. We combine these data with detailed multi-band UV, optical, NIR, and Swift X-ray observations and find that the broadband afterglow emission is composed of distinct reverse shock and forward shock contributions. The reverse shock emission dominates in the radio/millimeter and at ?< 0.1 days in the UV/optical/NIR, while the forward shock emission dominates in the X-rays and at ?> 0.1 days in the UV/optical/NIR. We further find that the optical and X-ray data require a wind circumburst environment, pointing to a massive star progenitor. Using the combined forward and reverse shock emission, we find that the parameters of the burst include an isotropic kinetic energy of E{sub K,{sub iso}} ? 2 × 10{sup 53} erg, a mass loss rate of M-dot ?3×10{sup -8} M{sub ?} yr{sup –1} (for a wind velocity of 1000 km s{sup –1}), and a Lorentz factor at the deceleration time of ?(200 s) ? 130. Due to the low density and large isotropic energy, the absence of a jet break to ?15 days places only a weak constraint on the opening angle, ?{sub j} ?> 2.°5, and therefore a total energy of E{sub ?} + E{sub K} ?> 1.2 × 10{sup 51} erg, similar to other gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The reverse shock emission is detectable in this burst due to the low circumburst density, which leads to a slow cooling shock. We speculate that this property is required for the detectability of reverse shocks in radio and millimeter bands. Following on GRB 130427A as a benchmark event, observations of future GRBs with the exquisite sensitivity of the Very Large Array and ALMA, coupled with detailed modeling of the reverse and forward shock contributions, will test this hypothesis.

  17. Collaborative Reverse Engineering Design Experiment Using PLM Solutions*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Collaborative Reverse Engineering Design Experiment Using PLM Solutions* FREDERIC SEGONDS,1 NICOLAS Managament'' (PLM) concepts. Finally, we present some modifications in collaborative design courses for our of the design environment. Keywords: reverse engineering; education, PLM; collaborative design 1. Recent changes

  18. Does phentolamine mesylate reverse soft-tissue anesthesia after 3% mepivacaine?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silvera, Andreia Minasian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reversal of soft-tissue anesthesia after dental procedures.following local anesthesia reversal with phentolamineet al. Reversal of soft-tissue anesthesia with phentolamine

  19. Reversibility of Red blood Cell deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maria Zeitz; Pierre Sens

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of cells to undergo reversible shape changes is often crucial to their survival. For Red Blood Cells (RBCs), irreversible alteration of the cell shape and flexibility often causes anemia. Here we show theoretically that RBCs may react irreversibly to mechanical perturbations because of tensile stress in their cytoskeleton. The transient polymerization of protein fibers inside the cell seen in sickle cell anemia or a transient external force can trigger the formation of a cytoskeleton-free membrane protrusion of micrometer dimensions. The complex relaxation kinetics of the cell shape is shown to be responsible for selecting the final state once the perturbation is removed, thereby controlling the reversibility of the deformation. In some case, tubular protrusion are expected to relax via a peculiar "pearling instability".

  20. A Broken System: The Persistent Patterns of Reversals of Death

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelman, Andrew

    A Broken System: The Persistent Patterns of Reversals of Death Sentences in the United States process for all death sentences in U.S. states between 1973 and 1995. The reversal rate was high Sentence Reversals in the United States 1 See Stuart Banner, The Death Penalty: An American History 267

  1. Sadi Carnot's Ingenious Reasoning of Ideal Heat Engine Reversible Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Sadi Carnot's Ingenious Reasoning of Ideal Heat Engine Reversible Cycles MILIVOJE M. KOSTIC and speculations flourished. Carnot's reasoning of reversible cycles is in many ways equal if not more significant was not noticed at his time, when his ingenious reasoning of ideal heat engine reversible cycles is not fully

  2. 2004 Reversible Associations in Structure & Molecular Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Eisenstein Nancy Ryan Gray

    2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2004 Gordon Research Conference on Reversible Associations in Structure & Molecular Biology was held at Four Points Sheraton, CA, 1/25-30/2004. The Conference was well attended with 82 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students.

  3. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonant Soft X-Ray ScatteringBenefitsReversing

  4. On the Synthesis of Sequential Reversible Circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

    2007-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Reversible circuits for SR flip flop, JK flip flop, D flip flop, T flip flop, Master Slave D flip flop and Master Slave JK flip flop have been provided with three different logical approaches. All the circuits have been optimized with the help of existing local optimization algorithms (e.g. template matching, moving rule and deletion rule) and the optimized sequential circuits have been compared with the earlier proposals for the same. It has been shown that the present proposals have lower gate complexities and lower number of garbage bits compared to the earlier proposals. It has also been shown that the advantage in gate count obtained in some of the earlier proposals by introduction of New gates is an \\textcolor{black}{artifact} and if it is allowed then every circuit block (unless there is a measurement) can be reduced to a single gate. Further, it is shown that a reversible flip flop can be constructed even without a feedback. In this context, some important conceptual issues related to the designing and optimization of sequential reversible circuits have also been addressed.

  5. Time Reversal in Solids (Linear and Nonlinear Elasticity): Multimedia Resources in Time Reversal

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dynamic nonlinear elastic behavior, nonequilibrium dynamics, first observed as a curiosity in earth materials has now been observed in a great variety of solids. The primary manifestations of the behavior are characteristic wave distortion, and slow dynamics, a recovery process to equilibrium that takes place linearly with the logarithm of time, over hours to days after a wave disturbance. The link between the diverse materials that exhibit nonequilibrium dynamics appears to be the presence of soft regions, thought to be 'damage' at many scales, ranging from order 10-9 m to 10-1 m at least. The regions of soft matter may be distributed as in a rock sample, or isolated, as in a sample with a single crack [LANLhttp://www.lanl.gov/orgs/ees/ees11/geophysics/nonlinear/nonlinear.shtml]. The Geophysics Group (EES-11) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has posted two or more multimedia items under each of the titles below to demonstrate aspects of their work: 1) Source Reconstruction Using Time Reversal; 2) Robustness and Efficiency of Time Reversal Acoustics in Solid Media; 3) Audio Example of Time Reversal - Speech Privacy; 4) Crack Imagining with Time Reversal - Experimental Results; 5) Time Reversal of the 2004 (M9.0) Sumatra Earthquake.

  6. Reversing the Weak Quantum Measurement for a Photonic Qubit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong-Su Kim; Young-Wook Cho; Young-Sik Ra; Yoon-Ho Kim

    2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the conditional reversal of a weak (partial-collapse) quantum measurement on a photonic qubit. The weak quantum measurement causes a nonunitary transformation of a qubit which is subsequently reversed to the original state after a successful reversing operation. Both the weak measurement and the reversal operation are implemented linear optically. The state recovery fidelity, determined by quantum process tomography, is shown to be over 94% for partial-collapse strength up to 0.9. We also experimentally study information gain due to the weak measurement and discuss the role of the reversing operation as an information erasure.

  7. Sawteeth in the MST reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckstead, J.A.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamo mechanism has been used in astrophysics to explain the self-generation of the magnetic fields observed throughout the universe. This same type of phenomenon is believed to occur in the reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. The RFP dynamo has been a major theoretical and experimental investigation since the first observations of the self-reversal process in early pinch research. A discrete dynamo event has been observed in the experimental RFP plasmas; this event is termed the RFP sawtooth. This phenomenon is similar to the sawtooth phenomenon observed in tokamak plasmas, but the two events differ in many respects. Both events are a result of the inward diffusion of the plasma current density. This causes the plasma to become unstable to the m = 1 tearing modes. It has been shown theoretically that the nonlinear interaction of these modes can generate the reversed toroidal field in the RFP. This thesis is a study of the RFP sawtooth phenomenon on the MST RFP. This includes experimental observations as well as 1-D numerical simulations of the sawtooth rise-time. During the rise-time of the sawtooth, the plasma is undergoing a purely diffusive process -- no dynamo is occurring during this phase. The dynamo only occurs during the sawtooth crash. During the rise-time, the m = 1 modes are observed to grow, and nonlinear interactions are observed prior to the sawtooth crash. At the time of the crash, many of the plasma profiles are flattened; these include the current density, the plasma temperature and the plasma density. The period of the sawteeth is observed to increase with the plasma current, as well as the magnetic Reynolds number, S.

  8. Time reversal duality of magnetohydrodynamic shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goedbloed, J. P. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen', Nieuwegein and Astronomical Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3439 MN (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The shock conditions in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are reduced to their most concise, three-parameter, distilled form by consistent use of the scale independence of the MHD equations and of the de Hoffmann-Teller transformation. They then exhibit a distinct time reversal duality between entropy-allowed shocks and entropy-forbidden jumps. This yields a new classification of MHD shocks by means of the monotonicity properties with respect to upstream and downstream Alfven Mach numbers, it exhibits the central role of intermediate discontinuities, and permits straightforward construction of all relevant dimensionless quantities of the shocks. An exhaustive overview is presented of solutions in the different parameter regimes.

  9. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements RecentlyElectronicResources Resources About1 Sign In AboutReversing the

  10. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonant Soft X-Ray ScatteringBenefits »Reuben|Reversing

  11. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonant Soft X-Ray ScatteringBenefitsReversing the

  12. Time reversal symmetry and collapse models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Bedingham; Owen Maroney

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Collapse models are modifications of quantum theory where the wave function is treated as physically real and the collapse of the wave function is a physical process. This appears to introduce a time reversal asymmetry into the dynamics of the wave function since the collapses affect only the future state. This paper challenges this conclusion, showing that in three different examples of time asymmetries associated with collapse models, if the physically real part of the model can be reduced to the locations in space and time about which collapses occur, then such a model works both forward and backward in time, in each case satisfying the Born rule. Despite the apparent asymmetry of the collapse process, these models in fact have time reversal symmetry. Any physically observed time asymmetries that arise in such models are due to the asymmetric imposition of initial or final time boundary conditions, rather than from an inherent asymmetry in the dynamical law. This is the standard explanation of time asymmetric behaviour resulting from time symmetric laws.

  13. Testing Time Reversal Symmetry in Artificial Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederico Brito; Francisco Rouxinol; M. D. LaHaye; Amir O. Caldeira

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past several decades, a rich series of experiments has repeatedly verified the quantum nature of superconducting devices, leading some of these systems to be regarded as artificial atoms. In addition to their application in quantum information processing, these `atoms' provide a test bed for studying quantum mechanics in macroscopic limits. Regarding the last point, we present here a feasible protocol for directly testing time reversal symmetry in a superconducting artificial atom. Time reversal symmetry is a fundamental property of quantum mechanics and is expected to hold if the dynamics of the artificial atom strictly follow the Schroedinger equation. However, this property has yet to be tested in any macroscopic quantum system. The test we propose is based on the verification of the microreversibility principle, providing a viable approach to verify quantum work fluctuation theorems - an outstanding challenge in quantum statistical mechanics. For this, we outline a procedure that utilizes the microreversibility test in conjunction with numerical emulations of Gibbs ensembles to verify these theorems over a large temperature range.

  14. ascorbic acid reverses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Containing Chimeric Amino Acids as Preferred Reverse-Turn Ye Che and Garland R. Marshall* Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: making almost a complete 180 turn in...

  15. acid reverses valproic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Containing Chimeric Amino Acids as Preferred Reverse-Turn Ye Che and Garland R. Marshall* Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: making almost a complete 180 turn in...

  16. Reversible mechanism for spin crossover in transition-metal cyanides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kabir, Mohammad Mukul

    We report the mechanisms for reversible and repeatable spin transition in a Prussian blue analog crystal, KCo[Fe(CN)[subscript 6

  17. Control of magnetization reversal in oriented strontium ferrite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Debangsu, E-mail: debangsu@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Anil Kumar, P. S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Oriented Strontium Ferrite films with the c axis orientation were deposited with varying oxygen partial pressure on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. The angle dependent magnetic hysteresis, remanent coercivity, and temperature dependent coercivity had been employed to understand the magnetization reversal of these films. It was found that the Strontium Ferrite thin film grown at lower (higher) oxygen partial pressure shows Stoner-Wohlfarth type (Kondorsky like) reversal. The relative importance of pinning and nucleation processes during magnetization reversal is used to explain the type of the magnetization reversal with different oxygen partial pressure during growth.

  18. Electrical detection of microwave assisted magnetization reversal by spin pumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Siddharth; Subhra Mukherjee, Sankha; Elyasi, Mehrdad; Singh Bhatia, Charanjit; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and NUSNNI, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave assisted magnetization reversal has been investigated in a bilayer system of Pt/ferromagnet by detecting a change in the polarity of the spin pumping signal. The reversal process is studied in two material systems, Pt/CoFeB and Pt/NiFe, for different aspect ratios. The onset of the switching behavior is indicated by a sharp transition in the spin pumping voltage. At a threshold value of the external field, the switching process changes from partial to full reversal with increasing microwave power. The proposed method provides a simple way to detect microwave assisted magnetization reversal.

  19. antivenom reverses metabolic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    automatically reverse engineer the network from the data. Genetic programming (Koza, Bennett, Andre, and Keane. Koza Biomedical Informatics, Department of Medicine Department of...

  20. Reversible computation as a model for the quantum measurement process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl Svozil

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One-to-one reversible automata are introduced. Their applicability to a modelling of the quantum mechanical measurement process is discussed.

  1. Reverse-Shock in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, F J; Zheng, S J; Zhang, S N; Long, X; Aschenbach, B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants (SNRs) is usually dominated by the emission lines of the supernova (SN) ejecta, which are widely believed being crossed and thus heated by the inwards propagating reverse shock (RS). Previous works using imaging X-ray data have shown that the ejecta are heated by the RS by locating the peak emission region of the most recently ionized matter, which is found well separated towards the inside from the outermost boundary. Here we report the discovery of a systematic increase of the Sulfur (S) to Silicon (Si) K$\\alpha$ line flux ratio with radius in Tycho's SNR. This allows us, for the first time, to present continuous radial profiles of the ionization age and, furthermore, the elapsed ionization time since the onset of the ionization, which tells the propagation history of the ionization front into the SNR ejecta.

  2. Reverse-selective diffusion in nanocomposite membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reghan J. Hill

    2005-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The permeability of certain polymer membranes with impenetrable nanoinclusions increases with the particle volume fraction (Merkel et al., Science, 296, 2002). This intriguing observation contradicts even qualitative expectations based on Maxwell's classical theory of conduction/diffusion in composites with homogeneous phases. This letter presents a simple theoretical interpretation based on classical models of diffusion and polymer physics. An essential feature of the theory is a polymer-segment depletion layer at the inclusion-polymer interface. The accompanying increase in free volume leads to a significant increase in the local penetrant diffusivity, which, in turn, increases the bulk permeability while exhibiting reverse selectivity. This model captures the observed dependence of the bulk permeability on the inclusion size and volume fraction, providing a straightforward connection between membrane microstructure and performance.

  3. Digital reverse propagation in focusing Kerr media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goy, Alexandre; Psaltis, Demetri [Laboratoire d'Optique, School of Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lenses allow the formation of clear images in homogeneous linear media. Holography is an alternative imaging method, but its use is limited to cases in which it provides an advantage, such as three-dimensional imaging. In nonlinear media, lenses no longer work. The light produces intensity-dependent aberrations. The reverse propagation method used in digital holography to form images from recorded holograms works even in Kerr media [M. Tsang, D. Psaltis, and F. G. Omenetto, Opt. Lett. 28, 1873 (2003).]. The principle has been experimentally demonstrated recently in defocusing media [C. Barsi, W.Wan, and J.W. Fleischer, Nat. Photonics 3, 211 (2009).]. Here, we report experimental results in focusing media.

  4. Two typical processes ... Isentropic("mechanical" reversible, elastic)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    is coupled and accompanied with energy conversions and dissipation to heat/thermal energy ... Carnot cycle12/28/2011 1 Two typical processes ... · Isentropic("mechanical" reversible, elastic) where useful provides for de-coupling of thermal energy from other types and, YES!, for reversible heat transfer

  5. Method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berryman, James G.

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics. Time-reversal acoustics uses an iterative process to determine the optimum signal for locating a strongly reflecting target in a cluttered environment. An acoustic array sends a signal into a medium, and then receives the returned/reflected signal. This returned/reflected signal is then time-reversed and sent back into the medium again, and again, until the signal being sent and received is no longer changing. At that point, the array has isolated the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination and has effectively determined the location of a single target in the medium (the one that is most strongly reflecting). After the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination has been determined, to determine the location of other targets, instead of sending back the same signals, the method sends back these time reversed signals, but half of them will also be reversed in sign. There are various possibilities for choosing which half to do sign reversal. The most obvious choice is to reverse every other one in a linear array, or as in a checkerboard pattern in 2D. Then, a new send/receive, send-time reversed/receive iteration can proceed. Often, the first iteration in this sequence will be close to the desired signal from a second target. In some cases, orthogonalization procedures must be implemented to assure the returned signals are in fact orthogonal to the first eigenvector found.

  6. LOW COST, HIGH EFFICIENCY REVERSIBLE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boulevard Cleveland, Ohio 44108 216-541-1000 Abstract Fuel cell technologies are described in the 2001 DOE. In electrolyzer mode, the reversible system uses electricity and thermal energy to convert pure water into fuel (hydrogen and oxygen). TMI's reversible system uses the waste thermal energy produced during electricity

  7. Control Flow Analysis for Reverse Engineering of Sequence Diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rountev, Atanas "Nasko"

    Control Flow Analysis for Reverse Engineering of Sequence Diagrams Atanas Rountev Olga Volgin and in software main- tenance. In static analysis for such reverse engineering, an open question is how to map an iteration. As pointed out in one popular book on modern software development [13], in this context

  8. Reverse Ecology: From Systems to Environments and Back

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    Chapter 15 Reverse Ecology: From Systems to Environments and Back Roie Levy and Elhanan Borenstein the environments in which they evolved and are adapted to. Re- verse Ecology--an emerging new frontier's ecology. The Reverse Ecology framework facilitates the translation of high-throughput genomic data

  9. Time reversal in thermoacoustic tomography - an error estimate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hristova, Yulia

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The time reversal method in thermoacoustic tomography is used for approximating the initial pressure inside a biological object using measurements of the pressure wave made outside the object. This article presents error estimates for the time reversal method in the cases of variable, non-trapping sound speeds.

  10. Efficient Optimistic Parallel Simulations using Reverse Computation Christopher D. Carothers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , state­saving techniques have been traditionally used to realize rollback. In this article, we propose that of state­ saving. Using compiler techniques, we describe an approach to automatically generate reversible, as compared to traditional state­saving. On sample models using reverse computation, we observe as much

  11. Efficient Optimistic Parallel Simulations using Reverse Computation Christopher D. Carothers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , state-saving techniques have been traditionally used to realize rollback. In this article, we propose that of state- saving. Using compiler techniques, we describe an approach to automatically generate reversible, as compared to traditional state-saving. On sample models using reverse computation, we observe as much

  12. Reducing current reversal time in electric motor control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bredemann, Michael V

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The time required to reverse current flow in an electric motor is reduced by exploiting inductive current that persists in the motor when power is temporarily removed. Energy associated with this inductive current is used to initiate reverse current flow in the motor.

  13. Reversible plasticity in amorphous materials Micah Lundberg1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennin, Michael

    Reversible plasticity in amorphous materials Micah Lundberg1 , Kapilanjan Krishan1 , Ning Xu2 to external loads. Plasticity, i.e. dis- sipative and irreversible macroscopic changes in a material for reversible plastic events at the microscopic scale in both experiments and simulations of two

  14. Faraday rotation: effect of magnetic field reversals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melrose, D B

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard formula for the rotation measure, RM, which determines the position angle, $\\psi={\\rm RM}\\lambda^2$, due to Faraday rotation, includes contributions only from the portions of the ray path where the natural modes of the plasma are circularly polarized. In small regions of the ray path where the projection of the magnetic field on the ray path reverses sign (called QT regions) the modes are nearly linearly polarized. The neglect of QT regions in estimating RM is not well justified at frequencies below a transition frequency where mode coupling changes from strong to weak. By integrating the polarization transfer equation across a QT region in the latter limit, I estimate the additional contribution $\\Delta\\psi$ needed to correct this omission. In contrast with a result proposed by \\cite{BB10}, $\\Delta\\psi$ is small and probably unobservable. I identify a new source of circular polarization, due to mode coupling in an asymmetric QT region. I also identify a new circular-polarization-dependent correc...

  15. FARADAY ROTATION: EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD REVERSALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melrose, D. B. [SIfA, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard formula for the rotation measure (RM), which determines the position angle, {psi} = RM{lambda}{sup 2}, due to Faraday rotation, includes contributions only from the portions of the ray path where the natural modes of the plasma are circularly polarized. In small regions of the ray path where the projection of the magnetic field on the ray path reverses sign (called QT regions) the modes are nearly linearly polarized. The neglect of QT regions in estimating RM is not well justified at frequencies below a transition frequency where mode coupling changes from strong to weak. By integrating the polarization transfer equation across a QT region in the latter limit, I estimate the additional contribution {Delta}{psi} needed to correct this omission. In contrast with a result proposed by Broderick and Blandford, {Delta}{psi} is small and probably unobservable. I identify a new source of circular polarization, due to mode coupling in an asymmetric QT region. I also identify a new circular-polarization-dependent correction to the dispersion measure at low frequencies.

  16. BIMETALLIC LITHIUM BOROHYDRIDES TOWARD REVERSIBLE HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Au, M.

    2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Borohydrides such as LiBH{sub 4} have been studied as candidates for hydrogen storage because of their high hydrogen contents (18.4 wt% for LiBH{sub 4}). Limited success has been made in reducing the dehydrogenation temperature by adding reactants such as metals, metal oxides and metal halides. However, full rehydrogenation has not been realized because of multi-step decomposition processes and the stable intermediate species produced. It is suggested that adding second cation in LiBH{sub 4} may reduce the binding energy of B-H. The second cation may also provide the pathway for full rehydrogenation. In this work, several bimetallic borohydrides were synthesized using wet chemistry, high pressure reactive ball milling and sintering processes. The investigation found that the thermodynamic stability was reduced, but the full rehydrogenation is still a challenge. Although our experiments show the partial reversibility of the bimetallic borohydrides, it was not sustainable during dehydriding-rehydriding cycles because of the accumulation of hydrogen inert species.

  17. Rigid-rotor, field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conti, F., E-mail: conti@df.unipi.it; Giammanco, F. [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Plasma Diagnostics and Technologies Ltd., Via Giuntini 63, 56023 Navacchio (PI) (Italy); Wessel, F. J.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Bolte, N.; Morehouse, M.; Qerushi, A.; Rahman, H. U.; Roche, T.; Slepchenkov, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)] [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The radial profiles, n(r), B{sub z}(r), and E{sub r}(r), for a Flux-Coil (“inductively driven”), Field-Reversed Configuration (FC-FRC) are measured and compared to the predictions of the Rigid-Rotor Model (RRM), which is an analytic, one-dimensional, time-independent, equilibrium description for the FRC. Injectors mounted on both ends of the confinement vessel provide a pre-fill plasma. Coaxial coils mounted outside the vacuum boundaries of the annular-confinement vessel accelerate the plasma and produce the FRC. The density profile is measured by laser interferometry, the magnetic-field profile using an in-situ probe array, and the electric-field profile using an in-situ, floating-probe array. Free parameters for each profile are measured, which also allow other intrinsic-plasma parameters to be determined, using computer-fit algorithms: null radius, radial thickness, plasma temperature, rotation frequencies, the latter of which are independently verified by spectroscopy. All radial profiles agree with the RRM predictions, for the experimental configuration, parameter regime, and specified-time interval studied here.

  18. Reversible piezomagnetoelectric switching in bulk polycrystalline ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, T., E-mail: t.j.stevenson@leeds.ac.uk; Bennett, J.; Brown, A. P.; Wines, T.; Bell, A. J.; Comyn, T. P. [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Smith, R. I. [ISIS Neutron Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in materials offer tremendous advantages in device functionality enabling technologies including advanced electronic memory, combining electronic speed, and efficiency with magnetic robustness. However, low cost polycrystalline ME materials are excluded from most commercial applications, operating only at cryogenic temperatures, impractically large electric/magnetic fields, or with low ME coefficients (1-100 mV/cm?Oe). Despite this, the technological potential of single compound ME coupling has continued to drive research into multiferroics over the last two decades. Here we show that by manipulating the large induced atomic strain within the polycrystalline, room temperature multiferroic compound 0.7BiFeO{sub 3}–0.3PbTiO{sub 3}, we can induce a reversible, piezoelectric strain controlled ME effect. Employing an in situ neutron diffraction experiment, we have demonstrated that this piezomagnetoelectric effect manifests with an applied electric field >8 kV/mm at the onset of piezoelectric strain, engineered in to the compound by crystallographic phase mixing. This produces a remarkable intrinsic ME coefficient of 1276 mV/cm?Oe, due to a strain driven modification to the oxygen sub-lattice, inducing an increase in magnetic moment per Fe{sup 3+} ion of +0.142 ?{sub B}. This work provides a framework for investigations into strain engineered nanostructures to realize low-cost ME devices designed from the atoms up, as well as contributing to the deeper understanding of single phase ME coupling mechanisms.

  19. Durability Evaluation of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoyu Zhang; James E. O'Brien; Robert C. O'Brien; Gregory K. Housley

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation on the performance and durability of single solid oxide cells (SOCs) is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory. Reversible operation of SOCs includes electricity generation in the fuel cell mode and hydrogen generation in the electrolysis mode. Degradation is a more significant issue when operating SOCs in the electrolysis mode. In order to understand and mitigate the degradation issues in high temperature electrolysis, single SOCs with different configurations from several manufacturers have been evaluated for initial performance and long-term durability. A new test apparatus for single cell and small stack tests has been developed for this purpose. Cells were obtained from four industrial partners. Cells from Ceramatec Inc. and Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI) showed improved durability in electrolysis mode compared to previous stack tests. Cells from Saint Gobain Advanced Materials Inc. (St. Gobain) and SOFCPower Inc. demonstrated stable performance in the fuel cell mode, but rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode, especially at high current density. Electrolyte-electrode delamination was found to have a significant impact on degradation in some cases. Enhanced bonding between electrolyte and electrode and modification of the electrode microstructure helped to mitigate degradation. Polarization scans and AC impedance measurements were performed during the tests to characterize cell performance and degradation.

  20. Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

    1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  1. fe0014066-battelle | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    treatment technologies such as chemical treatment, filtration, reverse osmosis, distillation, etc., must be adapted to treat a range of flowback water chemistries and have...

  2. Robust Waste-to-Value Solution Using Advanced Monitoring and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    water to desired purity for reuse, moving through filtration, an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR), and reverse osmosis (RO). Predictive monitoring and supervisory controls are...

  3. amniotic membrane graft: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by grafting of Engineering Websites Summary: of polyamide thin-film composite membranes. The structure of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO.V. All rights...

  4. advanced membrane filtration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    available reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes are based on the thin film composite (TFC) aromatic polyamide membranes. However, they have several disadvantages...

  5. Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scown, Corinne Donahue

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic Produced Water Renewable Fuels Association ReliabilityFirst Corporation Reverse Osmosis Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Soybean Meal Synthetic Crude Oil SERC Reliability

  6. Sears Integrated Retail Strategy October 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Living Refrigeration Air Conditioning Cooking & Microwave Dish Laundry Water Heaters Water Softeners Reverse Osmosis Water Pump Water Treatment Garage Recreation Furniture Bedding Tool Storage Power Bench

  7. Reverse Shock Emission in Gamma-ray Bursts Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, He

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generic synchrotron external shock model is the widely preferred paradigm used to interpret the broad-band afterglow data of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), including predicted observable signatures from a reverse shock which have been confirmed by observations. Investigations of the nature of the reverse shock emission can provide valuable insights into the intrinsic properties of the GRB ejecta. Here we briefly review the standard and the extended models of the reverse shock emission, discussing the connection between the theory and observations, including the implications of the latest observational advances.

  8. An unusual route to polarization reversal in ferroelectric ultrathin nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herchig, R.; Chang, Ch.-M.; Mani, B. K.; Ponomareva, I., E-mail: iponomar@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferroelectric nanowires are promising candidates for miniaturized ferroelectric devices. Some potential nanoscale applications of the nanowires, such as ultra high density ferroelectric memory, utilize their reversible polarization. To meet the ever increasing demand for low energy consumption, it is extremely desirable to reduce the operational fields associated with polarization reversal. In this Letter, we use first-principles-based simulations to explore an unusual route to polarization reversal that utilizes a combination of relatively low bias field and THz pulsed radiation. Such an approach allows for lower operational fields and may lead to other potential applications such as THz radiation sensing and remote switches.

  9. Real-time sub- Å ngstrom imaging of reversible and irreversible...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ngstrom imaging of reversible and irreversible conformations in rhodium catalysts and graphene Citation Details Title: Real-time sub- ngstrom imaging of reversible and...

  10. Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low, Director Product Development & Federal Programs #12;Project Background f Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

  11. Application of real options to reverse logistics process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaga, Akihiro, 1975-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, real options are used to identify the optimal model for the reverse logistics process of a technology company in the circuit board business. Currently, customers return defective boards and the company ...

  12. Analysis of pressure drops under reversing flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krazinski, J.L.; Holtz, R.E.; Uherka, K.L.; Lottes, P.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines pressure-drop data from the Reversing Flow Test Facility (RFTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The data comprise part of an initial series of measurements conducted with pressurized helium gas under reversing flow conditions. The characteristics of fluid pressure drops in compressible, reversing flows are discussed in the paper and compared with pressure-drop measurements for steady, incompressible flows. The methodology used to calculate instantaneous mass flows in the test section of the RFTF is summarized. The measured pressure drops are analyzed in terms of their frictional and inertial components. Pressure-drop data are presented for both tubes and wire mesh regenerators over a range of flow reversal frequencies. The results are discussed with reference to other experimental data and analytical models available in the literature. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas. Reversible Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen...

