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  1. Photovoltaic Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics Photovoltaic Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics ... Silicon Single-Crystalline Thin Films Addthis Related Articles Photovoltaic Cell Structure ...

  2. Photovoltaic Single-Crystalline, Thin-Film Cell Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Single-crystalline thin films are made from gallium arsenide (GaAs), a compound semiconductor that is a mixture of gallium and arsenic.

  3. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basics Basics ATLAS users belong to the "atlas" NERSC repository, and the Principal Investigator (PI) for ATLAS computing at NERSC is Ian Hinchliffe. ALICE users work in the sl53 chos environment. See the Chos page for more information. For more information about ATLAS computing at PDSF see the ATLAS twiki webpages which are maintained by ATLAS users. Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:26

  4. Modulated IR radiometry for determining thermal properties and basic characteristics of titanium thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apreutesei, Mihai; Lopes, Claudia; Vaz, Filipe; Macedo, Francisco; Borges, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Titanium thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering to study modulated infrared (IR) radiometry as a tool for analyzing film thickness. Thickness was varied by regularly increasing the deposition time, keeping all the other deposition parameters constant. The influence of film thickness on morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the titanium coatings also was investigated. The experimental results revealed a systematic grain growth with increasing film thickness, along with enhanced film crystallinity, which led to increased electrical conductivity. Using the results obtained by modulated IR radiometry, the thickness of each thin film was calculated. These thickness values were then compared with the coating thickness measurements obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The values confirmed the reliability of modulated IR radiometry as an analysis tool for thin films and coatings, and for determining thicknesses in the micrometer range, in particular.

  5. Thin-film transistors based on p-type Cu{sub 2}O thin films produced at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortunato, Elvira; Figueiredo, Vitor; Barquinha, Pedro; Elamurugu, Elangovan; Goncalves, Goncalo; Martins, Rodrigo; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2010-05-10

    Copper oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) thin films were used to produce bottom gate p-type transparent thin-film transistors (TFTs). Cu{sub 2}O was deposited by reactive rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature and the films exhibit a polycrystalline structure with a strongest orientation along (111) plane. The TFTs exhibit improved electrical performance such as a field-effect mobility of 3.9 cm{sup 2}/V s and an on/off ratio of 2x10{sup 2}.

  6. Diamond/diamond-like thin film growth in a butane plasma on unetched, unheated, N-type Si(100) substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, E.S.; Richardson, J.S. Jr.; Anderson, D.; Starkey, K.

    1995-06-01

    Deposition of diamond/diamond-like thin films on unetched, unheated, n-type Si(100) substrates in a butane plasma is reported. An interconnection between values of index of refraction, hydrogen flow rate, butane flow rate and Rf power was determined. The H{sub 2} and C{sub 4}H{sub 10} molecules are disassociated by Rf energy to create a plasma. Carbon from the butane forms a thin diamond/diamond-like film on a suitable substrate, which in the current investigation, is n-type Si(100).

  7. Comparison of crystal growth and thermoelectric properties of n-type Bi-Se-Te and p-type Bi-Sb-Te nanocrystalline thin films: Effects of homogeneous irradiation with an electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashiri, Masayuki, E-mail: takashiri@tokai-u.jp; Imai, Kazuo; Uyama, Masato; Nishi, Yoshitake [Department of Materials Science, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Hagino, Harutoshi; Miyazaki, Koji [Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Tanaka, Saburo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Nihon University, Nakagawara, Tokusada, Tamuramachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8642 (Japan)

    2014-06-07

    The effects of homogenous electron beam (EB) irradiation on the crystal growth and thermoelectric properties of n-type Bi-Se-Te and p-type Bi-Sb-Te thin films were investigated. Both types of thin films were prepared by flash evaporation, after which homogeneous EB irradiation was performed at an acceleration voltage of 0.17?MeV. For the n-type thin films, nanodots with a diameter of less than 10?nm were observed on the surface of rice-like nanostructures, and crystallization and crystal orientation were improved by EB irradiation. The resulting enhancement of mobility led to increased electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power factor for the n-type thin films. In contrast, the crystallization and crystal orientation of the p-type thin films were not influenced by EB irradiation. The carrier concentration increased and mobility decreased with increased EB irradiation dose, possibly because of the generation of defects. As a result, the thermoelectric power factor of p-type thin films was not improved by EB irradiation. The different crystallization behavior of the n-type and p-type thin films is attributed to atomic rearrangement during EB irradiation. Selenium in the n-type thin films is more likely to undergo atomic rearrangement than the other atoms present, so only the crystallinity of the n-type Bi-Se-Te thin films was enhanced.

  8. Value Proposition for High Lifetime (p-type) and Thin Silicon Materials in Solar PV Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Hacke, P.

    2012-06-01

    Most silicon PV road maps forecast a continued reduction in wafer thickness, despite rapid declines in the primary incentive for doing so -- polysilicon feedstock price. Another common feature of most silicon-technology forecasts is the quest for ever-higher device performance at the lowest possible costs. The authors present data from device-performance and manufacturing- and system-installation cost models to quantitatively establish the incentives for manufacturers to pursue advanced (thin) wafer and (high efficiency) cell technologies, in an age of reduced feedstock prices. This analysis exhaustively considers the value proposition for high lifetime (p-type) silicon materials across the entire c-Si PV supply chain.

  9. Hadron-therapy beam monitoring: Towards a new generation of ultra-thin p-type silicon strip detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouterfa, M.; Aouadi, K.; Bertrand, D.; Olbrechts, B.; Delamare, R.; Raskin, J. P.; Gil, E. C.; Flandre, D.

    2011-07-01

    Hadron-therapy has gained increasing interest for cancer treatment especially within the last decade. System commissioning and quality assurance procedures impose to monitor the particle beam using 2D dose measurements. Nowadays, several monitoring systems exist for hadron-therapy but all show a relatively high influence on the beam properties: indeed, most devices consist of several layers of materials that degrade the beam through scattering and energy losses. For precise treatment purposes, ultra-thin silicon strip detectors are investigated in order to reduce this beam scattering. We assess the beam size increase provoked by the Multiple Coulomb Scattering when passing through Si, to derive a target thickness. Monte-Carlo based simulations show a characteristic scattering opening angle lower than 1 mrad for thicknesses below 20 {mu}m. We then evaluated the fabrication process feasibility. We successfully thinned down silicon wafers to thicknesses lower than 10 {mu}m over areas of several cm{sup 2}. Strip detectors are presently being processed and they will tentatively be thinned down to 20 {mu}m. Moreover, two-dimensional TCAD simulations were carried out to investigate the beam detector performances on p-type Si substrates. Additionally, thick and thin substrates have been compared thanks to electrical simulations. Reducing the pitch between the strips increases breakdown voltage, whereas leakage current is quite insensitive to strips geometrical configuration. The samples are to be characterized as soon as possible in one of the IBA hadron-therapy facilities. For hadron-therapy, this would represent a considerable step forward in terms of treatment precision. (authors)

  10. Ultra-thin ohmic contacts for p-type nitride light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raffetto, Mark; Bharathan, Jayesh; Haberern, Kevin; Bergmann, Michael; Emerson, David; Ibbetson, James; Li, Ting

    2014-06-24

    A flip-chip semiconductor based Light Emitting Device (LED) can include an n-type semiconductor substrate and an n-type GaN epi-layer on the substrate. A p-type GaN epi-layer can be on the n-type GaN epi-layer and a metal ohmic contact p-electrode can be on the p-type GaN epi-layer, where the metal ohmic contact p-electrode can have an average thickness less than about 25 .ANG.. A reflector can be on the metal ohmic contact p-electrode and a metal stack can be on the reflector. An n-electrode can be on the substrate opposite the n-type GaN epi-layer and a bonding pad can be on the n-electrode.

  11. Energy Basics

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students will complete a scavenger hunt worksheet in order to learn about the basics of energy and its sources.

  12. Ultra-thin ohmic contacts for p-type nitride light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raffetto, Mark; Bharathan, Jayesh; Haberern, Kevin; Bergmann, Michael; Emerson, David; Ibbetson, James; Li, Ting

    2012-01-03

    A semiconductor based Light Emitting Device (LED) can include a p-type nitride layer and a metal ohmic contact, on the p-type nitride layer. The metal ohmic contact can have an average thickness of less than about 25 .ANG. and a specific contact resistivity less than about 10.sup.-3 ohm-cm.sup.2.

  13. Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Material Basics Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis Although crystalline silicon cells are the most common type, photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells, ...

  14. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  15. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-24

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 m electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.5710{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  16. NREL: Learning - Biofuels Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Basics This video provides an overview of NREL research on converting biomass to liquid fuels. Text Version Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels in use today are ethanol and biodiesel. Ethanol is an alcohol, the same as in beer and wine (although ethanol used as a fuel is modified to make it undrinkable). It is most commonly

  17. Basic Energy Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic Energy Sciences Basic Energy Sciences Supporing research to understand, predict and ... The DOE Office of Science's Basic Energy Sciences program equips scientists with a ...

  18. Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes & Buildings » Lighting & Daylighting » Lighting Basics Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:12pm Addthis Text Version There are many different types of artificial lights (formally called "lamps" in the lighting industry,) which have different applications and uses. Types of lighting include: Fluorescent Lighting High-intensity Discharge Lighting Incandescent Lighting LED Lighting. New lamp designs that use energy-efficient technology are now readily available in the

  19. Alternative Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alternative Fuel Basics Alternative Fuel Basics August 19, 2013 - 5:42pm Addthis Photo of a man in goggles looking at test tubes full of biodiesel. There are a number of fuels available for alternative fuel vehicles. Learn about the following types of fuels: Biodiesel Electricity Ethanol Hydrogen Natural Gas Propane Addthis Related Articles Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics Glossary of Energy-Related Terms Natural Gas Fuel Basics Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Homes

  20. p-type conduction from Sb-doped ZnO thin films grown by dual ion beam sputtering in the absence of oxygen ambient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar Pandey, Sushil; Kumar Pandey, Saurabh; Awasthi, Vishnu; Kumar, Ashish; Mukherjee, Shaibal; Deshpande, Uday P.; Gupta, Mukul

    2013-10-28

    Sb-doped ZnO (SZO) thin films were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates by dual ion beam sputtering deposition system in the absence of oxygen ambient. The electrical, structural, morphological, and elemental properties of SZO thin films were studied for films grown at different substrate temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 600 °C and then annealed in situ at 800 °C under vacuum (pressure ∼5 × 10{sup −8} mbar). Films grown for temperature range of 200–500 °C showed p-type conduction with hole concentration of 1.374 × 10{sup 16} to 5.538 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}, resistivity of 66.733–12.758 Ω cm, and carrier mobility of 4.964–8.846 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at room temperature. However, the film grown at 600 °C showed n-type behavior. Additionally, current-voltage (I–V) characteristic of p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction showed a diode-like behavior, and that further confirmed the p-type conduction in ZnO by Sb doping. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that all SZO films had (002) preferred crystal orientation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the formation of Sb{sub Zn}–2V{sub Zn} complex caused acceptor-like behavior in SZO films.

  1. Measuring the structure of thin soft matter films under confinement: A surface-force type apparatus for neutron reflection, based on a flexible membrane approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, Wiebe M. de; Mears, Laura L. E.; Richardson, Robert M.; Cosgrove, Terence; Prescott, Stuart W.; Dalgliesh, Robert M.

    2012-11-15

    A unique surface force type apparatus that allows the investigation of a confined thin film using neutron reflection is described. The central feature of the setup consists of a solid substrate (silicon) and a flexible polymer membrane (Melinex{sup Registered-Sign }). We show that inflation of the membrane against the solid surface provides close and even contact between the interfaces over a large surface area. Both heavy water and air can be completely squeezed out from between the flexible film and the solid substrate, leaving them in molecular contact. The strength of confinement is controlled by the pressure used to inflate the membrane. Dust provides a small problem for this approach as it can get trapped between membrane and substrate to prevent a small part of the membrane from making good contact with the substrate. This results in the measured neutron reflectivity containing a small component of an unwanted reflection, between 10% and 20% at low confining pressures (1 bar) and between 1% and 5% at high confining pressures (5 bar). However, we show that this extra signal does not prevent good and clear information on the structure of thin films being extracted from the neutron reflectivity. The effects of confinement are illustrated with data from a poly(vinyl pyrollidone) gel layer in water, a polyelectrolyte multilayer in water, and with data from a stack of supported lipid-bilayers swollen with D{sub 2}O vapor. The data demonstrates the potential of this apparatus to provide information on the structure of thin films under confinement for a known confining pressure.

  2. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  3. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  4. Basic Energy Sciences Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic Energy Sciences Reports Basic Energy Sciences Reports The list below of Basic Energy Sciences workshop reports addresses the status of some important research areas that can help identify research directions for a decades-to-century energy strategy. Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Workshop Reports The Energy Challenges Report: New Science for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future This Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) report summarizes a 2008 study by the Subcommittee on Facing

  5. Basic Energy Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic Energy Sciences Basic Energy Sciences Supporing research to understand, predict and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Get Expertise Toni Taylor (505) 665-0030 Email Quanxi Jia (505) 667-2716 Email David Morris (505) 665-6487 Email Claudia Mora (505) 665-7832 Email Research fosters fundamental scientific discoveries to meet energy, environmental, and national security challenges The DOE Office of Science's Basic Energy Sciences program

  6. Workplace Charging Station Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Station Basics Workplace Charging Station Basics As your organization moves forward with workplace charging, it is important to understand the fundamental differences and similarities between the types of charging stations, commonly referred to as electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) units. Charging stations deliver electrical energy from an electricity source to a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) battery. There are three primary types of charging stations: AC Level 1, AC Level 2 and DC fast

  7. Biomass Basics Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is hosting a Biomass Basics Webinar on August 27, 2015, from 4:00-4:40pm EDT. This webinar will provide high school students and teachers with background...

  8. NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen is a clean-burning fuel, and when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, it produces heat and electricity with only water vapor as a by-product. But hydrogen...

  9. Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:10pm Addthis Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance heat can be provided by electric baseboard heaters, electric wall heaters, electric radiant heat, electric space heaters, electric

  10. MEMS-based thin-film fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2003-10-28

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  11. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  12. Energy Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Energy Basics Energy Basics The basics about renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: learn how they work, what they're used for, and how they can improve our lives, homes, businesses, and industries. The basics about renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: learn how they work, what they're used for, and how they can improve our lives, homes, businesses, and industries. RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES Biomass Technology Basics Geothermal Technology Basics

  13. NREL: Learning - Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Technology Basics Photo of a large silicon solar array on a roof with a blue sky and trees in background. A large silicon solar array installed on the roof of a commercial building. Photo of a traditional-looking home with blue solar tiles integrated into the brown roof. Thin-film solar tiles installed on the roof of a home in Ohio. Photo of a long, blue solar array in a field of grass. A large solar array in Germany. Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists,

  14. Biomass Basics Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 27, 2015 Biomass Basics Alexis Martin Fellow, Bioenergy Technologies Office Department of Energy 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Agenda * Overview of Bioenergy * Biomass to Biofuels Life Cycle * Importance of Bioenergy * 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge 3 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Questions and Comments Please record any questions and comments you may have during the webinar and send them to BioenergizeME@ee.doe.gov As a follow-up to the webinar, the presenter(s) will

  15. Epitaxial thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  16. BasicODT

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-09-25

    BasicODT is a Monte Carlo simulation that numerically implements One-Dimensional Turbulence (ODT), a stochastic model of turbulent flow that was developed by the author of the code. This code is set up to simulate channel flow, which is the flow between two parallel flat walls driven by a fixed pressure gradient, with no-slip conditions at the walls. The code writes output files containing flow statistics gathered during the simulation. The code is accompanied by documentationmore » that explains how ODT modeling principles are numerically implemented within the code. The code and documentation are intended as an introduction to ODT for use as a learning tool for people who are unfamiliar with the model and its numerical implementation. ODT is fully described in published literature.« less

  17. Infrared Basics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Infrared Basics Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Infrared Basics Author Protherm Published Publisher Not Provided, 2013 DOI Not Provided...

  18. Biomass Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis Photo of a pair of hands holding corn stover, the unused parts of harvested corn. There are many types of biomass-organic matter such as plants, residue from agriculture and forestry, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes-that can now be used to produce fuels, chemicals, and power. Wood has been used to provide heat for thousands of years. This flexibility has resulted in increased use of

  19. Influence of in-situ annealing ambient on p-type conduction in dual ion beam sputtered Sb-doped ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Sushil Kumar; Kumar Pandey, Saurabh; Awasthi, Vishnu; Mukherjee, Shaibal; Gupta, M.; Deshpande, U. P.

    2013-08-12

    Sb-doped ZnO (SZO) films were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates by dual ion beam sputtering deposition system and subsequently annealed in-situ in vacuum and in various proportions of O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + N{sub 2})% from 0% (N{sub 2}) to 100% (O{sub 2}). Hall measurements established all SZO films were p-type, as was also confirmed by typical diode-like rectifying current-voltage characteristics from p-ZnO/n-ZnO homojunction. SZO films annealed in O{sub 2} ambient exhibited higher hole concentration as compared with films annealed in vacuum or N{sub 2} ambient. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis confirmed that Sb{sup 5+} states were more preferable in comparison to Sb{sup 3+} states for acceptor-like Sb{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn} complex formation in SZO films.

  20. Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Illustration showing the components of a storage water heater. On top of the tank are two thin pipes; one pipe is the hot water outlet, and the other is the cold water inlet. A large pipe in the middle is called a vent pipe. A pressure/temperature relief valve is also on top of the tank and is connected to an open pipe that runs down the side of the tank. Another

  1. High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis Illustration of a high-intensity discharge (HID) lIllustration amp. The lamp is a tall cylindrical shape, and a cutout of the outer tube shows the materials inside. A long, thin cylinder called the arc tube runs through the lamp between two electrodes. The space around the arc tube is labeled as a vacuum. High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting can provide high efficacy and long

  2. Daylighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting & Daylighting » Daylighting Basics Daylighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 11:24am Addthis Energy 101: Daylighting Basics This video explains how homeowners and businesses can use highly efficient, strategically placed windows to save money. Text Version Daylighting is the use of windows and skylights to bring sunlight into buildings. Daylighting in businesses and commercial buildings can result in substantial savings on electric bills, and not only provides a higher quality of light

  3. NREL: Learning - Geothermal Electricity Production Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Production Basics Photo of a geothermal power plant. This geothermal power plant generates electricity for the Imperial Valley in California. Geothermal power plants use steam produced from reservoirs of hot water found a few miles or more below the Earth's surface to produce electricity. The steam rotates a turbine that activates a generator, which produces electricity. There are three types of geothermal power plants: dry steam, flash steam, and binary cycle. Dry Steam Dry steam

  4. Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances The following is a brief overview of the different types of wood and pellet fuel appliances available. High-Efficiency Fireplaces and Fireplace Inserts Designed more for show, traditional open masonry fireplaces should not be considered heating devices.

  5. Radiation tolerance of ultra-thin Formvar films (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Radiation tolerance of ultra-thin Formvar films Citation Details ... OSTI Identifier: 22089363 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: ...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Hydrogen Basics Production

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Production &

  8. OLED Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SSL Basics » OLED Basics OLED Basics OLEDs are organic LEDs, which means that their key building blocks are organic (i.e., carbon-based) materials. Unlike LEDs, which are small-point light sources, OLEDs are made in sheets that are diffuse-area light sources. OLED technology is developing rapidly, and there are a handful of product offerings with efficacy, lifetime, and color quality specs that are comparable to their LED counterparts. However, OLEDs are still some years away from widespread

  9. Energy Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The basics about renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: learn how they work, what they're used for, and how they can improve our lives, homes, businesses, and ...

  10. Geothermal Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Resources » Geothermal Basics Geothermal Basics Geothermal heat is most prevalent in the western United States, where the heat resource can sometimes be spotted from the earth's surface. Geothermal heat is most prevalent in the western United States, where the heat resource can sometimes be spotted from the earth's surface. Geothermal energy-geo (earth) + thermal (heat)-is heat energy from the earth. What is a geothermal resource? Geothermal resources are reservoirs of hot water

  11. Biomass Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education & Workforce Development » Resources » Biomass Basics Biomass Basics Biomass is an energy resource derived from organic matter, which includes wood, agricultural waste, and other living-cell material that can be burned to produce heat energy. It also includes algae, sewage, and other organic substances that may be used to make energy through chemical processes. Biomass currently supplies about 3% of total U.S. energy consumption in the form of electricity, process heat, and

  12. Biopower Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biopower Basics Biopower Basics Biomass power (biopower) technologies convert renewable biomass fuels into heat and electricity using processes similar to that used with fossil fuels. Next to hydropower, more electricity is generated from biomass than any other renewable energy resource in the United States. A key attribute of biomass is its availability upon demand-the energy is stored within the biomass until it is needed; whereas, other forms of renewable energy are dependent on variable

  13. Bioproducts Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioproducts Basics Bioproducts Basics Today, petroleum is refined to make chemical feedstocks used in thousands of products. Many of these petroleum-based feedstocks could be replaced with value-added chemicals produced from biomass to manufacture clothing, plastics, lubricants, and other products. The emerging U.S. biobased products industry combines expertise and technology from the agriculture, forest products, and chemical industries to create plastics, chemicals, and composite materials

  14. Microhydropower Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Hydropower » Microhydropower Basics Microhydropower Basics August 15, 2013 - 3:09pm Addthis Microhydropower systems are small hydroelectric power systems of less than 100 kilowatts (kW) used to produce mechanical energy or electricity for farms, ranches, homes, and villages. How a Microhydropower System Works All hydropower systems use the energy of flowing water to produce electricity or mechanical energy. Although there are several ways to harness moving water to produce

  15. SSL Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SSL Basics SSL Basics Solid-state lighting (SSL) differs from other kinds of lighting in that it's based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or organic LEDs (OLEDs) instead of filaments, plasma, or gases. In addition to having the potential to be more energy efficient than any other existing lighting technology, it also has a number of other advantages-including directionality, controllability, vibration resistance, long life, color tunability, and aesthetic appeal. But SSL is still at a relatively

  16. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    repository and the Principal Investigator (PI) for ALICE computing at NERSC is Jeff Porter. ALICE users work in the sl53 chos environment. See the Chos page for more...

  17. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in HPSS. The Principal Investigator (PI) for STAR computing at NERSC is Jeff Porter. In general STAR users should work in the chos environment sl53. This means that upon...

  18. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daya Bay has two "production accounts". The dayabay account is used for the automated software builds on common as well as for the diagnostic testing of the processed raw data...

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Electricity Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this

  2. Petrochemical feedstock from basic oxygen steel furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, C.W.; Hardwick, W.E.

    1983-10-01

    Iron bath gasification in which coal, lime, steam and oxygen are injected into a bath of molten iron for the production of a medium-Btu gas is described. The process has its origin in basic oxygen steelmaking. It operates at high temperatures and is thus not restrictive on the type of coal used. The ash is retained in the slag. The process is also very efficient. The authors suggest that in the present economic climate in the iron and steel industry, such a plant could be sited where existing coal-handling, oxygen and steelmaking equipment are available.

  3. Basic research for environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Hydropower Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Resources » Hydropower Basics Hydropower Basics Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player Most people associate water power with the Hoover Dam-a huge facility harnessing the power of an entire river behind its walls-but hydropower facilities come in all sizes. Some may be very large, but they can be tiny too, taking advantage of water flows in municipal water facilities or irrigation ditches. They can even be "dam-less,"

  5. Tool Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Buildings » Analysis Tools » Energy Asset Score » Tool Basics Tool Basics Asset Score Scale The Asset Score uses a 10-point scale to evaluate the energy efficiency of a building's physical characteristics and major energy-related systems. The point value is assigned based on a building's predicted source energy use intensity (EUI) according to the energy simulation results. Scores are rounded to the nearest half-point increment (i.e., "6", "6.5", "7",

  6. Financing Basics for RE Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Financing Basics for RE Projects 1 Agenda: * Overview & Summary Findings * Introduction to Project Finance * The Role of the Players * Structure and Negotiation of Key Documents * Conclusions 2 Overview & Summary Findings 3 Renewable Energy Options: * Wind * PV * Solar * Bio * The evaluative parameters used by financiers is different for each of these technologies - Example: DSC for Wind = 1.4 - 1.5; and DSC for Bio (due to fuel risk) = 1.5 - 1.6 4 Basic Elements #1: * Lots of money now

  7. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:00am Addthis Photo of a large blue truck with 'PG&E Cleanair' written on the side. There are a variety of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles that run on fuels other than traditional petroleum. Learn about the following types of vehicles: Flexible Fuel Vehicles Fuel Cell Vehicles Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles Natural Gas

  8. Combined Heat and Power Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Assistance » Combined Heat & Power Deployment » Combined Heat and Power Basics Combined Heat and Power Basics Combined heat and power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is: A process flow diagram showing efficiency benefits of CHP The concurrent production of electricity or mechanical power and useful thermal energy (heating and/or cooling) from a single source of energy. A type of distributed generation, which, unlike central station generation, is located at or near the point

  9. DOE Office of Basic Sciences: An Overview of Basic Research Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Basic Sciences: An Overview of Basic Research Activities on Thermoelectrics DOE ... More Documents & Publications Basic Energy Sciences Overview Progress from DOE EF RC: ...

  10. Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Basics Water Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Addthis Related Articles Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Homes &

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicle Conversion Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle

  12. Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 - Electricity Basics Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics It's difficult to imagine life without convenient electricity. You just flip a switch or plug in an appliance, and it's there....

  13. Photovoltaic Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Photovoltaic Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:47pm Addthis Text Version Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into ...

  14. Photovoltaic Cell Performance Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Basics Photovoltaic Cell Performance Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:55pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells use the energy in sunlight to produce electricity. ...

  15. Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics August 20, ... To create an electric field within a crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell, two ...

  16. Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material ...

  17. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet), Vehicle Technologies Program ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet), Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet), Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) Fact sheet providing questions and answers on ...

  18. Basic energy properties of electrolytic solutions database. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Basic energy properties of electrolytic solutions database. Viscosity, thermal conductivity, density, enthalpy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Basic energy properties ...

  19. Health Care Buildings : Basic Characteristics Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Basic Characteristics Tables Buildings and Size Data by Basic Characteristics for Health Care Buildings Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million...

  20. Basic Matrix Library (bml), Version 0.x

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-11-24

    The basic matrix library (bml) is a collection of various matrix data formats (in dense and sparse) and their associated algorithms for basic matrix operations.

  1. Basic Research Needs: Catalysis for Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Alexis T.; Gates, Bruce C.; Ray, Douglas; Thompson, Michael R.

    2008-03-11

    The report presents results of a workshop held August 6-8, 2007, by DOE SC Basic Energy Sciences to determine the basic research needs for catalysis research.

  2. Porous thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Ting

    2015-11-17

    Compositions of porous thin films and methods of making are provided. The methods involve self-assembly of a cyclic peptide in the presence of a block copolymer.

  3. NREL: Learning - Biomass Energy Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Energy Basics Photo of a farmer standing in a field and inspecting corn crops. We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"-the energy from plants and plant-derived materials-since people began burning wood to cook food and keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can also be used. These include food crops, grassy and woody plants, residues from agriculture or forestry, oil-rich algae, and the organic component of municipal

  4. NREL: Learning - Geothermal Energy Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geothermal Energy Basics Photo of a hot spring. The Earth's heat-called geothermal energy-escapes as steam at a hot springs in Nevada. Many technologies have been developed to take advantage of geothermal energy-the heat from the earth. This heat can be drawn from several sources: hot water or steam reservoirs deep in the earth that are accessed by drilling; geothermal reservoirs located near the earth's surface, mostly located in the western U.S., Alaska, and Hawaii; and the shallow ground near

  5. NREL: Learning - Solar Energy Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Basics Photo of a solar electric system in Colorado with snow-covered mountain peaks in the background. Solar panels installed on a home in Colorado. Solar is the Latin word for sun-a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That's because more energy from the sun falls on the earth in one hour than is used by everyone in the world in one year. A variety of technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings. The most commonly

  6. NREL: Learning - Wind Energy Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of years. From old Holland to farms in the United States, windmills have been used for pumping water or grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine-can use the wind's energy to generate electricity. Wind turbines, like windmills, are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and less turbulent wind. Turbines

  7. PC Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-09

    PC-BLAS is a highly optimized version of the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), a standardized set of thirty-eight routines that perform low-level operations on vectors of numbers in single and double-precision real and complex arithmetic. Routines are included to find the index of the largest component of a vector, apply a Givens or modified Givens rotation, multiply a vector by a constant, determine the Euclidean length, perform a dot product, swap and copy vectors, andmore » find the norm of a vector. The BLAS have been carefully written to minimize numerical problems such as loss of precision and underflow and are designed so that the computation is independent of the interface with the calling program. This independence is achieved through judicious use of Assembly language macros. Interfaces are provided for Lahey Fortran 77, Microsoft Fortran 77, and Ryan-McFarland IBM Professional Fortran.« less

  8. Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Basics Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis A photovoltaic (PV), or solar electric system, is made up of several photovoltaic solar cells. An ...

  9. Photovoltaic Cell Structure Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Structure Basics Photovoltaic Cell Structure Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:50pm Addthis The actual structural design of a photovoltaic (PV), or solar cell, depends on the ...

  10. Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:19pm Addthis Silicon-used to make some the earliest photovoltaic (PV) devices-is still the most popular ...

  11. Photovoltaic Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Basics Photovoltaic Cell Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:53pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV) cells, or solar cells, take advantage of the photoelectric effect to produce electricity. PV ...

  12. Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel ...

  13. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Basics Hydrogen Fuel Cell Basics Hydrogen is a versatile energy carrier that can be used to power nearly every end-use energy need. The fuel cell-an energy conversion ...

  14. Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use was held May 13-15, 2003 to assess the basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. This report is based on t

  15. Basic Energy Sciences (BES) at LLNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic Energy Sciences at LLNL Eric Schwegler is the Point-of-Contact for DOE Office of Science Programs - Basic Energy Sciences (BES) at LLNL. Highlights Mesoscale Simulations of ...

  16. Wind Energy Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Wind Wind Energy Resource Basics Wind Energy Resource Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:11pm Addthis Wind energy can be produced anywhere in the world where the wind blows with a strong ...

  17. Lighting and Daylighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes & Buildings » Lighting and Daylighting Basics Lighting and Daylighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:05pm Addthis Buildings can be lit in two ways: by using artificial lighting, or by using daylighting, or the process of using natural sunlight, windows, and skylights to provide lighting. Learn more about: Lighting Daylighting Addthis Related Articles Daylighting Basics Energy 101: Daylighting The Biggest, Brightest Star of Energy Efficiency Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Homes &

  18. Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-01

    Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy. This document provides general information about bioenergy and its creation and potential uses.

  19. Basic ReseaRch DiRections

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Basic ReseaRch DiRections for User Science at the National Ignition Facility Report on the National Nuclear Security Administration - Office of Science Workshop on Basic Research Directions on User Science at the National Ignition Facility BASIC RESEARCH DIRECTIONS FOR USER SCIENCE AT THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY Report on the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) - Office of Science (SC) Workshop on Basic Research Directions on User Science at the National Ignition Facility Chairs:

  20. Energy Basics Website Contact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Basics Website Contact Energy Basics Website Contact Use this form to send us your comments, report problems, and/or ask questions about information on the Energy Basics website. Your Email Message Here * CAPTCHA This question is for testing whether you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Submit

  1. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Poli, Andrea A.; Meltser, Mark Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  2. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

    1999-03-23

    A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

  3. Electrochemical thinning of silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medernach, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR).

  4. Electrochemical thinning of silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medernach, J.W.

    1994-01-11

    Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). 14 figures.

  5. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  6. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  7. Thin-Film Fiber Optic Sensors for Power Control and Fault Detection. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Paul Grems

    2003-09-30

    Described is the development of an optical current measurement device, an active power conditioning system, and sol gel type thin films for the detection of magnetic fields.

  8. Bio-Benefits Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education & Workforce Development » Resources » Biomass Basics » Bio-Benefits Basics Bio-Benefits Basics Biomass is an important commodity for the future of the United States. Increased production and use of biofuels will result in a variety of benefits to the nation, including: Improved national energy security Increased economic growth Broad-based environmental benefits. Biomass and U.S. Energy Security The U.S. economy is heavily dependent on oil imports-containing 4% of the world's

  9. Wind Energy Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Resources » Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics Once called windmills, the technology used to harness the power of wind has advanced significantly over the past ten years, with the United States increasing its wind power capacity 30% year over year. Wind turbines, as they are now called, collect and convert the kinetic energy that wind produces into electricity to help power the grid. Wind energy is actually a byproduct of the sun. The sun's uneven heating of

  10. Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior

  11. National Laboratory] Basic Biological Sciences(59) Biological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Achievements of structural genomics Terwilliger, Thomas C. Los Alamos National Laboratory Basic Biological Sciences(59) Biological Science Biological Science Abstract Not...

  12. Electric-Drive Vehicle Basics (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    Describes the basics of electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles, and the various charging options.

  13. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Technology Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Basics Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies can be a major contributor to our nation's future need for new, clean sources of energy, particularly in the Western...

  14. Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Battery Basics Batteries are essential for electric drive technologies such as hybrid ... Batteries have three main parts, each of which plays a different role: the anode, cathode, ...

  15. Active Solar Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    economics, selection and sizing, control systems, building codes and covenants, and installation and maintenance. Addthis Related Articles Linear Concentrator System Basics for ...

  16. NREL: State and Local Governments - Clean Energy Policy Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clean Energy Policy Basics States and local communities can create policy strategies to help them achieve their clean energy goals. To create effective strategies, it's helpful to understand how to build a clean energy policy portfolio and the different types of policies. Clean Energy Policy Portfolios Single policies don't transform markets for a clean energy economy in states and localities. The most effective approach is to apply a suite of policies in succession-from policies that prepare

  17. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  18. Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts PDF icon Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts More ...

  19. Review - basic research needs in fluid mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, O.C. Jr.; Kreith, F.; White, F.M.

    1981-12-01

    A small segment of the engineering community was surveyed to obtain their judgement regarding the long-range needs for basic research in fluid mechanics. It is the purpose of this paper to provide a summary of a more detailed report, which identifies basic research needed in fluid mechanics. 12 refs.

  20. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2010-11-23

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  1. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  2. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  3. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  4. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  5. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  6. Spin dependent electron transmission through ferromagnetic thin films

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect dependent electron transmission through ferromagnetic thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spin dependent electron transmission through ferromagnetic thin films Authors: Komesu, Takashi ; Waddill, G. D. ; Yu, S. -W. ; Tobin, J. G. [1] ; MUST) [2] + Show Author Affiliations LLNL ( Publication Date: 2015-10-15 OSTI Identifier: 1223976 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physics Letters. A; Journal Volume: 368;

  7. Macrophase Separation of Blends of Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Macrophase Separation of Blends of Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Macrophase Separation of Blends of Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films Authors: Williamson, Lance D. ; Nealey, Paul F. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (UC) Publication Date: 2015-08-26 OSTI Identifier: 1203744 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Macromolecules; Journal Volume: 48; Journal Issue: (12) ; 06, 2015 Research

  8. Fusion Basics | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Basics What is Plasma? Plasma is a state of matter along with solids, liquids and ... and Aurora Australis Fusion reactors, like NSTX, use plasma to fuse atoms to make energy. ...