  14. auto reversed r-22: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alla L.R. 221997 che imponeva di adottare il Piano Regiona Cinzano, Pierantonio 2 In Helicobacter pylori auto-inducer-2, but not LuxSMccAB catalysed reverse...

  15. Reversible Attraction-Mediated Colloidal Crystallization on Patterned Substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Gregory

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation we used tunable particle-particle and particle-substrate attraction to achieve reversible two-dimensional crystallization of colloids on homogeneous and patterned substrates. Total internal reflection and video microscopy...

  16. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper on titan plasma engineering contains papers on the following topics: reversed-field pinch as a fusion reactor; parametric systems studies; magnetics; burning-plasma simulations; plasma transient operations; current drive; and physics issues for compact RFP reactors.

  17. Simulated magnetization reversal in Fe nanopillar S. H. Thompson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Simulated magnetization reversal in Fe nanopillar S. H. Thompson Florida State University and Center for Materials Research and Technology. 1 S. H. Thompson, G. Brown, and P. A. Rikvold, J. Appl

  18. On reconstruction and time reversal in thermoacoustic tomography in acoustically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchment, Peter

    On reconstruction and time reversal in thermoacoustic tomography in acoustically homogeneous of recent approaches to the reconstruction in thermoacoustic/photoacoustic tomography: backprojection of the problem of sound speed recovery is also provided. Keywords: Tomography, thermoacoustic, wave equation. AMS

  19. FDD Algorithm for an AHU Reverse-Return System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Djuric, N.; Novakovic, V.

    A fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) algorithm was developed for an AHU reverse-return system for air cooling. These FDD rules were generated using simulation in three steps. Cause-effect rules were established by connecting the faults...

  20. Reverse Transfer Associate Degree Initiative Agreement Michigan State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reverse Transfer Associate Degree Initiative Agreement Michigan State University & Lake Michigan students who have transferred to Michigan State University (MSU) in completing an associate's degree at Lake Michigan College (LMC). This initiative is an extension of the transfer agreements already

  1. MIMO Time Reversal Communications Hee-Chun Song

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Shengli

    Keywords: Time reversal mirror, MIMO 1. INTRODUCTION Reliable, high data rate acoustic communications correspond to the downlink (from the base station to a user, MISO) and the uplink (from a user to a base

  2. Optimal reverse carpooling over wireless networks - a distributed optimization approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parandehgheibi, Ali

    We focus on a particular form of network coding, reverse carpooling, in a wireless network where the potentially coded transmitted messages are to be decoded immediately upon reception. The network is fixed and known, and ...

  3. Reversible Electrowetting of Vertically Aligned Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanofibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heikenfeld, Jason

    Reversible Electrowetting of Vertically Aligned Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanofibers Manjeet S (electrowetting) of vertically aligned superhydrophobic carbon nanofibers has been investigated. Carbon nanofibers, and hydrophobized with fluoropolymer. This nanostructured scaffold exhibited superhydrophobic behavior for saline

  4. Reverse Auction Bidding- A Study of Industry Professionals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piper, Robert

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    REVERSE AUCTION BIDDING - A STUDY OF INDUSTRY PROFESSIONALS A Thesis by ROBERT BRADLEY PIPER Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... Bradley Piper ii ABSTRACT This research project into Reverse Auction Bidding is the first of the twenty studies completed to this time to use professional contractors. Previous case studies used students at Texas A&M University as the subjects...

  5. E-print Network : Main View : Search Results for Title: "Reversible...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reversible control of spin-polarized supercurrents in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions" Author: Banerjee AND Robinson...

  6. Tightening force and torque of nonlocking screws in a reverse shoulder prosthesis A. Terrier a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    Tightening force and torque of nonlocking screws in a reverse shoulder prosthesis A. Terrier a, , S Arthroplasty Reversed prosthesis Screw Cadaveric study Background: Reversed shoulder arthroplasty and screwing angle, of the nonlocking screws of the Aquealis reversed prosthesis. In addition, the amount

  7. Combined Ideal and Kinetic Effects on Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.N. Gorelenkov, G.J. Kramer, and R. Nazikian

    2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A theory of Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes (RSAEs) is developed for reversed magnetic field shear plasmas when the safety factor minimum, qmin, is at or above a rational value. The modes we study are known sometimes as either the bottom of the frequency sweep or the down sweeping RSAEs. We show that the ideal MHD theory is not compatible with the eigenmode solution in the reversed shear plasma with qmin above integer values. Corrected by special analytic FLR condition MHD dispersion of these modes nevertheless can be developed. Large radial scale part of the analytic RSAE solution can be obtained from ideal MHD and expressed in terms of the Legendre functions. The kinetic equation with FLR effects for the eigenmode is solved numerically and agrees with the analytic solutions. Properties of RSAEs and their potential implications for plasma diagnostics are discussed.

  8. Wind reversals in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco Fontenele Araujo; S. Grossmann; D. Lohse

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomenon of irregular cessation and subsequent reversal of the large-scale circulation in turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection is theoretically analysed. The force and thermal balance on a single plume detached from the thermal boundary layer yields a set of coupled nonlinear equations, whose dynamics is related to the Lorenz equations. For Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers in the range $10^{-2} \\leq \\Pr \\leq 10^{3}$ and $10^{7} \\leq \\Ra \\leq 10^{12}$, the model has the following features: (i) chaotic reversals may be exhibited at Ra $\\geq 10^{7}$; (ii) the Reynolds number based on the root mean square velocity scales as $\\Re_{rms} \\sim \\Ra^{[0.41 ... 0.47]}$ (depending on Pr), and as $\\Re_{rms} \\sim \\Pr^{-[0.66 ... 0.76]}$ (depending on Ra); and (iii) the mean reversal frequency follows an effective scaling law $\\omega / (\

  9. Geometrically-protected reversibility in hydrodynamic Loschmidt-echo experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeanneret, Raphaël

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate an archetypal Loschmidt-echo experiment involving thousands of droplets which interact in a reversible fashion via a viscous fluid. Firstly, we show that, unlike equilibrium systems, periodically driven microfluidic emulsions self-organize and geometrically protect their macroscopic reversibility. Self-organization is not merely dynamical; we show that it has a clear structural signature akin to that found in a mixture of molecular liquids. Secondly, we show that, above a maximal shaking amplitude, structural order and reversibility are lost simultaneously in the form of a first order non-equilibrium phase transition. We account for this discontinuous transition in terms of a memory-loss process. Finally, we suggest potential applications of microfluidic echo as a robust tool to tailor colloidal self-assembly at large scales.

  10. GEOMAGNETIC REVERSALS DRIVEN BY ABRUPT SEA LEVEL CHANGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, R.A.; Morris, D.E.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in the moment of inertia of the earth, brought about by the redistribution of ocean water from the tropics to ice at high latitudes, couple energy from the spin of the earth into convection in the liquid core. This mechanism may help provide the driving energy for the earth's dynamo. Sufficiently rapid ocean level changes can disrupt the dynamo, resulting (in half of the cases) in a geomagnetic field reversal. The model can account for the previously mysterious correlation reported between geomagnetic reversals and mass extinctions.

  11. Forward and reverse energy transfer in Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, K. (Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport of electronic excitations among chromophores randomly distributed in Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers is described. In this theoretical analysis, it has been assumed that excitation energy can be transferred forward and reverse between two-dimensional layers. Fluorescence decays have been calculated for each layer. A numerical analysis of fluorescence decays is given in order to show the influence of reverse energy transfer on photophysical properties of Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers. The discussion of results in connection with recent and future experimental studies is presented.

  12. Mechanical Engineering Department Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awtar, Shorya

    access to energy and water. One-size-fits-all systems configured from developed world technologies. The methods are applied here to the design of photovoltaic reverse osmosis systems. The computer based technologies for remote locations. This includes the deployment of a photovoltaic reverse osmosis system

  13. Reversing Flow Test Facility. Technical report, March 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, P.D.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reversing Flow Test Facility (RFTF) is intended for the study of fluid flow and heat transfer under the reversing-flow conditions that occur in Stirling engines. the facility consists of four major parts: (1) Mechanical Drive - two cylinders with cam-driven pistons which generate the reversing gas flow, (2) Test Section - a U-shaped section containing instrumented test pieces, (3) Instruments -l high-speed transducers for measuring gas pressure and temperature, piston positions, and other system parameters, and (4) Data Acquisition System - a computer-based system able to acquire, store, display and analyze the data from the instruments. The RFTF can operate at pressures up to 8.0 MPa, hot-side temperatures to 800/sup 0/C, and flow-reversal frequencies to 50 Hz. Operation to data has used helium as the working gas at pressures of 3.0 and 6.0 MPa, at ambient temperature, and at frequencies from 1 to 50 Hz. The results show that both frictional and inertial parts of the pressure drop are significant in the heater, coolers and connecting tubes; the inertial part is negligible in the regenerators. In all cases, the frictional part of the pressure drop is nearly in phase with the mass flow. 18 refs., 22 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Reversible Space Equals Deterministic Space KlausJorn Lange \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Pierre

    (see [Ne66]), physical laws do not preclude using an arbitrarily small amount of energy to perform logically reversible computing steps [La61], see [Fey96, Chapter 5]. More recently, renewed interest'erationnelle, Universit'e de Montr'eal, C.P. 6128 succursale Centre­Ville, Montr'eal, H3C 3J7 Canada. Work supported

  15. Lessons Learned in Applying Formal Concept Analysis to Reverse Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lessons Learned in Applying Formal Concept Analysis to Reverse Engineering Gabriela Ar´evalo, St in "International Conference on Formal Concept Analysis (ICFCA '05) (2005)" #12;Lessons Learned in Applying Formal artifacts. In this paper we describe our approach, outline three case studies, and draw various lessons from

  16. aot water reverse: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aot water reverse First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Probing the Structure and Dynamics of...

  17. Accepted Manuscript Title: Imaging the spread of reversible brain inactivations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laubach, Mark

    and reversible suppression of neurophysiological activity. Interpretations of the effects of muscimol infusions demonstrated that the behavioral effects of FCM infusion are similar to the behavioral effects of muscimol infusion. FCM infusion into the rat amygdala before fear conditioning impaired both cued and contextual

  18. Coding analysis of the IS-95A reverse link

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, Noor Rajib

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The IS-95A reverse link CDMA system is analyzed from a channel coding point of view. Analytical performance is derived for the Viterbi decoder to perform hard decision decoding. A dual-max decoding metric is suggested to provide soft information...

  19. Einstein relation for reversible diffusions in random environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gantert, Nina

    Einstein relation for reversible diffusions in random environment N. Gantert P. Mathieu A the Einstein re- lation for this model. It says that the derivative at 0 of the effective velocity under an additional local drift equals the diffusivity of the model without drift. The Einstein rela- tion

  20. Enhancing entanglement trapping by weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ying-Jie Zhang; Wei Han; Heng Fan; Yun-Jie Xia

    2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we propose a scheme to enhance trapping of entanglement of two qubits in the environment of a photonic band gap material. Our entanglement trapping promotion scheme makes use of combined weak measurements and quantum measurement reversals. The optimal promotion of entanglement trapping can be acquired with a reasonable finite success probability by adjusting measurement strengths.

  1. Rotational stability of a long field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, D. C., E-mail: coronadocon@msn.com; Steinhauer, L. C. [Tri Alpha Energy, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)] [Tri Alpha Energy, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Rotationally driven modes of long systems with dominantly axial magnetic field are considered. We apply the incompressible model and order axial wavenumber small. A recently developed gyro-viscous model is incorporated. A one-dimensional equilibrium is assumed, but radial profiles are arbitrary. The dominant toroidal (azimuthal) mode numbers ?=1 and ?=2 modes are examined for a variety of non-reversed (B) and reversed profiles. Previous results for both systems with rigid rotor equilibria are reproduced. New results are obtained by incorporation of finite axial wavenumber and by relaxing the assumption of rigid electron and ion rotation. It is shown that the frequently troublesome ?=2 field reversed configuration (FRC) mode is not strongly affected by ion kinetic effects (in contrast to non-reversed cases) and is likely stabilized experimentally only by finite length effects. It is also shown that the ?=1 wobble mode has a complicated behavior and is affected by a variety of configuration and profile effects. The rotationally driven ?=1 wobble is completely stabilized by strong rotational shear, which is anticipated to be active in high performance FRC experiments. Thus, observed wobble modes in these systems are likely not driven by rotation alone.

  2. Simulation studies of nucleation of ferroelectric polarization reversal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Winchester, Benjamin Michael

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric field-induced reversal of spontaneous polarization is the defining characteristic of a ferroelectric material, but the process(es) and mechanism(s) associated with the initial nucleation of reverse-polarity domains are poorly understood. This report describes studies carried out using phase field modeling of LiTaO3, a relatively simple prototype ferroelectric material, in order to explore the effects of either mechanical deformation or optically-induced free charges on nucleation and resulting domain configuration during field-induced polarization reversal. Conditions were selected to approximate as closely as feasible those of accompanying experimental work in order to provide not only support for the experimental work but also ensure that additional experimental validation of the simulations could be carried out in the future. Phase field simulations strongly support surface mechanical damage/deformation as effective for dramatically reducing the overall coercive field (Ec) via local field enhancements. Further, optically-nucleated polarization reversal appears to occur via stabilization of latent nuclei via the charge screening effects of free charges.

  3. Has the Early Retirement Trend Reversed? Joseph F. Quinn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    Has the Early Retirement Trend Reversed? Joseph F. Quinn Department of Economics Boston College: figures 2.1 and 2.2; tables 2A.1 and 2A.2) has argued persuasively that this early retirement trend began.7 25.8 20.9 14.7 Age Source: Burkhauser and Quinn (1997: table 1), updated #12;3 The early retirement

  4. Artificial Neural Networks for Recognition of Electrocardiographic Lead Reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Carsten

    Artificial Neural Networks for Recognition of Electrocardiographic Lead Reversal Bo Heden, Iv, which are rule-based,is a diffi- cult task, even for the expert. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have lack of prop- 100%). The neural networks performed better *an `the er treatment. The pur r se

  5. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks Geoffrey is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling

  6. The imperfect price-reversibility of world oil demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gately, D. [New York Univ., NY (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the price-reversibility of world oil demand, using price-decomposition methods employed previously on other energy demand data. We conclude that the reductions in world oil demand following the oil price increases of the 1970s will not be completely reversed by the price cuts of the 1980s. The response to price cuts in the 1980s is perhaps only one-fifth that for price increases in the 1970s. This has dramatic implications for projections of oil demand, especially under low-price assumptions. We also consider the effect on demand of a price recovery (sub-maximum increase) in the 1990s - due either to OPEC or to a carbon tax-specifically whether the effects would be as large as for the price increases of the 1970s or only as large as the smaller demand reversals of the 1980s. On this the results are uncertain, but a tentative conclusion is that the response to a price recovery would lie midway between the small response to price cuts and the larger response to increases in the maximum historical price. Finally, we demonstrate two implications of wrongly assuming that demand is perfectly price-reversible. First, such an assumption will grossly overestimate the demand response to price declines of the 1980s. Secondly, and somewhat surprisingly, it causes an underestimate of the effect of income growth on future demand. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

  8. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1987-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime. 10 figs.

  9. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

  10. EddyViscosity Time Reversing Waves a Dissipative Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnier, Josselin

    where linear shallow water speed is given o o . The kinematic viscosity denoted parameter ratio been shown [6] nonlinear (inviscid) shallow water waves pres­ ence a random topography and alsoEddyViscosity Time Reversing Waves a Dissipative Environment Josselin Garnier Laboratoire

  11. TIME REVERSAL IN CHANGING ENVIRONMENT GUILLAUME BAL AND RAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume

    TIME REVERSAL IN CHANGING ENVIRONMENT GUILLAUME BAL #3; AND RAM #19; ON VER #19; ASTEGUI y Abstract of the refocused signal as the backward propagation medium departs from the forward propagation medium, Wigner transform, changing environment. AMS subject classi#12;cations. 35R60 35L40 78A45 82D30 1

  12. Time Reversal Invariance Violation in Neutron Deuteron Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young-Ho Song; Rimantas Lazauskas; Vladimir Gudkov

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Time reversal invariance violating (TRIV) effects for low energy elastic neutron deuteron scattering are calculated for meson exchange and EFT-type of TRIV potentials in a Distorted Wave Born Approximation, using realistic hadronic strong interaction wave functions, obtained by solving three-body Faddeev equations in configuration space. The relation between TRIV and parity violating observables are discussed.

  13. Highly Reversible Open Framework Nanoscale Electrodes for Divalent Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Blue family of open framework materials, such as nickel hexacyanoferrate, allow for the reversible of protons and lithium ions into solid materials has led to the success of nickel metal hydride and lithium materials have been studied extensively.15,16,18,20-23 Electrodeposited PB thin films have demonstrated

  14. Quantum secret sharing schemes and reversibility of quantum operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, Tomohiro [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Sasaki, Akira [Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, 1-3-2, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0005 (Japan); Iwamoto, Mitsugu [Graduate School of Information Systems, University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu-shi, Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hirosuke [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, 277-8561 (Japan)

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum secret sharing schemes encrypting a quantum state into a multipartite entangled state are treated. The lower bound on the dimension of each share given by Gottesman [Phys. Rev. A 61, 042311 (2000)] is revisited based on a relation between the reversibility of quantum operations and the Holevo information. We also propose a threshold ramp quantum secret sharing scheme and evaluate its coding efficiency.

  15. Introduction The median problem for the reversal distance in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lonardi, Stefano

    genomes E. Ohlebusch, M.I. Abouelhoda, K. Hockel, J. Stallkamp University of Ulm, Germany CPM 2005 The median problem for the reversal distance in circular bacterial genomes #12;Introduction Methods Conclusion General Problem Distances Specific Problem Median Problem Given 3 genomes G1, G2, and G3, find

  16. Coherent control and manifestation of inequality of forward and reversed processes in optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Kuz'menko

    2004-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The experiments with broadband down-converted light clearly show inequality of forward and reversed processes in optics.

  17. Dynamical "breaking" of time reversal symmetry and converse quantum ergodicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris Gutkin

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a common assumption that quantum systems with time reversal invariance and classically chaotic dynamics have energy spectra distributed according to GOE-type of statistics. Here we present a class of systems which fail to follow this rule. We show that for convex billiards of constant width with time reversal symmetry and "almost" chaotic dynamics the energy level distribution is of GUE-type. The effect is due to the lack of ergodicity in the "momentum" part of the phase space and, as we argue, is generic in two dimensions. Besides, we show that certain billiards of constant width in multiply connected domains are of interest in relation to the quantum ergodicity problem. These billiards are quantum ergodic, but not classically ergodic.

  18. Forward and reverse control system for induction motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, J.T.

    1987-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

  19. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE STORAGE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the challenges of implementing the hydrogen economy is finding a suitable solid H{sub 2} storage material. Aluminium (alane, AlH{sub 3}) hydride has been examined as a potential hydrogen storage material because of its high weight capacity, low discharge temperature, and volumetric density. Recycling the dehydride material has however precluded AlH{sub 3} from being implemented due to the large pressures required (>10{sup 5} bar H{sub 2} at 25 C) and the thermodynamic expense of chemical synthesis. A reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically using NaAlH{sub 4} in THF been successfully demonstrated. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum. To complete the cycle, the starting alanate can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride (NaH) This novel reversible cycle opens the door for alane to fuel the hydrogen economy.

  20. Water dynamics in large and small reverse micelles: From two ensembles to collective behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water dynamics in large and small reverse micelles: From two ensembles to collective behavior David July 2009 The dynamics of water in Aerosol-OT reverse micelles are investigated with ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of the hydroxyl stretch. In large reverse micelles, the dynamics of water are separable into two

  1. Engineering Time-Reversal Invariant Topological Insulators With Ultra-Cold Atoms N. Goldman,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satija, Indu

    Engineering Time-Reversal Invariant Topological Insulators With Ultra-Cold Atoms N. Goldman,1 I: February 1, 2010) Topological insulators are a broad class of unconven- tional phases of matter-reversal violations. Here, we lay out an experiment to realize time-reversal invariant topological insulators in ultra

  2. DOMAIN PATTERNS AND REVERSALS BY WALL MOVEMENTS OF THIN FILMS OF IRON AND NICKEL IRON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    310 DOMAIN PATTERNS AND REVERSALS BY WALL MOVEMENTS OF THIN FILMS OF IRON AND NICKEL IRON By C. E directions but in the case of the nickel-iron film the reversal of magnetization in the perpendicular domain reversals in nickel-iron films observed by the Kerr effect, and that of Williams and Sherwood [2

  3. Loschmidt cooling by time reversal of atomic matter waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Martin; B. Georgeot; D. L. Shepelyansky

    2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an experimental scheme which allows to realize approximate time reversal of matter waves for ultracold atoms in the regime of quantum chaos. We show that a significant fraction of the atoms return back to their original state, being at the same time cooled down by several orders of magnitude. We give a theoretical description of this effect supported by extensive numerical simulations. The proposed scheme can be implemented with existing experimental setups.

  4. Parity and time-reversal non-conservation in atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, B.W.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the implications of parity and time-reversal non-conservation for atomic physics. We conclude that a determination of Q/sub W//N to 10% would give an indirect determination of M/sub Z/ competitive with that available from high-energy physics, limits on the electric dipole moments of neutrons and electrons give non-trivial constraints on model building of CP non-conservation.

  5. Quasi-Reversible Oxygen Exchange of Amorphous IGZO Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahriar, Selim

    MRSEC Quasi-Reversible Oxygen Exchange of Amorphous IGZO Thin Films NSF Grant # 1121262 A. U. Adler Center In situ electrical properties of a-IGZO thin films were carried out at 200ºC as a function/"defect" structure of amorphous oxide films. In situ conductivity of 70 nm a-IGZO thin film at 200oC measured in van

  6. Low Voltage Reversible Electrowetting Exploiting Lubricated Polymer Honeycomb Substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Yelena Bormashenko; Roman Grynyov; Oleg Gendelman

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-voltage electrowetting-on-dielectric scheme realized with lubricated honeycomb polymer surfaces is reported. Polycarbonate honeycomb reliefs manufactured with the breath-figures self-assembly were impregnated with silicone and castor oils. The onset of the reversible electrowetting for silicone oil impregnated substrates occurred at 35 V, whereas for castor oil impregnated ones it took place at 80 V. The semi-quantitative analysis of electrowetting of impregnated surfaces is proposed.

  7. Reversal of Hugoniot locus for strong shocks due to radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jiwei; Li Jinghong; Meng Guangwei [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Shock Hugoniot can be used to express the response of a material to shocks, and the compression ratio of the shock can be determined by the Hugoiot locus. When the shock is strong, it will become radiating, and the radiation will affect the Hugoniot. The role of radiation on the Hugoniot condition is studied in the paper. For the radiative flux-dominated shocks, the radiative flux if large enough may render the structure of the shock Hugoniot locus totally different with the case for the pure hydrodynamic shock: the two branches with one in quadrant I and the other in quadrant III are reversed into two in quadrants IV and II, respectively, correspondingly the compression ratio may be larger than the limiting value ({gamma}+1)/({gamma}-1) for ideal gases with index {gamma}. For the radiative shock in which the radiative heat wave propagates supersonically, a threshold value for the net radiative flux to the preshock is also defined which determines whether the Hugoniot locus is reversed and the compression ratio exceeds the limiting value. Numerical results also verify the reversal of the Hugoniot locus of the shocks if the net radiative flux to the preshock exceeds the threshold value.

  8. On reversal of centrifugal acceleration in special relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Lyutikov

    2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic principles of General Theory of Relativity historically have been tested in gedanken experiments in rotating frame of references. One of the key issues, which still evokes a lot of controversy, is the centrifugal acceleration. Machabeli & Rogava (1994) argued that centrifugal acceleration reverse direction for particles moving radially with relativistic velocities within a "bead on a wire" approximation. We show that this result is frame-dependent and reflects a special relativistic dilution of time (as correctly argued by de Felice (1995)) and is analogous to freezing of motion on the black hole horizon as seen by a remote observer. It is a reversal of coordinate acceleration; there is no such effect as measured by a defined set of observers, e.g., proper and/or comoving. Frame-independent velocity of a "bead" with respect to stationary rotating observers increases and formally reaches the speed of light on the light cylinder. In general relativity, centrifugal force does reverse its direction at photon circular orbit, r=3M in Schwarzschild metric, as argued by Abramowicz (1990).

  9. Studying protein assembly with reversible Brownian dynamics of patchy particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinrich C. R. Klein; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Assembly of protein complexes like virus shells, the centriole, the nuclear pore complex or the actin cytoskeleton is strongly determined by their spatial structure. Moreover it is becoming increasingly clear that the reversible nature of protein assembly is also an essential element for their biological function. Here we introduce a computational approach for the Brownian dynamics of patchy particles with anisotropic assemblies and fully reversible reactions. Different particles stochastically associate and dissociate with microscopic reaction rates depending on their relative spatial positions. The translational and rotational diffusive properties of all protein complexes are evaluated on-the-fly. Because we focus on reversible assembly, we introduce a scheme which ensures detailed balance for patchy particles. We then show how the macroscopic rates follow from the microscopic ones. As an instructive example, we study the assembly of a pentameric ring structure, for which we find excellent agreement between simulation results and a macroscopic kinetic description without any adjustable parameters. This demonstrates that our approach correctly accounts for both the diffusive and reactive processes involved in protein assembly.

  10. A Library-Based Synthesis Methodology for Reversible Logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehdi Saeedi; Mehdi Sedighi; Morteza Saheb Zamani

    2010-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a library-based synthesis methodology for reversible circuits is proposed where a reversible specification is considered as a permutation comprising a set of cycles. To this end, a pre-synthesis optimization step is introduced to construct a reversible specification from an irreversible function. In addition, a cycle-based representation model is presented to be used as an intermediate format in the proposed synthesis methodology. The selected intermediate format serves as a focal point for all potential representation models. In order to synthesize a given function, a library containing seven building blocks is used where each building block is a cycle of length less than 6. To synthesize large cycles, we also propose a decomposition algorithm which produces all possible minimal and inequivalent factorizations for a given cycle of length greater than 5. All decompositions contain the maximum number of disjoint cycles. The generated decompositions are used in conjunction with a novel cycle assignment algorithm which is proposed based on the graph matching problem to select the best possible cycle pairs. Then, each pair is synthesized by using the available components of the library. The decomposition algorithm together with the cycle assignment method are considered as a binding method which selects a building block from the library for each cycle. Finally, a post-synthesis optimization step is introduced to optimize the synthesis results in terms of different costs.

  11. Intrinsic subpicosecond magnetization reversal driven by femtosecond laser pulses in GdFeCo amorphous films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shufa; Gao, Ruixin; Cheng, Chuyuan; Yan, Yong; Lai, Tianshu, E-mail: stslts@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State-Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)] [State-Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in GdFeCo films triggered by femtosecond laser pulses with and without an external field applied is studied experimentally for different excitation fluence. It is found that subpicosecond magnetization reversal occurs simultaneously in the ultrafast dynamics of both saturation and remnant magnetization states and almost identical within 13 ps, whereas relatively slow magnetization reversal across compensation point appears only in the dynamics of saturation magnetization state. It shows the subpicosecond magnetization reversal is external field independent, and originates from intrinsic magnetic evolution in ferrimagnetic system. The intrinsic subpicosecond reversal is qualitatively explained by linear reversal.

  12. The use of Fourier reverse transforms in crystallographic phase refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringrose, S.

    1997-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Often a crystallographer obtains an electron density map which shows only part of the structure. In such cases, the phasing of the trial model is poor enough that the electron density map may show peaks in some of the atomic positions, but other atomic positions are not visible. There may also be extraneous peaks present which are not due to atomic positions. A method for determination of crystal structures that have resisted solution through normal crystallographic methods has been developed. PHASER is a series of FORTRAN programs which aids in the structure solution of poorly phased electron density maps by refining the crystallographic phases. It facilitates the refinement of such poorly phased electron density maps for difficult structures which might otherwise not be solvable. The trial model, which serves as the starting point for the phase refinement, may be acquired by several routes such as direct methods or Patterson methods. Modifications are made to the reverse transform process based on several assumptions. First, the starting electron density map is modified based on the fact that physically the electron density map must be non-negative at all points. In practice a small positive cutoff is used. A reverse Fourier transform is computed based on the modified electron density map. Secondly, the authors assume that a better electron density map will result by using the observed magnitudes of the structure factors combined with the phases calculated in the reverse transform. After convergence has been reached, more atomic positions and less extraneous peaks are observed in the refined electron density map. The starting model need not be very large to achieve success with PHASER; successful phase refinement has been achieved with a starting model that consists of only 5% of the total scattering power of the full molecule. The second part of the thesis discusses three crystal structure determinations.