  9. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  10. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Basics Photo of vehicle filling up at renewable hydrogen fueling station. NREL's hydrogen fueling station dispenses hydrogen produced via renewable electrolysis. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL researchers are working to unlock the potential of hydrogen as a fuel and to advance fuel cell technologies for automobiles, equipment, and buildings. View the Hydrogen Program video on NREL's YouTube channel to learn more about the basics of NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell

  11. Geothermal Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Technology Basics Geothermal Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:45pm Addthis Photo of steam pouring out of a geothermal plant. Geothermal technologies use the clean, sustainable heat from the Earth. Geothermal resources include the heat retained in shallow ground, hot water and rock found a few miles beneath the Earth's surface, and extremely high-temperature molten rock called magma located deep in the Earth. Learn more about: Direct-Use Geothermal Technologies Geothermal

  12. Hydropower Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydropower Technology Basics Hydropower Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Text Version Photo of the reservoir in front of a hydropower dam. Hydropower, or hydroelectric power, is the most common and least expensive source of renewable electricity in the United States today. According to the Energy Information Administration, more than 6% of the country's electricity was produced from hydropower resources in 2014, and about 48% of all renewable electricity generated in the United

  13. Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics The industrial sector is vital to the U.S. economy, but at the same time consumes the most energy in the country to manufacture products we use every day. Among the most energy-intensive industries are aluminum, chemicals, forest product, glass, metal casting, mining, petroleum refining, and steel. The energy supply chain begins with electricity, steam, natural gas, coal, and other fuels supplied to a manufacturing plant

  14. Renewable Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Technology Basics Renewable Energy Technology Basics Renewable energy technologies produce sustainable, clean energy from sources such as the sun, the wind, plants, and water. According to the Energy Information Administration, in 2007, renewable sources of energy accounted for about 7% of total energy consumption and 9.4% of total electricity generation in the United States. Renewable energy technologies have the potential to strengthen our nation's energy security, improve

  15. Solar Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Solar Energy Technology Basics Solar Energy Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:37pm Addthis Solar energy technologies produce electricity from the energy of the sun. Small solar energy systems can provide electricity for homes, businesses, and remote power needs. Larger solar energy systems provide more electricity for contribution to the electric power system. Learn more about: Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Solar Energy Resources Or learn about the latest solar

  16. Wind Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Wind Energy Technology Basics Wind Energy Technology Basics August 15, 2013 - 4:10pm Addthis Photo of a hilly field, with six visible wind turbines spinning in the wind. Wind energy technologies use the energy in wind for practical purposes such as generating electricity, charging batteries, pumping water, and grinding grain. Wind energy is a result of the sun's uneven heating of the atmosphere, the earth's irregular surfaces (mountains and valleys), and the planet's

  17. Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily

  18. Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work

  19. Biofuel Conversion Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuel Conversion Basics Biofuel Conversion Basics August 14, 2013 - 12:31pm Addthis The conversion of biomass solids into liquid or gaseous biofuels is a complex process. Today, the most common conversion processes are biochemical- and thermochemical-based. However, researchers are also exploring photobiological conversion processes. Biochemical Conversion Processes In biochemical conversion processes, enzymes and microorganisms are used as biocatalysts to convert biomass or biomass-derived

  20. Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources include any plant-derived organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. These materials are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, aquatic crops, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated energy crops Herbaceous energy crops are perennials that are

  1. Vehicle Emission Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:07pm Addthis Vehicle emissions are the gases emitted by the tailpipes of vehicles that use internal combustion engines. These vehicles can run on gasoline, diesel, biofuels, natural gas, or propane. Vehicle emissions are composed of varying amounts of: water vapor carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen oxygen pollutants such as: carbon monoxide (CO) nitrogen oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  2. Enhanced Geothermal System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal » Enhanced Geothermal System Basics Enhanced Geothermal System Basics A naturally occurring geothermal system, known as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), is another form of renewable energy. It is defined by three key elements: heat, fluid, and permeability at depth. Essentially, these are engineered reservoirs that produce energy from geothermal resources in areas that are not usually considered economically viable due to a lack of water and/or the ability of that water to pass

  3. Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles & Fuels » Vehicles » Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:11am Addthis Photo of a blue car with 'The Road to Hydrogen' written on it, filling up at a hydrogen fueling station. Fuel cell vehicles, powered by hydrogen, could greatly improve the sustainability of our transportation sector. Although electricity production may contribute to air pollution, they are more efficient than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and produce no

  4. Geothermal Electricity Production Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Production Basics Geothermal Electricity Production Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:49pm Addthis A photo of steam emanating from geothermal power plants at The Geysers in California. Geothermal energy originates from deep within the Earth and produces minimal emissions. Photo credit: Pacific Gas & Electric Heat from the earth-geothermal energy-heats water that has seeped into underground reservoirs. These reservoirs can be tapped for a variety of uses, depending on the temperature of

  5. Geothermal Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Geothermal » Geothermal Resource Basics Geothermal Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Although geothermal heat pumps can be used almost anywhere, most direct-use and electrical production facilities in the United States are located in the west, where the geothermal resource base is concentrated. Current drilling technology limits the development of geothermal resources to relatively shallow water- or steam-filled reservoirs, most of which are found in the

  6. Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Hydrogen & Fuel Cells » Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:06pm Addthis Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed in a fuel cell, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic resources, such as natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, and renewable power like solar and wind. These qualities make it an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation applications. It can be used in cars, in houses,

  7. Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles & Fuels » Fuels » Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 19, 2013 - 5:45pm Addthis Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely used today as a transportation fuel, government and industry research and development are working toward the goal of clean, economical, and safe hydrogen production and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the

  8. Internal Combustion Engine Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Internal Combustion Engine Basics Internal Combustion Engine Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:02pm Addthis Internal combustion engines provide outstanding drivability and durability, with more than 250 million highway transportation vehicles in the United States relying on them. Along with gasoline or diesel, they can also utilize renewable or alternative fuels (e.g., natural gas, propane, biodiesel, or ethanol). They can also be combined with hybrid electric powertrains to increase fuel economy or

  9. Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Basics Absorption Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes.

  10. Anaerobic Digestion Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion Basics Anaerobic Digestion Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:07pm Addthis Anaerobic digestion is a common technology in today's agriculture, municipal waste, and brewing industries. It uses bacteria to break down waste organic materials into methane and other gases, which can be used to produce electricity or heat. Methane and Anaerobic Bacteria Methane is a gas that contains molecules of methane with one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen (CH4). It is the major component of

  11. Hydrogen Storage Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education » Increase Your H2IQ » Hydrogen Storage Basics Hydrogen Storage Basics Developing safe, reliable, compact, and cost-effective hydrogen storage technologies is one of the most technically challenging barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a form of energy. To be competitive with conventional vehicles, hydrogen-powered cars must be able to travel more than 300 miles between fills. This is a challenging goal because hydrogen has physical characteristics that make it difficult to

  12. Lesson 1 - Energy Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 - Energy Basics Lesson 1 - Energy Basics This lesson covers the states and forms of energy, where energy comes from, as well as how the way we live is tied to our energy supply and what that means for the future. Specific topics include: States of energy Potential Kinetic Forms of energy Energy sources Primary and secondary sources Renewable and nonrenewable Conversion Conservation Environmental impacts Greenhouse effect Future sources File Lesson 1 - Energy.pptx More Documents &

  13. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solar Photovoltaic System Design Basics Solar Photovoltaic System Design Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis Solar photovoltaic modules are where the electricity gets generated, but are only one of the many parts in a complete photovoltaic (PV) system. In order for the generated electricity to be useful in a home or business, a number of other technologies must be in place. Mounting Structures PV arrays must be mounted on a stable, durable structure that can support the array and withstand

  14. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  15. Thin film composite electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

    2007-08-14

    The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on

  17. Peer review, basic research, and engineering: Defining a role for QA professionals in basic research environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1989-02-01

    Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.

  18. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Fleming, Pamela H.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  19. Method for thinning specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.

    2005-03-15

    A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.

  20. Ocean Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Ocean Energy Technology Basics Ocean Energy Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:18pm Addthis Text Version Photo of low waves in the ocean. A dock is visible in the background. Oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth's surface. As the world's largest solar collectors, oceans contain thermal energy from the sun and produce mechanical energy from tides and waves. Even though the sun affects all ocean activity, the gravitational pull of the moon primarily drives tides, and wind

  1. Wave Energy Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean » Wave Energy Basics Wave Energy Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:30pm Addthis Photo of a large wave. Wave energy technologies extract energy directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. Renewable energy analysts believe there is enough energy in ocean waves to provide up to 2 terawatts of electricity. (A terawatt is equal to a trillion watts.) However, wave energy cannot be harnessed everywhere. Wave power-rich areas of the world include the western coasts of

  2. Ethanol Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ethanol Fuel Basics Ethanol Fuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis biomass in beekers Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from various plant materials collectively known as "biomass." Studies have estimated that ethanol and other biofuels could replace 30% or more of U.S. gasoline demand by 2030. More than 95% of U.S. gasoline contains ethanol in a low-level blend to oxygenate the fuel and reduce air pollution. Ethanol is also increasingly available in E85, an alternative fuel that

  3. Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles & Fuels » Vehicles » Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:05am Addthis Photo of a gray van with 'E85 Ethanol' written on the side. Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) have an internal combustion engine and are capable of operating on gasoline, E85 (a high-level blend of gasoline and ethanol), or a mixture of both. There are more than 10.6 million flexible fuel vehicles on U.S. roads today. However, many flexible fuel vehicle owners don't realize

  4. Fuel Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Hydrogen & Fuel Cells » Fuel Cell Basics Fuel Cell Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:09pm Addthis Text Version Photo of two hydrogen fuel cells. Fuel cells can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for vehicles and electronic devices. HOW FUEL CELLS WORK Fuel cells work like batteries, but they do not run down or need recharging. They produce electricity and heat as long as fuel is supplied. A fuel cell consists of two electrodes-a negative electrode

  5. Geothermal Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Heat Pump Basics Geothermal Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:12am Addthis Text Version Geothermal heat pumps use the constant temperature of the earth as an exchange medium for heat. Although many parts of the country experience seasonal temperature extremes-from scorching heat in the summer to sub-zero cold in the winter-the ground a few feet below the earth's surface remains at a relatively constant temperature. Depending on the latitude, ground temperatures range from 45°F

  6. Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heating & Cooling » Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:02am Addthis Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless

  7. Heating System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Basics Heating System Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:32pm Addthis A variety of heating technologies are available today. You can learn more about what heating systems and heat pumps are commonly used today and how they work below. To learn how to use these technologies in your own home, see the Home Heating Systems section on Energy Saver. Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or

  8. Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 - Electricity Basics Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics It's difficult to imagine life without convenient electricity. You just flip a switch or plug in an appliance, and it's there. But how did it get there? Many steps go into providing the reliable electricity we take for granted. This lesson takes a closer look at electricity. It follows the path of electricity from the fuel source to the home, including the power plant and the electric power grid. It also covers the role of electric utilities

  9. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. L. Putman

    1999-09-01

    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates.

  10. Tidal Energy Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Ocean » Tidal Energy Basics Tidal Energy Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:26pm Addthis Photo of the ocean rising along the beach. Some of the oldest ocean energy technologies use tidal power. All coastal areas experience two high tides and two low tides over a period of slightly more than 24 hours. For those tidal differences to be harnessed into electricity, the difference between high and low tides must be more than 16 feet (or at least 5 meters). However, there are only about

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Codes and Standards Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and

  12. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda PDF icon BES Report Controlling ...

  13. Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Life Technologies Corporation and LANL have ...

  14. Revolving Loan Funds: Basics and Best Practices | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This webinar, held on Aug. 26, 2009, provides basic information and best practices for ... Clean Energy Finance Guide (Chapter 5: Basic Concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured ...

  15. A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting September ...

  16. Chapter 5. Basic Concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured Lending...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chapter 5. Basic Concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured Lending and Loan Loss Reserve Funds Chapter 5. Basic Concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured Lending and Loan Loss Reserve Funds ...

  17. OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related Matters; 29 CFR 1960 OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements ...

  18. Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & ...

  19. Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis The outermost layers of photovoltaic (PV) cell, ...

  20. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Homes & Buildings Water Heating Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Illustration of ...

  1. Tribal Renewable Energy Webinar: Transmission and Grid Basics...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transmission and Grid Basics for Tribal Economic and Energy Development Tribal Renewable Energy Webinar: Transmission and Grid Basics for Tribal Economic and Energy Development ...

  2. Clean Energy Finance Guide (Chapter 5: Basic Concepts for Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy Finance Guide (Chapter 5: Basic Concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured Lending and Loan Loss Reserve Funds) Clean Energy Finance Guide (Chapter 5: Basic Concepts for ...

  3. Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy This document provides general information about bioenergy and its creation and potential uses....

  4. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design Arlan Burdick IBACOS, ... waste i Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design ...

  5. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Haas, Terry; Wong, Kwok-Keung; Seward, George

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  6. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  7. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishnan, K.M.

    1994-12-20

    A ferromagnetic [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4[+-]0.05. 7 figures.

  8. ThinSilicon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ThinSilicon Place: California Product: US-based developer of thin-film PV module manufacturing technology. References: ThinSilicon1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  9. NREL: Transportation Research - Sustainable Transportation Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Basics Compare Vehicle Technologies 3-D illustration of electric car diagramming energy storage, power electronics, and climate control components. The following links to the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) provide an introduction to sustainable transportation. NREL research supports development of electric, hybrid, hydrogen fuel cell, biofuel, natural gas, and propane vehicle technologies. Learn more about vehicles, fuels, and transportation

  10. NREL: Learning - Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Photo showing a silver four-door sedan being driven on a roadway and containing the words "hydrogen fuel cell electric" across the front and rear doors. This prototype hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle was displayed at a recent conference of the National Hydrogen Association. Credit: Keith Wipke Researchers are developing fuel cells that can be used in vehicles to provide electricity for propulsion as well as for a car's electric and electronic equipment.

  11. NREL: Learning - Solar Process Heat Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Process Heat Basics Photo of part of one side of a warehouse wall, where a perforated metal exterior skin is spaced about a foot out from the main building wall to form part of the transpired solar collector system. A transpired collector is installed at a FedEx facility in Denver, Colorado. Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential

  12. Thin Film Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    help OpenEI by expanding it. Thin Film Solar Technologies is a company located in South Africa . References "Thin Film Solar Technologies" Retrieved from "http:...

  13. Innovative Thin Films LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thin Films LLC Place: Toledo, Ohio Zip: 43607 Product: Provider of altnernative energy thin film deposition technology. Coordinates: 46.440613, -122.847838 Show Map Loading...

  14. Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:49 Generic silicon solar cells showing +45, -45, and ...

  15. Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy This document provides general information about bioenergy and its creation and potential uses. PDF icon biomass_basics.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy Bioenergy Impact Posters http://www.energy.gov/media/F...Biofuels_Lower_Gas_Prices.pdf

  16. Webtrends Archives by Fiscal Year - Energy Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Basics Webtrends Archives by Fiscal Year - Energy Basics From the EERE Web Statistics Archive: Corporate sites, Webtrends archives for the Energy Basics site by fiscal year. Microsoft Office document icon Energy Basics FY10 Microsoft Office document icon Energy Basics FY11 More Documents & Publications Webtrends Archives by Fiscal Year - Office of EERE Webtrends Archives by Fiscal Year - Social Media Site Webtrends Archives by Fiscal Year - International Activities

  17. Thin seam mining machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.L.

    1984-05-22

    A low profile thin seam miner includes a main frame mounting a lower transverse axis rotary cutter and a parallel axis conveyor rearwardly of the lower cutter. The main frame also mounts a forward transverse axis rotary cutter somewhat above the lower cutter, the forward upper cutter being supported on a longitudinal boom pivoted to the main frame and being vertically swingable under influence of a single cylinder. The main frame and all of its parts is incrementally advanced into the seam by the alternating action of two horizontal longitudinal parallel axis cylinders connected between the main frame and a pair of floor-engaging plates. Two vertical axis jacks are connected between the two floor-engaging plates and two cooperating overhead roof plates, connected with the floor-engaging plates by separate toggle linkages. Two more generally upright cylinders connected between the floor plates and the rear of the main frame can tilt the main frame on a transverse pivot axis to vary the depth of cut of the lower rear cutter responsive to the control of a sensing tooth on such cutter. The single cylinder connected with the boom of the forward upper cutter can swing the boom on its transverse pivot axis to vary the depth of cut of the forward upper cutter, responsive to the control of a sensing tooth on such cutter.

  18. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  19. NREL: Learning - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. And we can help to reduce our nation's growing reliance on imported oil by running our vehicles on renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicles and fuels can also put the brakes on air pollution and improve our environment. At least 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States today. They include all kinds of passenger

  20. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-04-13

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  1. NREL: Learning - Geothermal Heat Pump Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Basics Photo of the West Philadelphia Enterprise Center. The West Philadelphia Enterprise Center uses a geothermal heat pump system for more than 31,000 square feet of space. Geothermal heat pumps take advantage of the nearly constant temperature of the Earth to heat and cool buildings. The shallow ground, or the upper 10 feet of the Earth, maintains a temperature between 50° and 60°F (10°-16°C). This temperature is warmer than the air above it in the winter and cooler in the

  2. Method for laser welding ultra-thin metal foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, John C.; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1996-01-01

    A method for simultaneously cutting and welding ultra-thin foils having a thickness of less than 0.002 inches wherein two ultra-thin films are stacked and clamped together. A pulsed laser such as of the Neodymium: YAG type is provided and the beam of the laser is directed onto the stacked films to cut a channel through the films. The laser is moved relative to the stacked foils to cut the stacked foils at successive locations and to form a plurality of connected weld beads to form a continuous weld.

  3. Method for laser welding ultra-thin metal foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, J.C.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1996-03-26

    A method for simultaneously cutting and welding ultra-thin foils having a thickness of less than 0.002 inches wherein two ultra-thin films are stacked and clamped together. A pulsed laser such as of the Neodymium: YAG type is provided and the beam of the laser is directed onto the stacked films to cut a channel through the films. The laser is moved relative to the stacked foils to cut the stacked foils at successive locations and to form a plurality of connected weld beads to form a continuous weld. 5 figs.

  4. Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell with thin doped region adjacent metal Schottky barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.; Wronski, Christopher R.

    1979-01-01

    A Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a thin highly doped p-type region of hydrogenated amorphous silicon disposed between a Schottky barrier high work function metal and the intrinsic region of hydrogenated amorphous silicon wherein said high work function metal and said thin highly doped p-type region forms a surface barrier junction with the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer. The thickness and concentration of p-type dopants in said p-type region are selected so that said p-type region is fully ionized by the Schottky barrier high work function metal. The thin highly doped p-type region has been found to increase the open circuit voltage and current of the photovoltaic device.

  5. Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Space Heaters For convection (non-radiant) space heaters, the best types incorporate a heat transfer liquid, such as oil, that is heated by the electric element. The heat ...

  6. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-01

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  7. Basic concepts of contaminant sorption. Summary paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of issue papers and briefing documents which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. In an attempt to make the content of these documents available to a wider audience, RSKERL is developing a series of summary papers which are condensed versions of the original documents. Understanding the processes which dictate transport and fate characteristics of contaminants in soil and ground water is of paramount importance in designing and implementing remediation systems at hazardous waste sites. Sorption is often the most significant of these processes. The summary paper addresses the basic concepts of sorption in soil and ground water with an emphasis on organic contaminants having the characteristics of those often found at existing hazardous waste sites.

  8. Summary of recommendations on basic research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    There has been considerable progress during the past four decades in organic geochemistry research applied to understanding the origin of coal, oil, and gas, and in understanding contemporary and ancient carbon cycles on Earth. Significant contributions have been made by academic research, government laboratories, and industrial research communities either working independently or with informal cooperation. But, important questions still remain. Among the questions answered in this paper are those dealing with the mechanisms of migration of hydrocarbons and the structure of kerogen and coal. During the final plenary session of the workshop, one way of dealing with the problem of coordinating basic research effects between industry, academic institutions, and government laboratories, strongly favored by some of the participants, was discussed--creation of a National Fossil Fuel Research Institute.

  9. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  10. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Uncooled pyroelectric IR imaging systems, such as night vision goggles, offer important strategic advantages in battlefield scenarios and reconnaissance surveys. Until now, the current technology for fabricating these devices has been limited by low throughput and high cost which ultimately limit the availability of these sensor devices. We have developed and fabricated an alternative design for pyroelectric IR imaging sensors that utilizes a multilayered thin film deposition scheme to create a monolithic thin film imaging element on an active silicon substrate for the first time. This approach combines a thin film pyroelectric imaging element with a thermally insulating SiO{sub 2} aerogel thin film to produce a new type of uncooled IR sensor that offers significantly higher thermal, spatial, and temporal resolutions at a substantially lower cost per unit. This report describes the deposition, characterization and optimization of the aerogel thermal isolation layer and an appropriate pyroelectric imaging element. It also describes the overall integration of these components along with the appropriate planarization, etch stop, adhesion, electrode, and blacking agent thin film layers into a monolithic structure. 19 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:03am Addthis Air-source heat pumps transfer heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. How Air-Source...

  12. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:29pm Addthis Complete photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are ...

  13. Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the ...

  14. Montana Understanding the Basics of Water Law In Montana Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Understanding the Basics of Water Law In Montana Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Understanding the Basics of Water Law...

  15. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:01pm Addthis Photo of a woman scientist using a machine...

  16. Award Types

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award Types Types of Awards The Lab's mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent; reduce global threats; and solve other emerging national security and energy challenges. Contact Awards Team (505) 667-7824 Email Types of Awards The Awards Office, sponsored by the Technology Transfer Division and the Science and Technology Base Program Office, coordinates the Laboratory's submission process for many key

  17. New N-Type Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics: Cooperative Research...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This CRADA will develop improved thin film organic solar cells using a new n-type ... Organic PV technology has the potential to overcome this problem through the use of ...

  18. Active superconducting devices formed of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1991-05-28

    Active superconducting devices are formed of thin films of superconductor which include a main conduction channel which has an active weak link region. The weak link region is composed of an array of links of thin film superconductor spaced from one another by voids and selected in size and thickness such that magnetic flux can propagate across the weak link region when it is superconducting. Magnetic flux applied to the weak link region will propagate across the array of links causing localized loss of superconductivity in the links and changing the effective resistance across the links. The magnetic flux can be applied from a control line formed of a superconducting film deposited coplanar with the main conduction channel and weak link region on a substrate. The devices can be formed of any type to superconductor but are particularly well suited to the high temperature superconductors since the devices can be entirely formed from coplanar films with no overlying regions. The devices can be utilized for a variety of electrical components, including switching circuits, amplifiers, oscillators and modulators, and are well suited to microwave frequency applications.

  19. Vapor deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.C.; Pattillo, S.G.; Laia, J.R. Jr.; Sattelberger, A.P.

    1990-10-05

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl){sub 3}, iridium(allyl){sub 3}, molybdenum(allyl){sub 4}, tungsten(allyl){sub 4}, rhenium (allyl){sub 4}, platinum(allyl){sub 2}, or palladium(allyl){sub 2} are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  20. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  1. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  2. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles; Delnick, Frank M.

    1996-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  3. Stability of charged thin shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2011-05-15

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  4. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N.; McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Fehring, Jr., Edward J.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2000-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  5. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2010-08-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  6. Solar Thin Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Thin Power Place: New York Sector: Solar Product: Solar Thin Power was formed to seek out solar projects in North America, Asia and...

  7. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenz, Robert P.; Weber, Michael F.; Arudi, Ravindra L.

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  8. Record Makes Thin-Film Solar Cell Competitive with Silicon Efficiency -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Releases | NREL Record Makes Thin-Film Solar Cell Competitive with Silicon Efficiency March 24, 2008 Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory have moved closer to creating a thin-film solar cell that can compete with the efficiency of the more common silicon-based solar cell. The copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film solar cell recently reached 19.9 percent efficiency, setting a new world record for this type of cell.

  9. Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ by liquid cell TEM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ by liquid cell TEM Andrew J. Leenheer, Katherine L. Jungjohann, Kevin R. Zavadil, John P. Sullivan, and C. Thomas Harris Nucleation and propagation of Li alloy phases in Si, Al, and Au clearly observed in a transmission electron microscope. This work was performed at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a

  10. Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage Authors: Chen, X ; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina ; Gregorczyk, Keith ; Ghodssi, Reza ; Rubloff, Gary W Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1105360 DOE Contract Number: SC0001160 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: RSC Advances; Journal

  11. Measurement of Thin-film Coating Hardness in the Presence of Contamination

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Roughness: Implications for Tribology | Argonne National Laboratory Measurement of Thin-film Coating Hardness in the Presence of Contamination and Roughness: Implications for Tribology Title Measurement of Thin-film Coating Hardness in the Presence of Contamination and Roughness: Implications for Tribology Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2016 Authors Demas, N, Lorenzo-Martin, C, Ajayi, OO, Erck, RA, Shareef, I Journal Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A Start

  12. Home and Building Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home and Building Technology Basics Home and Building Technology Basics Homes and other buildings use energy every day for space heating and cooling, for lighting and hot water, and for appliances and electronics. Today's buildings consume more energy than any other sector of the U.S. economy, including transportation and industry. Learn more about: Heating and Cooling Passive Solar Design Water Heating Lighting and Daylighting Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Homes & Buildings Lighting

  13. A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program | Department of Energy Policy, Guidance & Reports » Worker Health & Safety » A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program January 2015 A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program This pamphlet is developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as an outreach and awareness tool to assist former and current DOE Federal,

  14. OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Safety and Health Programs and Related Matters; 29 CFR 1960 | Department of Energy OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related Matters; 29 CFR 1960 OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related Matters; 29 CFR 1960 November 26, 2004 Federal Register copy of OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health

  15. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Target 2014 Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences: Target 2014 BESFrontcover.png Final Report Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences, Report of the Joint BES/ ASCR / NERSC Workshop conducted February 9-10, 2010 Workshop Agenda The agenda for this workshop is presented here: including presentation times and speaker information. Read More » Workshop Presentations Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic

  16. Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative PDF icon Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative More Documents & Publications FTA - SunLine Transit Agency - Final Report 2012 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program 2014 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office

  17. Technical Assistance Project (TAP) Revolving Loan Funds: Basics...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    pwebinar20090826sifuentes.pdf More Documents & Publications Revolving Loan Funds: Basics and Best Practices LoanSTAR Revolving Loan Program Revolving Loan Funds: An Introduction...

  18. EPA Brownfields and Land Revitalization Website: Basic Information...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract This site provides basic information regarding EPA's Brownfields program. Author Environmental Protection Agency Published EPA, Date Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check...

  19. Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text Version

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Download presentation slides and a text version of the audio from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on electricity grid basics.

  20. Revolving Loan Funds: Basics and Best Practices Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides a webinar presentation, and supporting background materials, on basic information and characteristics for revolving loan funds , including best practices. Author: National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  1. Detter, John C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory] Basic Biological

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    State of the Art for Autonomous Detection Systems using Genomic Sequencing Detter, John C. Los Alamos National Laboratory Basic Biological Sciences(59) Biological Science...

  2. ORISE: Collaboration with the CDC yields Radiation Basics Made...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Online training designed to help public health and emergency medical professionals learn fundamentals of radiation How ORISE is Making a Difference Radiation Basics Made Simple, ...

  3. Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text Version Download presentation slides and a text version of the audio from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on ...

  4. Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment ... Thermostats and ducts provide opportunities for saving energy. Dehumidifying heat pipes ...

  5. A review of basic phenomena and techniques for sputter-deposition of high temperature superconducting films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Ameen, M.S.; Kingon, A.I.; Lichtenwalner, D.J. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Krauss, A.R. )

    1990-01-01

    The processes involved in plasma and ion beam sputter-deposition of high temperature superconducting thin films are critically reviewed. Recent advances in the development of these techniques are discussed in relation to basic physical phenomena, specific to each technique, which must be understood before high quality films can be produced. Control of film composition is a major issue in sputter-deposition of multicomponent materials. Low temperature processing of films is a common goal for each technique, particularly in relation to integrating high temperature superconducting films with the current microelectronics technology. It has been understood for some time that for Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} deposition, the most intensely studied high-{Tc} compound, incorporation of sufficient oxygen into the film during deposition is necessary to produce as-deposited superconducting films at relatively substrate temperatures. Recent results have shown that with the use of suitable buffer layers, high quality Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} sputtered films can be obtained on Si substrates without the need for post-deposition anneal processing. This review is mainly focussed on issues related to sputter-deposition of Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin films, although representative results concerning the bismuth and thallium based compounds are included. 143 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Type: Renewal

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 INCITE Awards Type: Renewal Title: -Ab Initio Dynamical Simulations for the Prediction of Bulk Properties‖ Principal Investigator: Theresa Windus, Iowa State University Co-Investigators: Brett Bode, Iowa State University Graham Fletcher, Argonne National Laboratory Mark Gordon, Iowa State University Monica Lamm, Iowa State University Michael Schmidt, Iowa State University Scientific Discipline: Chemistry: Physical INCITE Allocation: 10,000,000 processor hours Site: Argonne National

  7. Facility Type!

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ITY: --&L~ ----------- srct-r~ -----------~------~------- if yee, date contacted ------------- cl Facility Type! i I 0 Theoretical Studies Cl Sample 84 Analysis ] Production 1 Diepasal/Storage 'YPE OF CONTRACT .--------------- 1 Prime J Subcontract&- 1 Purchase Order rl i '1 ! Other information (i.e., ---------~---~--~-------- :ontrait/Pirchaee Order # , I C -qXlJ- --~-------~~-------~~~~~~ I I ~~~---~~~~~~~T~~~ FONTRACTING PERIODi IWNERSHIP: ,I 1 AECIMED AECMED GOVT GOUT &NTtiAC+OR

  8. Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N.; Hoover, David S.

    1985-01-01

    A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

  9. Brush-Coated Nanoparticle Polymer Thin Films: structure-mechanical-optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Peter F.

    2015-01-13

    Executive Summary Our work was devoted to understanding the structure and properties of a class of thin film polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). PNCs are composed of polymer hosts into which nanoparticles (metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanorods, C60, nanotubes) are incorporated. PNCs exhibit a diverse range of functional properties (optical, electronic, mechanical, biomedical, structural), determined in part by the chemical composition of the polymer host and the type of nanoparticle. The properties PNCs rely not only on specific functional, size-dependent, behavior of the nanoparticles, but also on the dispersion, and organizational order in some cases, inter-nanoparticle separation distances, and on relative interactions between the nanoparticles and the host. Therefore the scientific challenges associated with understanding the interrelations between the structure and function/properties of PNCs are far more complex than may be understood based only on the knowledge of the compositions of the constituents. The challenges of understanding the structure-function behavior of PNCs are further compounded by the fact that control of the dispersion of the nanoparticles within the polymer hosts is difficult; one must learn how to disperse inorganic particles within an organic host. The goal of this proposal was to develop an understanding of the connection between the structure and the thermal (glass transition), mechanical and optical properties of a specific class of PNCs. Specifically PNCs composed of polymer chain grafted gold nanoparticles within polymer hosts. A major objective was to understand how to develop basic principles that enable the fabrication of functional materials possessing optimized morphologies and combinations of materials properties. Accomplishments: We developed: (1) fundamental principles that enabled the creation of thin film PNCs possessing more complex morphologies of homopolymers and block copolymer micellar systems [1-6]; (2) a new understanding of physical phenomena associated with the structure of PNC systems and the glass transition and dynamics [7-11], including surface dynamics [12, 13]; designed PNCs to understand the connection between structure and specific optical responses of the material [14, 15]; electrorheological phenomena [16-18]; coarsening/aggregation phenomena [19, 20]; directed assembly [21] and elastic mechanical properties of thin supported films [22]. We established procedures to design and control the spatial distribution of gold nanoparticles (Au-NP), onto which polystyrene (PS) chains were end-grafted, within thin film PS hosts.[1-3] We explained how enthalpic and entropic interactions between the grafted layers and the polymer host chains, the nanoparticle (NP) sizes and shapes determine the spatial distribution of NPs within the host (i.e.: the morphology). In brief, the chemistries of the grafted chains and the polymer hosts, the degrees of polymerization of grafted and host chains (N and P, respectively), and the surface grafting densities Σ influence the thermodynamic interactions. Thin films are unique: the external interfaces (substrate and free surface) profoundly influence the spatial distribution of NPs within the PNC. For example, thin films are thermodynamically less stable than their bulk analogs due to the preferential attraction between the brush-coated nanoparticles and the external interfaces (i.e.: the free surface/polymer interface and the polymer/substrate interface). We investigated the organization of the brush-coated nanoparticles within a host composed on block copolymer micelles in a homopolymer [4, 5]. Block copolymers, composed of a polymer of type A that is bonded covalently to another polymer of type B (A-b-B) are known to form micelles within homopolymers A or B. A micelle is composed of an inner core of the A component of the copolymer and an outer corona of the B-component, that resides within homopolymer B, which serves as the host. If the host is the A homopolymer then the core of the micelle is composed of the B component of the copolymer. One important objective in applications such as drug delivery is to incorporate nanoparticles into micelles. We developed phase diagrams and demonstrated how the nanoparticle could be located in different regions (micelle cores, interfaces, hompolymer hosts) of the system, based on manipulating the thermodynamic interactions [4, 5]. This work will enable the design of new PNC materials with specific functional properties. In a separate series of experiments, we investigated the connection between structure and dynamics of polymer systems composed on mixtures of BCPs with homopolymer hosts. We investigated the dynamics of the individual polymeric constituents within pure copolymers and within micelles confined within different polymer hosts. Interestingly the dynamics manifested the structure of the local environment. In other words, the dynamics of chains of type-A within a copolymer, or in the pure homopolymer, or within a micelle were different. This has practical as well as technological implications. The latter is related to the potential design of polymer membranes. In another series of experiments we investigated the dynamics of polymer chains at the free surface of a polymer/polymer blend of polystyrene and poly vinyl methyl ether (PS/PVME) and or a nanocomposite for which PS/PVME is the host [12, 13]. These measurements were performed using the sophisticated technique, X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). We showed for the first time how the surface dynamics of a single component could be orders of magnitude faster than the same component in the bulk of the sample. This has implications toward understanding the interrelations between the surface dynamics, the structure and other properties. Having developed strategies to tailor the spatial distribution of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) of different sizes within polystyrene (PS) thin, supported, film hosts, we demonstrated the connection between the spatial distribution of Au-NPs within the polymer film and the optical properties (i.e.: surface plasmon response) [14, 15]. The optical spectra of samples (surface plasmon) manifest features associated with differences between the size and interparticle spacings as well as the proximity and organization of nanoparticles at the substrate and free surface. We also investigated a well know phenomenon that occurs in physical systems that include condensation, phase separation and coarsening in liquid/liquid mixtures, metal alloys etc. Parenthetically, symmetric BCPs self organize to form lamellar morphologies. Such BCPs form thin films on substrates, with free surfaces characterized by topographic structures of thickness equal to the interlamellar spacing. We showed that these surface structures coarsen in a manner reminiscent of 2-dimensional phase ordering systems of binary alloys, where the growth is self-similar, governed by classical capillarity driven Ostwald ripening and coalescence mechanisms. The coarsening dynamics in BCP/nanoparticle thin films, the dynamics are considerably slower, and the mechanism of coarsening occurs predominantly via coalescence. Our studies also involved the discovery and scientific explanation of the electrorheological behavior (this program provided partial support) of a specific new polymer/nanoparticle system [16-18]. It shows how the application of an electric field to the system, results in a significant increase in the mechanical strength, due to an electric field-induced change in the polarization of the system.

  10. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  11. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  12. Method of producing amorphous thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing thin films by sintering which comprises: a. coating a substrate with a thin film of an inorganic glass forming parulate material possessing the capability of being sintered, and b. irridiating said thin film of said particulate material with a laser beam of sufficient power to cause sintering of said material below the temperature of liquidus thereof. Also disclosed is the article produced by the method claimed.