  13. Reversible Bending Fatigue Testing on Zry-4 Surrogate Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing high-burnup spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presents many challenges in areas such as specimen preparation, specimen installation, mechanical loading, load control, measurements, data acquisition, and specimen disposal because these tasks are complicated by the radioactivity of the test specimens. Research and comparison studies conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) resulted in a new concept in 2010 for a U-frame testing setup on which to perform hot-cell reversible bending fatigue testing. Subsequently, the three-dimensional finite element analysis and the engineering design of components were completed. In 2013 the ORNL team finalized the upgrade of the U-frame testing setup and the integration of the U-frame setup into a Bose dual linear motor test bench to develop a cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT). A final check was conducted on the CIRFT test system in August 2013, and the CIRFT was installed in the hot cell in September 2013 to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The fatigue responses of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding and the role of pellet pellet and pellet clad interactions are critical to SNF vibration integrity, but such data are not available due to the unavailability of an effective testing system. While the deployment of the developed CIRFT test system in a hot cell will provide the opportunity to generate the data, the use of a surrogate rod has proven quite effective in identifying the underlying deformation mechanism of an SNF composite rod under an equivalent loading condition. This paper presents the experimental results of using surrogate rods under CIRFT reversible cyclic loading. Specifically, monotonic and cyclic bending tests were conducted on surrogate rods made of a Zry-4 tube and alumina pellet inserts, both with and without an epoxy bond.

  14. Reverse Time Migration for Extended Obstacles: Acoustic Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junqing Chen; Zhiming Chen; Guanghui Huang

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the resolution of the single frequency reverse time migration (RTM) method for extended targets without the assumption of the validation of geometric optics approximation. The resolution analysis, which applies in both penetrable and non-penetrable obstacles with sound soft or impedance boundary condition on the boundary of the obstacle, implies that the imaginary part of the cross-correlation imaging functional is always positive and thus may have better stability properties. Numerical experiments are included to illustrate the powerful imaging quality and to confirm our resolution results.

  15. Phase-reversed structures in superlattice of nonlinear materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Antonosyan; G. Yu. Kryuchkyan

    2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present detailed description of so-called phase-reversed structures that are characterized by two grating wave vectors allowing simultaneously phase-match two parametric three-wave processes. The novelty is that the structure is realized as a definite assembly of nonlinear segments leading to detailed description of cascaded three-photon processes with the parameters of realistic structured nonlinear materials of finite length. We apply these results for analysis of the quasi-phase-matching in production of both photon triplet and four-photon states in cascaded down-conversion. The received results are matched with the experimental data.

  16. Neoclassical Transport in the Helical Reversed-Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gobbin, M.; Spizzo, G.; Marrelli, L. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova (Italy); White, R. B. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Test particle evaluation of the diffusion coefficient in a fusion plasma in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration shows distinct similarities with stellarators when the plasma spontaneously evolves towards a helical shape. The almost total absence of superbanana particles at the levels of helical deformation seen in experiment (B{sub h}/B=10%) causes transport to be proportional to collision frequency (at low collisions). This fact excludes the possibility that the minimum conceivable transport could be inversely proportional to collision frequency, which is typical of unoptimized stellarators. This result strengthens the perspectives of the helical RFP as a fusion configuration.

  17. Reversed field pinch current drive with oscillating helical fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farengo, Ricardo; Clemente, Roberto Antonio [Centro Atomico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, S.C. de Bariloche (8400), RN (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of oscillating helical magnetic fields to produce and sustain the toroidal and poloidal currents in a reversed field pinch (RFP) is investigated. A simple physical model that assumes fixed ions, massless electrons, and uniform density and resistivity is employed. Thermal effects are neglected in Ohm's law and helical coordinates are introduced to reduce the number of coupled nonlinear equations that must be advanced in time. The results show that it is possible to produce RFP-like magnetic field profiles with pinch parameters close to the experimental values. The efficiencies obtained for moderate resistivity, and the observed scaling, indicate that this could be a very attractive method for high temperature plasmas.

  18. Quasi-single helicity state at shallow reversal in TPE-RX reversed-field pinch experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, Y.; Paccagnella, R.; Koguchi, H.; Frassinetti, L.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Yagi, Y. [Institute of Energy Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki, 305-8568 (Japan)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The operating conditions for obtaining a quasi-single helicity (QSH) state with a good reproducibility are found in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) experiment on the large RFP machine, TPE-RX [Y. Yagi et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 45, 421 (1999)]. In these conditions, the reversal of toroidal magnetic field (B{sub ta}) is maintained at a very shallow value ({approx}-0.2 mT) after the setting up phase and the following fast current rising phase. After a certain period at this shallow reversal ({approx}15-25 ms), the m/n=1/6 mode (m and n being the poloidal and toroidal Fourier mode numbers, respectively) rapidly grows and saturates before the termination of discharge. The growth of this mode dominates the other modes and the QSH state with m/n=1/6 is finally achieved. This QSH state can be sustained for a long period (up to {approx}45 ms) almost until the end of discharge by applying a delayed reversal of B{sub ta} with appropriate trigger timing and magnitude. The initial setup of the QSH states shows a reproducibility of almost 100%, but its sustainment for a long period shows a slightly reduced reproducibility ({approx}85%). The initial rapid growth of the single dominant mode is compared with the numerical results of linear stability and nonlinear three-dimensional (3D) calculations by assuming the experimental magnetic field profile estimated with a standard model. Linear calculations show that the m/n=1/6 mode has the maximum growth rate to the ideal magnetohydrodynamic instability and can explain the dominant growth of this mode. The 3D calculations also show a qualitative agreement with the experiment, where under some conditions the m/n=1/6 mode becomes dominant after an initial relaxation and continues to the end of the simulation. These results indicate that the present QSH state is the combined result of the linear growth and nonlinear saturation of a particular mode.

  19. Solvent control of crack dynamics in a reversible hydrogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tristan Baumberger; Christiane Caroli; David Martina

    2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The resistance to fracture of reversible biopolymer hydrogels is an important control factor of the cutting/slicing and eating characteristics of food gels. It is also critical for their utilization in tissue engineering, for which mechanical protection of encapsulated components is needed. Its dependence on loading rate and, recently, on the density and strength of cross-links has been investigated. But no attention was paid so far to solvent nor to environment effects. Here we report a systematic study of crack dynamics in gels of gelatin in water/glycerol mixtures. We show on this model system that: (i) increasing solvent viscosity slows down cracks; (ii) soaking with solvent increases markedly gel fragility; (iii) tuning the viscosity of the (miscible) environmental liquid affects crack propagation via diffusive invasion of the crack tip vicinity. The results point toward the fact that fracture occurs by viscoplastic chain pull-out. This mechanism, as well as the related phenomenology, should be common to all reversibly cross-linked (physical) gels.

  20. Combined treatment with lisofylline and exendin-4 reverses autoimmune diabetes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Zandong [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)]. E-mail: zandong_yang@merck.com; Chen Meng [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Carter, Jeffrey D. [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Nunemaker, Craig S. [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Garmey, James C. [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Kimble, Sarah D. [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Nadler, Jerry L. [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)]. E-mail: jln2n@virginia.edu

    2006-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease leading to near complete pancreatic {beta}-cell destruction. New evidence suggests that {beta}-cell regeneration is possible, but ongoing autoimmune damage prevents restoration of {beta}-cell mass. We tested the hypothesis that simultaneously blocking autoimmune cytokine damage and supplying a growth-promoting stimulus for {beta}-cells would provide a novel approach to reverse T1DM. Therefore, in this study we combined lisofylline to suppress autoimmunity and exendin-4 to enhance {beta}-cell proliferation for treating autoimmune-mediated diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. We found that this combined therapy effectively reversed new-onset diabetes within a week of therapy, and even maintained euglycemia up to 145 days after treatment withdrawal. The therapeutic effect of this regimen was associated with improved {beta}-cell metabolism and insulin secretion, while reducing {beta}-cell apoptosis. It is possible that such combined therapy could become a new strategy to defeat T1DM in humans.

  1. Stability and confinement of spheromaks and field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, W.E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation, confinement and stability of two types of compact toroids, spheromaks and field reversed configurations (FRC), are reviewed. Spheromaks, which contain both toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields, have been formed with magnetized coaxial plasma guns, by a combination of Z- and theta-pinch techniques and by an electrodeless slow induction technique, and trapped in both prolate and oblate flux conservers. As predicted by theory, the prolate configuration is unstable to the tilt mode, but the oblate configuration with a conducting wall is stable. Configuration lifetimes of up to 0.8 ms are observed. The FRC is a high-beta, highly prolate compact toroid formed with field-reversed theta-pinch techniques and having purely poloidal magnetic field. Theory predicts unstable fluting and internal tilting modes, but they are not observed experimentally. Configurations with high densities approx. 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/ and with lifetimes of 50 to 120 ..mu..s are terminated by an n=2 rotational mode of instability.

  2. Topological Field Theory of Time-Reversal Invariant Insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Liang Qi; Taylor Hughes; Shou-Cheng Zhang

    2008-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the fundamental time reversal invariant (TRI) insulator exists in 4+1 dimensions, where the effective field theory is described by the 4+1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory and the topological properties of the electronic structure is classified by the second Chern number. These topological properties are the natural generalizations of the time reversal breaking (TRB) quantum Hall insulator in 2+1 dimensions. The TRI quantum spin Hall insulator in 2+1 dimensions and the topological insulator in 3+1 dimension can be obtained as descendants from the fundamental TRI insulator in 4+1 dimensions through a dimensional reduction procedure. The effective topological field theory, and the $Z_2$ topological classification for the TRI insulators in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions are naturally obtained from this procedure. All physically measurable topological response functions of the TRI insulators are completely described by the effective topological field theory. Our effective topological field theory predicts a number of novel and measurable phenomena, the most striking of which is the topological magneto-electric effect, where an electric field generates a magnetic field in the same direction, with an universal constant of proportionality quantized in odd multiples of the fine structure constant $\\alpha=e^2/\\hbar c$. Finally, we present a general classification of all topological insulators in various dimensions, and describe them in terms of a unified topological Chern-Simons field theory in phase space.

  3. Topological Field Theory of Time-Reversal Invariant Insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Xiao-Liang; Hughes, Taylor; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the fundamental time reversal invariant (TRI) insulator exists in 4 + 1 dimensions, where the effective field theory is described by the 4 + 1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory and the topological properties of the electronic structure is classified by the second Chern number. These topological properties are the natural generalizations of the time reversal breaking (TRB) quantum Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions. The TRI quantum spin Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions and the topological insulator in 3 + 1 dimension can be obtained as descendants from the fundamental TRI insulator in 4 + 1 dimensions through a dimensional reduction procedure. The effective topological field theory, and the Z{sub 2} topological classification for the TRI insulators in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions are naturally obtained from this procedure. All physically measurable topological response functions of the TRI insulators are completely described by the effective topological field theory. Our effective topological field theory predicts a number of novel and measurable phenomena, the most striking of which is the topological magneto-electric effect, where an electric field generates a magnetic field in the same direction, with an universal constant of proportionality quantized in odd multiples of the fine structure constant {alpha} = e{sup 2}/hc. Finally, we present a general classification of all topological insulators in various dimensions, and describe them in terms of a unified topological Chern-Simons field theory in phase space.

  4. Centrifugal force reversal from the perspective of rigidly rotating observer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giorgi Dalakishvili

    2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In previous studies the dynamics of the relativistic particle moving along the rotating pipe was investigated. The simple gedanken experiment was considered. It was shown that at large enough velocities a centrifugal force acting on the bead changes its usual sign and attracts towards the rotation axis. The authors studied motion of the particle along the rotating straight pipe in the frame of the observer located in the center of rotation, also dynamics of centrifugally accelerated relativistic particle was studied in the laboratory frame. In the both cases it was shown that centrifugal force changes sign. Recently the problem was studied in the frame of stationary observers. It was argued that centrifugal acceleration reversal is not frame invariant effect. In the present paper we consider motion of particle along the rotating straight line in the frame of an arbitrary stationary observer located at certain distance form the center of rotation and rigidly rotating with constant angular velocity. It is shown that any stationary observer could detect reversal of centrifugal acceleration.

  5. Reversible Ratchet Effects for Vortices in Conformal Pinning Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Reichhardt; D. Ray; C. J. Olson Reichhardt

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conformal transformation of a uniform triangular pinning array produces a structure called a conformal crystal which preserves the six-fold ordering of the original lattice but contains a gradient in the pinning density. Here we use numerical simulations to show that vortices in type-II superconductors driven with an ac drive over gradient pinning arrays produce the most pronounced ratchet effect over a wide range of parameters for a conformal array, while square gradient or random gradient arrays with equivalent pinning densities give reduced ratchet effects. In the conformal array, the larger spacing of the pinning sites in the direction transverse to the ac drive permits easy funneling of interstitial vortices for one driving direction, producing the enhanced ratchet effect. In the square array, the transverse spacing between pinning sites is uniform, giving no asymmetry in the funneling of the vortices as the driving direction switches, while in the random array, there are numerous easy-flow channels present for either direction of drive. We find multiple ratchet reversals in the conformal arrays as a function of vortex density and ac amplitude, and correlate the features with a reversal in the vortex ordering, which is greater for motion in the ratchet direction. The enhanced conformal pinning ratchet effect can also be realized for colloidal particles moving over a conformal array, indicating the general usefulness of conformal structures for controlling the motion of particles.

  6. Reversible work extraction in a hybrid opto-mechanical system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cyril Elouard; Maxime Richard; Alexia Auffèves

    2015-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    With the progress of nano-technology, thermodynamics also has to be scaled down, calling for specific protocols to extract and measure work. Usually, such protocols involve the action of an external, classical field (the battery) of infinite energy, that controls the energy levels of a small quantum system (the calorific fluid). Here we suggest a realistic device to reversibly extract work in a battery of finite energy : a hybrid optomechanical system. Such devices consist in an optically active two-level quantum system interacting strongly with a nano-mechanical oscillator that provides and stores mechanical work, playing the role of the battery. We identify protocols where the battery exchanges large, measurable amounts of work with the quantum emitter without getting entangled with it. When the quantum emitter is coupled to a thermal bath, we show that thermodynamic reversibility is attainable with state-of-the-art devices, paving the road towards the realization of a full cycle of information-to-energy conversion at the single bit level.

  7. Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisk, Francis J. (Washington Township, Fayette County, PA)

    1980-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor motor for at least a predetermined time in response to a condition of the control means operative to initiate a change in the operating direction of the compressor when it restarts.

  8. Bauschinger effect and multiaxial yield behavior of stress-reversed mild steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Z.; Maekawa, Syuji; Takeda, Takenobu

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin-walled cylindrical specimens subjected to torsional prestraining are stress-reversed along the Bauschinger curve. The Bauschinger effect (BE), yield behavior, and flow behavior of the stress-reversed mild steel were examined by using combined loadings of axial load, internal pressure, and torsion. The results indicate that the stress-reversed steel has the same yield stress as 0.2% offset strain in reloading tests of forward and reverse torsion, when the reverse strain is {bar {epsilon}}{sub 1}{sup p} = 0.77%. Furthermore, it is possible to cause the yield stresses in forward and reverse torsion to coincide in any offset strain. The yield locus of the stress-reversed steel is symmetric with respect to the tensile stress axis in a tension-torsion stress field. However, it has been found to be an anisotropy in the stress-reversed steel, and the magnitude of anisotropy is related to the offset strain. For example, there is a stronger anisotropy at 0.2% offset strain than at 2% offset strain, even though the BE is eliminated for the former. It is shown that the reduction in the BE by stress reversal is concerned with the relief o the long-range back-stress generated by prestraining. Besides, the roles of aging in the stress-aging process lie in the contributions to age hardening and development of directional back-stress.

  9. amphetamine-induced reverse transport: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model for analyzing the transport performance of a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP)-type of thermonuclear fusion reactor has been developed. The study has been focused on determining...

  10. Reversible CO-binding to the Active Site of Nitrogenase | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversible CO-binding to the Active Site of Nitrogenase Tuesday, March 31, 2015 All living organisms depend on the availability of nitrogen for incorporation into the basic...

  11. Acoustic wave front reversal in a three-phase media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. I. Pushkina

    2015-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustic wave front conjugation is studied in a sandy marine sediment that contains air bubbles in its fluid fraction. The considered phase conjugation is a four-wave nonlinear parametric sound interaction process caused by nonlinear bubble oscillations which are known to be dominant in acoustic nonlinear interactions in three-phase marine sediments. Two various mechanisms of phase conjugation are studied. One of them is based on the stimulated Raman-type sound scattering on resonance bubble oscillations. The second one is associated with sound interactions with bubble oscillations which frequencies are far from resonance bubble frequencies. Nonlinear equations to solve the wave-front conjugation problem are derived, expressions for acoustic wave amplitudes with a reversed wave front are obtained and compared for various frequencies of the excited bubble oscillations.

  12. Strain-induced time-reversal odd superconductivity in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bitan Roy; Vladimir Juricic

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-reversal symmetry breaking superconductors are exotic phases of matter with fascinating properties, which are, however, encountered rather sparsely. Here we identify the possibility of realizing such a superconducting ground state that exhibits an $f+is$ pairing symmetry in strained graphene. Although the underlying attractive interactions need to be sufficiently strong and comparable in pristine graphene to support such pairing state, we argue that strain can be conducive for its formation even for weak interactions. We show that quantum-critical behavior near the transition is controlled by a multicritical point, characterized by various critical exponents computed here in the framework of an $\\epsilon$-expansion near four spacetime dimensions. Furthermore, a vortex in this mixed superconducting state hosts a pair of Majorana fermions supporting a quartet of insulating and superconducting orders, among which topologically nontrivial quantum spin Hall insulator. These findings suggest that strained graphene could provide a platform for the realization of exotic superconducting states of Dirac fermions.

  13. A small quantum absorption refrigerator with reversed couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralph Silva; Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner

    2015-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Small quantum absorption refrigerators have recently attracted renewed attention. Here we present a missing design of a two-qubit fridge, the main feature of which is that one of the two machine qubits is itself maintained at a temperature colder than the cold bath. This is achieved by 'reversing' the couplings to the baths compared to previous designs, where only a transition is maintained cold. We characterize the working regime and the efficiency of the fridge. We demonstrate the soundness of the model by deriving and solving a master equation. Finally, we discuss the performance of the fridge, in particular the heat current extracted from the cold bath. We show that our model performs comparably to the standard three-level quantum fridge, and thus appears appealing for possible implementations of nano thermal machines.

  14. Realistic Time-Reversal Invariant Topological Insulators With Neutral Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Goldman; I. Satija; P. Nikolic; A. Bermudez; M. A. Martin-Delgado; M. Lewenstein; I. B. Spielman

    2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We lay out an experiment to realize time-reversal invariant topological insulators in alkali atomic gases. We introduce an original method to synthesize a gauge field in the near-field of an atom-chip, which effectively mimics the effects of spin-orbit coupling and produces quantum spin-Hall states. We also propose a feasible scheme to engineer sharp boundaries where the hallmark edge states are localized. Our multi-band system has a large parameter space exhibiting a variety of quantum phase transitions between topological and normal insulating phases. Due to their remarkable versatility, cold-atom systems are ideally suited to realize topological states of matter and drive the development of topological quantum computing.

  15. One-dimensional simulations of reversed field pinch discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martines, E.; Spagnolo, S. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple one-dimensional time-dependent model for simulating the magnetic field profiles in a reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma is presented. The model, which is derived from basic MHD equations with the addition of a phenomenological dynamo electric field, is able, through the tuning of a few free parameters, to simulate the time evolution of RFP discharges in a large range of operating conditions, successfully reproducing quantities such as the average toroidal field, the loop voltage and the on-axis safety factor. The application to several experimental conditions obtained on the RFX-mod machine [P. Sonato et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 66, 161 (2003)], including oscillating poloidal current drive (OPCD) is shown and the simulation outcome is discussed.

  16. Nonlinear evolution of resistive interchange modes in reversed field pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnack, D.D.; Killeen, J.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results are presented of the application of a two dimensional resistive MHD computer code to the nonlinear evolution of resistive interchange modes in tearing-mode-stable RFP equilibria. One finds that the m = 1 mode is insignificant when the singular surface is outside the field reversal point, and is more active nonlinearly but still fairly localized when the singular surface lies in the inner regions of the plasma. The m = 0 mode, which is not present in tokamaks, is found to lead to highly distorted flux surfaces and interchange vortices of large radial extent when ..beta.. is near the Suydam marginal point. However, if the initial ..beta.. is sufficiently small, this mode remains localized allowing significant Ohmic heating of the pinch to occur.

  17. Magnetization reversal driven by a spin torque oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sbiaa, R., E-mail: rachid@squ.edu.om [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123 Muscat (Oman)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetization reversal of a magnetic free layer under spin transfer torque (STT) effect from a magnetic hard layer with a fixed magnetization direction and an oscillating layer is investigated. By including STT from the oscillating layer with in-plane anisotropy and orthogonal polarizer, magnetization-time dependence of free layer is determined. The results show that the frequency and amplitude of oscillations can be varied by adjusting the current density and magnetic properties. For an optimal oscillation frequency (f{sub opt}), a reduction of the switching time (t{sub 0}) of the free layer is observed. Both f{sub opt} and t{sub 0} increase with the anisotropy field of the free layer.

  18. Reducing Collective Quantum State Rotation Errors with Reversible Dephasing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin C. Cox; Matthew A. Norcia; Joshua M. Weiner; Justin G. Bohnet; James K. Thompson

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that reversible dephasing via inhomogeneous broadening can greatly reduce collective quantum state rotation errors, and observe the suppression of rotation errors by more than 21 dB in the context of collective population measurements of the spin states of an ensemble of $2.1 \\times 10^5$ laser cooled and trapped $^{87}$Rb atoms. The large reduction in rotation noise enables direct resolution of spin state populations 13(1) dB below the fundamental quantum projection noise limit. Further, the spin state measurement projects the system into an entangled state with 9.5(5) dB of directly observed spectroscopic enhancement (squeezing) relative to the standard quantum limit, whereas no enhancement would have been obtained without the suppression of rotation errors.

  19. Pumping single-file colloids: Absence of current reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debasish Chaudhuri; Archishman Raju; Abhishek Dhar

    2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the single-file motion of colloidal particles interacting via short-ranged repulsion and placed in a traveling wave potential, that varies periodically in time and space. Under suitable driving conditions, a directed time-averaged flow of colloids is generated. We obtain analytic results for the model using a perturbative approach to solve the Fokker-Planck equations. The predictions show good agreement with numerical simulations. We find peaks in the time-averaged directed current as a function of driving frequency, wavelength and particle density and discuss possible experimental realizations. Surprisingly, unlike a closely related exclusion dynamics on a lattice, the directed current in the present model does not show current reversal with density. A linear response formula relating current response to equilibrium correlations is also proposed.

  20. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fewox, C; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen storage is one of the greatest challenges for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods; the direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  1. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen storage is one of the challenges to be overcome for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods. The direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali metal alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  2. Fusion Engineering and Design 38 (1997) 2757 Physics basis for a reversed shear tokamak power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fusion power plant. Analysis of plasma equilibrium and ideal MHD stability, bootstrap current and current the recirculating power fraction. The final plasma configuration for the ARIES-RS power plant obtains i of 4 reserved. Keywords: Reversed shear; Tokamak power plant; Plasma configuration 1. Introduction The reversed

  3. Blind Identification of the Scrambling Code of a Reverse Link CDMA2000 Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Blind Identification of the Scrambling Code of a Reverse Link CDMA2000 Transmission Mathieu des by the femto BS. The femto BS has to estimate blindly the state of the scrambling code. An algorithm which performs a blind identification of the scrambling code of a CDMA2000 reverse link transmission is proposed

  4. Frontiers of Reverse Engineering: a Conceptual Model Gerardo Canfora and Massimiliano Di Penta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Penta, Massimiliano

    is not available--the sys- tem binaries. The IEEE-1219 [32] standard recommends reverse engineering as a key Software reverse engineering is a crucial task to recon- struct high-level views of a software system--with the pur- pose of understanding and/or maintaining it--when the only reliable source of information

  5. lrs: A Revised Implementation of the Reverse Search Vertex Enumeration School of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avis, David

    lrs: A Revised Implementation of the Reverse Search Vertex Enumeration Algorithm David Avis School@cs.mcgill.ca January 26, 1999 ABSTRACT This paper describes an improved implementation of the reverse search ver­ tex of points. For a polyhedron with m inequalities in d variables and known extreme point, it finds all bases

  6. FPGA Based UWB MISO Time-Reversal System Design and Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Robert Caiming

    FPGA Based UWB MISO Time-Reversal System Design and Implementation Yu Song, Nan Guo, Zhen Hu and implementation of ultra-wideband (UWB) multiple-input single-output (MISO) time-reversal system are presented. The implementation is based on field programmable gate array (FPGA). The combination of MISO with UWB time

  7. UWB MISO Time Reversal With Energy Detector Receiver Over ISI Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Robert Caiming

    UWB MISO Time Reversal With Energy Detector Receiver Over ISI Channels Nan Guo, John Q. Zhang investigates a multiple input single output (MISO) time reversal system for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication channel model for antenna array related study. Numerical results suggest that the proposed MISO time

  8. IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. 5, 2006 1 Time Reversal With MISO for Ultrawideband

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Robert Caiming

    IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. 5, 2006 1 Time Reversal With MISO applications. UWB multiple input­single output (MISO) is enabled by the use of the TR scheme. Two basic. Index Terms--Channel reciprocity, multiple input­single output (MISO), time reversal (TR), ultrawideband

  9. Experimental Demonstration of Time-Reversal MISO and MIMO Arrays with IEEE 802.11g

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Experimental Demonstration of Time-Reversal MISO and MIMO Arrays with IEEE 802.11g Devices through-- A practical demonstration of IEEE 802.11g trans- missions using time-reversal antenna arrays in MISO and MIMO with great potential for use in MISO (multiple-input single output) arrays [5, 6]. In this work we present

  10. Generalized reversible susceptibility tensor Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana 70148

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spinu, Leonard

    online 6 May 2005 A theory of reversible susceptibility tensor based on magnetization vector dynamics one to find the reversible susceptibility tensor for virtually any magnetic system if an expression-frequency limit of this TS formula. The dynamics of magnetization M is governed by the Landau­Lifshitz­Gilbert LLG

  11. Supplementary Information for Generation and reversal of surface flows by propagating waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    Supplementary Information for Generation and reversal of surface flows by propagating waves-4) and Supplementary Figures 1-8. Generation and reversal of surface flows by propagating waves localized time-periodic perturbations of water surface generate waves propagating away from the plungers

  12. Propagation and chimeral characterization of two reverse pinwheel flowering African violet clones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandall, Sharon Katrina

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) solid white-R. H. S. color 155D; (D) ' Silver Summit Dark Reverse' (DR)-R. H. S. colors 93B and 155D; (E) 'Silver Summit Li t Reveme' )-R. H. S. colors 84C and 155D; (F) 'Silver Summit Pmk Light Reverse' ) R. H. S. colors 65D and 84C. Fix. 2. Hower...

  13. Control and Analysis of Droop and Reverse Droop Controllers for Distributed Generations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Control and Analysis of Droop and Reverse Droop Controllers for Distributed Generations Dan Wu1 University, P. R. China ftang_nego@126.com Abstract--This paper addresses control and analysis of droop and reverse droop control for distributed generations (DG). The droop control is well known applied

  14. Journal of Power Sources 167 (2007) 1117 Voltage reversal during microbial fuel cell stack operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Power Sources 167 (2007) 11­17 Voltage reversal during microbial fuel cell stack February 2007; accepted 9 February 2007 Available online 20 February 2007 Abstract Microbial fuel cells Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Microbial fuel cell; Voltage reversal; Stack; Direct electron

  15. Green's function for reversible geminate reaction with volume reactivity Svetlana S. Khokhlova and Noam Agmon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agmon, Noam

    Green's function for reversible geminate reaction with volume reactivity Svetlana S. Khokhlova OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 137, 184103 (2012) Green's function for reversible geminate reaction with volume can occur within a finite reaction sphere. We obtain the Green's function solution for the Laplace

  16. Reverse SSL: Improved Server Performance and DoS Resistance for SSL Kemal BICAKCI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Reverse SSL: Improved Server Performance and DoS Resistance for SSL Handshakes Kemal BICAKCI the performance and DoS resistance of SSL handshakes. In this paper, we tackle these two related problems by proposing reverse SSL, an extension in which the server is relieved from the heavy public key decryption

  17. Thermodynamics and Relativity: A Revised Interpretation of the Concepts of Reversibility and Irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Louis Tane

    2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It is generally admitted in thermodynamics that, for a given change in volume, the work done by a system is greater in conditions of reversibility than in conditions of irreversibility. If the basic conventions of physics are strictly respected, it seems that this proposition needs to be reversed. Beyond this formal aspect, the discussion consolidates the idea that thermodynamics and relativity are closely connected.

  18. Advanced Industrial Archaeology: A new reverse-engineering process for contextualizing and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Advanced Industrial Archaeology: A new reverse-engineering process for contextualizing.bernard@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr, michel.cotte@univ-nantes.fr Abstract Since virtual engineering has been introduced inside industries. Keywords reverse-engineering, 3D digitalization, CAD, Advanced Industrial Archaeology, technical heritage 1

  19. Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2011 Transmission Component Reverse Engineering and Process Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2011 Transmission Component Reverse Engineering to fabricate the parts in the Industrial Engineering Department Factory for Advanced Manufacturing Education of the transmission to reverse engineer and develop process plans for efficient fabrication in a low volume setting

  20. Reversible Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds in Benzonitrile Using Nickel(0)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Reversible Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds in Benzonitrile Using Nickel(0) Juventino J. Garcia 3, 2000 Summary: The nickel(0) fragment [(dippe)Ni] has been found to -coordinate to the CN bond efficient and reversible. The nickel dimer [(dippe)NiH]2 has been reported to be capable of cleaving the C

  1. Reversible ratchets as Brownian particles in an adiabatically changing periodic potential Juan M. R. Parrondo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrondo, Juan M.R.