  13. Sputtered Thin Film Photovoltaics - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Sputtered Thin Film Photovoltaics Naval Research Laboratory Contact NRL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication SputteringThinFilmPhotovoltaics (81 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryThe Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed a suite of processes for the fabrication of bulk and sputtered thin film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and related materials for photovoltaic (PV)

  14. Basic Science Research to Support the Nuclear Materials Focus Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.; Boak, J. M.; Eller, P. G.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) has identified over two hundred science and technology needs, of which more than thirty are science needs.

  15. Basic science research to support the nuclear material focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boak, J. M.; Eller, P. Gary; Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) has identified over two hundred science and technology needs, of which more than thirty are science needs.

  16. Electrodynamic Properties of Single-Crystal and Thin-Film Strontium Titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Findikoglu, A.T.; Jia, Q.; Reagor, D.W.; Kwon, C.; Rasmussen, K.O.

    1999-05-13

    The authors present a comparative study of broadband electrodynamic properties of coplanar waveguides made from nonlinear dielectric single-crystal and thin-film SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) with high-temperature superconducting thin-film YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} electrodes. The waveguides that use single-crystal STO exhibit a monotonic increase in refractive index, dielectric nonlinearity, and dissipation with decreasing temperature (from 80 K to 20 K), whereas those based on thin-film STO show similar but weaker effects with increasing temperature. Under dc bias, both types of waveguides show reduced refractive index, but dissipation increases in the case of single-crystal STO, while it decreases in the case of STO thin-films.

  17. A Study On Critical Thinning In Thin-walled Tube Bending Of Al-Alloy 5052O Via Coupled Ductile Fracture Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Heng; Yang He; Zhan Mei

    2010-06-15

    Thin-walled tube bending(TWTB) method of Al-alloy tube has attracted wide applications in aerospace, aviation and automobile,etc. While, under in-plane double tensile stress states at the extrados of bending tube, the over-thinning induced ductile fracture is one dominant defect in Al-alloy tube bending. The main objective of this study is to predict the critical wall-thinning of Al-alloy tube bending by coupling two ductile fracture criteria(DFCs) into FE simulation. The DFCs include Continuum Damage Mechanics(CDM)-based model and GTN porous model. Through the uniaxial tensile test of the curved specimen, the basic material properties of the Al-alloy 5052O tube is obtained; via the inverse problem solution, the damage parameters of both the two fracture criteria are interatively determined. Thus the application study of the above DFCs in the TWTB is performed, and the more reasonable one is selected to obtain the critical thinning of Al-alloy tube in bending. The virtual damage initiation and evolution (when and where the ductile fracture occurs) in TWTB are investigated, and the fracture mechanisms of the voided Al-alloy tube in tube bending are consequently discussed.

  18. DOE Selects Seven Contractors for Waste Treatment Basic Ordering Agreements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Seven Contractors for Waste Treatment Basic Ordering Agreements DOE Selects Seven Contractors for Waste Treatment Basic Ordering Agreements June 4, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact: Lynn Chafin, (513) 246-0461, lynette.chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued seven Basic Ordering Agreements (BOAs) for the treatment of Low-Level Waste (LLW) and Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW). The LLW MLLW treatment services also include the

  19. Tutorial: The Basics of SAXS Data Analysis | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lightsource Tutorial: The Basics of SAXS Data Analysis Thursday, November 17, 2011 - 1:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Dr. Alexander V. Shkumatov, Biological Small Angle Scattering Group, EMBL Hamburg

  20. Exploring Power Purchase Agreements- The Basics Part 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on July 27, 2011, provides information on the basics of Power Purchase Agreements, including risks and unique issues and benefits. Case studies include Salt Lake County, Utah, and Talbot County, Maryland.

  1. Photovoltaic Cell Quantum Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaic Cell Quantum Efficiency Basics August 20, 2013 - 3:05pm Addthis Quantum efficiency (QE) is the ratio of the number of charge carriers collected by a photovoltaic (PV) ...

  2. Inflation Basics (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inflation Basics Authors: Green, Dan 1 + Show ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25) Country of ...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Basic Energy Sciences Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by U.S. Department of Energy  at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation meeting about Basic Energy...

  4. Energy 101 Videos: Learn More About the Basics! | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    out the Energy Basics Web site last week. Because I'm going to talk about something on the site, I wanted to remind you all of what it is: a brand new Web site on EERE that talks ...

  5. Tutorial: The Basics of SAXS Data Analysis | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tutorial: The Basics of SAXS Data Analysis Thursday, November 17, 2011 - 1:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Dr. Alexander V. Shkumatov, Biological Small Angle...

  6. Tribal Renewable Energy Foundational Course: Electricity Grid Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Watch the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy foundational course webinar on electricity grid basics by clicking on the .swf link below. You can also download the PowerPoint slides...

  7. Thin transparent conducting films of cadmium stannate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    A process for preparing thin Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 films. The process comprises the steps of RF sputter coating a Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer onto a first substrate; coating a second substrate with a CdS layer; contacting the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer with the CdS layer in a water- and oxygen-free environment and heating the first and second substrates and the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 and CdS layers to a temperature sufficient to induce crystallization of the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer into a uniform single-phase spinel-type structure, for a time sufficient to allow full crystallization of the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer at that temperature; cooling the first and second substrates to room temperature; and separating the first and second substrates and layers from each other. The process can be conducted at temperatures less than 600.degree. C., allowing the use of inexpensive soda lime glass substrates.

  8. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda PDF icon BES Report Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow.pdf More Documents & Publications AGU SubTER Town Hall Presentation 2015 SubTER Grand Challenge Roundtable: Imaging Geophysical and Geochemical Signals in the Subsurface SubTER Crosscut White Paper

  9. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:01pm Addthis Photo of a scientist testing a photoelectrochemical water splitting system. Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe. It is a major component of water, oil, natural gas, and all living matter. Despite its simplicity and abundance, hydrogen rarely occurs naturally as a gas on Earth. It is almost always combined with other elements. It can be generated from

  10. Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heating and Cooling Basics Space Heating and Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:04pm Addthis A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as thermostats and ducts, which provide opportunities for saving energy. Learn how these technologies and systems work. Learn about: Cooling Systems Heating Systems Heat Pump Systems Supporting Equipment for

  11. Vehicle Technology and Alternative Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technology and Alternative Fuel Basics Vehicle Technology and Alternative Fuel Basics Photo of an electric car plugged in and charging. Learn about exciting technologies and ongoing research in advanced technology vehicles and alternative fuel vehicles that run on fuels other than traditional petroleum.. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES There are a variety of alternative fuel vehicles and advanced technology vehicles available. Learn about: Flexible Fuel Vehicles Fuel

  12. Microhydropower Turbine, Pump, and Waterwheel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbine, Pump, and Waterwheel Basics Microhydropower Turbine, Pump, and Waterwheel Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:58pm Addthis A microhydropower system needs a turbine, pump, or waterwheel to transform the energy of flowing water into rotational energy, which is then converted into electricity. Turbines Turbines are commonly used to power microhydropower systems. The moving water strikes the turbine blades, much like a waterwheel, to spin a shaft. But turbines are more compact in relation to their

  13. Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:58pm Addthis Crystalline silicon cells are made of silicon atoms connected to one another to form a crystal lattice. This lattice comprises the solid material that forms the photovoltaic (PV) cell's semiconductors. This section describes the atomic structure and bandgap energy of these cells. Atomic Structure Illustration of a silicon crystal with its 14 electrons orbiting a nucleus of

  14. EV Everywhere: Electric Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EV Everywhere: Electric Vehicle Basics EV Everywhere: Electric Vehicle Basics Just as there are a variety of technologies available in conventional vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles (also known as electric cars or EVs) have different capabilities that can accommodate different drivers' needs. EVs' major feature is that drivers can plug them in to charge from an off-board electric power source. This distinguishes them from hybrid electric vehicles, which supplement an internal combustion engine

  15. Geothermal Direct-Use Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct-Use Basics Geothermal Direct-Use Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:46pm Addthis Hot water near the surface of the Earth can be used for heat for a variety of commercial and industrial uses. Direct-use applications include heating buildings, growing plants in greenhouses, drying crops, heating water at fish farms, and several industrial processes such as pasteurizing milk. Learn more about direct-use of geothermal applications from the EERE Geothermal Technologies Office. Addthis Related Articles

  16. ORISE: Collaboration with the CDC yields Radiation Basics Made Simple

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    online training module Collaboration with CDC Yields Radiation Basics Made Simple Training Module Online training designed to help public health and emergency medical professionals learn fundamentals of radiation How ORISE is Making a Difference Radiation Basics Made Simple, the first in a series of online training modules developed by the Radiation Studies Branch (RSB) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), delivers foundational knowledge about radiation to its audiences.

  17. Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Life Technologies Corporation and LANL have released the Attune® Acoustic Focusing Cytometer, featuring a reduced footprint, reduced consumables, and an affordable price. April 3, 2012 Attune® Acoustic Focusing Cytometer The Attune® Acoustic Focusing Cytometer achieves sample throughput at rates over 10 times faster than other cytometers-up to 1,000 μL per

  18. Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power August 20, 2013 - 4:45pm Addthis Photo of numerous parallel rows of parabolic trough collectors tracking the sun. Cooling towers and other generator equipment are in the midst of the troughs, and two water tanks are in the background. The Solar Electric Generating Station IV power plant in California consists of many parallel rows of parabolic

  19. Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basics for Sustainability Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability Institutional change integrates technology, policy, and behavior to make new sustainability practices and perspectives become a typical part of how an agency operates. For example: Technology provides means to decrease energy and resource use. Policy provides directives to decrease energy and resource use. Institutional and individual behaviors provide avenues to ensure technologies and policies are used effectively in

  20. Guidance on Basic Best Practices in Management of Energy Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings | Department of Energy on Basic Best Practices in Management of Energy Performance Buildings Guidance on Basic Best Practices in Management of Energy Performance Buildings Building energy management best practices PDF icon 11_001_eecbg_sep_building_best_practice.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Program Guidance Grantee Letter SEP Guidance National Energy Policy Act Guide for State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and

  1. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences: Target 2017 Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences: Target 2017 BES-Montage.png This is an invitation-only review organized by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The goal is to determine production high-performance computing, storage, and services that will be needed for BES to

  2. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  3. Longwall mining of thin seams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curth, E A

    1981-01-01

    Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

  4. FY2011 Annual Report on DTRA Basic Research Project #BRCALL08-Per3-C-2-0006

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: FY2011 Annual Report on DTRA Basic Research Project #BRCALL08-Per3-C-2-0006 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FY2011 Annual Report on DTRA Basic Research Project #BRCALL08-Per3-C-2-0006 Authors: Colvin, J D Publication Date: 2011-08-16 OSTI Identifier: 1113462 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-494392 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore,

  5. Production and characterization of thin film group IIIB, IVB...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thin film group IIIB, IVB and rare earth hydrides by reactive evaporation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Production and characterization of thin film group IIIB, IVB ...

  6. Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules Preprint Timothy J. ... Partial shade stress test for thin-film photovoltaic modules Timothy J Silverman , ...

  7. Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ...

  8. Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design Presented at the PV Module ...

  9. The origin of white luminescence from silicon oxycarbide thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    origin of white luminescence from silicon oxycarbide thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The origin of white luminescence from silicon oxycarbide thin films ...

  10. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems 2009 ...

  11. Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical ...

  12. Institute of Photo Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Zip: 300071 Sector: Solar Product: A thin-film solar cell research institute in China. References: Institute of Photo-Electronic Thin...

  13. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

  14. Blue Spark Technologies formerly Thin Battery Technologies Inc...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spark Technologies formerly Thin Battery Technologies Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Blue Spark Technologies (formerly Thin Battery Technologies Inc.) Place: Westlake, Ohio...

  15. Discrimination between thin cirrus and and tropospheric aerosol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discrimination between thin cirrus and and tropospheric aerosol using multiple measurements from Darwin ARCS Mitchell, Ross CSIRO Category: Aerosols Thin cirrus cloud occurs...

  16. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Semiconductor-nanocrystalconjugated polymer thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Semiconductor-nanocrystalconjugated polymer thin films You are accessing a...

  17. Stress evolution during electrodeposition of Ni thin films. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Stress evolution during electrodeposition of Ni thin films. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stress evolution during electrodeposition of Ni thin films. ...

  18. Basic research needs for management and disposal of DOE wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grazis, B.M.; Horwitz, E.P. ); Schulz, W.W. )

    1991-04-01

    This document was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Research. It identifies and describes 87 basic research needs in support of advanced technology for management and disposal of Department of Energy radioactive, hazardous chemical, and mixed wastes. A team of scientists and engineers from several DOE laboratories and sites, from academia, and from industry identified and described the basic research needs called out in this report. Special efforts were made to ensure that basic research needs related to management and disposal of any hazardous chemical wastes generated at nonnuclear DOE sites and facilities were properly identified. It is hoped that scientists in both DOE and nongovernment laboratories and institutions will find this document useful when formulating research efforts relevant to waste management and disposal. For management and disposal of DOE radioactive and mixed wastes, basic research needs are identified in nine separate action areas. Basic research needs for management and disposal of DOE hazardous chemical wastes are identified in five action areas. Sufficient description and background information are provided in the report for each particular research need to enable qualified and imaginative scientists to conceive research efforts and programs that will meet the need. 28 refs., 7 tabs.

  19. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  20. Beta (β) tungsten thin films: Structure, electron transport, and giant spin Hall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Qiang; Chen, Wenzhe; Xiao, Gang

    2015-05-04

    We use a simple magnetron sputtering process to fabricate beta (β) tungsten thin films, which are capable of generating giant spin Hall effect. As-deposited thin films are always in the metastable β-W phase from 3.0 to 26.7 nm. The β-W phase remains intact below a critical thickness of 22.1 nm even after magnetic thermal annealing at 280 °C, which is required to induce perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in a layered structure of β-W/Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20}/MgO. Intensive annealing transforms the thicker films (>22.1 nm) into the stable α-W phase. We analyze the structure and grain size of both β- and α-W thin films. Electron transport in terms of resistivity and normal Hall effect is studied over a broad temperature range of 10 K to at least 300 K on all samples. Very low switching current densities are achieved in β-W/Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20}/MgO with PMA. These basic properties reveal useful behaviors in β-W thin films, making them technologically promising for spintronic magnetic random access memories and spin-logic devices.

  1. Assessment of the basic energy sciences program. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    A list of experts reviewing the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program and their organizations are given. The assessment plan is explained; the program examined the following: quality of science being conducted in the program, quality of performers supported by the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program, and the impact of the research on mission oriented needs. The intent of the assessment is to provide an indication of general status relative to these questions for the BES divisions. The approach to the assessment is described. The sampling plan which was used as a guide in determining the sample size and selecting the sample to evaluate the research program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are discussed. Special analyses were conducted on the dispersion of reviewers' ratings, the ratings of the lower funded projects, and the amount of time the principal investigator devoted to the project. These are presented in the final appendix together with histograms for individual rating variables for each program area. (MCW)

  2. Structural characterization of thin film photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramania, G.; Biswas, R.; Constant, K.; Sigalas, M. M.; Ho, K. M.

    2001-06-15

    We quantitatively analyze the structure of thin film inverse-opal photonic crystals composed of ordered arrays of air pores in a background of titania. Ordering of the sphere template and introduction of the titania background were performed simultaneously in the thin film photonic crystals. Nondestructive optical measurements of backfilling with high refractive index liquids, angle-resolved reflectivity, and optical spectroscopy were combined with band-structure calculations. The analysis reveals a thin film photonic crystal structure with a very high filling fraction (92{endash}94%) of air and a substantial compression along the c axis ({similar_to}22{endash}25%).

  3. Superhydrophobic Transparent Glass Thin Films - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surfaces require frequent maintenance andor replacement. And some of the processes use toxic chemicals or produce toxic wastes, leading to disposal problems. DescriptionThe basic...

  4. Concentrating Solar Power Tower System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tower System Basics Concentrating Solar Power Tower System Basics August 20, 2013 - 5:06pm Addthis In power tower concentrating solar power systems, numerous large, flat, sun-tracking mirrors, known as heliostats, focus sunlight onto a receiver at the top of a tall tower. A heat-transfer fluid heated in the receiver is used to generate steam, which, in turn, is used in a conventional turbine generator to produce electricity. Some power towers use water/steam as the heat-transfer fluid. Other

  5. Passive Solar Building Design Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes & Buildings » Passive Solar Building Design Basics Passive Solar Building Design Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:20pm Addthis The difference between a passive solar home and a conventional home is design. Passive solar homes and other buildings are designed to take advantage of the local climate. Passive solar design-also known as climatic design-involves using a building's windows, walls, and floors to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject

  6. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Module Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:25pm Addthis Flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules are made of several components, including the front surface materials, encapsulant, rear surface, and frame. Front Surface Materials The front surface of a flat-plate PV module must have a high transmission in the wavelengths that can be used by the solar cells in the module. For example, for silicon solar cells, the top surface must have high transmission of light with

  7. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:03pm Addthis The most common photovoltaic (PV) array design uses flat-plate PV modules or panels. These panels can be fixed in place or allowed to track the movement of the Illustration of a cutaway of a typical flat-plate module. The layers, in order from top to bottom, are: cover film, solar cell, encapsulant, substrate, cover film, seal, gasket, and frame. One typical flat-plate module design uses a substrate of metal,

  8. Manhattan Project: Basic Research at Los Alamos, 1943-1944

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Norris Bradbury, Robert Oppenheimer, Richard Feynman, Enrico Fermi, and others, Los Alamos, 1946 BASIC RESEARCH AT LOS ALAMOS (Los Alamos: Laboratory, 1943-1944) Events > Bringing It All Together, 1942-1945 Establishing Los Alamos, 1942-1943 Early Bomb Design, 1943-1944 Basic Research at Los Alamos, 1943-1944 Implosion Becomes a Necessity, 1944 Oak Ridge and Hanford Come Through, 1944-1945 Final Bomb Design, 1944-1945 Atomic Rivals and the ALSOS Mission, 1938-1945 Espionage and the Manhattan

  9. Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Biomass » Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones. Researchers have discovered that the process for making biofuels also can be used to make antifreeze, plastics, glues, artificial

  10. Heat Pump Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Heat Pump Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis Illustration of a heat pump water heater, which looks like a tall cylinder with a small chamber on top and a larger one on the bottom. In the top chamber are a fan, a cylindrical compressor, and an evaporator that runs along the inside of the chamber. Jutting out from the exterior of the bottom chamber is a temperature and pressure relief valve. This valve has a tube called a hot water

  11. Large-Scale Hydropower Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Hydropower » Large-Scale Hydropower Basics Large-Scale Hydropower Basics August 14, 2013 - 3:11pm Addthis Large-scale hydropower plants are generally developed to produce electricity for government or electric utility projects. These plants are more than 30 megawatts (MW) in size, and there is more than 80,000 MW of installed generation capacity in the United States today. Most large-scale hydropower projects use a dam and a reservoir to retain water from a river. When the

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean » Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity. OTEC works best when the temperature difference between the warmer, top layer of the ocean and the colder, deep ocean water is about 36°F (20°C). These conditions exist in tropical coastal areas, roughly between the Tropic of Capricorn and the

  13. Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades 5-8, 9-12 Subject Wind Energy Summary This plan shows how to make a rugged and inexpensive classroom wind turbine that can be used for lab bench-based blade design experiments. While a few specialized parts are needed (a hub and DC motor), the rest of the components are easily found at most hardware stores. Curriculum Technology, Science

  14. Thin film cadmium telluride and zinc phosphide solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes research performed from June 1982 to October 1983 on the deposition of cadmium telluride films by direct combination of the cadmium and tellurium vapor on foreign substrates. Nearly stoichiometric p-type cadmium telluride films and arsenic-doped p-type films have been prepared reproducibly. Major efforts were directed to the deposition and characterization of heterojunction window materials, indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, cadmium oxide, and zinc oxide. A number of heterojunction solar cells were prepared, and the best thin-film ITO/CdTe solar cells had an AMl efficiency of about 7.2%. Zinc phosphide films were deposited on W/steel substrates by the reaction of zinc and phosphine in a hydrogen flow. Films without intentional doping had an electrical resistivity on the order of 10/sup 6/ ohm-cm, and this resistivity may be reduced to about 5 x 10/sup 4/ ohm-cm by adding hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to the reaction mixture. Lower resistivity films were deposited by adding a controlled amount of silver nitrate solution on to the substrate surface. Major efforts were directed to the deposition of low-resistivity zinc selenide in order to prepare ZnSe/An/sub 3/P/sub 2/ heterojunction thin-film solar cells. However, zinc selenide films deposited by vacuum evaporation and chemical vapor deposition techniques were all of high resistivity.

  15. Manipulating Josephson junctions in thin-films by nearby vortices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, V G; Mints, R G

    2014-07-01

    It is shown that a vortex trapped in one of the banks of a planar edge-type Josephson junction in a narrow thin-film superconducting strip can change drastically the dependence of the junction critical current on the applied field, I-c(H). When the vortex is placed at certain discrete positions in the strip middle, the pattern I-c(H) has zero at H = 0 instead of the traditional maximum of '0-type' junctions. The number of these positions is equal to the number of vortices trapped at the same location. When the junction-vortex separation exceeds similar to W, the strip width, I-c(H) is no longer sensitive to the vortex presence. The same is true for any separation if the vortex approaches the strip edges. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noufi, R.; Wu, X.; Abu-Shama, J.; Ramanathan, K; Dhere, R.; Zhou, J.; Coutts, T.; Contreras, M.; Gessert, T.; Ward, J. S.

    2005-11-01

    We present a digest of our research on the thin-film material components that comprise the top and bottom cells of three different material systems and the tandem devices constructed from them.

  17. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.; Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Morrison, R.L.

    1999-08-03

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material is disclosed. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  18. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W.; Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Morrison, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  19. Thin film production method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Moravsky, Alexander P.; Hassen, Charles N.

    2010-08-10

    A method for forming a thin film material which comprises depositing solid particles from a flowing suspension or aerosol onto a filter and next adhering the solid particles to a second substrate using an adhesive.

  20. Thin Wall Cast Iron: Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doru M. Stefanescu

    2005-07-21

    The development of thin-wall technology allows the designers of energy consuming equipment to select the most appropriate material based on cost/material properties considerations, and not solely on density. The technology developed in this research project will permit the designers working for the automotive industry to make a better informed choice between competing materials and thin wall cast iron, thus decreasing the overall cost of the automobile.

  1. Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:49 Generic silicon solar cells showing +45°, -45°, and dendritic crack patterns. The effort to shift U.S. energy reliance from fossil fuels to renewable sources has spurred companies to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of their solar photovoltaics (SPVs). The use of thinner silicon in SPV technologies is being widely adopted because it significantly reduces costs;

  2. Basic principles of the surface harmonics method: Flat geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovalishin, A. A.

    2011-12-15

    The basic principles of the surface harmonics method are described. A one-dimensional problem is used to exemplify the specific features of the method and the algorithms for construction of finite-difference equations. The objective of this study is to popularize the surface harmonics method among specialists.

  3. Role of basic ecological knowledge in environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrand, S.G.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Suter, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The role of basic ecological knowledge in environmental impact assessment was examined. The focus was primarily on the NEPA process. Experience in population biology and ecosystem studies is discussed, the successes and limits of applicability are highlighted, and implications for long-term research needs are identified. Current attempts to develop a national assessment of acid deposition impacts are reviewed. 48 refs. (ACR)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of SnO{sub 2} thin films doped with Fe to 10%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lpez, E.; Marn, J.; Osorio, J.

    2014-05-15

    Appropriate conditions for SnO{sub 2} powder synthesis doped with iron to 10% by using sol-gel route are found. The powders obtained have been analyzed by means of analytic spectroscopic techniques: Raman, Mssbauer, diffuse reflectance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray diffraction. Sn{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} thin films deposited by AC magnetron sputtering on silicon substrates are obtained and characterized. A crystal structure rutile-type was found for thin films.

  5. Spin-polarized electron energy loss spectroscopy on Fe(100) thin films

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    grown on Ag(100) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Spin-polarized electron energy loss spectroscopy on Fe(100) thin films grown on Ag(100) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spin-polarized electron energy loss spectroscopy on Fe(100) thin films grown on Ag(100) Authors: Komesu, Takashi ; Waddill, G. D. ; Tobin, J. G. [1] ; MUST) [2] + Show Author Affiliations LLNL ( Publication Date: 2015-10-15 OSTI Identifier: 1223970 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name:

  6. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thin, MEMS contact-stress sensor continuously and accurately measures time-varying, solid interface loads over tens of thousands of load cycles. The contact-stress sensor is extremely thin (150 {mu}m) and has a linear output with an accuracy of {+-} 1.5% FSO. Authors: Kotovksy, J ; Tooker, A ; Horsley, D Publication Date: 2010-05-28 OSTI Identifier: 984646 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-433955 TRN: US201016%%1413 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation:

  7. Development and Characterization of a Spray Deposited CNT/PVDF Thin Film.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Development and Characterization of a Spray Deposited CNT/PVDF Thin Film. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development and Characterization of a Spray Deposited CNT/PVDF Thin Film. Abstract not provided. Authors: Loyola, Bryan R. ; Briggs, Timothy M. ; Sugar, Joshua Daniel ; O'Bryan, Greg Publication Date: 2014-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1146176 Report Number(s): SAND2014-4420C 519435 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type:

  8. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thin, MEMS contact-stress sensor continuously and accurately measures time-varying, solid interface loads over tens of thousands of load cycles. The contact-stress sensor is extremely thin (150 {mu}m) and has a linear output with an accuracy of {+-} 1.5% FSO. Authors: Kotovksy, J ; Tooker, A ; Horsley, D Publication Date: 2010-05-28 OSTI Identifier: 984646 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-433955 TRN: US201016%%1413 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation:

  9. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C. Robert; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Campbell, John H.; Staggs, Michael; Rainer, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  10. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  11. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty

    2012-08-16

    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W. This price would open many markets for waste heat recovery applications. By installing Hi-Z's materials in applications in which electricity could be produced from waste heat sources could result in significant energy savings as well as emissions reductions. For example, if QW thermoelectric generators could be introduced commercially in 2015, and assuming they could also capture an additional 0.1%/year of the available waste heat from the aluminum, steel, and iron industries, then by 2020, their use would lead to a 2.53 trillion Btu/year reduction in energy consumption. This translates to a $12.9 million/year energy savings, and 383.6 million lb's of CO2 emissions reduction per year. Additionally, Hi-Z would expect that the use of QW TE devices in the automotive, manufacturing, and energy generation industries would reduce the USA's petroleum and fossil fuel dependence, and thus significantly reduce emissions from CO2 and other polluting gasses such as NOx, SOx, and particulate matter (PM), etc.

  12. Future steelmaking technologies and the role of basic research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruehan, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    The steel industry is going through a technological revolution which will not only change how steel is produced but, also, the entire structure of the industry. The drivers for the new or improved technologies, including reduction in capital requirements, possible shortages in raw materials such as coke and low residual scrap, environmental concerns and customer demands are briefly examined. The current status of research and development in the US and selected international producers was examined. As expected, it was found that the industry`s research capabilities have been greatly reduced. Furthermore, less than half of the companies which identified a given technology as critical have significant R and D programs addressing the technology. Examples of how basic research aided in process improvements in the past are given. The examples include demonstrating how fundamentals of reaction kinetics, improved nitrogen control, thermodynamics of systems helped reduce nozzle clogging and fluid flow studies reduced defects in casting. However, in general, basic research did not play a major role in processes previously developed, but helped understanding and aided optimization. To have a major impact, basic research must be focused and be an integral part of any new process development. An example where this has been done successfully is the AISI Direct Ironmaking and Waste Oxide Recycle Projects in which fundamental studies on reduction, slag foaming, and post combustion reactions have led to process understanding, control and optimization. Industry leaders recognize the value and need for basic research but insist it be truly relevant and done with industry input. From these examples the lessons learned on how to make basic research more effective are discussed.

  13. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xinghua; Wang Tiejun Ma Longlong; Chang Jie

    2008-11-15

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) {approx}205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  14. DOE Announces $52.5 Million Solicitation for Basic Hydrogen Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    52.5 Million Solicitation for Basic Hydrogen Research Supporting President Bush's Advanced Energy Initiative DOE Announces 52.5 Million Solicitation for Basic Hydrogen Research ...

  15. Types of contracts and agreements guide. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this volume is to be helpful in providing a comprehensive introduction to a wide variety of contract types and agreements, including a consideration of small purchase procedures and multiyear procurement. In both format and content, it is designed to help those persons who influence the determination of the types of contracts and agreements to be employed in acquiring goods and services for the Department of Energy. Information is presented on selecting and negotiating types of contract compensation arrangements; fixed-price type contract compensation arrangements, including small purchases and multiyear procurement; cost-reimbursement type contract compensation arrangements; other types of contract compensation agreements; and basic agreements and basic ordering agreements. (LCL)

  16. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Quanxi; Gibbons, Brady J.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Park, Bae Ho

    2002-01-01

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  17. Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells incorporating a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells which incorporate a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer adjacent to the junction forming metal layer exhibit increased open circuit voltages compared to standard rectifying junction metal devices, i.e., Schottky barrier devices, and rectifying junction metal insulating silicon devices, i.e., MIS devices.

  18. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey; Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  19. NREL: Distributed Grid Integration - Energy System Basics Video Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Printable Version Energy System Basics Video Series Learn the essential facts on energy systems in this six-part video series sponsored by the DOE SunShot Initiative and hosted by Dr. Ravel Ammerman. Part 1: Electricity Grid Overview Part 2: Electricity Grid: Traditional Generation Technologies Part 3: Electricity Grid: Transmission Systems Part 4: Electricity Grid: Substation Overview Part 5: Electricity Grid: Distribution System Overview Part 6: Electricity Grid: Renewable Energy Resources

  20. Events in time: Basic analysis of Poisson data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    The report presents basic statistical methods for analyzing Poisson data, such as the member of events in some period of time. It gives point estimates, confidence intervals, and Bayesian intervals for the rate of occurrence per unit of time. It shows how to compare subsets of the data, both graphically and by statistical tests, and how to look for trends in time. It presents a compound model when the rate of occurrence varies randomly. Examples and SAS programs are given.

  1. Electron Proton Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium Neutron Fusion Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium Neutron Fusion Basics Throughout history, the way in which the sun and stars produce their energy remained a mystery. During the 20th century, scientists discovered that the energy is produced through the fusion of light atoms. Albert Einstein's familiar formula, E=mc 2 , provided the basis for understanding that mass can be converted into energy. With fission, heavy atoms - such as uranium - can be split to release the internal energy that holds them together.

  2. Basic Data Report for Monitor Well AEC-7 Reconfiguration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-20

    The New Mexico Office of the State Engineer (OSE) permitted well AEC-7 as C-2742. This well has been part of the far-field monitoring network since 1974. The well was used to obtain water level elevations and hydraulic parameters from both the Bell Canyon Formation and the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation. This basic data report provides a historical account of the well from the original installation to the current configuration.

  3. Recombinant transfer in the basic genome of E. coli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dixit, Purushottam; Studier, F. William; Pang, Tin Yau; Maslov, Sergei

    2015-07-07

    An approximation to the ~4-Mbp basic genome shared by 32 strains of E. coli representing six evolutionary groups has been derived and analyzed computationally. A multiple-alignment of the 32 complete genome sequences was filtered to remove mobile elements and identify the most reliable ~90% of the aligned length of each of the resulting 496 basic-genome pairs. Patterns of single bp mutations (SNPs) in aligned pairs distinguish clonally inherited regions from regions where either genome has acquired DNA fragments from diverged genomes by homologous recombination since their last common ancestor. Such recombinant transfer is pervasive across the basic genome, mostly betweenmoregenomes in the same evolutionary group, and generates many unique mosaic patterns. The six least-diverged genome-pairs have one or two recombinant transfers of length ~40115 kbp (and few if any other transfers), each containing one or more gene clusters known to confer strong selective advantage in some environments. Moderately diverged genome pairs (0.41% SNPs) show mosaic patterns of interspersed clonal and recombinant regions of varying lengths throughout the basic genome, whereas more highly diverged pairs within an evolutionary group or pairs between evolutionary groups having >1.3% SNPs have few clonal matches longer than a few kbp. Many recombinant transfers appear to incorporate fragments of the entering DNA produced by restriction systems of the recipient cell. A simple computational model can closely fit the data. As a result, most recombinant transfers seem likely to be due to generalized transduction by co-evolving populations of phages, which could efficiently distribute variability throughout bacterial genomes.less

  4. Basic research needed for the development of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aamodt, R.L.; Riecker, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    Basic research needed to facilitate development of geothermal energy is identified. An attempt has been made to make the report representative of the ideas of productive workers in the field. The present state of knowledge of geothermal energy is presented and then specific recommendations for further research, with status and priorities, are listed. Discussion is limited to a small number of applicable concepts, namely: origin of geothermal flux; transport of geothermal energy; geothermal reservoirs; rock-water interactions, and geophysical and geochemical exploration.

  5. Nuclear data for basic and applied science. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.G.; Brown, R.E.; Auchampaugh, G.F.; Lisowski, P.W.; Stewart, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on nuclear data for basic and applied science. Topics considered included: nuclear data needs for fusion reactors; fast-neutron interaction with niobium; neutronic analysis of fusion-fusion (hybrid) blankets; measurements of 14 MeV neutron activation cross sections; recent experimental data on sub-barrier fission of light actinides; and intermediate structure in the fission cross sections of the even curium isotopes.

  6. TiO{sub 2}/PANI And MWNT/PANI Composites Thin Films For Hydrogen Gas Sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Subodh; Kumar, Sumit; Agrawal, Shweta; Saxena, Arpita; Choudhary, B. L.; Mathur, Shubhra; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K.

    2010-12-01

    The MWNT and TiO{sub 2} doped Polyaniline (PANI) composites were synthesized by In-situ chemical oxidative polymerization method at low temperature. The MWNT/PANI and TiO{sub 2}/PANI composite thin films were prepared using spin coating method onto finger type interdigited electrodes to develop the chemiresistor type gas sensor for hydrogen gas sensing application. It was observed that the MWNT and TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite thin films show a higher response in comparision to neat PANI. The structural and morphological properties of these composite films were characterized by X-Ray differaction (XRD) pattern and sccaning electrone microscopy (SEM) respectively.

  7. Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences programs: FWP executive summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vook, F.L.; Samara, G.A.

    1989-02-01

    The goals of our Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Materials Science Program at Sandia are: (1) Perform basic, forefront interdisciplinary research using the capabilities of several organizations. (2) Choose programs broadly complementary to Sandia's weapons laboratory mission, but separably identifiable. (3) Perform research in a setting which enhances technological impact because of Sandia's spectrum of basic research, applied research and development engineering. (4) Use large, capital-intensive research facilities not usually found at universities. The BES Materials Science program at Sandia Albuquerque has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia's expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics, and materials-processing science to produce new classes of tailorable materials for the US energy industry, the electronics industry and for defense needs. Current research in this program includes ion-implantation-modified materials, physics and chemistry of ceramics, tailored surfaces for materials applications, strained-layer semiconductors, chemical vapor deposition, surface photo kinetics, organic and high-temperature superconductors, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures and boron-rich very high temperature semiconductors.

  8. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  9. Process for depositing thin film layers onto surfaces modified with organic functional groups and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Rieke, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A method is provided for producing a thin film product, comprising a first step in which an underlying substrate of a first material is provided. The underlying substrate includes a plurality of unmodified sites. The underlying substrate is then chemically modified wherein a plurality of organic functional groups are attached to a plurality of the unmodified sites. The arrangement and type of the functional group used can be selected for the purpose of controlling particular properties of the second material deposited. A thin film layer of at least one second material is then deposited onto the chemically modified underlying substrate. This can be accomplished by connecting the thin film to the underlying substrate by binding the thin film to the functional groups.