    Reversible ratchets as Brownian particles in an adiabatically changing periodic potential Juan M. R of particles is induced without any energy consumption. These cycles can be called reversible ratchets called ratch- ets, since they are somehow inspired by the discussion in Ref. 16 of a ratchet working

  2. A Regression Algorithm for the Smart Prognosis of a Reversed Polarity Fault in a Photovoltaic Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Regression Algorithm for the Smart Prognosis of a Reversed Polarity Fault in a Photovoltaic database containing sample data is used for simulation purposes. Keywords--Photovoltaic generator, SVR, k-NNR, reversed polarity fault, diagnosis, prognosis. NOMENCLATURE PV = Photovoltaic; SVM = Support Vector

  3. Radio Science, Volume ???, Number , Pages 110, Time Reversal of Electromagnetic Waves and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Université

    electromagnetic pulse at a central frequency of 2.45 GHz in a high-Q cavity. Another antenna records the stronglyRadio Science, Volume ???, Number , Pages 1­10, Time Reversal of Electromagnetic Waves demonstration of time-reversal focusing with electromagnetic waves in a SISO scheme. An antenna transmits a 1 µs

  4. DNA sequencing by synthesis using 30 azidomethyl nucleotide reversible terminators and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    DNA sequencing by synthesis using 30 -O- azidomethyl nucleotide reversible terminators and surface are transparent, as a label for SBS. We first demonstrated that the four 30 -O-azidomethyl nucleotide reversible these 4 nucleotide analogues as substrates, we then performed a complete 4-step SBS reaction. We used SERS

  5. Pseudo-magnetic catalysis of the time-reversal symmetry breaking in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor F. Herbut

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Finite flux of the (time-reversal-symmetric) pseudo-magnetic field, which represents the effect of wrinkling of the graphene sheet for example, is shown to be a catalyst for spontaneous breaking of the time-reversal symmetry of Dirac fermions in two dimensions. Possible experimental consequences of this effect for graphene are discussed.

  6. Fast Seismic Modeling and Reverse Time Migration on a GPU Cluster R. Abdelkhalek1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fast Seismic Modeling and Reverse Time Migration on a GPU Cluster R. Abdelkhalek1 , H. Calandra1 equation in an oil exploration industrial context aims at speeding up seismic modeling and Reverse Time application over a sequential code running on general purpose CPU. KEYWORDS: Seismic modeling, Finite

  7. Magnetic Reconnection in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, N.E.

    2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic field line reconnection is a process whereby magnetic field lines which are otherwise topologically preserved by, and frozen into, a plasma can break and reconnect to form field lines with different topologies. It plays a significant role in a wide variety of plasmas, including stellar, space and laboratory plasmas. The focus of this dissertation is the underlying dynamics of reconnection in one particular kind of laboratory plasma: the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Specifically, this dissertation reports measurements, made using a pair of insertable diagnostics in conjunction with arrays of magnetic sensing coils positioned near the plasma surface, of the spatial structure of the magnetic and parallel current density fluctuations associated with reconnection in the edge of MST. At least 4 significant results are obtained form such measurements. First we observe direct evidence of reconnection which takes the form of tearing modes in an RFP. Specifically we measure a (radial) magnetic field fluctuation that causes reconnection in the so-called reversal surface, or q = 0 surface, in the edge of MST. Notably this evidence of reconnection at the reversal surface is the first of its kind in an RFP. Second, we measure the radial width of the associated current sheet, or fluctuation in the component of the current density parallel to the equilibrium magnetic field. Such current sheets are a characteristic feature of the reconnection process but their radial widths are sensitive to the specific effects that allow reconnection to occur sometimes call non-ideal effects because reconnection is forbidden by ideal MHD. We compare the observed width to those expected from models of reconnection that incorporate different non-ideal effects in Ohm's law. In particular we see that the observed width is significantly larger than those expected form resistivity in the context of linearly unstable tearing modes and electron inertia. It is a factor of a few larger than the width expected form the electron pressure gradient effect. It is significantly smaller than the width expected from the ion inertia, but this width is not expected to be relevant to a strongly magnetized plasma such as an RFP. Notably it is comparable to the width of the magnetic island produced by the associated tearing mode. This is consistent with expectation for saturated or fully developed resistive tearing modes such as MST is believed to exhibit. It is also consistent with the broadening of a smaller width current sheet through current transport due to parallel streaming of charge carriers (along the field lines of the associated island). Third we obtain estimates of the radial charge transport or radial current density due to streaming charge of carriers along magnetic field lines that results from reconnection in the edge of MST. We find that in contradiction with the theoretical expectation for isolated tearing modes it is non-vanishing and in fact large enough to imply both the existence of another charge transport mechanism to maintain charge neutrality and a significant difference in the radial ion and electron particle fluxes due to parallel streaming of particles. Fourth we interpret the flux surface average of j and b as a J x B force density on the plasma. We observe in agreement with theory and observation for interacting tearing modes in an RFP that the radial structure of the force density during sawtooth crashes is such as to flatten the equilibrium radial gradient in toroidal velocity. We observe also that it is sufficiently large as to imply the existence of other force densities on the plasma.

  8. Change of Paradigm for the Reversed Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escande, D. F. [Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moleculaires, UMR 6633-CNRS / Aix-Marseille Universite, Case 321, Av. Normandie Niemen, 13397 MARSEILLE Cedex 20 (France)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) is a magnetic configuration germane to the tokamak, but it produces most of its magnetic field by the currents flowing inside the plasma; external coils provide only a small edge toroidal field whose sign is reversed with respect to the central one, whence the name of the configuration. Because of the presence of magnetic turbulence and chaos, the RFP had been considered for a long period as a terrible confinement configuration. However, recently a change of paradigm occurred for this device. Indeed, when the toroidal current is increased in the RFX-mod RFP in Padua (Italy), a self-organized helical state with an internal transport barrier (ITB) develops, and a broad zone of the plasma becomes hot (above 1 keV for a magnetic field above 0.8 T). The present theoretical picture of the RFP mainly comes from three-dimensional nonlinear visco-resistive MHD simulations whose dynamics has strong similarities with the experimental one, and triggered the experimental search for RFP states with improved confinement. The RFP ohmic state involves a helical electrostatic potential generating, as an electric drift, the so-called dynamo velocity field. The magnetic topology can bifurcate from a magnetic island to kink-like magnetic surfaces with higher resilience to magnetic chaos. This theoretical scenario was found to be relevant when ITB's enclosing a broad hot domain were discovered. The ITBs occur in the vicinity of the maximum of the safety factor. The new paradigm for the RFP supports its reappraisal as a low-external field, non-disruptive, ohmically heated approach to magnetic fusion, exploiting both self-organization and technological simplicity. Furthermore the RFP has the same Greenwald density limit as the tokamak, and it is an excellent test bed for the efficient control of multiple resistive wall modes. Its helical magnetic structure makes it germane to the stellarator too. As a result the RFP is also useful to bring support to the present two main lines of magnetic confinement.

  9. Study of fusion product effects in field-reversed mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driemeyer, D.E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of fusion products (fps) on Field-Reversed Mirror (FRM) reactor concepts has been evaluated through the development of two new computer models. The first code (MCFRM) treats fps as test particles in a fixed background plasma, which is represented as a fluid. MCFRM includes a Monte Carlo treatment of Coulomb scattering and thus provides an accurate treatment of fp behavior even at lower energies where pitch-angle scattering becomes important. The second code (FRMOD) is a steady-state, globally averaged, two-fluid (ion and electron), point model of the FRM plasma that incorporates fp heating and ash buildup values which are consistent with the MCFRM calculations. These codes have been used extensively in the development of an advanced-fuel FRM reactor design (SAFFIRE). A Catalyzed-D version of the plant is also discussed along with an investigation of the steady-state energy distribution of fps in the FRM. User guides for the two computer codes are also included.

  10. Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): preliminary engineering considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.; Schnurr, N.M.; Battat, M.E.; LaBauve, R.J.; Davidson, J.W.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique confinement physics of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) projects to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor that promises a significant reduction in the cost of electricity. The compact reactor also promises a factor-of-two reduction in the fraction of total cost devoted to the reactor plant equipment (i.e., fusion power core (FPC) plus support systems). In addition to operational and developmental benefits, these physically smaller systems can operate economically over a range of total power output. After giving an extended background and rationale for the compact fusion approaches, key FPC subsystems for the Compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR) are developed, designed, and integrated for a minimum-cost, 1000-MWe(net) system. Both the problems and promise of the compact, high-power-density fusion reactor are quantitatively evaluated on the basis of this conceptual design. The material presented in this report both forms a framework for a broader, more expanded conceptual design as well as suggests directions and emphases for related research and development.

  11. Identification of a reversible quantum gate: assessing the resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giulio Chiribella; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Martin Roetteler

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We assess the resources needed to identify a reversible quantum gate among a finite set of alternatives, including in our analysis both deterministic and probabilistic strategies. Among the probabilistic strategies we consider unambiguous gate discrimination, where errors are not tolerated but inconclusive outcomes are allowed, and we prove that parallel strategies are sufficient to unambiguously identify the unknown gate with minimum number of queries. This result is used to provide upper and lower bounds on the query complexity and on the minimum ancilla dimension. In addition, we introduce the notion of generalized t-designs, which includes unitary t-designs and group representations as special cases. For gates forming a generalized t-design we give an explicit expression for the maximum probability of correct gate identification and we prove that there is no gap between the performances of deterministic strategies an those of probabilistic strategies. Hence, evaluating of the query complexity of perfect deterministic discrimination is reduced to the easier problem of evaluating the query complexity of unambiguous discrimination. Finally, we consider discrimination strategies where the use of ancillas is forbidden, providing upper bounds on the number of additional queries needed to make up for the lack of entanglement with the ancillas.

  12. Reversed-field pinch studies in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hokin, S.; Almagri, A.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.; Crocker, N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Fiksel, G.; Henry, J.; Ji, H.; Prager, S.; Sarff, J.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.; Watts, C.

    1993-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of large-size (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.5 m), moderate current (I < 750 kA) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas are carried out in the Madison Symmetric Torus in order to evaluate and improve RFP confinement, study general toroidal plasma MHD issues, determine the mechanism of the RFP dynamo, and measure fluctuation-induced transport and anomalous ion heating. MST confinement has been improved by reduction of magnetic field errors with correction coils in the primary circuit and reduction of impurities using boronization; high densities have been achieved with hydrogen pellet injection. MHD tearing modes with poloidal mode number m = 1 and toroidal mode numbers n = 5--7 are prevalent and nonlinearly couple to produce sudden relaxations akin to tokamak sawteeth. Edge fluctuation-induced transport has been measured with a variety of insertable probes. Ions exhibit anomalous heating, with increases of ion temperature occuring during strong MHD relaxation. The RFP dynamo has been studied with attention to various possible mechanisms, including motion-EMF drive, the Hall effect, and superthermal electrons. Initial profile control experiments have begun using insertable biased probes and plasma guns. The toroidal field capacity of MST will be upgraded during Summer, 1993 to allow low-current tokamak operation as well as improved RFP operation.

  13. Two-dimensional interpreter for field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinhauer, Loren, E-mail: lstein@uw.edu [Tri Alpha Energy, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An interpretive method is developed for extracting details of the fully two-dimensional (2D) “internal” structure of field-reversed configurations (FRC) from common diagnostics. The challenge is that only external and “gross” diagnostics are routinely available in FRC experiments. Inferring such critical quantities as the poloidal flux and the particle inventory has commonly relied on a theoretical construct based on a quasi-one-dimensional approximation. Such inferences sometimes differ markedly from the more accurate, fully 2D reconstructions of equilibria. An interpreter based on a fully 2D reconstruction is needed to enable realistic within-the-shot tracking of evolving equilibrium properties. Presented here is a flexible equilibrium reconstruction with which an extensive data base of equilibria was constructed. An automated interpreter then uses this data base as a look-up table to extract evolving properties. This tool is applied to data from the FRC facility at Tri Alpha Energy. It yields surprising results at several points, such as the inferences that the local ? (plasma pressure/external magnetic pressure) of the plasma climbs well above unity and the poloidal flux loss time is somewhat longer than previously thought, both of which arise from full two-dimensionality of FRCs.

  14. Elasto-plastic response of reversibly crosslinked biopolymer bundles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poulomi Sadhukhan; Ole Schuman; Claus Heussinger

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the response of F-actin bundles to driving forces through a simple analytical model. We consider two filaments connected by reversibly bound crosslinks and driven by an external force. Two failure modes under load can be defined. \\textit{Brittle failure} is observed when crosslinks suddenly and collectively unbind, leading to catastrophic loss of bundle integrity. During \\textit{ductile failure}, on the other hand, bundle integrity is maintained, however at the cost of crosslink reorganization and defect formation. We present phase diagrams for the onset of failure, highlighting the importance of the crosslink stiffness for these processes. Crossing the phase boundaries, force-deflection curves display (frequency-dependent) hysteresis loops, reflecting the first-order character of the failure processes. We evidence how the introduction of defects can lead to complex elasto-plastic relaxation processes, once the force is switched off. Depending on, both, the time-scale for defect motion as well as the crosslink stiffness, bundles can remain in a quasi-permanent plastically deformed state for a very long time.

  15. Pellet injection in the RFP (Reversed Field Pinch)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, G.A.; Weber, P.G.; Munson, C.P.; Cayton, T.E.; Bunting, C.A.; Carolan, P.G.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observation of pellets injected into the ZT-40M Reversed Field Pinch has allowed a new twist on the usual tokamak ablation physics modeling. The RFP provides a strong ohmic heating regime with relatively high electron drift parameter (xi/sub drift/ /approximately/ 0.2), in the presence of a highly sheared magnetic field geometry. In situ photos of the pellet ablation cloud using a grated-intensified CCD camera, as well as two-view integrated photos of the pellet trajectory show substantial modification of the original pellet trajectory, in both direction and speed. Depending on the launch geometry, increases in the initial 500 m/s pellet speed by 50% have been observed, and a ski jump deflector plate in the launch port has been used to counteract strong poloidal curvature. In contrast to the tokamak, the D/sub ..cap alpha../ light signature is strongest near the edge, and weaker in the plasma center. Additional information on ion temperature response to pellet injection with 20 ..mu..sec time resolution has been obtained using a 5-channel neutral particle analyzer (NPA). The energy confinement is transiently degraded while the beta is largely unchanged. This may be indicative of pellet injection into a high-beta plasma operating at fixed beta. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Radio frequency wave experiments on the MST reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forest, C.B.; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Nornberg, M.D.; Prager, S.C.; Thomas, M.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Physics Dept.; Uchimoto, E. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Smirnov, A.P. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation); Harvey, R.W. [CompX, Del Mar, CA (United States); Ram, A.K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments, simulations, and theory all indicate that the magnetic fluctuations responsible for the poor confinement in the reversed field pinch (RFP) can be controlled by altering the radial profile of the current density. The magnetic fluctuations in the RFP are due to resistive MHD instabilities caused by current profile peaking; thus confinement in the RFP is ultimately the result of a misalignment between inductively driven current profiles and the stable current profiles characteristic of the Taylor state. If a technique such as rf current drive can be developed to non-inductively sustain a Taylor state (a current profile linearly stable to all tearing modes), the confinement of the RFP and its potential as a reactor concept are likely to increase. Whether there is a self-consistent path from poor confinement to greatly improved confinement through current profile modification is an issue for future experiments to address if and only if near term experiments can demonstrate: (1) coupling to and the propagation of rf waves in RFP plasmas, (2) efficient current drive, and (3) control of the power deposition which will make it possible to control the current profile. In this paper, modeling results and experimental plans are presented for two rf experiments which have the potential of satisfying these three goals: high-n{sub {parallel}} lower hybrid (LH) waves and electron Bernstein waves (EBWs).

  17. Equilibrium and transport for quasi-helical reversed field pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappello, Susanna [CNR-RFX; Bonfiglio, Daniele [CNR-RFX; Escande, Dominique [PIIM, Marseille, France; Guo, S. C. [CNR-RFX; Predebon, I. [RFX, Padova, Italy; Sattin, F. [CNR-RFX; Veranda, M. [CNR-RFX; Zanca, P. [CNR-RFX; Angioni, C. [EURATOM / IPP Garching, Germany; Chacon, Luis [ORNL; Dong, J. Q. [Zhejiang University; Garbet, X. [CEA Cadarache, St. Paul lex Durance, France; Liu, S. F. [Nankai University

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the most recent results in theoretical/numerical studies on the physics of the quasi-helical regime in reversed field pinch (RFP) configurations. Such regime systematically characterizes RFX-mod experiments at high currents (Ip > 1.2 MA), producing clear internal electron transport barriers. Several approaches, ranging from a macroscopic (MHD) to a microscopic (transport) description, have been used to tackle the related complex physics. From the macroscopic point of view, we derive analytically the electrostatic velocity field consistent with a generic helical ohmic equilibrium. We also provide the first MHD initial-value simulation results in toroidal geometry obtained with the PIXIE3D code. Concerning transport, the effect of magnetic chaos healing by mode separatrix expulsion, believed to favour the formation of transport barriers, is discussed. Results indicate that helical equilibria originated by non-resonant modes are more resilient to chaos formation. Finally, gyrofluid and gyrokinetic tools have been used towards a first assessment of the role of microturbulence in the RFP. Concerning the electrostatic branches, ion temperature gradient mode stability is robustly improved in RFP with respect to tokamaks, due to stronger Landau damping effects, and the marginality condition is estimated to be only spottily reached in present experimental regimes, unless the effects of impurities are considered. Impurities, which in RFX-mod accumulate in the edge, may also significantly impact the stability of the impurity-driven modes. On the electromagnetic side, microtearing turbulence is found to probably play a role at the transport barriers.

  18. Fusion proton diagnostic for the C-2 field reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M., E-mail: rmagee@trialphaenergy.com; Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Garate, E.; Knapp, K. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Tkachev, A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the flux of fusion products from high temperature plasmas provide valuable insights into the ion energy distribution, as the fusion reaction rate is a very sensitive function of ion energy. In C-2, where field reversed configuration plasmas are formed by the collision of two compact toroids and partially sustained by high power neutral beam injection [M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010); M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012)], measurements of DD fusion neutron flux are used to diagnose ion temperature and study fast ion confinement and dynamics. In this paper, we will describe the development of a new 3 MeV proton detector that will complement existing neutron detectors. The detector is a large area (50?cm{sup 2}), partially depleted, ion implanted silicon diode operated in a pulse counting regime. While the scintillator-based neutron detectors allow for high time resolution measurements (?100 kHz), they have no spatial or energy resolution. The proton detector will provide 10 cm spatial resolution, allowing us to determine if the axial distribution of fast ions is consistent with classical fast ion theory or whether anomalous scattering mechanisms are active. We will describe in detail the diagnostic design and present initial data from a neutral beam test chamber.

  19. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stillwagon, Roy E. (Ruffsdale, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  20. Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX); Parra, Jorge O. (Helotes, TX)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method of high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile (VSP) measurements is shown. By encapsulating the seismic detector and heaters in a meltable substance (such as wax), the seismic detector can be removably secured in a borehole in a manner capable of measuring high resolution signals in the 100 to 1000 hertz range and higher. The meltable substance is selected to match the overall density of the detector package with the underground formation, yet still have relatively low melting point and rigid enough to transmit vibrations to accelerometers in the seismic detector. To minimize voids in the meltable substance upon solidification, the meltable substance is selected for minimum shrinkage, yet still having the other desirable characteristics. Heaters are arranged in the meltable substance in such a manner to allow the lowermost portion of the meltable substance to cool and solidify first. Solidification continues upwards from bottom-to-top until the top of the meltable substance is solidified and the seismic detector is ready for use. To remove, the heaters melt the meltable substance and the detector package is pulled from the borehole.

  1. The Krppel-associated Box Repressor Domain Can Induce Reversible Heterochromatization of a Mouse Locus in Vivo*S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Citi, Sandra

    and doxy- cycline (dox)-controlled tet repressor KRAB fusion protein (tTRKRAB) can induce reversible was recruited to the Kif2A locus, and YFP expression was reduced. This effect was reversed when dox was given

  2. The efficiency of reverse engineering in the design of the ORCA XI autonomous underwater vehicle by Rachel E. Sharples.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharples, Rachel E

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reverse engineering is the process of determining how a system works to aid duplication, maintenance, or redesign. Applications of reverse engineering include mechanical, electrical, software, and process systems. Although ...

  3. ACOUSTIC CAVITATION ASSESSMENT OF THE REVERSIBILITY AND PERMEABILITY OF THE ULTRASOUND-INDUCED BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER OPENING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    ACOUSTIC CAVITATION ASSESSMENT OF THE REVERSIBILITY AND PERMEABILITY cavitation can be potentially used to assess the reversibility and permeability of the induced BBB opening. Method: This study links the microbubble dynamics, represented by the cavitation dose, as monitored

  4. Neutron Emission from Beam-Injected Fast Tritons in JET Plasmas with Reversed or Monotonic Magnetic Shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neutron Emission from Beam-Injected Fast Tritons in JET Plasmas with Reversed or Monotonic Magnetic Shear

  5. Phenomenology of reverse-shock emission in the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Japelj, J.; Kopa?, D.; Gomboc, A. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska ulica 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kobayashi, S.; Harrison, R.; Virgili, F. J.; Mundell, C. G. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Guidorzi, C. [Physics Departments, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122, Ferrara (Italy); Melandri, A., E-mail: jure.japelj@fmf.uni-lj.si, E-mail: andreja.gomboc@fmf.uni-lj.si [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2014-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a parent sample of 118 gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, with known redshift and host galaxy extinction, to separate afterglows with and without signatures of dominant reverse-shock (RS) emission and to determine which physical conditions lead to a prominent reverse-shock emission. We identify 10 GRBs with reverse-shock signatures: 990123, 021004, 021211, 060908, 061126, 080319B, 081007, 090102, 090424, and 130427A. By modeling their optical afterglows with reverse- and forward-shock analytic light curves and using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate the parameter space of the physical quantities describing the ejecta and circumburst medium. We find that physical properties cover a wide parameter space and do not seem to cluster around any preferential values. Comparing the rest-frame optical, X-ray, and high-energy properties of the larger sample of non-RS-dominated GRBs, we show that the early-time (<1 ks) optical spectral luminosity, X-ray afterglow luminosity, and ?-ray energy output of our reverse-shock dominated sample do not differ significantly from the general population at early times. However, the GRBs with dominant reverse-shock emission have fainter than average optical forward-shock emission at late times (>10 ks). We find that GRBs with an identifiable reverse-shock component show a high magnetization parameter R {sub B} = ?{sub B,r}/?{sub B,f} ? 2-10{sup 4}. Our results are in agreement with the mildly magnetized baryonic jet model of GRBs.

  6. Imaging-based thermal modelling and reverse engineering of as-built automotive components: A case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koschan, Andreas

    Imaging-based thermal modelling and reverse engineering of as-built automotive components: A case. Further, we show results of immersing the reverse- engineered mesh in the thermal simulation environment modeling of vehicle components. Keywords: reverse engineering; thermal imaging; thermal simulation

  7. XIAP reverses various functional activities of FRNK in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Sunyoung; Kim, Hyun Jeong [Department of Molecular Biology and Institute of Nanosensor and Biotechnology, BK21 Graduate Program for RNA Biology, Dankook Univiersity, 126, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Molecular Biology and Institute of Nanosensor and Biotechnology, BK21 Graduate Program for RNA Biology, Dankook Univiersity, 126, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Sung-Gil [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heonyong, E-mail: heonyong@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology and Institute of Nanosensor and Biotechnology, BK21 Graduate Program for RNA Biology, Dankook Univiersity, 126, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Molecular Biology and Institute of Nanosensor and Biotechnology, BK21 Graduate Program for RNA Biology, Dankook Univiersity, 126, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FRNK domain is recruited into focal adhesion (FA), controlling endothelial cell adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XIAP binds the FRNK domain of FAK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XIAP inhibits recruitment of FRNK into Fas and FRNK-promoted cell adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK. -- Abstract: In endothelial cells, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and shear-stimulated activation of MAPK. We recently found that FAK is recruited into focal adhesion (FA) sites through interactions with XIAP (X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) and activated by Src kinase in response to shear stress. In this study, we examined which domain(s) of FAK is(are) important for various vascular functions such as FA recruiting, XIAP-binding and shear stress-stimulated ERK activation. Through a series of experiments, we determined that the FRNK domain is recruited into FA sites and promotes endothelial cell adhesion. Interestingly, XIAP knockdown was shown to reduce FA recruitment of FRNK and the cell adhesive effect of FRNK. In addition, we found that XIAP interacts with FRNK, suggesting cross-talk between XIAP and FRNK. We also demonstrated that FRNK inhibits endothelial cell migration and shear-stimulated ERK activation. These inhibitory effects of FRNK were reversed by XIAP knockdown. Taken together, we can conclude that XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK.

  8. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) fusion reactor study is a multi-institutional research effort to determine the technical feasibility and key developmental issues of an RFP fusion reactor, especially at high power density, and to determine the potential economics, operations, safety, and environmental features of high-mass-power-density fusion systems. The TITAN conceptual designs are DT burning, 1000 MWe power reactors based on the RFP confinement concept. The designs are compact, have a high neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m{sup 2} and a mass power density of 700 kWe/tonne. The inherent characteristics of the RFP confinement concept make fusion reactors with such a high mass power density possible. Two different detailed designs have emerged: the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium design, incorporating the integrated-blanket-coil concept; and the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design with ferritic steel structure. This report contains a collection of 16 papers on the results of the TITAN study which were presented at the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology. This collection describes the TITAN research effort, and specifically the TITAN-I and TITAN-II designs, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions and recommendations. Overall, the basic conclusions are that high-mass power-density fusion reactors appear to be technically feasible even with neutron wall loadings up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}; that single-piece maintenance of the FPC is possible and advantageous; that the economics of the reactor is enhanced by its compactness; and the safety and environmental features need not to be sacrificed in high-power-density designs. The fact that two design approaches have emerged, and others may also be possible, in some sense indicates the robustness of the general findings.

  9. Effects of the resistivity profile on the formation of a reversed configuration and single helicity states in compressible simulations of the reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onofri, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)] [Tri Alpha Energy, P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Malara, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are presented. Previous simulations of the RFP, including density and pressure evolution, showed that a stationary state with a reversed toroidal magnetic field could not be obtained, contrary to the results produced with numerical codes neglecting density and pressure dynamics. The simulations described in the present paper show that including density and pressure evolution, a stationary RFP configuration can be obtained if the resistivity has a radial profile steeply increasing close to the wall. Such resistivity profile is more realistic than a uniform resistivity, since the temperature at the wall is lower than in the plasma core.

  10. Reversible nano-structuring of SrCrO3-? through oxidization...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nano-structuring of SrCrO3- through oxidization and reduction at low temperatures. Reversible nano-structuring of SrCrO3- through oxidization and reduction at low temperatures....

  11. The optimal reverse logistics network for consumer batteries in North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, Asgar

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recycling of household consumer batteries is gaining legislative support throughout North America. The intent of this thesis document is to provide a broad overview of the current North American reverse logistics network ...

  12. Small Molecule that Reverses Dexamethasone Resistance in Tcell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockwell, Brent R.

    Small Molecule that Reverses Dexamethasone Resistance in Tcell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T are one of the most utilized and effective therapies in treating T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia lymphoblastic leukemia, dexamethasone, glucocorticoid resistance, NOTCH1 Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL

  13. Field measurements of a swell band, shore normal, flux divergence reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Link, Shmuel G

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout this thesis we will discuss the theoretical background and empirical observation of a swell band shore normal flux divergence reversal. Specifically, we will demonstrate the existence and persistence of the ...

  14. amino-allyl reverse transcription: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S. M. Kheira; Andre M. Salazar; Marylynn V. Yates; Wilfred Chen; Ashok Mulch 16 In Helicobacter pylori auto-inducer-2, but not LuxSMccAB catalysed reverse...

  15. Reversible stimulus-responsive polymers for the control of the surface interfacial and nanomechanical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Miao, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfaces with reversible stimulus-responsive properties have great potential for a wide variety of applications, such as transport, separation, and detection of biomolecules, controlled adhesion, friction, and lubrication ...

  16. The vulnerability of technical secrets to reverse engineering : implications for company policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kodak, Cenkhan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis I will explore the controversial topic of reverse engineering, illustrating with case examples drawn from the data storage industry. I will explore intellectual property rights issues including, users' ...

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of the reverse Joule–Brayton cycle heat pump for domestic heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Alexander

    2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents an analysis of the effects of irreversibility on the performance of a reverse Joule–Brayton cycle heat pump for domestic heating applications. Both the simple and recuperated (regenerative) cycle are considered at a variety...

  18. Neutrino mixing based on mass matrices with a 2{r_reversible}3 symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koide, Yoshio; Takasugi, Eiichi [Institute for Higher Education Research and Practice, Osaka University, 1-16 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under an assumption that the 2{r_reversible}3 symmetry is broken only through phases, we give a systematic investigation of possible lepton mass matrix forms without referring to explicit parameter values. Two types of the 2{r_reversible}3 symmetry are investigated: one is that the left- and right-handed fields (f{sub L},f{sub R}) obey the symmetry, and another one is that only f{sub L} obeys the symmetry. In the latter case, in spite of no 2{r_reversible}3 symmetry in the Majorana mass matrix M{sub R} for {nu}{sub R}, the neutrino seesaw mass matrix still obeys the 2{r_reversible}3 symmetry. Possible phenomenology is discussed.