  10. Process for depositing thin film layers onto surfaces modified with organic functional groups and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarasevich, B.J.; Rieke, P.C.

    1998-06-02

    A method is provided for producing a thin film product, comprising a first step in which an underlying substrate of a first material is provided. The underlying substrate includes a plurality of unmodified sites. The underlying substrate is then chemically modified wherein a plurality of organic functional groups are attached to a plurality of the unmodified sites. The arrangement and type of the functional group used can be selected for the purpose of controlling particular properties of the second material deposited. A thin film layer of at least one second material is then deposited onto the chemically modified underlying substrate. This can be accomplished by connecting the thin film to the underlying substrate by binding the thin film to the functional groups. 5 figs.

  11. Method for synthesizing thin film electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2007-03-13

    A method for making a thin-film electrode, either an anode or a cathode, by preparing a precursor solution using an alkoxide reactant, depositing multiple thin film layers with each layer approximately 500 1000 .ANG. in thickness, and heating the layers to above 600.degree. C. to achieve a material with electrochemical properties suitable for use in a thin film battery. The preparation of the anode precursor solution uses Sn(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.2 dissolved in a solvent in the presence of HO.sub.2CCH.sub.3 and the cathode precursor solution is formed by dissolving a mixture of (Li(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3)).sub.8 and Co(O.sub.2CCH.sub.3).H.sub.2O in at least one polar solvent.

  12. Method for making thin polypropylene film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behymer, R.D.; Scholten, J.A.

    1985-11-21

    An economical method is provided for making uniform thickness polypropylene film as thin as 100 Angstroms. A solution of polypropylene dissolved in xylene is formed by mixing granular polypropylene and xylene together in a flask at an elevated temperature. A substrate, such as a glass plate or microscope slide is immersed in the solution. When the glass plate is withdrawn from the solution at a uniform rate, a thin polypropylene film forms on a flat surface area of the glass plate as the result of xylene evaporation. The actual thickness of the polypropylene film is functional of the polypropylene in xylene solution concentration, and the particular withdrawal rate of the glass plate from the solution. After formation, the thin polypropylene film is floated from the glass plate onto the surface of water, from which it is picked up with a wire hoop.

  13. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  14. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  15. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  16. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  17. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2011-06-01

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  18. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1990-05-08

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

  19. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.; Auciello, Orlando

    1990-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

  20. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5.mu.m to .congruent.5.0.mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-12-31

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  2. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E.

    1998-01-15

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  4. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-2 (C-2948)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis W. Powers; Washington Regultory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-19

    SNL-2 was drilled in the northwest quarter of Section 12, T22S, R30E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 2-1). It is located 574 ft from the north line (fnl) and 859 ft from the west line (fwl) of the section (Figure 2-2). This location places the drillhole east of the Livingston Ridge escarpment among oil wells of the Cabin Lake field. SNL-2 will be used to test hydraulic properties and to monitor ground water levels of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation. SNL-2 was permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-2948. [Official correspondence regarding permitting and regulatory information must reference this permit number.] In the plan describing the integrated groundwater hydrology program (Sandia National Laboratories, 2003), SNL-2 is also codesignated WTS-1 because the location also satisfies needs for long-term monitoring of water quality and movement in the Culebra Dolomite for RCRA permitting; this program is under the management of Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS). In the event that additional wells are established on the SNL-2 drillpad to monitor other hydrological units (e.g., the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation), the current drillhole will likely be referred to as SNL-2C because it is completed in the Culebra. Most drillholes at WIPP have been described after completion to provide an account of the geology, hydrology, or other basic data acquired during drilling and immediate completion of the drillhole. In addition, the basic data report provides an account of the drilling procedures and activities that may be helpful to later interpretations of data or for further work in the drillhole, including test activities and eventual plugging and abandoning activities. The basic data report also provides a convenient means of reporting information about administrative activities necessary to drill the hole.

  5. Basic visual observation skills training course: Appendix B. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following this training is an integrating exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection. This report contains the in-class exercises in the five skill areas; pre- and post-course exercises in closure, hidden figures, map memory, and mental rotations; the final examination; a training evaluation form; and the integrating exercise.

  6. Transmission and Grid Basics for Tribal Economic and Energy Development

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transmission and Grid Basics for Tribal Economic and Energy Development March 30, 2016 11:00 am - 12:30 PM MDT Tribal Energy Development Operation and Management Best Practices 2 Todays Presenters * Sean Esterly sean.esterly@nrel.gov * Doug MacCourt Douglas.Maccourt@hq.doe.gov * Kurt Daniel Kdaniel@wapa.gov * Dave Narang david.narang@nrel.gov * Jon Steward Steward@wapa.gov * Tawnie Knight tawnieknight@utemountain.org * Scott Clow sclow@utemountain.org * Bob Easton aeaston@wapa.gov 3 Link to the

  7. NREL: Learning - Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Photo of a parked blue compact car with large decals on the doors stating that it is a plug-in hybrid achieving more than 120 miles per gallon. This Toyota Prius hybrid electric car was converted to a plug-in hybrid for research purposes. Credit: Keith Wipke Image of the cutaway top view of a passenger vehicle showing the drive train that contains an electric motor and a small internal combustion engine side by side in front. The motors are connected by

  8. Basic devices and techniques for supervisory control and telemetery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, R.M.

    1984-04-01

    The microprocessor is creating extraordinary changes in the basic devices used for supervisory control and telemetry systems. Devices which incorporate microprocessors are providing new capabilities to monitor, to control, and to transmit data. These new capabilities provide the opportunity to utilize new techniques in achieving more efficient operation and control of gas transmission and distribution systems. This paper describes several devices being installed at Transcocontinental Gas Pipe Line Corporation and their impact on the planned techniques to be used to collect gas flow data and to implement supervisory control.

  9. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  10. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-12-23

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent.

  11. UV absorption control of thin film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Zuhoski, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the rate of growth of thin films in an atmosphere of reactant gases measures the UV absorbance of the atmosphere and calculates the partial pressure of the gases. The flow of reactant gases is controlled in response to the partial pressure.

  12. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning; Shu, Longlong; Maria, Jon-Paul

    2014-10-06

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin film with a thickness of 130 nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5 μC/m at Curie temperature (∼28 °C) and 17.44 μC/m at 41 °C. The measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10–100 μC/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.

  13. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, Howard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  14. Basic Physics Data: Measurement of Neutron Multiplicity from Induced Fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pozzi, Sara; Haight, Robert

    2015-05-04

    From October 1 to October 17 a team of researchers from UM visited the LANSCE facility for an experiment during beam-time allotted from October 4 to October 17. A total of 24 detectors were used at LANSCE including liquid organic scintillation detectors (EJ-309), NaI scintillation detectors, and Li-6 enriched glass detectors. It is a double time-offlight (TOF) measurement using spallation neutrons generated by a target bombarded with pulsed high-energy protons. The neutrons travel to an LLNL-manufactured parallel plate avalanche chamber (PPAC) loaded with thin U-235 foils in which fission events are induced. The generated fission neutrons and photons are then detected in a detector array designed and built at UM and shipped to LANSCE. Preparations were made at UM, where setup and proposed detectors were tested. The UM equipment was then shipped to LANSCE for use at the 15L beam of the weapons neutron research (WNR) facility.

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer 2008.01.08 - 2008.07.18 Lead Scientist : Mary Jane Bartholomew For data sets, see below. Abstract The Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband...

  16. Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films ...

  17. SAW determination of surface area of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.

    1990-01-01

    N.sub.2 adsorption isotherms are measured from thin films on SAW devices. The isotherms may be used to determine the surface area and pore size distribution of thin films.

  18. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries A ...

  19. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers

  20. Charge Transport in Thin Film Ionomers | Argonne Leadership Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model of a thin film Nafion ionomer (green translucent surface) in a fuel cell membranecatalyst interface Model of a thin film Nafion ionomer (green translucent surface) in a fuel...

  1. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Wednesday, 21 November 2012 12:18 Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical,...

  2. Types of Radiation Exposure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Types of radiation exposure Regardless of where or how an accident involving radiation ... Hospital Emergency Care of the Radiation Accident Patient.) Contamination The second type ...

  3. ARM - Measurement - Cloud type

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Cloud type Cloud type such as cirrus, stratus, cumulus etc Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  4. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1992-08-05

    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  5. Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Won-Oh; Kim, Jihyun, E-mail: hyunhyun7@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Yong Hwan; Kim, Byungnam; Lee, Byung Cheol [Radiation Integrated System Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate the close-spaced sublimation growth of polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films on a flexible graphene electrode/thin glass substrate structure. Prior to the growth of CdTe films, chemical-vapor-deposited graphene was transferred onto a flexible glass substrate and subjected to electron-beam irradiation at an energy of 0.2?MeV in order to intentionally introduce the defects into it in a controlled manner. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and sheet resistance measurements were employed to monitor the damage and disorder in the electron-beam irradiated graphene layers. The morphology and optical properties of the CdTe thin films deposited on a graphene/flexible glass substrate were systematically characterized. The integration of the defective graphene layers with a flexible glass substrate can be a useful platform to grow various thin-film structures for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  6. Basic Solar Energy Research in Japan (2011 EFRC Forum)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domen, Kazunari

    2011-05-26

    Kazunari Domen, Chemical System Engineering Professor at the University of Tokyo, was the second speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Domen talked about basic solar energy research in Japan. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  7. Basic Solar Energy Research in Japan (2011 EFRC Forum)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Domen, Kazunari (University of Tokyo)

    2012-03-14

    Kazunari Domen, Chemical System Engineering Professor at the University of Tokyo, was the second speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Domen talked about basic solar energy research in Japan. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several ?grand challenges? and use-inspired ?basic research needs? recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  8. Thin-Film Material Science and Processing | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Photo of a stainless steel piece of equipment with multiple hoses and other equipment attached. NREL's expertise focuses on using thin films to create and enable technologically useful applications. For renewable energy, a prime example of this research is thin-film photovoltaics (PV). Thin films are important because they offer the potential for low-cost processing with minimal material usage while fulfilling application requirements. Importantly, this

  9. Multifunctional thin film surface (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multifunctional thin film surface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multifunctional thin film surface A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has

  10. Electronic Durability of Flexible Transparent Films from Type-Specific Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J; Iyer, S; Bernhardt, A; Huh, JY; Hudson, S; Fagan, J; Hobbie, E.

    2011-12-11

    The coupling between mechanical flexibility and electronic performance is evaluated for thin films of metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) deposited on compliant supports. Percolated networks of type-purified SWCNTs are assembled as thin conducting coatings on elastic polymer substrates, and the sheet resistance is measured as a function of compression and cyclic strain through impedance spectroscopy. The wrinkling topography, microstructure and transparency of the films are independently characterized using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and optical absorption spectroscopy. Thin films made from metallic SWCNTs show better durability as flexible transparent conductive coatings, which we attribute to a combination of superior mechanical performance and higher interfacial conductivity.

  11. Impact of annealing temperature on the mechanical and electrical properties of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Nicolay, P.

    2015-02-14

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a promising material for challenging sensor applications such as process monitoring in harsh environments (e.g., turbine exhaust), due to its piezoelectric properties, its high temperature stability and good thermal match to silicon. Basically, the operational temperature of piezoelectric materials is limited by the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the material at elevated temperatures. This work focuses on the characterization of aluminum nitride thin films after post deposition annealings up to temperatures of 1000 °C in harsh environments. For this purpose, thin film samples were temperature loaded for 2 h in pure nitrogen and oxygen gas atmospheres and characterized with respect to the film stress and the leakage current behaviour. The X-ray diffraction results show that AlN thin films are chemically stable in oxygen atmospheres for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900 °C. At 1000 °C, a 100 nm thick AlN layer oxidizes completely. For nitrogen, the layer is stable up to 1000 °C. The activation energy of the samples was determined from leakage current measurements at different sample temperatures, in the range between 25 and 300 °C. Up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C, the leakage current in the thin film is dominated by Poole-Frenkel behavior, while at higher annealing temperatures, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.

  12. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-10-01

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X-ray sources, neutron sources, nanoscale science research centers, and supercomputers, offer the opportunity to transform and accelerate the fundamental materials and chemical sciences that underpin technology development for advanced nuclear energy systems. The fundamental challenge is to understand and control chemical and physical phenomena in multi-component systems from femto-seconds to millennia, at temperatures to 1000?C, and for radiation doses to hundreds of displacements per atom (dpa). This is a scientific challenge of enormous proportions, with broad implications in the materials science and chemistry of complex systems. New understanding is required for microstructural evolution and phase stability under relevant chemical and physical conditions, chemistry and structural evolution at interfaces, chemical behavior of actinide and fission-product solutions, and nuclear and thermomechanical phenomena in fuels and waste forms. First-principles approaches are needed to describe f-electron systems, design molecules for separations, and explain materials failure mechanisms. Nanoscale synthesis and characterization methods are needed to understand and design materials and interfaces with radiation, temperature, and corrosion resistance. Dynamical measurements are required to understand fundamental physical and chemical phenomena. New multiscale approaches are needed to integrate this knowledge into accurate models of relevant phenomena and complex systems across multiple length and time scales.

  13. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-08-13

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI{sub 2} chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin ``composition-graded`` layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ({approx_equal}2.5 {mu}m to {approx_equal}5.0 {mu}m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii) a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion occurs (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer. 16 figs.

  14. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-08-13

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order ot about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI[sub 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1982-06-15

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (1) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI[sub 2] chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin composition-graded'' layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ([approx equal]2.5[mu]m to [approx equal]5.0[mu]m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (2), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, is allowed.

  16. Criticality Safety Basics for INL FMHs and CSOs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. L. Putman

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear power is a valuable and efficient energy alternative in our energy-intensive society. However, material that can generate nuclear power has properties that require this material be handled with caution. If improperly handled, a criticality accident could result, which could severely harm workers. This document is a modular self-study guide about Criticality Safety Principles. This guide's purpose it to help you work safely in areas where fissionable nuclear materials may be present, avoiding the severe radiological and programmatic impacts of a criticality accident. It is designed to stress the fundamental physical concepts behind criticality controls and the importance of criticality safety when handling fissionable materials outside nuclear reactors. This study guide was developed for fissionable-material-handler and criticality-safety-officer candidates to use with related web-based course 00INL189, BEA Criticality Safety Principles, and to help prepare for the course exams. These individuals must understand basic information presented here. This guide may also be useful to other Idaho National Laboratory personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. This guide also includes additional information that will not be included in 00INL189 tests. The additional information is in appendices and paragraphs with headings that begin with 'Did you know,' or with, 'Been there Done that'. Fissionable-material-handler and criticality-safety-officer candidates may review additional information at their own discretion. This guide is revised as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Issued in 2006, Revision 0 established the basic text and integrated various programs from former contractors. Revision 1 incorporates operation and program changes implemented since 2006. It also incorporates suggestions, clarifications, and additional information from readers and from personnel who took course 00INL189. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that fissionable material handlers and criticality safety officers must understand. The reorganization is based on and consistent with changes made to course 00INL189 due to a review of course exam results and to discussions with personnel who conduct area-specific training.

  17. Basics of Bayesian Statistics and Emulation (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Santa Fe Cosmology Workshop ; 2015-07-24 - 2015-07-24 ; Santa Fe, New Mexico, United ...

  18. Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramanathan, Kannan V.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Keane, James; Noufi, Rommel

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides an economical, simple, dry and controllable semiconductor layer junction forming process to make cadmium free high efficiency photovoltaic cells having a first layer comprised primarily of copper indium diselenide having a thin doped copper indium diselenide n-type region, generated by thermal diffusion with a group II(b) element such as zinc, and a halide, such as chlorine, and a second layer comprised of a conventional zinc oxide bilayer. A photovoltaic device according the present invention includes a first thin film layer of semiconductor material formed primarily from copper indium diselenide. Doping of the copper indium diselenide with zinc chloride is accomplished using either a zinc chloride solution or a solid zinc chloride material. Thermal diffusion of zinc chloride into the copper indium diselenide upper region creates the thin n-type copper indium diselenide surface. A second thin film layer of semiconductor material comprising zinc oxide is then applied in two layers. The first layer comprises a thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide. The second relatively thick layer of zinc oxide is doped to exhibit low resistivity.

  19. Microstructure and magnetic properties of FeCo epitaxial thin films grown on MgO single-crystal substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shikada, Kouhei; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2009-04-01

    FeCo epitaxial films were prepared on MgO(100), MgO(110), and MgO(111) substrates by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. FeCo thin films with (100), (211), and (110) planes parallel to the substrate surface grow on respective MgO substrates. FeCo/MgO interface structures are studied by high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and the epitaxial growth mechanism is discussed. Atomically sharp boundaries are recognized between the FeCo thin films and the MgO substrates where misfit dislocations are introduced in the FeCo thin films presumably to decrease the lattice misfits. Misfit dislocations are observed approximately every 9 and 1.4 nm in FeCo thin film at the FeCo/MgO(100) and the FeCo/MgO(110) interfaces, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the lattice spacing measured parallel to the single-crystal substrate surfaces are in agreement within 0.1% with those of the respective bulk values of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} alloy crystal, showing that the FeCo film strain is very small. The magnetic anisotropies of these epitaxial films basically reflect the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bulk FeCo alloy crystal.

  20. Development of Commercial Technology for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Glass: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-209

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2013-03-01

    NREL has conducted basic research relating to high efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and the method of making solar cells. Two patents have been issued to NREL in the above field. In addition, specific process and metrology tools have been developed by NREL. Applied Optical Sciences Corp. (AOS) has expertise in the manufacture of solar cells and has developed its own unique concentrator technology. AOS wants to complement its solar cell expertise and its concentrator technology by manufacturing flat panel thin film silicon solar cell panels. AOS wants to take NREL's research to the next level, using it to develop commercially viable flat pane, thin film silicon solar cell panels. Such a development in equipment, process, and metrology will likely produce the lowest cost solar cell technology for both commercial and residential use. NREL's fundamental research capability and AOS's technology and industrial background are complementary to achieve this product development.