  19. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 051904 (2012) Reversibility of red blood cell deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sens, Pierre

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    inside the cell seen in sickle cell anemia or a transient external force can trigger the formation deformation are reversible. In sickle cell anemia, a mutation in the hemoglobin (Hg) gene leads

  20. Macroscopic behavior and discrete dynamo in high-[Theta] reversed-field pinch discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arimoto, H.; Nakamura, A.; Sato, K.I.; Nagata, A.; Ando, T.; Kubota, S.; Masamune, S.; Nagatsu, M.; Tsukishima, T. (Plasma Science Center, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan))

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the discrete dynamo in high-[Theta] reversed-field pinch (RFP) discharges are studied through comparisons with those in normal-[Theta] RFP discharges, where [Theta]=[ital B][sub [theta

  1. TURNING BACK THE CLOCK: CGP55845 REVERSES MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayse, Jeffrey

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    , olfactory functioning, and information processing abilities. This study examines the efficacy of CGP55845, a GABAB receptor antagonist, at reversing the effects of odor discrimination deficits in male aged (n = 8 impaired, n = 10 unimpaired) and young (n...

  2. Michigan State University (MSU) and Lake Michigan College (LMC) Reverse Transfer Agreement Transcript Release Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michigan State University (MSU) and Lake Michigan College (LMC) Reverse Transfer Agreement Transcript Release Form Please complete, sign, and return this release form to: Michigan State University of the Registrar at Michigan State University in writing. SIGNATURE: _______________________________________ DATE

  3. Direct and Reverse Secret-Key Capacities of a Quantum Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braunstein, Samuel L.

    We define the direct and reverse secret-key capacities of a memoryless quantum channel as the optimal rates that entanglement-based quantum-key-distribution protocols can reach by using a single forward classical communication ...

  4. Synthesis of macroporous poly(styrene-divinyl benzene) microspheres by surfactant reverse micelles swelling method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Tingyue

    Synthesis of macroporous poly(styrene-divinyl benzene) microspheres by surfactant reverse micelles poly(styrene-divinyl benzene) microspheres with pore size of about 500 nm were prepared by a new method

  5. Understanding magnetic field reversal mechanisms in mesoscopic magnetic multilayer ring structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Bryan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Patterned pseudo spin-valve rings show great promise for device applications due to their non-volatility and variety of stable magnetic states. However, the magnetic reversal of these elements under an applied field is ...

  6. Real space mapping of oxygen vacancy diffusion and electrochemical transformations by hysteretic current reversal curve measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Balke, Nina; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Jesse, Stephen; Maksymovych, Petro; Kim, Yunseok; Strelcov, Evgheni

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An excitation voltage biases an ionic conducting material sample over a nanoscale grid. The bias sweeps a modulated voltage with increasing maximal amplitudes. A current response is measured at grid locations. Current response reversal curves are mapped over maximal amplitudes of the bias cycles. Reversal curves are averaged over the grid for each bias cycle and mapped over maximal bias amplitudes for each bias cycle. Average reversal curve areas are mapped over maximal amplitudes of the bias cycles. Thresholds are determined for onset and ending of electrochemical activity. A predetermined number of bias sweeps may vary in frequency where each sweep has a constant number of cycles and reversal response curves may indicate ionic diffusion kinetics.

  7. Effects of long jumps, reversible aggregation, and Meyer-Neldel rule on submonolayer epitaxial growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochefort, Alain

    Effects of long jumps, reversible aggregation, and Meyer-Neldel rule on submonolayer epitaxial with an embedded-atom-method molecular-dynamics study that the compensation law or the Meyer-Neldel rule MNR could

  8. adam non-nucleoside reverse: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the complete set can Keinan, Alon 3 A Test of Amino Acid Reversibility Nick G.C. Smith, Adam Eyre-Walker Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: A Test of Amino Acid...

  9. Phase stability of a reversible supramolecular polymer solution mixed with nanospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remco Tuinier

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Theory is presented for the phase stability of mixtures containing nanospheres and non-adsorbing reversible supramolecular polymers. This was made possible by incorporating the depletion thickness and osmotic pressure of reversible supramolecular polymer chains into generalized free-volume theory, recently developed for investigating the phase behaviour of colloidal spheres mixed with interacting polymers [Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 143 (2008) 1-47]. It follows that the fluidfluid phase stability region where reversible supramolecular polymer chains can be mixed with nanospheres is sensitive to the energy of scission between the monomers and to the nanoparticle radius. One can then expect the fluidfluid coexistence curves to have a strong dependence on temperature and that shifting of phase boundaries within a single experimental system should be possible by varying the temperature. The calculations reveal the width of the stability region to be rather small. This implies that phase homogeneity of product formulations containing reversible supramolecular polymers is only possible at low nanoparticle concentrations.

  10. Water Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    impacts on water quality: erosion and sediment control, low impact development, stormwater management; Agricultural impacts on water quality: agronomic rates for nutrients, best management practices, trout farms, aquatic weed control, green space protection; Waste management: reverse osmosis plants, septic systems

  11. CX-012598: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Replace ETP Reverse Osmosis (RO) Cooling Towers (CTWs) and Add a Chemical Addition System CX(s) Applied: B1.5Date: 41827 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  12. The effects of variable operation on RO plant performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Christopher Michael, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimizations of reverse osmosis (RO) plants typically consider steady state operation of the plant. RO plants are subject to transient factors that may make it beneficial to produce more water at one time than at another. ...

  13. Impact of speciation on behaviour of uranium in a solar powered membrane system for treatment of brackish groundwater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossiter, Helfrid M.A.; Graham, Margaret C.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors affecting uranium removal from brackish groundwater using a direct solar powered ultrafiltration-nanofiltration/reverse osmosis membrane system were investigated during a field trial in the Australian outback. ...

  14. Application of solar-powered desalination in a remote town in South Australia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Munari, Annalisa; Capão, D.P.S; Richards, B.S.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coober Pedy is a remote town in South Australia with abundant solar radiation and scarce and low quality water, where a reverse osmosis plant has been operating since 1967. This paper evaluates the feasibility of powering ...

  15. Economies of Size in Municipal Water-Treatment Technologies: A Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Christopher N.; Rister, M. Edward; Rogers, Callie S.; Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Browning, Charles Jr.; Elium III, James R.; Seawright, Emily K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . In recent years, however, technological advancements have improved the economic viability of reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination of brackish-groundwater as a potable water source. By including brackishgroundwater, there may be an alternative water source...

  16. Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubis, Mirna R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF) cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. As an alternative to RO...

  17. Desalination of seawater using a high-efficiency jet ejector 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vishwanathappa, Manohar D.

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary focus of seawater desalination research. There are numerous methods to desalinate water, including reverse osmosis, multi-stage flash distillation, and multi-effect evaporation...

  18. Economies of size in municipal water treatment technologies: Texas lower Rio Grande Valley 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Christopher Neil

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    , technological advancements have improved the economic viability of reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination of brackish-groundwater as a potable water source. Brackish-groundwater may be an alternative water source that provides municipalities an opportunity to hedge...

  19. Sythhesis and Optimization of Hybrid Membrane Desalination Networks with Value Extraction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AlNouss, Ahmed M

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Membrane desalination technology has become a valuable advanced water treatment process to purify difficult water sources for potable use. Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Nanofiltration (NF) processes are commonly used desalination technologies. Studies...

  20. An advanced vapor-compression desalination system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lara Ruiz, Jorge Horacio Juan

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, the two dominant desalination methods are reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF). RO requires large capital investment and maintenance, whereas MSF is too energy intensive. An innovative vapor-compression desalination system...

  1. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, B.S.; Capão, D.P.S.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration – nanofiltration / reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating ...

  2. Desalination of water by vapor transport through hydrophobic nanopores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jongho, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although Reverse osmosis (RO) is the state-of-the-art desalination technology, it still suffers from persistent drawbacks including low permeate flux, low selectivity for non-ionic species, and lack of resistance to chlorine. ...

  3. Shipboard fluid system diagnostics using non-intrusive load monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Gregory R. (Gregory Reed)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems on modem naval vessels are becoming exclusively dependent on electrical power. One example of this is the replacement of distilling and evaporator plants with reverse osmosis units. As the system is in continuous ...

  4. Desalination using electrodialysis as a function of voltage and salt concentration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banasiak, Laura J.; Kruttschnitt, Thomas W.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodialysis is a process that competes with reverse osmosis for desalination and the removal of specific inorganic contaminants. Desalination experiments were carried out on aqueous solutions containing 5 and 10 g/L ...

  5. Membranes and renewable energy — a new era of sustainable development for developing countries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schäfer, Andrea; Broeckmann, Andreas; Richards, Bryce

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article outlines the combination of a small scale hybrid ultrafiltration and nanofiltration/reverse osmosis system with solar energy. The system is targeted to remote communities with access to either contaminated ...

  6. Published: August 12, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 8483 dx.doi.org/10.1021/es201654k |Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 84838490

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as microfiltration (MF), reverse osmosis (RO), and ultraviolet irradiation with advanced oxidation processes (UV digester sludge, food and beverage products, brackish groundwater, and even seawater could be effectively

  7. acetate fibers surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract: This work was carried out to the make-up water for the boilers at the Tabriz power plant in Iran is treated by a reverse osmosis (RO) process.In this work foulants,...

  8. Evaluation of treated wastewater for the production of Syngonium podophyllum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garza Morton, Jose Antonio

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    not represent a risk in any of the waters. In the second phase of the research, 5 combinations of reclaimed water with reverse osmosis water were evaluated on the irrigation of Syngonium podophyllum. There was a significant difference between treatments...

  9. The role of familiarity in olfactory discrimination, extinction, and a reversal of training conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matheny, Jimmy Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE ROLE OF FAMII IARITY IN OLFACTORY DISCRIMINATION, EXTINCTION, AND A REVERSAL OF TRAINING CONDITIONS A Thesis by JII'IMY LEE MATHENY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Psychology THE ROLE OF FAMILIARITY IN OLFACTORY DISCRIMINATION, EXTINCTION, AND A REVERSAL OF TRAINING CONDITIONS A Thesis by JIMMY LLE MATHENY Approved as to style and content by: Cl...

  10. An analysis of a reversed absorption heat pump for low temperature waste heat utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wade, Glenn William

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN ANALYSIS OF A REVERSED ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP FOR LOW TEMPERATURE WASTE HEAT UTILIZATION A Thesis by GLENN WILLIAM WADE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN ANALYSIS OF A REVERSED ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP FOR LOW TEMPERATURE WASTE HEAT UTILIZATION A Thesis by GLENN WILLIAM WADE Approved as to style and content by: Chai n of Committee...

  11. Magnetization reversal assisted by half antivortex states in nanostructured circular cobalt disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara, A.; Aliev, F. G., E-mail: farkhad.aliev@uam.es [Dpto. Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto Nicolas Cabrera (INC) and Condensed Matter Physics Institute (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Dobrovolskiy, O. V. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Physics Department, V. Karazin National University, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Prieto, J. L. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología (ISOM), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The half antivortex, a fundamental topological structure which determines magnetization reversal of submicron magnetic devices with domain walls, has been suggested also to play a crucial role in spin torque induced vortex core reversal in circular disks. Here, we report on magnetization reversal in circular disks with nanoholes through consecutive metastable states with half antivortices. In-plane anisotropic magnetoresistance and broadband susceptibility measurements accompanied by micromagnetic simulations reveal that cobalt (Co) disks with two and three linearly arranged nanoholes directed at 45° and 135° with respect to the external magnetic field show reproducible step-like changes in the anisotropic magnetoresistance and magnetic permeability due to transitions between different intermediate states mediated by vortices and half antivortices confined to the dot nanoholes and edges, respectively. Our findings are relevant for the development of multi-hole based spintronic and magnetic memory devices.

  12. Fully reversible transition from Wenzel to Cassie-Baxter states on corrugated superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Vrancken; H. Kusumaatmaja; K. Hermans; A. M. Prenen; O. Pierre-Louis; C. W. M. Bastiaansen; D. J. Broer

    2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid drops on textured surfaces show different dynamical behaviors depending on their wetting states. They are extremely mobile when they are supported by composite solid-liquid-air interfaces (Cassie-Baxter state) and immobile when they fully wet the textured surfaces (Wenzel state). By reversibly switching between these two states, it will be possible to achieve large control over the fluid dynamics. Unfortunately, these wetting transitions are usually prevented by surface energy barriers. We demonstrate here a new and simple design paradigm, consisting of parallel grooves of appropriate aspect ratio, that allows for a controlled, barrierless, and reversible switching of the wetting states upon the application of electrowetting. We report a direct observation of the barrierless dynamical pathway for the reversible transitions between the Wenzel (collapsed) and the Cassie-Baxter (suspended) states and present a theory that accounts for these transitions, including detailed lattice-Boltzmann simulations.

  13. Fully reversible transition from Wenzel to Cassie-Baxter states on corrugated superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vrancken, R J; Hermans, K; Prenen, A M; Pierre-Louis, O; Bastiaansen, C W M; Broer, D J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid drops on textured surfaces show different dynamical behaviors depending on their wetting states. They are extremely mobile when they are supported by composite solid-liquid-air interfaces (Cassie-Baxter state) and immobile when they fully wet the textured surfaces (Wenzel state). By reversibly switching between these two states, it will be possible to achieve large control over the fluid dynamics. Unfortunately, these wetting transitions are usually prevented by surface energy barriers. We demonstrate here a new and simple design paradigm, consisting of parallel grooves of appropriate aspect ratio, that allows for a controlled, barrierless, and reversible switching of the wetting states upon the application of electrowetting. We report a direct observation of the barrierless dynamical pathway for the reversible transitions between the Wenzel (collapsed) and the Cassie-Baxter (suspended) states and present a theory that accounts for these transitions, including detailed lattice-Boltzmann simulations.

  14. MHD computation of feedback of resistive-shell instabilities in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zita, E.J.; Prager, S.C. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Plasma Physics Research); Ho, Y.L.; Schnack, D.D (Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MHD computation demonstrates that feedback can sustain reversal and reduce loop voltage in resistive-shell reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. Edge feedback on {approximately}2R/a tearing modes resonant near axis is found to restore plasma parameters to nearly their levels with a close-fitting conducting shell. When original dynamo modes are stabilized, neighboring tearing modes grow to maintain the RFP dynamo more efficiently. This suggests that experimentally observed limits on RFP pulselengths to the order of the shell time can be overcome by applying feedback to a few helical modes.

  15. In vivo wall shear stress and flow reversal in canine thoracic aortae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, Carl Anthony

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IN VIVO WALL SHEAR STRESS AND FLOW REVERSAL IN CANINE THORACIC AORTAE A Thesis by CARL ANTHONy DUNN Submitted to the Graduate College o Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment. of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1982 Major Subj ect: Bioengineering IN VIVO WALL SHEAR STRESS AND FLOW REVERSAL IN CANINE THORACIC AORTAE A Thesis by CARL ANTHONY DUNN Approved as to style and content by: airman of Committee) ) ~zg kvLC' j'04@~~ (Member (Member) (Head...

  16. Retarded Interaction of Electromagnetic field and Symmetry Violation of Time Reversal in Non-linear Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mei Xiaochun

    2008-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on Document (1), by considering the retarded interaction of radiation fields, the third order transition probabilities of stimulated radiations and absorptions of light are calculated. The revised formulas of nonlinear polarizations are provided. The results show that that the general processes of non-linear optics violate time reversal symmetry. The phenomena of non-linear optics violating time reversal symmetry just as sum frequency, double frequency, different frequencies, double stable states, self-focusing and self-defocusing, echo phenomena, as well as optical self-transparence and self absorptions and so on are analyzed.

  17. Majorana modes in time-reversal invariant s-wave topological superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shusa Deng; Lorenza Viola; Gerardo Ortiz

    2012-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a time-reversal invariant s-wave superconductor supporting Majorana edge modes. The multi-band character of the model together with spin-orbit coupling are key to realizing such a topological superconductor. We characterize the topological phase diagram by using a partial Chern number sum, and show that the latter is physically related to the parity of the fermion number of the time-reversal invariant modes. By taking the self-consistency constraint on the s-wave pairing gap into account, we also establish the possibility of a direct topological superconductor-to-topological insulator quantum phase transition.

  18. Flux reversal in a two-state symmetric optical thermal ratchet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang-Hyuk Lee; David G. Grier

    2005-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A Brownian particle's random motions can be rectified by a periodic potential energy landscape that alternates between two states, even if both states are spatially symmetric. If the two states differ only by a discrete translation, the direction of the ratchet-driven current can be reversed by changing their relative durations. We experimentally demonstrate flux reversal in a symmetric two-state ratchet by tracking the motions of colloidal spheres moving through large arrays of discrete potential energy wells created with dynamic holographic optical tweezers. The model's simplicity and high degree of symmetry suggest possible applications in molecular-scale motors.

  19. Reversing the temporal envelope of a heralded single photon using a cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharath Srivathsan; Gurpreet Kaur Gulati; Alessandro Cerè; Brenda Chng; Christian Kurtsiefer

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a way to prepare single photons with a temporal envelope that resembles the time reversal of photons from the spontaneous decay process. We use the photon pairs generated from a time-ordered atomic cascade decay: the detection of the first photon of the cascade is used as a herald for the ground-state transition resonant second photon. We show how the interaction of the heralding photon with an asymmetric Fabry-Perot cavity reverses the temporal shape of its twin photon from a decaying to a rising exponential envelope. This single photon is expected to be ideal for interacting with two level systems.

  20. Propagation direction reversal of ionization zones in the transition between high and low current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Lab for Materials Processing and Die & Mold Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Yang, Yuchen; Liu, Jason; Liu, Lin; Anders, André

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Past research has revealed the propagation of dense, asymmetric ionization zones in both high and low current magnetron discharges. Here we report about the direction reversal of ionization zone propagation as observed with fast cameras. At high currents, zones move in the E B direction with velocities of 103 to 104 m/s. However at lower currents, ionization zones are observed to move in the opposite, the -E B direction, with velocities ~;; 103 m/s. It is proposed that the direction reversal is associated with the local balance of ionization and supply of neutrals in the ionization zone.

  1. INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS YOU KNOW WHAT THE TUITION, STIPEND AND EQUIPMENT COSTS ARE YOU KNOW WHAT THE TOTAL COST IS CALCULATION IS USING THE 2010 FED F&A RATE FOR WSU OF 52% (.52) [ DIRECT COST ­ TUITION ­ STIPEND ­ EQUIPMENT] (.52 ) + DIRECT

  2. Markets with random lifetimes and private values: mean-reversion and option to trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cvitanic, Jaksa

    Markets with random lifetimes and private values: mean-reversion and option to trade Jaksa Cvitani values for the single traded asset. A trader's optimal trading decision is formulated in terms of exercising the option to trade one unit of the asset at the optimal stopping time. We solve the optimal

  3. LETTER TO THE EDITOR ORF-less and reverse-transcriptase-encoding group II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmerly, Steven

    with ORFs, and seven ORF-less group II introns were identified. These ORF-less introns also form two groupsLETTER TO THE EDITOR ORF-less and reverse-transcriptase-encoding group II introns in archaebacteria, with a pattern of homing into related group II intron ORFs LIXIN DAI and STEVEN ZIMMERLY Department of Biological

  4. Reverse convection and cusp proton aurora: Cluster, polar and image observation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Reverse convection and cusp proton aurora: Cluster, polar and image observation Q.-G. Zong a,b,*, TT) at Earth. Cusp proton aurora was caused by the leading phase of the CME. Cusp proton aurora generally of the cusp proton aurora shifted about 30° from dawnside to duskside when IMF By changed from À10 to 5 n

  5. June 15-16, 2001 SPLST 2001 -Szeged, Hungary 1 Columbus -Tool for Reverse Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferenc, Rudolf

    June 15-16, 2001 SPLST 2001 - Szeged, Hungary 1 Columbus - Tool for Reverse Engineering Large;June 15-16, 2001 SPLST 2001 - Szeged, Hungary 2 Introduction · Software systems are rapidly growing" [Chikofsky et al.] #12;June 15-16, 2001 SPLST 2001 - Szeged, Hungary 3 Assessment of RE tools · Analysis

  6. Observations of toroidicity-induced Alfvn eigenmodes in a reversed field pinch plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio

    Observations of toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes in a reversed field pinch plasma G. Regnoli H. Bergsåker and E. Tennfors Alfvén Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology (Association EURATOM Alfvén Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology (Association EURATOM/VR), 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden V

  7. Magnetization reversal and exchange bias effects in hard/soft ferromagnetic bilayers with orthogonal anisotropies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Caroline A.

    The magnetization reversal processes are discussed for exchange-coupled ferromagnetic hard/soft bilayers made from Co[subscript 0.66]Cr[subscript 0.22]Pt[subscript 0.12] (10 and 20 nm)/Ni (from 0 to 40 nm) films with ...

  8. Time Reversal with MISO for Ultra-Wideband Communications: Experimental Results (invited paper)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Robert Caiming

    TH2B-1 Time Reversal with MISO for Ultra-Wideband Communications: Experimental Results (invited Output (MISO) is enabled by the use of the TR scheme. Two basic problems are investigated experimentally for the first time in electromagnetics. Index Terms -- TR, MISO, UWB, channel reciprocity. I. INTRODUCTION UWB

  9. Experimental Results on Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) Time Reversal for UWB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Robert Caiming

    Experimental Results on Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) Time Reversal for UWB Systems with multiple-input single- output (MISO) antennas over ultra-wideband (UWB) channels. In particular, temporal and spatial focusing as well as array gain are studied based on a (4 × 1) MISO scheme in an office environment

  10. MISO time reversal and delay spread compression for FWA channels at 5GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papanicolaou, George C.

    MISO time reversal and delay spread compression for FWA channels at 5GHz Persefoni Kyritsi, Member (MISO) can reduce the delay spread of the channel impulse response by a factor of 2-3, depending transmitter instead. The paper is structured as follows. Section II describes the concept of TR in a MISO

  11. Optimal Partially Reversible Investment with Entry Decision and General Production Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pham, Huyên

    of entry and exit times (as in Duckworth and Zervos 2000) or by focusing on the possibility of onlyOptimal Partially Reversible Investment with Entry Decision and General Production Function Xin GUO is to find an optimal entry and production decision to maximize its expected total net profit over

  12. Reverse Auction Bidding: An Analysis of Case Study for Bid Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Apoorv

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    . The bid timing data from previous studies shows that the bid arrival times follows a Poisson process. This study aims to confirm the previous investigation that the bid timing data from the Reverse Auction Bidding case studies at TAMU fits the non...

  13. Non-interactive correlation distillation, inhomogeneous Markov chains, and the reverse Bonami-Beckner inequality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Ryan

    Non-interactive correlation distillation, inhomogeneous Markov chains, and the reverse Bonami In this paper we study non-interactive correlation distillation (NICD), a generalization of noise sen- sitivity distillation (NICD), previously considered in [5, 31, 39]. In its most general form the problem involves k

  14. Non-interactive correlation distillation, inhomogeneous Markov chains, and the reverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regev, Oded

    Non-interactive correlation distillation, inhomogeneous Markov chains, and the reverse Bonami In this paper we study non-interactive correlation distillation (NICD), a generalization of noise sensitivity in this paper is the problem of non-interactive correlation distil- lation (NICD), previously considered in [5

  15. A comparison of reversible chemical reactions for solar thermochemical power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    453 A comparison of reversible chemical reactions for solar thermochemical power generation O. M storage of the reaction products. A number of reactions have been proposed for solar thermochemical power to be a good choice for first generation solar thermochemical power generation. Revue Phys. Appl. 15 (1980) 453

  16. Measuring sexual selection on females in sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gwynne, Darryl T.

    Measuring sexual selection on females in sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex, Anabrus simplex, a katydid in which there can be intense sexual selection on females in nature (Gwynne B I O L O G Y Keywords: Anabrus simplex; female competition; male choice; Orthoptera; selection

  17. Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blueshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect of blue quantum electroabsorption modulators that incorporate 5 nm thick In0.35Ga0.65N/GaN quantum cm-1 for 6 V bias swing around 424 nm, holding promise for blue optical clock generation

  18. Time reversed wave propagation experiments in chaotic micro-structured cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprik, Rudolf

    Time reversed wave propagation experiments in chaotic micro-structured cavities Rudolf Sprik a Chimie Industrielles, Paris, France Abstract The elastic wave propagation in strongly scattering solid; Elastic wave propagation The propagation of waves through systems with strong scatterers is ubiquitous

  19. Neutron irradiation effects on domain wall mobility and reversibility in lead zirconate titanate thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Paulo J.

    changes.1 Damage accumulates when fast neutrons undergo scattering collisions with atomic nuclei resultingNeutron irradiation effects on domain wall mobility and reversibility in lead zirconate titanate://scitation.aip.org/termsconditions. Downloaded to ] IP: 146.6.84.63 On: Wed, 23 Oct 2013 17:34:29 #12;Neutron irradiation effects on domain wall

  20. Average-case analysis of perfect sorting by reversals Mathilde Bouvel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    genomics, is the process of sorting a signed permutation to either the identity or to the reversed identity example here: we perform an average case analysis of a sorting algorithm from computational genomics by generating function analysis of a family of trees. Motivation: a computational genomics problem

  1. A thermally responsive, rigid, and reversible adhesive Xiaofan Luo, Kathryn E. Lauber 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    : Reversible adhesive Solid adhesive Thermally responsive polymer a b s t r a c t In this paper we present interconnected spheres (``bricks'') that interpenetrate with a continuous PCL matrix (``mortar''). When heated network (thermosetadhesives), or a physical melting/crystallization process triggered by solvent

  2. A Reversible Process Calculus and the Modelling of the ERK Signalling Pathway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulidowski, Irek

    A Reversible Process Calculus and the Modelling of the ERK Signalling Pathway Iain Phillips Irek and key identi- fiers to control execution. As an application of our calculus, we model the ERK signalling in the ERK signalling pathway described in Section 3 is a good example. Simplifying, let us assume

  3. Deep and optically resolved imaging through scattering media by space-reversed propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peyré, Gabriel

    Deep and optically resolved imaging through scattering media by space-reversed propagation W to the objective working distance. By combining Laser Optical Feedback Imaging (LOFI) with Acoustic Photon Taging. © 2010 Optical Society of America OCIS Codes: (090.1995) , (170.0110), (170.1065), (180.1790), (290

  4. Reversal mechanisms of coupled bi-component magnetic nanostructures G. Shimon,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeyeye, Adekunle

    in applications such as high density information storage,1­3 domain wall (DW) logic,4,5 and memory devices.6Reversal mechanisms of coupled bi-component magnetic nanostructures G. Shimon,1,2 A. O. Adeyeye,1 Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4747446] Thin film ferromagnetic nanostructures have been

  5. 1 Copyright 2007 by ASME DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY WITH HIGH-STIFFNESS, HEAT-REVERSIBLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"

    recycling at the end of product life at the design stage. One of the key considerations is to design and use are now designed with increased emphasis on effective part reuse and material recycling at the end. Reversible snaps, often found at battery covers in electrical appliances (see Figure 1 for examples

  6. A Model Driven Reverse Engineering Framework for Extracting Business Rules out of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Model Driven Reverse Engineering Framework for Extracting Business Rules out of a Java business rules out of Java source code. The use of modeling techniques facilitate the representation and justify the origin of the extracted business rules. In this sense, this paper describes a model

  7. Long-Term Climate Change Commitment and Reversibility: An EMIC Intercomparison KIRSTEN ZICKFELD,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsumoto, Katsumi

    Long-Term Climate Change Commitment and Reversibility: An EMIC Intercomparison KIRSTEN ZICKFELD. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, RAS, Moscow, Russia f Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) undertaken in support of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC

  8. Synthesis of Stipiamide and a New Multidrug Resistance Reversal Agent, 6,7-Dehydrostipiamide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lepore, Salvatore D.

    resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7adrR).10 Also, 6,7-dehydrostipiamide is remarkably less toxic relative-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR), a condi- tion common to many cancer cell lines.4 The ability to potentiate,7-dehydrostipiamide (a new non-natural com- pound), now shown to potently reverse MDR in human MCF-7 adriamycin

  9. Realistic Time-Reversal Invariant Topological Insulators with Neutral Atoms N. Goldman,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satija, Indu

    Realistic Time-Reversal Invariant Topological Insulators with Neutral Atoms N. Goldman,1 I. Satija topological insulators in alkali atomic gases. We introduce an original method to synthesize a gauge field.10.Jk, 81.16.Ta Topological insulators are a broad class of unconven- tional materials

  10. Stochastic Models of Energy Commodity Prices and Their Applications: Mean-reversion with Jumps and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-073 Stochastic Models of Energy Commodity Prices and Their Applications: Mean.ucei.berkeley.edu/ucei #12;Stochastic Models of Energy Commodity Prices and Their Applications: Mean-reversion with Jumps-switching and stochastic volatility into these models in order to capture the salient features of energy commodity prices

  11. Stochastic Models of Energy Commodity Prices and Their Applications: Mean-reversion with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stochastic Models of Energy Commodity Prices and Their Applications: Mean-reversion with Jumps usion models to describe energy commodity spot prices. We incorporate multiple jumps, regime-switching and stochastic volatility in these models. Prices of various energy commodity derivatives are obtained under each

  12. 2006 Nature Publishing Group Controlled multiple reversals of a ratchet effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moshchalkov, Victor V.

    © 2006 Nature Publishing Group Controlled multiple reversals of a ratchet effect Cle´cio C. de confined in an asymmetric potential demon- strates an anticipated ratchet effect by drifting along the `easy' ratchet direction when subjected to non-equilibrium fluctu- ations1­3 . This well-known effect

  13. Deterministic Ratchets, Circle Maps, and Current Reversals R. Salgado-Garcia,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldana, Maximino

    Deterministic Ratchets, Circle Maps, and Current Reversals R. Salgado-Garci´a,1,2 M. Aldana,2 and G the deterministic dynamics of an overdamped tilting ratchet into a discrete dynamical map by looking the necessary and sufficient conditions that the ratchet potential must satisfy in order to have a vanishing

  14. Origin of Reversed Vortex Ratchet Motion W. Gillijns, A. V. Silhanek, and V. V. Moshchalkov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moshchalkov, Victor V.

    Origin of Reversed Vortex Ratchet Motion W. Gillijns, A. V. Silhanek, and V. V. Moshchalkov INPAC. This rectified motion of particles, known as a rocked ratchet, is basically the result of the broken spatial that the particles (flux lines) cannot be regarded as independent entities leads to a far richer ratchet motion

  15. Paleoecological evidence for abrupt cold reversals during peak Holocene warmth on Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briner, Jason P.

    climate forcings, including volcanic eruptions and solar variability, and perturbations such as freshwaterPaleoecological evidence for abrupt cold reversals during peak Holocene warmth on Baffin Island Paleolimnology Abrupt climate change A continuous record of insect (Chironomidae) remains preserved in lake

  16. Proton Transport and the Water Environment in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes and AOT Reverse Micelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Proton Transport and the Water Environment in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes and AOT Reverse Micelles D@stanford.edu Abstract: The properties of confined water and diffusive proton-transfer kinetics in the nanoscopic water by steady-state fluorescence measurements. Proton-transfer kinetics and orientational relaxation

  17. Synthesis of a 7-Azaindole by Chichibabin Cyclization: Reversible Base-Mediated Dimerization of 3-Picolines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Synthesis of a 7-Azaindole by Chichibabin Cyclization: Reversible Base-Mediated Dimerization of 3 of heteroannulation- appending a pyrrole to a pyridine or vice versa.1,2 In connection with a program at Sanofi-Aventis to synthesize polycyclic pyrrole derivatives to be tested for the treatment of asthma,2c the conversion of 2

  18. Time-reversal invariance violation measurement using polarized neutron scattering from polarized xenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinghan Chu

    2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We proposed to use polarized neutrons scattering from a hyperpolarized 131Xe gaseous target in order to measure time-reversal violation effect in baryon processes with nucleons. This article provides a brief introduction, historical review, and possible methods to construct a hyperpolarized 131Xe gaseous target.

  19. The time reversed elastic nonlinearity diagnostic applied to evaluation of diffusion bonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The time reversed elastic nonlinearity diagnostic applied to evaluation of diffusion bonds T. J based nondestructive evaluation techniques has begun. Here, diffusion bonded metal disks containing and impulse responses to perform TR experiments in thin h 5 mm, d 5 cm diffusion bonded disks, in order

  20. A field-reversed magnetic configuration and applications of high-temperature FRC plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryzhkov, S. V., E-mail: ryzhkov@power.bmstu.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As applied to a tokomak, a magnetic trap for confinement of a plasma with an inverted field or a magnetic field reversed configuration (FRC) is one of the most promising alternatives of the systems with high {beta}. A brief review of the latest data on FRC and potential directions of using such configurations in addition to energy generation in thermonuclear reactors (TNRs) is proposed.

  1. Is Protein Unfolding the Reverse of Protein Folding? A Lattice Simulation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinner, Aaron

    Is Protein Unfolding the Reverse of Protein Folding? A Lattice Simulation Analysis Aaron R. Dinner1- turing conditions are commonly employed to study the mechanism by which a protein folds to its native of determining the mechanism by which a protein folds would be to use an accurate high-resolution model

  2. Analysis of an Up/Down Power Control Algorithm for the CDMA Reverse Link under Fading #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandayam, Narayan

    derive a stochastic nonlinear feedback con­ trol system model for the power controlled reverse link and study the power control performance based on the nonlinear model using the technique of statistical, Nonlinear Control, CDMA. 1 Introduction Power control is essential in CDMA systems to provide satisfactory

  3. Reversed Doppler Effect in Photonic Crystals Evan J. Reed,* Marin Soljacic, and John D. Joannopoulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljaèiæ, Marin

    Reversed Doppler Effect in Photonic Crystals Evan J. Reed,* Marin Soljacic´, and John D, 42.79.Hp, 42.79.Jq, 47.40.Nm In 1843, Johann Christian Doppler proposed an effect whereby of extrasolar planets. The Doppler effect predicts that light shined by an ob- server onto an object moving

  4. Dynamics and control of internal transport barriers in reversed shear discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, David

    Dynamics and control of internal transport barriers in reversed shear discharges D. E. Newman, B. A to a transport model in order to investigate the dynamics of the transition to this enhanced confinement mode profiles, a rich variety of transition dynamics is uncovered. Transition dynamics and their concomitant

  5. Dynamics of Nanoscopic Water: Vibrational Echo and Infrared Pump-Probe Studies of Reverse Micelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Dynamics of Nanoscopic Water: Vibrational Echo and Infrared Pump-Probe Studies of Reverse MicellesVersity, Stanford, California 94305 ReceiVed: April 8, 2005; In Final Form: May 12, 2005 The dynamics of water of the hydrogen-bond network dynamics. Pump-probe experiments show that the vibrational lifetime of the OD stretch

  6. Field-reversed configuration formation scheme utilizing a spheromak and solenoid induction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji, Hantao

    Field-reversed configuration formation scheme utilizing a spheromak and solenoid induction S. P FRC formation technique is described, where a spheromak transitions to a FRC with inductive current are suppressed; spheromaks with a lighter majority species, such as neon and helium, either display a terminal

  7. Spheromak merging and field reversed configuration formation at the Swarthmore Spheromak Experimenta...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael R.

    Spheromak merging and field reversed configuration formation at the Swarthmore Spheromak- and counter-helicity spheromak merging studies at the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment SSX M. R. Brown, Phys configuration FRC formation and stability by counter-helicity spheromak merging. A pair of midplane coils

  8. Time Reversal UWB Communication: Experimental Study for High Data Rates in Dense Multipath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ), UMR CNRS 6164 National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA), 20 Avenue des Buttes de Coesmes, 35043. Classically, TR has been applied in acoustics and under water communication applications [4],[5], but recentlyTime Reversal UWB Communication: Experimental Study for High Data Rates in Dense Multipath

  9. Stopping and time reversing a light pulse using dynamic loss tuning of coupled-resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Stopping and time reversing a light pulse using dynamic loss tuning of coupled-resonator delay. ID 85496); published November 12, 2007 We introduce a light-stopping process that uses dynamic loss processing [1,2]. For this pur- pose, dynamically tuned delay lines based on cas- caded optical resonators

  10. Protein Unfolding, and the "Tuning In" of Reversible Intermediate States, in Protic Ionic Liquid Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    's heat capacity as it undergoes the unfolding process. This yields a spe- cific enthalpy change, which partial heat capacities, we will simply report the total system heat capacity and attribute the partProtein Unfolding, and the "Tuning In" of Reversible Intermediate States, in Protic Ionic Liquid

  11. A CH O Hydrogen Bond Stabilized Polypeptide Chain Reversal Motif at the C Terminus of Helices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babu, M. Madan

    A C­H· · ·O Hydrogen Bond Stabilized Polypeptide Chain Reversal Motif at the C Terminus of Helices of Science Bangalore 560012, India The serendipitous observation of a C­H· · ·O hydrogen bond mediated­N hydrogen bond involving the side- chain of residue T 2 4 and the N­H group of residue T þ 3. In as many

  12. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600644 Reversible Lithium Intercalation in Teardrop-Shaped Ultrafine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    .94 Particles: An Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries** By Youngsik Kim, Haesuk Hwang, Chong S. Yoon, Min G disadvantages for practical use in rechargeable lith- ium batteries. One problem is their very poor reversible-cycle performance. More im- portantly, lithium-intercalating compounds with a volume change comparable to graphite

  13. Reversible diameter modulation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by acetonitrile-containing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Reversible diameter modulation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by acetonitrile)3 5800 6983 Abstract Changing the carbon feedstock from pure ethanol to a 5 vol.% mixture of acetonitrile for a feedstock containing 5 volume percent (5 vol.%) acetonitrile in ethanol.18­20 This change was observed

  14. NT13 Satellites Saturday MSIN13 Posters Precursor-dependent reversible diameter modulation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of an acetonitrile-ethanol mixture [1]. The addition of no morethanfivevolumepercentacetonitrileinethanolresultsinadramaticreductionofthemeanSWNTdiameter. In the absence of acetonitrile, the mean diameter returns to the ~2 nm typical by the addition or absence of acetonitrile in the feedstock, and this diameter change is both reversible

  15. Seismic reversal pattern for the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, MW 7.6 earthquake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Seismic reversal pattern for the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, MW 7.6 earthquake Yih-Min Wu a , Chien the variations in seismicity patterns in the Taiwan region before and after the Chi-Chi earthquake. We have found that the areas with relatively high seismicity in the eastern Taiwan became abnormally quiet before the Chi

  16. A 2-Approximation Algorithms for Genome Rearrangements by Reversals and Transpositions 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Qianping

    A 2-Approximation Algorithms for Genome Rearrangements by Reversals and Transpositions 1 Qian of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 U.S.A. Keywords: Sorting of permutations, genome rearrangements: Recently, a new approach to analyze genomes evolving was proposed which is based on comparison of gene

  17. Circulation . Author manuscript Activation of lung p53 by Nutlin-3a prevents and reverses experimental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Circulation . Author manuscript Page /1 14 Activation of lung p53 by Nutlin-3a prevents PA-SMCs; lung p53, p21, and MDM2 protein levels; and p21, Bax, PUMA, BTG2, and MDM2 mRNA levels or reversal by Nutlin-3a required lung p53 stabilization and increased p21 expression, as indicated

  18. Author's personal copy Reverse engineering mother nature --Shale sedimentology from an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    Author's personal copy Review Reverse engineering mother nature -- Shale sedimentology from of the sedimentology of shales can take a variety of forms. At its simplest one can experiment with suspensions conducted by hydraulic engineers, the transfer of that knowledge to sedimentology is hampered by the fact

  19. Plasma engineering design of a compact reversed-field pinch reactor (CRFPR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bathke, C.G.; Embrechts, M.J.; Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rationale for and the characteristics of the high-power-density Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to key plasma engineering aspects of the conceptual design, including plasma operations, current drive, and impurity/ash control by means of pumped limiters or magnetic divertors. A brief description of the Fusion-Power-Core integration is given.

  20. Reduction of DNA contamination in RNA samples for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using selective precipitation by compaction agents.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, George

    Reduction of DNA contamination in RNA samples for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is DNA contamination, which can produce artifactually increased mRNA concentration. Current methods to eliminate contaminating DNA can compromise

  1. Reverse Supply Chain Management and Electronic Waste Recycling: A Multitiered Network Equilibrium Framework for E-Cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Reverse Supply Chain Management and Electronic Waste Recycling: A Multitiered Network Equilibrium for the modeling of reverse supply chain management of electronic waste, which includes recycling. We describe the behavior of the various decision-makers, consisting of the sources of electronic waste, the recyclers

  2. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 134, 054512 (2011) Water dynamics in small reverse micelles in two solvents: Two-dimensional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    = 2 (1.7 nm diameter) Aerosol-OT (AOT)/water reverse micelles in carbon tetrachloride and in isooctane that the reverse micelle dynamics are the same within experimental error regardless of whether isooctane or carbon tetrachloride is used as the organic phase. Two time scales are observed in the vibrational echo data, 1 and 10

  3. Highly Reversible Li-Ion Intercalating MoP2 Nanoparticle Cluster Anode for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Highly Reversible Li-Ion Intercalating MoP2 Nanoparticle Cluster Anode for Lithium Rechargeable nanoparticle clusters have quite reversible lithium-ion insertion and extraction, showing the first discharge lithium reactions, i MPn LixMPn simple Li-ion interca- lation and ii MPn M LixM + LixP alloying followed

  4. Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

  5. Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

  6. Synthetic gauge fields and Weyl point in Time-Reversal Invariant Acoustic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Meng; He, Wen-Yu; Zhang, Z Q; Chan, C T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspired by the discovery of quantum hall effect and topological insulator, topological properties of classical waves start to draw worldwide attention. Topological non-trivial bands characterized by non-zero Chern numbers are realized with external magnetic field induced time reversal symmetry breaking or dynamic modulation. Due to the absence of Faraday-like effect, the breaking of time reversal symmetry in an acoustic system is commonly realized with moving background fluids, and hence drastically increases the engineering complexity. Here we show that we can realize effective inversion symmetry breaking and effective gauge field in a reduced two-dimensional system by structurally engineering interlayer couplings, achieving an acoustic analog of the topological Haldane model. We then find and demonstrate unidirectional backscattering immune edge states. We show that the synthetic gauge field is closely related to the Weyl points in the three-dimensional band structure.

  7. A new time quantifiable Monte Carlo method in simulating magnetization reversal process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. Z. Cheng; M. B. A. Jalil; H. K. Lee; Y. Okabe

    2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new time quantifiable Monte Carlo (MC) method to simulate the thermally induced magnetization reversal for an isolated single domain particle system. The MC method involves the determination of density of states, and the use of Master equation for time evolution. We derive an analytical factor to convert MC steps into real time intervals. Unlike a previous time quantified MC method, our method is readily scalable to arbitrarily long time scales, and can be repeated for different temperatures with minimal computational effort. Based on the conversion factor, we are able to make a direct comparison between the results obtained from MC and Langevin dynamics methods, and find excellent agreement between them. An analytical formula for the magnetization reversal time is also derived, which agrees very well with both numerical Langevin and time-quantified MC results, over a large temperature range and for parallel and oblique easy axis orientations.

  8. On-demand generation of aqueous two-phase microdroplets with reversible phase transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Mruetusatorn, Prachya [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous two-phase systems contained entirely within microdroplets enable a bottom-up approach to mimicking the dynamic microcompartmentation of biomaterial that naturally occurs within the cytoplasm of cells. Here, we demonstrate the on-demand generation of femtolitre aqueous two-phase droplets within a microfluidic oil channel. Gated pressure pulses were used to generate individual, stationary two-phase microdroplets with a well-defined time zero for carrying out controlled and sequential phase transformations over time. Reversible phase transitions between single-phase, two-phase, and core-shell microgel states were obtained via evaporation-induced dehydration and on-demand water rehydration. In contrast to other microfluidic aqueous two-phase droplets, which require continuous flows and high-frequency droplet formation, our system enables the controlled isolation and reversible transformation of a single microdroplet and is expected to be useful for future studies in dynamic microcompartmentation and affinity partitioning.

  9. Angular dependence of the magnetization reversal in exchangebiased Fe/MnF2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arenholz, Elke; Liu, Kai

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed study of exchange-biased Fe/MnF{sub 2} bilayers using magneto-optical Kerr Effect shows that the magnetization reversal occurs almost fully through domain wall nucleation and propagation for external fields parallel to the exchange bias direction. For finite angles {phi} between bias and external field the magnetization is aligned perpendicular to the field cooling direction for a limited field range for decreasing fields. For external fields perpendicular to the bias direction the magnetization aligns with the field cooling direction for descending and ascending fields before fully reversing. The field range for which the magnetization is close to perpendicular to the external field can be estimated using a simple effective field model.

  10. Condensate Nuclei and Magnetic Polarity Reversals in the Sun and Solar-type Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babur M. Mirza

    2015-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic field generation in the Sun and solar-type stars is modeled here based on the formation of magnetically polarized condensates (B. M. Mirza, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 28 (2014) 1450148) under the high density and pressure conditions. The correct orders of magnitude for the time period and the energy loss in a solar cycle are deduced, as well as the enhancement in the energy emission observed during solar cycles. It is shown that this feedback magnetic field along with differential rotation is sufficient to generate the toroidal magnetic field in the solar exterior. The model is useful in determining magnetic polarity reversals, energy generation, and reversal times, in solar-type stars.

  11. Condensate Nuclei and Magnetic Polarity Reversals in the Sun and Solar-type Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirza, Babur M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic field generation in the Sun and solar-type stars is modeled here based on the formation of magnetically polarized condensates (B. M. Mirza, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 28 (2014) 1450148) under the high density and pressure conditions. The correct orders of magnitude for the time period and the energy loss in a solar cycle are deduced, as well as the enhancement in the energy emission observed during solar cycles. It is shown that this feedback magnetic field along with differential rotation is sufficient to generate the toroidal magnetic field in the solar exterior. The model is useful in determining magnetic polarity reversals, energy generation, and reversal times, in solar-type stars.

  12. Entropy of the Nordic electricity market: anomalous scaling, spikes, and mean-reversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perello, J; Montero, M; Palatella, L; Simonsen, I; Masoliver, Jaume; Montero, Miquel; Palatella, Luigi; Perello, Josep; Simonsen, Ingve

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electricity market is a very peculiar market due to the large variety of phenomena that can affect the spot price. However, this market still shows many typical features of other speculative (commodity) markets like, for instance, data clustering and mean reversion. We apply the diffusion entropy analysis (DEA) to the Nordic spot electricity market (Nord Pool). We study the waiting time statistics between consecutive spot price spikes and find it to show anomalous scaling characterized by a decaying power-law. The exponent observed in data follows a quite robust relationship with the one implied by the DEA analysis. We also in terms of the DEA revisit topics like clustering, mean-reversion and periodicities. We finally propose a GARCH inspired model but for the price itself. Models in the context of stochastic volatility processes appear under this scope to have a feasible description.

  13. ATP-independent reversal of a membrane protein aggregate by a chloroplast SRP subunit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaru-Ampornpan, Peera; Shen, Kuang; Lam, Vinh Q.; Ali, Mona; Doniach, Sebastian; Jia, Tony Z.; Shan, Shu-ou (CIT); (Stanford)

    2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Membrane proteins impose enormous challenges to cellular protein homeostasis during their post-translational targeting, and they require chaperones to keep them soluble and translocation competent. Here we show that a novel targeting factor in the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP), cpSRP43, is a highly specific molecular chaperone that efficiently reverses the aggregation of its substrate proteins. In contrast to 'ATPases associated with various cellular activities' (AAA{sup +}) chaperones, cpSRP43 uses specific binding interactions with its substrate to mediate its 'disaggregase' activity. This disaggregase capability can allow targeting machineries to more effectively capture their protein substrates and emphasizes a close connection between protein folding and trafficking processes. Moreover, cpSRP43 provides the first example to our knowledge of an ATP-independent disaggregase and shows that efficient reversal of protein aggregation can be attained by specific binding interactions between a chaperone and its substrate.

  14. Electromagnetic time reversal algorithms and source localization in lossy dielectric media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdul Wahab; Amer Rasheed; Tasawar Hayat; Rab Nawaz

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of reconstructing the spatial support of an extended radiating electric current source density in a lossy dielectric medium from transient boundary measurements of the electric fields is studied. A time reversal algorithm is proposed to localize a source density from loss-less wave-field measurements. Further, in order to recover source densities in a lossy medium, we first build attenuation operators thereby relating loss-less waves with lossy ones. Then based on asymptotic expansions of attenuation operators with respect to attenuation parameter, we propose two time reversal strategies for localization. The losses in electromagnetic wave propagation are incorporated using the Debye's complex permittivity, which is well-adopted for low frequencies (radio and microwave) associated with polarization in dielectrics.

  15. Analysis of a quantum memory for photons based on controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Sangouard; Christoph Simon; Mikael Afzelius; Nicolas Gisin

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed analysis of a quantum memory for photons based on controlled and reversible inhomogeneous broadening (CRIB). The explicit solution of the equations of motion is obtained in the weak excitation regime, making it possible to gain insight into the dependence of the memory efficiency on the optical depth, and on the width and shape of the atomic spectral distributions. We also study a simplified memory protocol which does not require any optical control fields.

  16. Test of the Universality of Naive-time-reversal-odd Fragmentation Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boer; Zhong-Bo Kang; Werner Vogelsang; Feng Yuan

    2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the ''spontaneous'' hyperon transverse polarization in $e^+e^-$ annihilation and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes as a test of the universality of the naive-time-reversal-odd transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions. We find that universality implies definite sign relations among various observables. This provides a unique opportunity to study initial/final state interaction effects in the fragmentation process and test the associated factorization.

  17. Analysis of a quantum memory for photons based on controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Simon, Christoph; Afzelius, Mikael; Gisin, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics-Optics, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed analysis of a quantum memory for photons based on controlled and reversible inhomogeneous broadening. The explicit solution of the equations of motion is obtained in the weak excitation regime, making it possible to gain insight into the dependence of the memory efficiency on the optical depth, and on the width and shape of the atomic spectral distributions. We also study a simplified memory protocol which does not require any optical control fields.

  18. Electron density and temperature profile diagnostics for C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, B. H.; Kinley, J. S.; Schroeder, J. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 9-point Thomson scattering diagnostic system for the C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas is improved and the measured electron temperature profiles are consistent with theoretical expectations. Rayleigh scattering revealed a finite line width of the ruby laser emission, which complicates density calibration. Taking advantage of the plasma wobble motion, density profile reconstruction accuracy from the 6-chord two-color CO{sub 2}/HeNe interferometer data is improved.

  19. The folding kinetics of ribonuclease Sa and a charge-reversal variant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trefethen, Jared M.

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Coulomb?s Law suggested that favorable electrostatic interactions in the denatured state were the cause for the decreased stability for the charge-reversed variant. Folding and unfolding kinetic studies were designed and conducted to study the iv charge... of the denatured state as suspected. Additionally, the results showed that the transition state was stabilized as well. These results show that a specific Coulombic interaction lowered the free energy in the denatured and transition state of the charge...

  20. Use of Helical Fields to Allow a Long Pulse Reversed Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Boozer and N. Pomphrey

    2008-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The maintenance of the magnetic configuration of a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is an unsolved problem. Even a toroidal loop voltage does not suffice to maintain the magnetic configuration in axisymmetry but could if the plasma had helical shaping. The theoretical tools for plasma optimization using helical shaping have advanced, so an RFP could be relatively easily designed for optimal performance with a spatially constant toroidal loop voltage. A demonstration that interesting solutions exist is given.

  1. Non-axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction for stellarators, reversed field pinches and tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, James D. [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Anderson, D.T. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Cianciosa, M. [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Franz, P. [EURATOM / ENEA, Italy; Harris, J. H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hartwell, G. H. [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Hirshman, Steven Paul [ORNL; Knowlton, Stephen F. [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Lao, Lang L. [General Atomics, San Diego; Lazarus, Edward Alan [ORNL; Marrelli, L. [Association EURATOM ENEA Fusion, Consorzio RFX, Padua, Italy; Maurer, D. A. [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Schmitt, J. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Sontag, A. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stevenson, B. A. [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Terranova, D. [Association EURATOM ENEA Fusion, Consorzio RFX, Padua, Italy

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction using magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium solutions to the Grad Shafranov equation has long been an important tool for interpreting tokamak experiments. This paper describes recent results in non-axisymmetric (three-dimensional) equilibrium reconstruction of nominally axisymmetric plasmas (tokamaks and reversed field pinches (RFPs)), and fully non-axisymmetric plasmas (stellarators). Results from applying the V3FIT code to CTH and HSX stellarator plasmas, RFX-mod RFP plasmas and the DIII-D tokamak are presented.

  2. The Quasi-Reversibility Method for the Thermoacoustic Tomography and a Coefficient Inverse Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klibanov, Michael V; Nechaev, Dmitriy V; Kuzhuget, Andrey V

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inverse problem of the determination of an initial condition in a hyperbolic equation from the lateral Cauchy data is considered. This problem has applications to the thermoacoustic tomography, as well as to linearized coefficient inverse problems of acoustics and electromagnetics. A new version of the quasi-reversibility method is described. This version requires a new Lipschitz stability estimate, which is obtained via the Carleman estimate. Numerical results are presented.

  3. The Quasi-Reversibility Method for the Thermoacoustic Tomography and a Coefficient Inverse Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael V Klibanov; Sergey I Kabanikhin; Dmitriy V Nechaev; Andrey V Kuzhuget

    2007-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An inverse problem of the determination of an initial condition in a hyperbolic equation from the lateral Cauchy data is considered. This problem has applications to the thermoacoustic tomography, as well as to linearized coefficient inverse problems of acoustics and electromagnetics. A new version of the quasi-reversibility method is described. This version requires a new Lipschitz stability estimate, which is obtained via the Carleman estimate. Numerical results are presented.

  4. A C-H...O Hydrogen Bond Stabilized Polypeptide Chain Reversal Motif

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babu, M. Madan

    A C-H...O Hydrogen Bond Stabilized Polypeptide Chain Reversal Motif at the C-terminus of Helices between the C atom of residue Ala 4 (T-4) and the backbone oxygen atom of DLeu 9. The C-H...O hydrogen Nitrogenase MoFe protein (PDB: 1qh8). The N-H...O hydrogen bond parameters are: O...N = 3.19Ã?; O...H = 2.48 Ã?

  5. Note on Reversion, Rotation and Exponentiation in Dimensions Five and Six

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Herzig; V. Ramakrishna; M. Dabkowski

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The explicit matrix realizations of the reversion anti-automorphism and the spin group depend on the set of matrices chosen to represent a basis of 1 -vectors for a given Clifford algebra. On the other hand, there are iterative procedures to obtain bases of 1-vectors for higher dimensional Clifford algebras, starting from those for lower dimensional ones. For a basis of 1-vectors for Cl (0, 5), obtained by applying such procedures to the Pauli basis of 1-vectors for Cl(3,0), we find that the matrix form of reversion involves neither of the two standard representations of the symplectic bilinear form. However, by making use of the relation between 4 X 4 real matrices and the tensor product of the quaternions with themselves, the matrix form of reversion for this basis of 1-vectors is identified. The corresponding version of the Lie algebra of the spin group, has useful matrix properties which are explored. Next, the form of reversion for a basis of 1-vectors for Cl(0,6) obtained iteratively from Cl(0,0) is obtained. This is then applied to the task of computing exponentials of 5X 5 and 6X 6 real skew-symmetric matrices in closed form, by reducing this to the simpler task of computing exponentials of certain 4X 4 matrices. For the latter purpose closed form expressions for the minimal polynomials of these 4 X 4 matrices are obtained, without having to compute their eigenstructure. Finally, a novel representation of Sp(4)is provided which may be of independent interest. Among the byproducts of this work are natural interpretations for some members of an orthogonal basis for M(4, R) provided by the isomorphism with the quaternion tensor product, and a first principles approach to the spin groups in dimensions five and six.

  6. Reversible Electrocatalytic Production and Oxidation of Hydrogen at Low Overpotentials by a Functional Hydrogenase Mimic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Stuart E.; Yang, Jenny Y.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, Morris

    2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A new bis(diphosphine) nickel(II) complex, [Ni(PPh2NR2)2](BF4)2, 1, (R = CH2CH2OCH3) is described. A {Delta}G{sup o} of 0.84 kcal/mol{sup -1} for hydrogen addition for this complex was calculated from the experimentally determined equilibrium constant. This complex displays reversible electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen production and oxidation at low overpotentials, a characteristic most commonly associated with hydrogenase enzymes.

  7. Sterically controlled recyclable system. Reversible photoredox reactions between anthraquinone and hindered tertiary amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, H.; Whitten, D.G. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1993-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Photochemical reactions of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) with sterically hindered tertiary amines have been studied. The reactivity and products are strongly dependent on the structure of the tertiary amine. Irradiation of AQ in the presence of the sterically hindered amine 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidinol (3) (or 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidine (5)) in degassed dry benzene leads chiefly to the formation of 9-hydroxy-9-[N-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol)-methyl]anthr one (8), which is found to be metastable at room temperature under vacuum. The reaction may be thermally reversed to regenerate the starting materials. The photolysis products and thermal reversion are solvent dependent. While in dry benzene adduct 8 is the major product, in dry acetonitrile the ionic redox products AQH-and iminium cation are detected and no thermal reversal occurs. The results are explained in terms of equilibrium between a product ion pair (AQH[sup [minus

  8. REVERSIBLE HYDROGEN STORAGE IN A LiBH{sub 4}-C{sub 60} NANOCOMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teprovich, J.; Zidan, R.; Peters, B.; Wheeler, J.

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Reversible hydrogen storage in a LiBH{sub 4}:C{sub 60} nanocomposite (70:30 wt. %) synthesized by solvent-assisted mixing has been demonstrated. During the solvent-assisted mixing and nanocomposite formation, a chemical reaction occurs in which the C{sub 60} cages are significantly modified by polymerization as well as by hydrogenation (fullerane formation) in the presence of LiBH{sub 4}. We have determined that two distinct hydrogen desorption events are observed upon rehydrogenation of the material, which are attributed to the reversible formation of a fullerane (C{sub 60}H{sub x}) as well as a LiBH4 species. This system is unique in that the carbon species (C{sub 60}) actively participates in the hydrogen storage process which differs from the common practice of melt infiltration of high surface area carbon materials with LiBH{sub 4} (nanoconfinment effect). This nanocomposite demonstrated good reversible hydrogen storage properties as well as the ability to absorb hydrogen under mild conditions (pressures as low as 10 bar H{sub 2} or temperatures as low as 150?C). The nanocomposite was characterized by TGA-RGA, DSC, XRD, LDI-TOF-MS, FTIR, 1H NMR, and APPI MS.

  9. Statistics of reversible transitions in two-state trajectories in force-ramp spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diezemann, Gregor [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany)] [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A possible way to extract information about the reversible dissociation of a molecular adhesion bond from force fluctuations observed in force ramp experiments is discussed. For small loading rates the system undergoes a limited number of unbinding and rebinding transitions observable in the so-called force versus extension (FE) curves. The statistics of these transient fluctuations can be utilized to estimate the parameters for the rebinding rate. This is relevant in the experimentally important situation where the direct observation of the reversed FE-curves is hampered, e.g., due to the presence of soft linkers. I generalize the stochastic theory of the kinetics in two-state models to the case of time-dependent kinetic rates and compute the relevant distributions of characteristic forces. While for irreversible systems there is an intrinsic relation between the rupture force distribution and the population of the free-energy well of the bound state, the situation is slightly more complex if reversible systems are considered. For a two-state model, a “stationary” rupture force distribution that is proportional to the population can be defined and allows to consistently discuss quantities averaged over the transient fluctuations. While irreversible systems are best analyzed in the soft spring limit of small pulling device stiffness and large loading rates, here I argue to use the stiffness of the pulling device as a control parameter in addition to the loading rate.

  10. Engineering Time-Reversal Invariant Topological Insulators With Ultra-Cold Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Goldman; I. Satija; P. Nikolic; A. Bermudez; M. A. Martin-Delgado; M. Lewenstein; I. B. Spielman

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topological insulators are a broad class of unconventional materials that are insulating in the interior but conduct along the edges. This edge transport is topologically protected and dissipationless. Until recently, all existing topological insulators, known as quantum Hall states, violated time-reversal symmetry. However, the discovery of the quantum spin Hall effect demonstrated the existence of novel topological states not rooted in time-reversal violations. Here, we lay out an experiment to realize time-reversal topological insulators in ultra-cold atomic gases subjected to synthetic gauge fields in the near-field of an atom-chip. In particular, we introduce a feasible scheme to engineer sharp boundaries where the "edge states" are localized. Besides, this multi-band system has a large parameter space exhibiting a variety of quantum phase transitions between topological and normal insulating phases. Due to their unprecedented controllability, cold-atom systems are ideally suited to realize topological states of matter and drive the development of topological quantum computing.

  11. Momentum-independent reflectionless transmission in the non-Hermitian time-reversal symmetric system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.Z.; Song, Z., E-mail: nkquantum@gmail.com

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically study the non-Hermitian systems, the non-Hermiticity of which arises from the unequal hopping amplitude (UHA) dimers. The distinguishing features of these models are that they have full real spectra if all of the eigenvectors are time-reversal (T) symmetric rather than parity-time-reversal (PT) symmetric, and that their Hermitian counterparts are shown to be an experimentally accessible system, which have the same topological structures as that of the original ones but modulated hopping amplitudes within the unbroken region. Under the reflectionless transmission condition, the scattering behavior of momentum-independent reflectionless transmission (RT) can be achieved in the concerned non-Hermitian system. This peculiar feature indicates that, for a certain class of non-Hermitian systems with a balanced combination of the RT dimers, the defects can appear fully invisible to an outside observer. -- Highlights: •We investigate the non-Hermitian system with time reversal symmetry. •The Hermitian counterpart is experimentally accessible system. •The behavior of momentum-independent reflectionless transmission can be achieved. •A balanced combination of reflectionless transmission dimers leads to invisibility. •It paves an alternative way for the design of invisible cloaking devices.

  12. Overrelaxation phenomena during the formation of reversed-field pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazur, S.; Nordlund, P. [Division of Fusion Plasma Physics (Association EURATOM-NFR), Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Division of Fusion Plasma Physics (Association EURATOM-NFR), Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments on the Extrap T1 reversed-field pinch (RFP) [Phys. Scr. {bold 49}, 224 (1994)] have shown that the formation of the RFP configuration is quite sensitive to the relative programming of the toroidal field and Ohmic heating circuits. In this paper, new measurements of the evolution of the current density profile and of the spectral structure of the fluctuations during the setup phase of RFP plasmas in the T1 experiment are presented. These measurements improve the understanding of the role of different spectral components in the dynamics of RFP formation. Under unfavorable (slow) setup conditions, comparatively high energy is accumulated in {ital m}=1 internal kinks prior to reversal of the edge toroidal field. At reversal, nonlinearly driven {ital m}=0 modes trigger a rapid broadening of the {ital m}=1 spectrum. This behavior is associated with a violent suppression of the current density in the core, leading to an overrelaxation of the discharge involving a hollowing of the parallel current density profile. The setup conditions are found to affect the volt-second consumption and plasma/wall interaction during RFP formation, as well as the flat-top discharge performance. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. Voltage multi-stability in distribution grids with power flow reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung D. Nguyen; Konstantin Turitsyn

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of penetration of distributed generation and aggressive reactive power compensation with modern power electronics may result in the reversal of active and reactive power flows in future distribution grids. The voltage stability of these operating conditions may be very different from the more traditional power consumption regime. We study the stability characteristics of distribution networks with reversed power flow. After introducing a universal algebraic approach to characterize all the solutions of the power flow equations, we show that new solutions appear in the reversed power flow regime even in the simplest three bus systems. We show that the some of these solutions are stable and the system may exhibit a phenomenon of multistability, where multiple stable equilibria co-exist at the given set of parameters, and the system may converge to an undesirable equilibrium after a disturbance. These predictions are validated with dynamic simulations of two different systems. Under certain conditions the new states are viable and may be characterized by relatively high voltages. Possible approaches towards reactive power/voltage regulation as well as permissible distributed generation capacity in future power systems are proposed and discussed in the end of the paper.

  14. 2006 Reversible Associations in Structural and Molecular Biology Conference-January 15-20, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Ackers

    2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Many biological processes are carried out through the formation of macromolecular complexes, ranging from the simplest conformational organization to the most sophisticated interactions among complexes themselves. Reversible associations generate specific local conformations, active site configurations, and subunit--subunit interfaces, and encompass larger scale quaternary rearrangements and dissociation events. Assembled complexes exhibit properties different from those of component parts, such that 'the whole is greater than the sum of the parts', resulting in biological functioning of the assembly. This Gordon Research Conference brings together researchers from what may appear to be disparate fields with the common focus of applying quantitative kinetic and thermodynamic analysis to reversible macromolecular interactions. This conference will include the following session topics: (1) Protein design in evolution and recognition; (2) Emerging technologies; (3) Single molecule mechanics; (4) Nucleic acid/protein recognition; (5) Lipid/protein recognition; (6) Protein switches and networks; (7) Advances in classic technologies; (8) Ligand/macromolecule complexes and drug design; and (9) Selected student oral presentations; all from the perspective of reversibly associating systems. A wide array of techniques are typically covered, from single molecule to computational methods, chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation, spectroscopic dynamics and titration calorimetry. The quantitative analysis of assembled complexes demonstrates that these biologically important functions depend not just upon a single part of the molecule, but on the coordination brought about by the ensemble of interactions. Applications from graduate students and young postdoctoral scientists are welcomed. A selection of short talks will be invited from students presenting posters.

  15. Studying the Reverse Auction Bidding Game for the Role Variants of Guardians in the Facilities Management Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Apurva Krishna

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    is the eleventh study into Reverse Auction Bidding building on the work of the previous researchers. Previous case studies investigated a number of different competitive situations ranging from three to ten players. In the last few studies, the bidding behavior...

  16. Atomic-scale observation of parallel development of super elasticity and reversible plasticity in GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Peite; Du, Sichao; Zheng, Rongkun, E-mail: rongkun.zheng@sydney.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Wang, Yanbo; Liao, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Cui, Xiangyuan; Yen, Hung-Wei; Kong Yeoh, Wai; Ringer, Simon P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Gao, Qiang; Hoe Tan, H.; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Liu, Hongwei [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Zou, Jin [Materials Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the atomic-scale observation of parallel development of super elasticity and reversible dislocation-based plasticity from an early stage of bending deformation until fracture in GaAs nanowires. While this phenomenon is in sharp contrast to the textbook knowledge, it is expected to occur widely in nanostructures. This work indicates that the super recoverable deformation in nanomaterials is not simple elastic or reversible plastic deformation in nature, but the coupling of both.

  17. The separatrix radius measurement of field-reversed configuration plasma in FRX-L

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, S. (Shouyin); Tejero, E. M. (Erik M.); Taccetti, J. M. (Jose Martin); Wurden, G. A. (Glen A.); Intrator, Thomas; Waganaar, W. J. (William J.)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic pick-up coils and single turn flux loops are installed on the FRX-L device. The combination of the two measurements provides the excluded flux radius that approximates the separatrix radius of the field-reversed configuration plasma. Arrays of similar probes are used to map out local magnetic field dynamics beyond both ends of the theta-coil confinement region to help understand the effects of cusp locations on flux trapping during the FRC formation process. Details on the probe design and system calibrations are presented. The overall system calibration of excluded flux radius measurement is examined by replacing FRC plasma with a known radius aluminum conductor cylinder.

  18. Sleep deprivation disrupts prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex: reversal by antipsychotic drugs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frau, Roberto; Orrù , Marco; Puligheddu, Monica; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Mereu, Giampaolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Bortolato, Marco

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by psychotomimetic drugs and selectively reversed by antipsychotic agents (Braff et al., 2001), lending further support to the validity of PPI as a model of psychosis. In light of these premises, we designed the present study to characterize the effects of SD... and administered i.p. in an injection volume of 2 ml/kg. Apparatus The apparatus for the detection of the startle reflexes (Med Associates, St Albans, VT, USA) consisted of four standard cages placed in sound-attenuated chambers with fan ventilation. The cage was a...

  19. Left-right symmetric model with {mu}{r_reversible}{tau} symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Izquierdo, Juan Carlos; Perez-Lorenzana, Abdel [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., Apdo. Post. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a Left-right symmetric model with a (Z{sub 2}){sup 3} discrete symmetry which realizes softly broken {mu}{r_reversible}{tau} symmetry, which is broken at tree level in the effective neutrino mass matrix by mass difference in the diagonal Dirac mass terms. Lepton mixings arise from Majorana mass matrix. We determined {theta}{sub 13}, and the deviation from maximal value of {theta}{sub ATM} in terms of the hierarchy scale, m{sub 3}, and a single free parameter, h{sub s}.

  20. Effect of reversible adsorption on the magnetic properties of iron garnet films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zubov, V. E., E-mail: zubov@magn.ru; Kudakov, A. D.; Levshin, N. L.; Vlasov, M. A. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The reversible change in the domain structure and the magnetic domain width in bismuth-containing iron garnet films with an easy magnetization axis oriented normal to their surface during adsorption caused by hydrogen bonds is studied by a magnetooptical method. The dependence of the domain width on the vapor pressure of methyl alcohol or water in a cell with a sample is determined, and the time dependence of the domain width induced by the adsorption-desorption processes occurring between methyl alcohol molecules or water molecules on the film surface is studied. A model is proposed to explain the detected effects.

  1. Experimental Control of Transport and Current Reversals in a Deterministic Optical Rocking Ratchet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro V. Arzola; Karen Volke-Sepúlveda; José L. Mateos

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an experimental demonstration of a deterministic optical rocking ratchet. A periodic and asymmetric light pattern is created to interact with dielectric microparticles in water, giving rise to a ratchet potential. The sample is moved with respect to the pattern with an unbiased time-periodic rocking function, which tilts the potential in alternating opposite directions. We obtain a current of particles whose direction can be controlled in real time and show that particles of different sizes may experience opposite currents. Moreover, we observed current reversals as a function of the magnitude and period of the rocking force.

  2. Simulations of LH coupling in the Madison Symmetric Torus Reversed Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsson, J.; Smithe, D. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder USA (United States); Cartert, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Burke, D.; Kaufman, M.; Goetz, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations using several codes are being performed in support of the LH experiment in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Due to the special requirements of the MST RFP configuration (tight-fitting conducting shell in which only minimal portholes can be tolerated), a novel interdigital line slow-wave launch structure is used, mounted below the mid plane on the inboard side. The unusual configuration made it necessary to modify the main RF coupling code, RANT3D/AORSA1D-H, which was primarily developed for tokamak simulations. Preliminary results will be presented.

  3. Investigation of turbulence in reversed field pinch plasma by using microwave imaging reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Z. B. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Nagayama, Y.; Hamada, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Yamaguchi, S. [Kansai University, Suita 564-8680 (Japan); Hirano, Y.; Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H. [Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Michael, C. A. [UKAEA, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Yambe, K. [Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbulence in the reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma has been investigated by using the microwave imaging reflectometry in the toroidal pinch experiment RX (TPE-RX). In conventional RFP plasma, the fluctuations are dominated by the intermittent blob-like structures. These structures are accompanied with the generation of magnetic field, the strong turbulence, and high nonlinear coupling among the high and low k modes. The pulsed poloidal current drive operation, which improves the plasma confinement significantly, suppresses the dynamo, the turbulence, and the blob-like structures.

  4. Reduced intermittency in the magnetic turbulence of reversed field pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marrelli, L.; Frassinetti, L.; Martin, P.; Craig, D.; Sarff, J.S. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova (Italy) and Dipartimento di Fisica G. Galilei, Universitat di Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); Department of Physics and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The statistical temporal properties of broadband magnetic turbulence in the edge of reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas are significantly altered when global magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes and magnetic relaxation are reduced. Standard RFP plasmas, having relatively large tearing fluctuations, exhibit broadband intermittent bursts of magnetic fluctuations in the bandwidth f<1.5 MHz. When the global tearing is reduced via parallel current drive in the edge region, the magnetic turbulence is much less intermittent and has statistical behavior typical of self-similar turbulence (like that expected in self-organized criticality systems). A connection between intermittency and long wavelength plasma instabilities is therefore implied.

  5. Orbits and reversals of a drop rolling inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexis Duchesne; Clément Savaro; Luc Lebon; Christophe Pirat; Laurent Limat

    2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the complex dynamics of a non-coalescing drop of moderate size inside a circular hydraulic jump of the same liquid formed on a horizontal disk. In this situation the drop is moving along the jump and one observes two different motions: a periodic one (it orbitates at constant speed) and an irregular one involving reversals of the orbital motion. Modeling the drop as a rigid sphere exchanging friction with liquid across a thin film of air, we recover the orbital motion and the internal rotation of the drop. This internal rotation is experimentally observed.

  6. Reversing the weak measurement of an arbitrary field with finite photon number 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phase qubit was performed. A general procedure for N-dimensional sys- tem was also proposed in #3;12#4;, which requires 2N steps. An important question remains: can we reverse a multidi- mensional state in a simpler way? In Sec. II, we address... is the conclusion. II. SCHEMES The state of interest is an arbitrary cavity field with finite photon number #5;n,m=0nmax #1;nm#6;n#7;#8;m#6;, which is continuously monitored by an ideal photon detector outside. If there is no click, the field evolves into #5;n...

  7. Reversing the weak measurement of an arbitrary field with finite photon number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this weak measurement does not totally collapse the system, the infor- mation of the initial state is passed over to the final state. If such retained information is complete, it would be possible to recover the initial state with some operations... between the unsharpness of the measurement and the best efficiency of the reversing operation #3;10#4;. In a recent experiment #3;11#4;, based on a proposal by Korotkov and Jordan #3;12#4;, the rever- sal of a weak measurement on a superconducting...

  8. Line asymmetry of solar p-modes: Reversal of asymmetry in intensity power spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawan Kumar; Sarbani Basu

    1999-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The sense of line asymmetry of solar p-modes in the intensity power spectra is observed to be opposite of that seen in the velocity power spectra. Theoretical calculations provide a good understanding and fit to the observed velocity power spectra whereas the reverse sense of asymmetry in the intensity power spectrum has been poorly understood. We show that when turbulent eddies arrive at the top of the convection zone they give rise to an observable intensity fluctuation which is correlated with the oscillation they generate, thereby affecting the shape of the line in the p-mode power spectra and reversing the sense of asymmetry (this point was recognized by Nigam et al. and Roxburgh & Vorontsov). The addition of the correlated noise displaces the frequencies of peaks in the power spectrum. Depending on the amplitude of the noise source the shift in the position of the peak can be substantially larger than the frequency shift in the velocity power spectra. In neither case are the peak frequencies precisely equal to the eigenfrequencies of p-modes. We suggest two observations which can provide a test of the model discussed here.

  9. Distinguishing magnetic particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles with first-order reversal curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumari, Monika; Hirt, Ann M., E-mail: ann.hirt@erdw.ethz.ch [Department of Earth Sciences, Institute of Geophysics, ETH-Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 5, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Widdrat, Marc; Faivre, Damien [Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Science Park Golm, D-14424 Potsdam (Germany); Tompa, Éva; Pósfai, Mihály [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprém (Hungary); Uebe, Rene; Schüler, Dirk [Department Biologie I, LMU Munich, Großhaderner Str. 2, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic nanoparticles encompass a wide range of scientific study and technological applications. The success of using the nanoparticles in various applications demands control over size, dispersibility, and magnetics. Hence, the nanoparticles are often characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and magnetic hysteresis loops. TEM analysis requires a thin layer of dispersed particles on the grid, which may often lead to particle aggregation thus making size analysis difficult. Magnetic hysteresis loops on the other hand provide information on the bulk property of the material without discriminating size, composition, and interaction effects. First order reversal curves (FORCs), described as an assembly of partial hysteresis loops originating from the major loop are efficient in identifying the domain size, composition, and interaction in a magnetic system. This study presents FORC diagrams on a variety of well-characterized biogenic and synthetic magnetite nanoparticles. It also introduces deconvoluted reversible and irreversible components from FORC as an important method for obtaining a semi-quantitative measure of the effective magnetic particle size. This is particularly important in a system with aggregation and interaction among the particles that often leads to either the differences between physical size and effective magnetic size. We also emphasize the extraction of secondary components by masking dominant coercivity fraction on FORC diagram to explore more detailed characterization of nanoparticle systems.

  10. A comparison of lipase-catalyzed ester hydrolysis in reverse micelles, organic solvents, and biphase systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, F.; Russell, A.J. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of lipases from Candida rugosa and wheat germ have been investigated in three reaction media using three acetate hydrolyses as model reactions (ethyl acetate, allyl acetate, and prenyl acetate). The effect of substrate properties and water content were studied for each system (organic solvent, biphasic system, and reverse micelles). Not unexpectedly, the effect of water content is distinct for each system, and the optimal water content for enzyme activity is not always the same as that for productivity. A theoretical model has been used to simulate and predict enzyme performance in reverse micelles, and a proposed partitioning model for biphasic systems agrees well with experimental results. While the highest activities observed were in the micellar system, productivity in microemulsions is limited by low enzyme concentrations. Biphasic systems, however, support relatively good activity and productivity. The addition of water to dry organic solvents, combined with the dispersion of lyophilized enzyme powders in the solvent, resulted in significant enzyme aggregation, which not surprisingly limits the applicability of the ``anhydrous`` enzyme suspension approach.

  11. Metalized T graphene: A reversible hydrogen storage material at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Xiao-Juan; Zhong, Wei, E-mail: csliu@njupt.edu.cn, E-mail: wzhong@nju.edu.cn; Du, You-Wei [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Chun-Sheng, E-mail: csliu@njupt.edu.cn, E-mail: wzhong@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radio Frequency and Micro-Nano Electronics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zeng, Zhi [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium (Li)-decorated graphene is a promising hydrogen storage medium due to its high capacity. However, homogeneous mono-layer coating graphene with lithium atoms is metastable and the lithium atoms would cluster on the surface, resulting in the poor reversibility. Using van der Waals-corrected density functional theory, we demonstrated that lithium atoms can be homogeneously dispersed on T graphene due to a nonuniform charge distribution in T graphene and strong hybridizations between the C-2p and Li-2p orbitals. Thus, Li atoms are not likely to form clusters, indicating a good reversible hydrogen storage. Both the polarization mechanism and the orbital hybridizations contribute to the adsorption of hydrogen molecules (storage capacity of 7.7 wt. %) with an optimal adsorption energy of 0.19 eV/H?. The adsorption/desorption of H? at ambient temperature and pressure is also discussed. Our results can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials based on non-hexagonal graphenes.

  12. Deterministic Time-Reversible Thermostats : Chaos, Ergodicity, and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William Graham Hoover; Julien Clinton Sprott; Puneet Kumar Patra

    2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The relative stability and ergodicity of deterministic time-reversible thermostats, both singly and in coupled pairs, are assessed through their Lyapunov spectra. Five types of thermostat are coupled to one another through a single Hooke's-Law harmonic spring. The resulting dynamics shows that three specific thermostat types, Hoover-Holian, Ju-Bulgac, and Martyna-Klein-Tuckerman, have very similar Lyapunov spectra in their equilibrium four-dimensional phase spaces and when coupled in equilibrium or nonequilibrium pairs. All three of these oscillator-based thermostats are shown to be ergodic, with smooth analytic Gaussian distributions in their extended phase spaces ( coordinate, momentum, and two control variables ). Evidently these three ergodic and time-reversible thermostat types are particularly useful as statistical-mechanical thermometers and thermostats. Each of them generates Gibbs' universal canonical distribution internally as well as for systems to which they are coupled. Thus they obey the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, as a good heat bath should. They also provide dissipative heat flow with relatively small nonlinearity when two or more such bath temperatures interact and provide useful deterministic replacements for the stochastic Langevin equation.

  13. The regeneration efficiency improvement of the reverse pulse air regenerating DPF system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichikawa, Yukihito; Hattori, Isao; Kasai, Yoshiyuki [NGK Insulators, Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the system modification through the improvement of pulse air penetration into the DPF cell channels in respect to the development of a wall-flow type diesel particulate filter (DPF) system with reverse pulse air regeneration for diesel vehicles. In this system, regeneration becomes more difficult with low exhaust gas temperatures and increased DPF volume. The pressure increase in the DPF cell channels was monitored as a parameter of pulse air penetration when reverse pulse air was injected into the DPF. By maximizing the pressure increase, the pulse air injection system was modified. The modification includes various changes in the air pipe arrangement and the air injecting time. The ratio of the length to the diameter of the DPF was also evaluated in relation to the regeneration efficiency. In this study, the high aspect ratio, i.e. small diameter and long DPF, showed better regeneration efficiency. The results of this study indicate that this system can be enlarged with the above modification despite low exhaust gas temperatures.

  14. Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

  15. Ion heating studies in the ZT-40M reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, G.A.; Weber, P.G.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Schofield, A.E.; Phillips, J.A.; Munson, C.P.; Miller, G.; Ingraham, J.C.; Howell, R.B.; Downing, J.N.; Chrien, R.E.; Cayton, T.E.; Burkhardt, L.C.; Bastasz, R.J.; Walker, S.E.; Preszler, A.M.; Carolan, P.G.; Bunting, C.A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutral particle analyzer (NPA) has been used on ZT-40M to measure the neutral deuterium spectra to an energy of 8keV. The NPA has confirmed the existence of a hot ion population during deeply reversed ramped discharges. Preliminary neutral flux modelling is consistent with )anti)n/sub e/ = 2.2 )times) 10/sup 19/m/sup -3/, T/sub e)(0))approximately/ 300-400 eV, and a strongly peaked ion temperature profile, with T/sub i/(0) )approximately) 800 - 1100 eV, though the neutron yield incidates a higher energy tail may be present. The extra ion heating is attributed to fluctuations driven in the plasma under deep reversal andor current ramping conditions. With insertion of a paddle limiter into normal discharges, we confirm the HBTX result that T/sub i/(0)T/sub e)(0) increases with isertion depth, although apparently due to a decrease in T)sub e/ rather than an increase in T/sub i/. 15 refs

  16. Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Eckert; Charles Liotta

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a novel class of CO{sub 2} capture solvents, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs), that offer high absorption capacity through two modes of capture: chemical reaction (chemisorption) and physical solubility (physisorption). These solvents are silicon containing alkaline compounds such as silylamines that form a liquid salt (ionic liquid) upon reaction with CO{sub 2}. Subsequently, modest elevations in temperature reverse the reaction and yield pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. By incorporating Si in the molecules we have reduced the viscosity, thereby improving the mass transfer rates of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption and decreasing the processing costs for pumping the solvent. In this project, we have made systematic changes to the structure of these compounds to improve several physical and thermodynamic properties important for CO{sub 2} capture. Through these structure-property paradigms, we have obtained a RevIL which requires only a third of the energy required by conventional aqueous MEA process for 90% CO{sub 2} capture.

  17. Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, Charles; Liotta, Charles

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a novel class of CO{sub 2} capture solvents, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs), that offer high absorption capacity through two modes of capture: chemical reaction (chemisorption) and physical solubility (physisorption). These solvents are silicon containing alkaline compounds such as silylamines that form a liquid salt (ionic liquid) upon reaction with CO{sub 2}. Subsequently, modest elevations in temperature reverse the reaction and yield pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. By incorporating Si in the molecules we have reduced the viscosity, thereby improving the mass transfer rates of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption and decreasing the processing costs for pumping the solvent. In this project, we have made systematic changes to the structure of these compounds to improve several physical and thermodynamic properties important for CO{sub 2} capture. Through these structure-property paradigms, we have obtained a RevIL which requires only a third of the energy required by conventional aqueous MEA process for 90% CO{sub 2} capture.

  18. The effective chiral Lagrangian from dimension-six parity and time-reversal violation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vries, J. de, E-mail: devries.jordy@gmail.com [KVI, Theory Group, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mereghetti, E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Timmermans, R.G.E. [KVI, Theory Group, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)] [KVI, Theory Group, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Kolck, U. van [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay (France) [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay (France); Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We classify the parity- and time-reversal-violating operators involving quark and gluon fields that have effective dimension six: the quark electric dipole moment, the quark and gluon chromo-electric dipole moments, and four four-quark operators. We construct the effective chiral Lagrangian with hadronic and electromagnetic interactions that originate from them, which serves as the basis for calculations of low-energy observables. The form of the effective interactions depends on the chiral properties of these operators. We develop a power-counting scheme and calculate within this scheme, as an example, the parity- and time-reversal-violating pion–nucleon form factor. We also discuss the electric dipole moments of the nucleon and light nuclei. -- Highlights: •Classification of T-odd dimension-six sources based on impact on observables. •Building of the chiral Lagrangian for each dimension-six source. •Calculation of the PT-odd pion–nucleon form factor for each source. •Discussion of hadronic EDMs for each source and comparison with the theta term.

  19. Dynamo-free plasma in the reversed-field pinch: Advances in understanding the reversed-field pinch improved confinement mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.K.; Adney, J.; Almagri, A.; Blair, A.; Cengher, M.; Chapman, B.E.; Choi, S.; Craig, D.; Hartog, D.J. den; Ebrahimi, F.; Ennis, D.; Fiksel, G.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J.; Holly, D.; Hudson, B.; Kaufman, M.; Lovell, T.; McCollam, K.; Mirnov, V.V. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States) and the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas (US)] (and others)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation and sustainment of the reversed field pinch (RFP) magnetic configuration normally relies on dynamo activity. The externally applied electric field tends to drive the equilibrium away from the relaxed, minimum energy state which is roughly described by a flat normalized parallel current density profile and is at marginal stability to tearing modes. Correlated fluctuations of magnetic field and velocity create a dynamo electric field which broadens the parallel current density profile, supplying the necessary edge current drive. These pervasive magnetic fluctuations are also responsible for destruction of flux surfaces, relegating the standard RFP to a stochastic-magnetic transport-limited device. Application of a tailored electric field profile (which matches the relaxed current density profile) allows sustainment of the RFP configuration without dynamo-driven edge current. The method used to ascertain that a dynamo-free RFP plasma has been created is reported here in detail. Several confinement improvements during the accompanying periods of low magnetic fluctuations are observed. Namely, the magnetic fluctuation level is reduced to the point where stochastic-magnetic transport is no longer the dominant process in the core and nested flux surfaces are restored in the core of the dynamo-free RFP.

  20. Resin-assisted enrichment of thios as a general strategy for proteomic profiling of cysteine-based reversible modifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jia; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Su, Dian; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reversible modifications on cysteine thiols play a significant role in redox signaling and regulation. A number of reversible redox modifications, including disulfide formation, S-nitrosylation, and S-glutathionylation, have been recognized for their significance in various physiological and pathological processes. Here we describe in detail a resin-assisted thiol-affinity enrichment protocol for both biochemical and proteomics applications. This protocol serves as a general approach for specific isolation of thiol-containing proteins or peptides derived from reversible redox-modified proteins. This approach utilizes thiol-affinity resins to directly capture thiol-containing proteins or peptides through a disulfide exchange reaction followed by on-resin protein digestion and on-resin multiplexed isobaric labeling to facilitate LC?MS/MS based quantitative site-specific analysis of redox modifications. The overall approach requires a much simpler workflow with increased specificity compared to the commonly used biotin switch technique. By coupling different selective reduction strategies, the resin-assisted approach provides the researcher with a useful tool capable of enriching different types of reversible modifications on protein thiols. Procedures for selective enrichment and analyses of S-nitrosylation and total reversible cysteine oxidation are presented to demonstrate the utility of this general strategy.

  1. Apparatus and method for controlling the rotary airlocks in a coal processing system by reversing the motor current rotating the air lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groombridge, Clifton E. (Hardin, MT)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement to a coal processing system where hard materials found in the coal may cause jamming of either inflow or outflow rotary airlocks, each driven by a reversible motor. The instantaneous current used by the motor is continually monitored and compared to a predetermined value. If an overcurrent condition occurs, indicating a jamming of the airlock, a controller means starts a "soft" reverse rotation of the motor thereby clearing the jamming. Three patterns of the motor reversal are provided.

  2. One-wave optical time-reversal mirror by actively coupling arbitrary light fields into a single-mode reflector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, KyeoReh; Park, Jung-Hoon; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rewinding the arrow of time via phase conjugation is an intriguing phenomena made possible by the wave property of light. To exploit this phenomenon, many diverse research fields have pursed the realization of an ideal phase conjugation mirror, but the ideal phase conjugation mirror - an optical system that requires a single-input and a single-output beam, like natural conventional mirrors - has never been demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate the realization of a one-wave optical time-reversal mirror using a spatial light modulator and a single-mode reflector. Our method is simple, alignment free, and fast while allowing unlimited power throughput in the time reversed wave, which have not been simultaneously demonstrated before. Using our method, we demonstrate high throughput time-reversal full-field light delivery through highly scattering biological tissue and multimode fibers, even for quantum dot fluorescence.

  3. Three-phase model for the reversible lithiation/delithiation of SnO anodes in Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using first-principles calculations, we propose a microscopic model to explain the reversible lithiation/delithiation of tin-oxide anodes in lithium-ion batteries. When the irreversible regime ends, the anode grains consist of layers of Li-oxide separated by Sn bilayers. During the following reversible lithiation, the Li-oxide undergoes two phase transformations that give rise to a Li-enrichment of the oxide and the formation of a SnLi composite. The anode grain structure stays layered and ordered with an effective theoretical reversible capacity of 4.5 Li per Sn atom. The predicted anode volume expansion and voltage profile agree well with experiments, contrary to existing models.

  4. On-chip single-copy real-time reverse-transcription PCR in isolated picoliter droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, N R; Wheeler, E; Lee-Houghton, L; Watkins, N; Nasarabadi, S; Hebert, N; Leung, P; Arnold, D; Bailey, C; Colston, B

    2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The first lab-on-chip system for picoliter droplet generation and RNA isolation, followed by reverse transcription, and PCR amplification with real-time fluorescence detection in the trapped droplets has been developed. The system utilized a shearing T-junction in a fused silica device to generate a stream of monodisperse picoliter-scale droplets that were isolated from the microfluidic channel walls and each other by the oil phase carrier. An off-chip valving system stopped the droplets on-chip, allowing thermal cycling for reverse transcription and subsequent PCR amplification without droplet motion. This combination of the established real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay with digital microfluidics is ideal for isolating single-copy RNA and virions from a complex environment, and will be useful in viral discovery and gene-profiling applications.

  5. Embolisation of the Gastroduodenal Artery is Not Necessary in the Presence of Reversed Flow Before Yttrium-90 Radioembolisation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daghir, Ahmed A., E-mail: ahmeddaghir@doctors.net.uk [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Gungor, Hatice [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Oncology (United Kingdom); Haydar, Ali A. [Barts and the London NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Wasan, Harpreet S. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Oncology (United Kingdom); Tait, Nicholas P. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is usually embolised to avoid nontarget dispersal before yttrium-90 (Y{sup 90}) radioembolisation to treat liver metastases. In a minority of patients, there is retrograde flow in the GDA. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is any increased risk from maintaining a patent GDA in patients with reversed flow. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing Y{sup 90} radioembolisation at our institution. The incidence of toxicities arising from nontarget radioembolisation by way of the GDA (gastric/duodenal ulceration, gastric/duodenal bleeding, and pancreatitis) and death occurring within 2 months of treatment were compared between the reversed and the antegrade GDA groups. Results: Ninety-two patients underwent preliminary angiography. Reversed GDA flow was found on angiography in 14.1% of cases; the GDA was not embolised in these patients. The GDA was coiled in 55.7% of patients with antegrade GDA flow to prevent inadvertent dispersal of radioembolic material. There was no increased toxicity related to nontarget dispersal by way of the GDA, or increased early mortality, in patients with reversed GDA flow (P > 0.05). Conclusion: In patients with reversed GDA flow, maintenance of a patent GDA before administration of Y{sup 90} radioembolisation does not increase the risk of toxicity from nontarget dispersal. Therapeutic injection, with careful monitoring to identify early vascular stasis, may be safely performed beyond the origin of the patent GDA. A patent GDA with reversed flow provides forward drive for infused particles and may allow alternative access to the hepatic circulation.

  6. Study of the $K_SK_L\\to?\\ell?3 ?^0$ process for time reversal symmetry test at KLOE-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksander Gajos

    2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents prospects for conducting a novel direct test of time-reversal symmetry at the KLOE-2 experiment. Quantum entanglement of neutral K meson pairs uniquely available at KLOE-2 allows to probe directly the time-reversal symmetry (T) independently of CP violation. This is achieved by a comparison of probabilities for a transition between flavour and CP-definite states and its inverse obtained through exchange of initial and final states. As such a test requires the reconstruction of the $K_L\\to 3\\pi^0$ decay accompanied by $K_S\\to\\pi^{\\pm}\\ell^{\\mp}\

  7. Reversal modes of exchange-spring magnets revealed by torque magnetometry.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C. L.; Berkowitz, A. E.; David, S.; Fullerton, E. E.; Jiang, J. S.; Bader, S. D.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California; IBM Almaden Research Center

    2001-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Torque magnetometry measurements and related micromagnetic simulations are reported for SmCo/Fe exchange-spring films with uniaxial in-plane easy axis of magnetization. Rotating an applied magnetic field in plane, away from the easy direction, gives rise to an irreversible jump in the torque curves at a critical angle. The jump is associated with a switch in chirality of the magnetization spiral structure that develops in the magnetically soft Fe layer, pinned at the interface with the hard SmCo layer. Two reversal modes of the chirality are identified, one at low fields due to an in-plane untwisting of the spiral, and the other at high fields, due to an out-of-plane fanning of the spiral.

  8. Electric field controlled reversible magnetic anisotropy switching studied by spin rectification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong, E-mail: fanxiaolong@lzu.edu.cn; Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Xue, Desheng [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this letter, spin rectification was used to study the electric field controlled dynamic magnetic properties of the multiferroic composite which is a Co stripe with induced in-plane anisotropy deposited onto a Pb(Mg{sub 1?3}Nb{sub 2?3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} substrate. Due to the coupling between piezoelectric and magnetoelastic effects, a reversible in-plane anisotropy switching has been realized by varying the history of the applied electric field. This merit results from the electric hysteresis of the polarization in the nonlinear piezoelectric regime, which has been proved by a butterfly type electric field dependence of the in-plane anisotropy field. Moreover, the electric field dependent effective demagnetization field and linewidth have been observed at the same time.

  9. Parity and time-reversal symmetry nonconservation in neutron-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, J.D.; Bowman, C.D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S.J.; Szymanski, J.J.; Yuan, V.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Bush, J.E.; Frankle, C.M.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; Mitchell, G.E (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (USA) Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (USA)); Delheij, P.P.J. (TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Postma, H. (Technische Hogeschool Delft (Netherlands

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parity non-conversation was studied for seventeen states in the compound nucleus {sup 239}U by measuring the helicity dependence of the p-wave resonance cross section for epithermal neutrons scattered from {sup 238}U. The root-mean-squared parity-violating matrix element for the mixing of p-wave and s-wave states was determined to be M = 0.58{sub -0.25}{sup +0.50} meV. This corresponds to a parity-violating spreading width of {Gamma}{sup PV} = 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} eV. This gives a value of 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} for {alpha}{sub p}, the ratio of strengths of the P-odd and P-even effective nucleon-nucleon interactions in {sup 239}U. The implications of these results for studies of Time Reversal Symmetry in the compound nucleus is discussed.

  10. Spherical plasma oscillations in a reversed-polarity inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuft, C.; Khachan, J. [Plasma Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed reversed-polarity inertial-electrostatic confinement device has been investigated experimentally using voltage and spectroscopic diagnostics. Large-amplitude oscillations were observed in the floating potential of the plasma immediately following the initiation of the discharge. It is postulated that the observations were the result of coherent ion oscillations within a harmonic potential well formed by a uniform electron density in the center of the device. A simple model of the system predicts the depth of this transient potential well to be approximately 100 V. Observations of the relative occupation of the third and fourth energy levels of hydrogen in the plasma indicated the formation of a Maxwellian electron energy distribution after 20 {mu}s. The results suggest a promising avenue toward a net fusion power gain by utilizing these oscillations to periodically compress and heat the plasma to thermonuclear densities and energies.

  11. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  12. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  13. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  14. Overview of C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gota, H., E-mail: hgota@trialphaenergy.com; Thompson, M. C.; Tuszewski, M.; Binderbauer, M. W. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive diagnostic suite for field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas has been developed and installed on the C-2 device at Tri Alpha Energy to investigate the dynamics of FRC formation as well as to understand key FRC physics properties, e.g., confinement and stability, throughout a discharge. C-2 is a unique, large compact-toroid merging device that produces FRC plasmas partially sustained for up to ?5 ms by neutral-beam (NB) injection and end-on plasma-guns for stability control. Fundamental C-2 FRC properties are diagnosed by magnetics, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, and NB-related fast-ion/neutral diagnostics. These diagnostics (totaling >50 systems) are essential to support the primary goal of developing a deep understanding of NB-driven FRCs.

  15. Two-dimensional TBR calculations for conceptual compact reversed-field pinch reactor blanket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, J.W.; Battat, M.E.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed two-dimensional nucleonic analysis was performed for a conceptual first wall, blanket, and shield design for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor. The design includes significant two-dimensional aspects presented by the limiter, vacuum ducts, and coolant manifolds; these aspects seriously degrade the tritium-breeding reaction (TBR) predicted by one-dimensional calculations. A range of design change to increase the TBR were investigated within the two-dimensional analysis. The results of this investigation indicated that an adequate TBR could be achieved with a thinner copper first wall, a /sup 6/Li enrichment near 90%, the proper selection of reflector, and a small addition to the blanket thickness, determined by the one-dimensional analysis.

  16. Ultrafast field control of symmetry, reciprocity, and reversibility in buckled graphene-like materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelardeh, Hamed Koochaki; Stockman, Mark I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically show that buckled two-dimensional graphene-like materials (silicene and germanene) subjected to a femtosecond strong optical pulse can be controlled by the optical field component normal to their plane. In such strong fields, these materials are predicted to exhibit non-reciprocal reflection, optical rectification and generation of electric currents both parallel and normal to the in-plane field direction. Reversibility of the conduction band population is also field- and carrier-envelope phase controllable. There is a net charge transfer along the material plane that is also dependent on the normal field component. Thus a graphene-like buckled material behaves analogously to a field-effect transistor controlled and driven by the electric field of light with subcycle (femtosecond) speed.

  17. Reversible electro-optic device employing aprotic molten salts and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Hall, Simon B. (Palmerston North, NZ)

    2008-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A single-compartment reversible mirror device having a solution of aprotic molten salt, at least one soluble metal-containing species comprising metal capable of being electrodeposited, and at least one anodic compound capable of being oxidized was prepared. The aprotic molten salt is liquid at room temperature and includes lithium and/or quaternary ammonium cations, and anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). A method for preparing substantially pure molten salts is also described.

  18. Reversible Electro-Optic Device Employing Aprotic Molten Salts And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Hall, Simon B. (Palmerston North, NZ)

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single-compartment reversible mirror device having a solution of aprotic molten salt, at least one soluble metal-containing species comprising metal capable of being electrodeposited, and at least one anodic compound capable of being oxidized was prepared. The aprotic molten salt is liquid at room temperature and includes lithium and/or quaternary ammonium cations, and anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3 SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2 N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3 CF.sub.2 SO.sub.2).sub.2 N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). A method for preparing substantially pure molten salts is also described.

  19. Influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization reversal with perpendicular easy axis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Hongguang, E-mail: chenghg7932@gmail.com; Deng, Ning [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization switching probability with perpendicular easy axis by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically with finite difference method. The calculated results show that the thermal agitation during the reversal process crucially influences the switching probability. The switching probability can be achieved is only determined by the thermal stability factor ? of the free layer, it is independent on the device dimension, which is important for the high density device application. Ultra-low error rate down to the order of 10{sup ?9} can be achieved for the device of thermal stability factor ? of 40. Low damping factor ? material should be used for the free layer for high reliability device applications. These results exhibit potential of electric field induced precessional magnetization switching with perpendicular easy axis for ultra-low power, high speed and high density magnetic random access memory (MRAM) applications.

  20. Direct test of time-reversal symmetry in the entangled neutral kaon system at a $?$-factory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Bernabeu; A. Di Domenico; P. Villanueva-Perez

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel method to perform a direct T (time reversal) symmetry test in the neutral kaon system, independent of any CP and/or CPT symmetry tests. This is based on the comparison of suitable transition probabilities, where the required interchange of in out states for a given process is obtained exploiting the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations of neutral kaon pairs produced at a $\\phi$-factory. In the time distribution between the two decays, we compare a reference transition like the one defined by the time ordered decays $(\\ell^-,\\pi\\pi)$ with the T -conjugated one defined by $(3\\pi^0, \\ell^+)$. With the use of this and other T conjugated comparisons, the KLOE-2 experiment at DA$\\Phi$NE could make a significant test.

  1. Effect of Field Dependent Core Size on Reversible Magnetization of High-? Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, V. G. [Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University; Prozorov, R. [Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University; Bud'ko, S. L. [Ames Laboratory; Canfield, P. C. [Ames Laboratory; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Karpinski, J. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; Zhigadlo, N. D. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; Miranovic, P. [University of Montenegro, Serbia and Montenegro

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The field dependence of the vortex core size {zeta}(B) is incorporated in the London model, in order to describe reversible magnetization M(B,T) for a number of materials with large Ginzburg-Landau parameter {kappa}. The dependence {zeta}(B) is directly related to deviations in M(ln B) from linear behavior prescribed by the standard London model. A simple method to extract {zeta}(B) from the magnetization data is proposed. For most materials examined, {zeta}(B) so obtained decreases with increasing field and is in qualitative agreement both with behavior extracted from {micro}SR and small-angle neutron-scattering data and with that predicted theoretically.

  2. A new high performance field reversed configuration operating regime in the C-2 device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Thompson, M. C.; Barnes, D.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Brown, R.; Bui, D. Q.; Clary, R.; Conroy, K. D.; Deng, B. H.; Dettrick, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Garate, E.; Glass, F. J.; Gota, H.; Guo, H.Y.; Gupta, D.; Gupta, S.; Kinley, J. S.; Knapp, K. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); and others

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Large field reversed configurations (FRCs) are produced in the C-2 device by combining dynamic formation and merging processes. The good confinement of these FRCs must be further improved to achieve sustainment with neutral beam (NB) injection and pellet fuelling. A plasma gun is installed at one end of the C-2 device to attempt electric field control of the FRC edge layer. The gun inward radial electric field counters the usual FRC spin-up and mitigates the n = 2 rotational instability without applying quadrupole magnetic fields. Better plasma centering is also obtained, presumably from line-tying to the gun electrodes. The combined effects of the plasma gun and of neutral beam injection lead to the high performance FRC operating regime, with FRC lifetimes up to 3 ms and with FRC confinement times improved by factors 2 to 4.

  3. Modulated active charge exchange fast ion diagnostic for the C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Clary, R.; Dettrick, S. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Deichuli, P.; Kondakov, A.; Murakhtin, S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A diagnostic technique for measuring the fast-ion energy distribution in a field-reversed configuration plasma was developed and tested on the C-2 experiment. A deuterium neutral beam modulated at 22 kHz is injected into the plasma, producing a localized charge-exchange target for the confined fast protons. The escaping fast neutrals are detected by a neutral particle analyzer. The target beam transverse size ({approx}15 cm) defines the spatial resolution of the method. The equivalent current density of the target beam is {<=}0.15 A/cm{sup 2}, which corresponds to a neutral density ({approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) that highly exceeds the background neutral density in the core of C-2. The deuterium fast-ions due to the target beam (E{approx}27 keV), are not confined in C-2 and thus make a negligible contribution to the measured signals.

  4. Multi-channel Doppler backscattering measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, L., E-mail: lschmitz@ucla.edu; Peebles, W. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ruskov, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.; Gupta, D.; Tuszewski, M.; Douglass, J.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A versatile heterodyne Doppler Backscattering (DBS) system is used to measure density fluctuation levels (in the wavenumber range k?{sub s} ? 50), and the toroidal E × B flow velocity in the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). Six tunable frequencies in three waveguide bands (26 GHz ? f ? 90 GHz) are launched using monostatic beam optics, via a quasi-optical beam combiner/polarizer and an adjustable parabolic focusing mirror (inside the vacuum enclosure) achieving Gaussian beam spot sizes of 3–5.5 cm at the X/O-mode cutoff. The DBS system covers plasma densities of 0.8 × 10{sup 13} ? n{sub e} ? 1 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup ?3}, and provides access to the FRC core (up to the field null) and across the FRC separatrix into the scrape-off layer plasma.

  5. Ion and electron local transport inside single helicity islands in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gobbin, M.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; White, R. B. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy) and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy) and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ion and electron diffusion coefficients inside the helical magnetic core in a single helicity reversed field pinch (RFP) toroidal plasma have been numerical determined by a Monte Carlo test particle approach. A new algorithm aimed at approximating with polyhedra the magnetic surfaces obtained with Poincare cross sections has been developed. Stationary simulations of test ion and electron transport have been performed: they allow the determination of the average diffusion coefficients inside the helical core both for ions and electrons, which are much lower than those found in standard multiple helicity plasmas. Results are discussed and compared with those found in previous RFP simulations. The technique may be relevant also for stellarator and tokamak studies.

  6. Role of anisotropic thermal conductivity in the reversed-field pinch dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, 87036 Rende (Italy)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the reversed-field pinch are performed, with isotropic and anisotropic thermal conductivity. We describe in detail the numerical method we use to reproduce the effect of a large parallel thermal conductivity, which makes magnetic field lines almost isothermal. We compare the results of the two simulations, showing that the anisotropic thermal conductivity causes the formation of a hot island when closed magnetic surfaces exist, while temperature becomes almost uniform when the magnetic field is chaotic. After a transient single-helicity state that is formed in the initial phase, a stationary state is reached where the RFP configuration exists in a multiple helicity state, even though the Hartmann number is below the threshold found in previous simulations for the formation of multiple helicity states.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic dynamo in reversed field pinch plasmas: Electrostatic drift nature of the dynamo velocity field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappello, S.; Bonfiglio, D.; Escande, D.F. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); UMR 6633, CNRS-Universite de Provence, Marseille (France)

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the framework of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical modeling, the reversed field pinch (RFP) has been found to develop turbulent or laminar regimes switching from the former to the latter in a continuous way when the strength of dissipative forces increases. The laminar solution corresponds to a simple global helical deformation of the current channel and is associated with an electrostatic dynamo field. The related electrostatic drift yields the main component of the dynamo velocity field. While quite natural in the stationary helical state, this analysis is shown to extend also to the dynamic turbulent regime for an Ohmic RFP. The continuity of the transition between the two regimes suggests that the simple helical symmetric solution can provide a fruitful intuitive description of the RFP dynamo in general. Many of the MHD predictions are in good agreement with experimental findings.

  8. Improvement of the magnetic configuration in the reversed field pinch through successive bifurcations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenzini, R.; Agostini, M.; Alfier, A.; Antoni, V.; Apolloni, L.; Auriemma, F.; Barana, O.; Baruzzo, M.; Bettini, P.; Bonfiglio, D.; Bolzonella, T.; Bonomo, F.; Brombin, M.; Buffa, A.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Chitarin, G.; Dal Bello, S. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-Enea sulla Fusione, corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)] (and others)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) is a magnetic configuration alternative to the tokamak that can be considered for a second generation of reactors. In this paper new remarkable results obtained in the RFP experiment RFX-mod are presented, showing that an internal transport barrier delimitates a large fraction of the plasma volume in a RFP when the current is raised to {approx}1.5 MA. The formation of this transport barrier is related to a profound, spontaneous modification of the magnetic topology. Due to the occurrence of a saddle node bifurcation the plasma enters in the single helical axis state, which is theoretically known to be more resilient to chaos. This bifurcation is driven by the amplitude of the helical perturbation which dominates the mode spectrum.

  9. Toroidal kinetic eta{sub i}-mode study in reversed-field pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Songfen [Department of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Guo, S. C. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Dong, J. Q. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China) and Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven electrostatic modes in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma are studied with the gyrokinetic integral equation. A systematic threshold study is carried out and the results are compared with that in tokamaks with similar geometry and reveal that the ITG modes in RFP configurations are more stable than in tokamaks. The physics mechanism for such difference is that shorter connection length in RFPs leads to stronger landau damping, which is dominant and ultimately determinant for the stability threshold. The results confirm and extend the previous conclusion obtained with the differential equation [S. C. Guo, Phys. Plasmas 13, 122510 (2008)]. In addition, the effects of magnetic gradient and curvature drifts, which induce important interaction driving the modes, are carefully investigated. The effects of safety factor, ratio of electron temperature to ion temperature, magnetic shear as well as finite Larmor radius are also studied.

  10. Stability threshold of ion temperature gradient driven mode in reversed field pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, S. C. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For the first time in the reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration, the stability threshold of the ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) mode is studied by linear gyrokinetic theory. In comparison with tokamaks, the RFP configuration has a shorter connection length and stronger magnetic curvature drift. These effects result in a stronger instability driving mechanism and a larger growth rate in the fluid limit. However, the kinetic theory shows that the temperature slopes required for the excitation of ITG instability are much steeper than the tokamak ones. This is because the effect of Landau damping also becomes stronger due to the shorter connection length, which is dominant and ultimately determines the stability threshold. The required temperature slope for the instability may only be found in the very edge of the plasma and/or near the border of the dominant magnetic island during the quasi-single helicity state of discharge.

  11. Reversible electron beam heating for suppression of microbunching instabilities at free-electron lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behrens, Christopher; Xiang, Dao

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of microbunching instabilities due to the compression of high-brightness electron beams at existing and future X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) results in restrictions on the attainable lasing performance and renders beam imaging with optical transition radiation impossible. The instability can be suppressed by introducing additional energy spread, i.e., "heating" the electron beam, as demonstrated by the successful operation of the laser heater system at the Linac Coherent Light Source. The increased energy spread is typically tolerable for self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs but limits the effectiveness of advanced FEL schemes such as seeding. In this paper, we present a reversible electron beam heating system based on two transverse deflecting radio-frequency structures (TDSs) in front and behind a magnetic bunch compressor chicane. The additional energy spread will be introduced in the first TDS, which suppresses the microbunching instability, and then will be eliminated in the second T...

  12. Catalytic combustion of very lean mixtures in a reverse flow reactor using an internal electrical heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunill, F.; Beld, L. van de; Westerterp, K.R. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)] [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study of the reverse flow reactor, equipped with an internal electrical heater, for the autothermal combustion of very dilute organic compounds, in particular ethene, propane, and their mixtures, has been carried out. The influence of several operating parameters like electrical heater power, cycle period, chemical character, and concentration of the pollutants on the maximum temperature and on the shape of temperature profiles in the stationary state is discussed. Experimental results show that an internal electrical heater can be successfully used to oxidize completely very lean mixtures which would not be able to maintain an autothermal process only by themselves. The predictions with a heterogeneous one-dimensional model without using fit parameters show a good agreement with experiments except for critical situations.

  13. Removal of volatile organic compounds from polluted air in a reverse flow reactor: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beld, B. van de; Borman, R.A.; Derkx, O.R.; Woezik, B.A.A. van; Westerterp, K.R. (Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study of the reverse flow reactor for the purification of contaminated air has been carried out. An experimental reactor with an inner diameter of 0.145 m has been constructed. It almost completely reached the goal of an adiabatically operating system. The influence of several operating parameters such as gas velocity, cycle period, chemical character, and concentration of the pollutants and reactor pressure are discussed. The reactor could be operated autothermally provided that the inlet concentrations were sufficiently high. If a mixture of contaminants is fed to the reactor, it might be necessary to increase the total hydrocarbon concentration to assure an autothermal process. Increasing the reactor pressure will hardly change the axial temperature profiles, if the mass flux is kept constant. Increasing the mass flow rate will lead to a higher plateau temperature. Not only the reactor behavior at fixed operating conditions, but also the response of the reactor toward variations in inlet conditions is reported.

  14. Device for adapting continuously variable transmissions to infinitely variable transmissions with forward-neutral-reverse capabilities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Donald F. (Albuquerque, NM); Purvis, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An infinitely variable transmission is capable of operating between a maximum speed in one direction and a minimum speed in an opposite direction, including a zero output angular velocity, while being supplied with energy at a constant angular velocity. Input energy is divided between a first power path carrying an orbital set of elements and a second path that includes a variable speed adjustment mechanism. The second power path also connects with the orbital set of elements in such a way as to vary the rate of angular rotation thereof. The combined effects of power from the first and second power paths are combined and delivered to an output element by the orbital element set. The transmission can be designed to operate over a preselected ratio of forward to reverse output speeds.

  15. System and method for manipulating domain pinning and reversal in ferromagnetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silevitch, Daniel M.; Rosenbaum, Thomas F.; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for manipulating domain pinning and reversal in a ferromagnetic material comprises applying an external magnetic field to a uniaxial ferromagnetic material comprising a plurality of magnetic domains, where each domain has an easy axis oriented along a predetermined direction. The external magnetic field is applied transverse to the predetermined direction and at a predetermined temperature. The strength of the magnetic field is varied at the predetermined temperature, thereby isothermally regulating pinning of the domains. A magnetic storage device for controlling domain dynamics includes a magnetic hard disk comprising a uniaxial ferromagnetic material, a magnetic recording head including a first magnet, and a second magnet. The ferromagnetic material includes a plurality of magnetic domains each having an easy axis oriented along a predetermined direction. The second magnet is positioned adjacent to the magnetic hard disk and is configured to apply a magnetic field transverse to the predetermined direction.

  16. High-Beta, Improved Confinement Reversed-Field Pinch Plasmas at High Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyman, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Chapman, B. E. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ahn, J. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Almagri, A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Anderson, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Bonomo, F. [Consorzio RFX, Italy; Brower, D. L. [University of California, Los Angeles; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Craig, D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Hartog, D. J. Den [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Deng, B. [University of California, Los Angeles; Ding, W. X. [University of California, Los Angeles; Ebrahimi, F. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ennis, D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Fiksel, G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Franz, P. [EURATOM / ENEA, Italy; Gangadhara, S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Goetz, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; O'Connell, R, [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Oliva, S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Prager, S. C. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reusch, J. A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Sarff, J. S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Yates, T. [University of California, Los Angeles

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Madison Symmetric Torus Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 1991 discharges where improved confinement is brought about by modification of the current profile, pellet injection has quadrupled the density, reaching ne=41019 m 3. Without pellet injection, the achievable density in improved confinement discharges had been limited by edge-resonant tearing instability. With pellet injection, the total beta has been increased to 26%, and the energy confinement time is comparable to that at low density. Pressure-driven local interchange and global tearing are predicted to be linearly unstable. Interchange has not yet been observed experimentally, but there is possible evidence of pressure-driven tearing, an instability usually driven by the current gradient in the reversed-field pinch.

  17. High-{beta}, improved confinement reversed-field pinch plasmas at high density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyman, M. D.; Chapman, B. E.; Ahn, J. W.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ebrahimi, F.; Ennis, D. A.; Fiksel, G.; Gangadhara, S.; Goetz, J. A.; O'Connell, R.; Oliva, S. P.; Prager, S. C.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Stephens, H. D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Bonomo, F.; Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Brower, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-1594 (United States)] (and others)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] discharges where improved confinement is brought about by modification of the current profile, pellet injection has quadrupled the density, reaching n{sub e}=4x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}. Without pellet injection, the achievable density in improved confinement discharges had been limited by edge-resonant tearing instability. With pellet injection, the total beta has been increased to 26%, and the energy confinement time is comparable to that at low density. Pressure-driven local interchange and global tearing are predicted to be linearly unstable. Interchange has not yet been observed experimentally, but there is possible evidence of pressure-driven tearing, an instability usually driven by the current gradient in the reversed-field pinch.

  18. Dispersive Quantum Systems: a class of isolated non-time reversal quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lúcio Fassarella

    2011-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A "dispersive quantum system" is a quantum system which is both isolated and non-time reversal invariant. This article presents precise definitions for those concepts and also a characterization of dispersive quantum systems within the class of completely positive Markovian quantum systems in finite dimension (through a homogeneous linear equation for the non-Hamiltonian part of the system's Liouvillian). To set the framework, the basic features of quantum mechanics are reviewed focusing on time evolution and also on the theory of completely positive Markovian quantum systems, including Kossakowski-Lindblad's standard form for Liouvillians. After those general considerations, I present a simple example of dispersive two-level quantum system and apply that to describe neutrino oscillation.

  19. Evaluation of flow fields on bubble removal and system performance in an ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis stack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    gradient energy, which is based on extracting the free energy released from natural salinity gradients­7]. Reverse electrodialysis (RED), a technology that can be used to harvest this energy and directly convert (seawater) from the low concen- trate (river water). This separation creates a gradient in chemical

  20. Determination of the Transient Response Characteristics of the Air-Source Heat Pump During the Reverse Cycle Defrost 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Anand, N. K.; Peterson, K. T.; Schleising, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) characterize the reverse cycle defrost of the air-to-air heat pump and (2) examine the effect of different expansion devices on the performance of the heat pump during the defrost cycle....