  1. BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: Biomass Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many students haven’t thought much about biomass as an option for generating electricity, transportation fuels, and other products. The Biomass Basics Webinar provides general information about bioenergy, its creation, and its potential uses, and is designed to assist teams competing in the 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. This challenge, hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), is a competition for high school students to learn about bioenergy, create infographics to present what they have learned, and share their infographics on social media. This webinar is part of the BioenergizeME Office Hours webinar series developed by BETO in conjunction with the 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge.

  2. Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research * Basic Energy Sciences * Biological

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy S ciences N etwork Enabling Virtual Science June 9, 2009 Steve C o/er steve@es.net Dept. H ead, E nergy S ciences N etwork Lawrence B erkeley N aDonal L ab The E nergy S ciences N etwork The D epartment o f E nergy's O ffice o f S cience i s o ne o f t he l argest s upporters o f basic r esearch i n t he p hysical s ciences i n t he U .S. * Directly s upports t he r esearch o f s ome 1 5,000 s cienDsts, p ostdocs a nd g raduate s tudents at D OE l aboratories, u niversiDes, o ther F

  3. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed the United States to attain world leadership in this area of solar technology. Three national R&D teams focused on thin-film semiconductor materials: amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium

  4. Method of transferring a thin crystalline semiconductor layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael A.; Shao, Lin; Theodore, N. David

    2006-12-26

    A method for transferring a thin semiconductor layer from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a thin epitaxial monocrystalline semiconductor layer on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure and allowed to diffuse to the interface. Afterward, the thin semiconductor layer is bonded to a second substrate and the thin layer is separated away at the interface, which results in transferring the thin epitaxial semiconductor layer from one substrate to the other substrate.

  5. W, F, and I : Three quantities basic to radiation physics. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    W, F, and I : Three quantities basic to radiation physics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: W, F, and I : Three quantities basic to radiation physics. You are ...

  6. Energy Dept. Awards $22.7 Million for Basic Solar Energy Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    22.7 Million for Basic Solar Energy Research Energy Dept. Awards 22.7 Million for Basic Solar Energy Research May 22, 2007 - 1:24pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of ...

  7. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Chengliang E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Hu, Weijin; Wu, Tom E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Tian, Yufeng

    2015-06-15

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  8. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  9. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Steve R. (111 Beryl St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  10. Method for casting thin metal objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2015-04-14

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  11. Rechargeable thin-film electrochemical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Ranger, Michel; Sudano, Anthony; Trice, Jennifer L.; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2000-09-15

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  12. Method of casting silicon into thin sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanjurjo, Angel; Rowcliffe, David J.; Bartlett, Robert W.

    1982-10-26

    Silicon (Si) is cast into thin shapes within a flat-bottomed graphite crucible by providing a melt of molten Si along with a relatively small amount of a molten salt, preferably NaF. The Si in the resulting melt forms a spherical pool which sinks into and is wetted by the molten salt. Under these conditions the Si will not react with any graphite to form SiC. The melt in the crucible is pressed to the desired thinness with a graphite tool at which point the tool is held until the mass in the crucible has been cooled to temperatures below the Si melting point, at which point the Si shape can be removed.

  13. Preparation of thin film high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VenKatesan, X.X.T.; Li, Q.; Findikoglu, A.; Hemmick, D. . Dept. of Physics); Wu, X.D. ); Inam, A.; Chang, C.C.; Ramesh, R.; Hwang, D.M.; Ravi, T.S.; Etemad, S.; Martinez, J.A.; Wilkens, B. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper addresses fundamental issues in preparing high quality high T{sub c} YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} thin films. The techniques of inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition are chosen as successful examples to illustrate how the key problems can be solved. The fabrication of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x}/PrBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} superlattices where superconductivity in a single unit cell layer of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} was observed demonstrates the state of the art of thin film deposition of high T{sub c} materials. Systematic variations of the deposition parameters result in changes of superconducting and structural properties of the films that correlate with their microwave and infrared characteristics.

  14. Lead-free Thin Film Piezoelectric Devices

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2011-01-21

    In a breakthrough discovery, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Robert Zeches, and their research team at Berkeley Lab have developed a technology for lead-free piezoelectric materials using thin-film bismuth ferrite. In addition to being less hazardous to human health and the environment, the Berkeley Lab invention offers an order of magnitude more efficient performance, for all applications, than conventional lead-based piezoelectric materials. The invention can be used to fabricate rewritable data storage...

  15. Superconducting thin films on potassium tantalate substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1992-01-01

    A superconductive system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  16. Thin sheet casting with electromagnetic pressurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walk, Steven R.; Slepian, R. Michael; Nathenson, Richard D.; Williams, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus, method and system for the casting of thin strips or strips of metal upon a moving chill block that includes an electromagnet located so that molten metal poured from a reservoir onto the chill block passes into the magnetic field produced by the electromagnet. The electromagnet produces a force on the molten metal on said chill block in the direction toward said chill block in order to enhance thermal contact between the molten metal and the chill block.

  17. Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Weatherspoon, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

  18. Unique High Strength, Olecularly Thin Nanoparticle Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique High Strength, Olecularly Thin Nanoparticle Membranes - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle

  19. Structures for dense, crack free thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2011-03-08

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  20. Annealed CVD molybdenum thin film surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, Gary E. (Tucson, AZ); Seraphin, Bernhard O. (Tucson, AZ)

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum thin films deposited by pyrolytic decomposition of Mo(CO).sub.6 attain, after anneal in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures greater than 700.degree. C., infrared reflectance values greater than reflectance of supersmooth bulk molybdenum. Black molybdenum films deposited under oxidizing conditions and annealed, when covered with an anti-reflecting coating, approach the ideal solar collector characteristic of visible light absorber and infrared energy reflector.

  1. Webinar: BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: Biomass Basics | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Biomass Basics Webinar: BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: Biomass Basics Webinar: BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: Biomass Basics PDF icon biomas_basics_webinar_20150827.pdf More Documents & Publications BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: Integrating Bioenergy into the 9th-12th Grade Classroom BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge Annual Update Webinar: BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: Guide to the 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge

  2. Types of Reuse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following provides greater detail regarding the types of reuse pursued for LM sites. It should be noted that many actual reuses combine several types of the uses listed below.

  3. Types of Hydropower Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are two main types of hydro turbines: impulse and reaction. The type of hydropower turbine selected for a project is based on the height of standing water—referred to as "head"—and the flow,...

  4. Materials Issues in Advanced Nuclear Systems: Executive Summary of DOE Basic Research Needs Workshop, "Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, James B; Diaz de la Rubia, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    This article is reproduced from excerpts from the Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, U.S. Department of Energy, October 2006, www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/ANES_rpt.pdf.

  5. Contact Interface Verification for DYNA3D Scenario 1: Basic Contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMichael, L D

    2006-05-10

    A suite of test problems has been developed to examine contact behavior within the nonlinear, three-dimensional, explicit finite element analysis (FEA) code DYNA3D (Lin, 2005). The test problems address the basic functionality of the contact algorithms, including the behavior of various kinematic, penalty, and Lagrangian enforcement formulations. The results from the DYNA3D analyses are compared to closed form solutions to verify the contact behavior. This work was performed as part of the Verification and Validation efforts of LLNL W Program within the NNSA's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program. DYNA3D models the transient dynamic response of solids and structures including the interactions between disjoint bodies (parts). A wide variety of contact surfaces are available to represent the diverse interactions possible during an analysis, including relative motion (sliding), separation and gap closure (voids), and fixed relative position (tied). The problem geometry may be defined using a combination of element formulations, including one-dimensional beam and truss elements, two-dimensional shell elements, and three-dimensional solid elements. Consequently, it is necessary to consider various element interactions for each contact algorithm being verified. Most of the contact algorithms currently available in DYNA3D are examined; the exceptions are the Type 4--Single Surface Contact and Type 11--SAND algorithms. It is likely that these algorithms will be removed since their functionality is embodied in other, more robust, contact algorithms. The automatic contact algorithm is evaluated using the Type 12 interface. Two other variations of automatic contact, Type 13 and Type 14, offer additional means to adapt the interface domain, but share the same search and restoration algorithms as Type 12. The contact algorithms are summarized in Table 1. This report and associated test problems examine the scenario where one contact surface exists between two disjoint bodies. These test problems focus on whether a particular contact algorithm properly represents the interactions along the interface. A companion report (McMichael, 2006) and test problems address the multi-contact scenario in which multiple bodies interact with each other via multiple interfaces. The multi-contact test problems examine whether any ordering issues exist in the contact logic. The test problems are analyzed using version 5.2 (compiled on 12/22/2005) of DYNA3D. The analytical results are used to form baseline solutions for subsequent regression testing.

  6. Postdoc Appointment Types

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appointment Types Postdoc Appointment Types Most postdocs will be offered a postdoctoral research associate appointment. Each year, approximately 30 Postdoctoral Fellow appointments, including the Distinguished Fellows, are awarded. Contact Postdoc Program Office Email Postdoc appointment types offer world of possibilities Meet the current LANL Distinguished Postdocs Research Associates Research Associates pursue research as part of ongoing LANL science and engineering programs. Sponsored

  7. Thin film heterojunction photovoltaic cells and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basol, Bulent M.; Tseng, Eric S.; Rod, Robert L.

    1983-06-14

    A method of fabricating a thin film heterojunction photovoltaic cell which comprises depositing a film of a near intrinsic or n-type semiconductor compound formed of at least one of the metal elements of Class II B of the Periodic Table of Elements and at least tellurium and then heating said film at a temperature between about 250.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. for a time sufficient to convert said film to a suitably low resistivity p-type semiconductor compound. Such film may be deposited initially on the surface of an n-type semiconductor substrate. Alternatively, there may be deposited on the converted film a layer of n-type semiconductor compound different from the film semiconductor compound. The resulting photovoltaic cell exhibits a substantially increased power output over similar cells not subjected to the method of the present invention.

  8. Towards reversible basic linear algebra subprograms: A performance study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.; Yoginath, Srikanth B.

    2014-12-06

    Problems such as fault tolerance and scalable synchronization can be efficiently solved using reversibility of applications. Making applications reversible by relying on computation rather than on memory is ideal for large scale parallel computing, especially for the next generation of supercomputers in which memory is expensive in terms of latency, energy, and price. In this direction, a case study is presented here in reversing a computational core, namely, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, which is widely used in scientific applications. A new Reversible BLAS (RBLAS) library interface has been designed, and a prototype has been implemented with two modes: (1) amore » memory-mode in which reversibility is obtained by checkpointing to memory in forward and restoring from memory in reverse, and (2) a computational-mode in which nothing is saved in the forward, but restoration is done entirely via inverse computation in reverse. The article is focused on detailed performance benchmarking to evaluate the runtime dynamics and performance effects, comparing reversible computation with checkpointing on both traditional CPU platforms and recent GPU accelerator platforms. For BLAS Level-1 subprograms, data indicates over an order of magnitude better speed of reversible computation compared to checkpointing. For BLAS Level-2 and Level-3, a more complex tradeoff is observed between reversible computation and checkpointing, depending on computational and memory complexities of the subprograms.« less

  9. Basic features of the pion valence-quark distribution function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chang, Lei; Mezrag, Cdric; Moutarde, Herv; Roberts, Craig D.; Rodrguez-Quintero, Jose; Tandy, Peter C.

    2014-10-07

    The impulse-approximation expression used hitherto to define the pion's valence-quark distribution function is flawed because it omits contributions from the gluons which bind quarks into the pion. A corrected leading-order expression produces the model-independent result that quarks dressed via the rainbowladder truncation, or any practical analogue, carry all the pion's light-front momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale. Corrections to the leading contribution may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we use an algebraic model to express the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables amorerealistic comparison with experiment that allows us to highlight the basic features of the pion's measurable valence-quark distribution, q?(x); namely, at a characteristic hadronic scale, q?(x)~(1-x)2 for x?0.85; and the valence-quarks carry approximately two-thirds of the pion's light-front momentum.less

  10. Towards reversible basic linear algebra subprograms: A performance study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.; Yoginath, Srikanth B.

    2014-12-06

    Problems such as fault tolerance and scalable synchronization can be efficiently solved using reversibility of applications. Making applications reversible by relying on computation rather than on memory is ideal for large scale parallel computing, especially for the next generation of supercomputers in which memory is expensive in terms of latency, energy, and price. In this direction, a case study is presented here in reversing a computational core, namely, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, which is widely used in scientific applications. A new Reversible BLAS (RBLAS) library interface has been designed, and a prototype has been implemented with two modes: (1) a memory-mode in which reversibility is obtained by checkpointing to memory in forward and restoring from memory in reverse, and (2) a computational-mode in which nothing is saved in the forward, but restoration is done entirely via inverse computation in reverse. The article is focused on detailed performance benchmarking to evaluate the runtime dynamics and performance effects, comparing reversible computation with checkpointing on both traditional CPU platforms and recent GPU accelerator platforms. For BLAS Level-1 subprograms, data indicates over an order of magnitude better speed of reversible computation compared to checkpointing. For BLAS Level-2 and Level-3, a more complex tradeoff is observed between reversible computation and checkpointing, depending on computational and memory complexities of the subprograms.

  11. Assessment of basic research needs for greenhouse gas control technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, S.M.; Chandler, W.; Edmonds, J.; Houghton, J.; Levine, M.; Bates, L.; Chum, H.; Dooley, J.; Grether, D.; Logan, J.; Wiltsee, G.; Wright, L.

    1998-09-01

    This paper is an outgrowth of an effort undertaken by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to assess the fundamental research needs to support a national program in carbon management. Five topics were identified as areas where carbon management strategies and technologies might be developed: (1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide disposal and utilization; (2) hydrogen development and fuel cells; (3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle; (4) biomass production and utilization; and (5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, and utilization. Within each of these general areas, experts came together to identify targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for stabilizing or decreasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Basic research to support the options outlined above are far reaching-from understanding natural global processes such as the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles to development of new materials and concepts for chemical separation. Examples of fundamental research needs are described in this paper.

  12. Basic SCADA systems - from the sensors to the screen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlie, B.

    1995-12-01

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are specialized control systems used to monitor and control facilities which are geographically dispersed. They are commonly used in the gas, oil, electric, and water transmission and distribution industries. SCADA systems differ from other control systems in that they make extensive use of remote communications and are more tolerant to outages of the communications network than a typical control system installation in a plant environment. A basic SCADA system can be broken into five functional parts. These are: (1) Sensors and Actuators; (2) Remote Terminal Units (RTUs); (3) Communications Facilities; (4) Host Computer Systems; and (5) User Interfaces While the fundamental concepts of SCADA systems have changed little in the past 20 years, more sophisticated hardware and software has altered some of the traditional paradigms associated with these control systems. This is particularly true with respect to RTUs, host computer systems, and user interfaces. While this paper will focus on the fundamentals, it will attempt to provide the reader with current trends in the industry where applicable.

  13. Basic Studies of Non-Diffusive Transport in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morales, George J.; Maggs, James E.

    2014-10-25

    The project expanded and developed mathematical descriptions, and corresponding numerical modeling, of non-diffusive transport to incorporate new perspectives derived from basic transport experiments performed in the LAPD device at UCLA, and at fusion devices throughout the world. By non-diffusive it is meant that the transport of fundamental macroscopic parameters of a system, such as temperature and density, does not follow the standard diffusive behavior predicted by a classical Fokker-Planck equation. The appearance of non-diffusive behavior is often related to underlying microscopic processes that cause the value of a system parameter, at one spatial position, to be linked to distant events, i.e., non-locality. In the LAPD experiments the underlying process was traced to large amplitude, coherent drift-waves that give rise to chaotic trajectories. Significant advances were made in this project. The results have lead to a new perspective about the fundamentals of edge transport in magnetically confined plasmas; the insight has important consequences for worldwide studies in fusion devices. Progress was also made in advancing the mathematical techniques used to describe fractional diffusion.

  14. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

    2012-06-11

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PVâ??s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a mixture of solution and physical vapor deposition processing, but these films lacked the p-type doping levels that are required to make decent solar cells. Over the course of the project PLANT PV was able to fabricate efficient CIGS solar cells (8.7%) but could not achieve equivalent performance using AIGS. During the nine-month grant PLANT PV set up a variety of thin film characterization tools (e.g. drive-level capacitance profiling) at the Molecular Foundry, a Department of Energy User Facility, that are now available to both industrial and academic researchers via the grant process. PLANT PV was also able to develop the back end processing of thin film solar cells at Lawrence Berkeley National Labs to achieve 8.7% efficient CIGS solar cells. This processing development will be applied to other types of thin film PV cells at the Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. While PLANT PV was able to study AIGS film growth and optoelectronic properties we concluded that AIGS produced using these methods would have a limited efficiency and would not be commercially feasible. PLANT PV did not apply for the Phase II of this grant.

  15. Basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. A report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-02-01

    This report has highlighted many of the possible fundamental research areas that will help our country avoid a future energy crisis. The report may not have adequately captured the atmosphere of concern that permeated the discussions at the workshop. The difficulties facing our nation and the world in meeting our energy needs over the next several decades are very challenging. It was generally felt that traditional solutions and approaches will not solve the total energy problem. Knowledge that does not exist must be obtained to address both the quantity of energy needed to increase the standard of living world-wide and the quality of energy generation needed to preserve the environment. In terms of investments, it was clear that there is no single research area that will secure the future energy supply. A diverse range of economic energy sources will be required--and a broad range of fundamental research is needed to enable these. Many of the issues fall into the traditional materials and chemical sciences research areas, but with specific emphasis on understanding mechanisms, energy related phenomena, and pursuing novel directions in, for example, nanoscience and integrated modeling. An important result from the discussions, which is hopefully apparent from the brief presentations above, is that the problems that must be dealt with are truly multidisciplinary. This means that they require the participation of investigators with different skill sets. Basic science skills have to be complemented by awareness of the overall nature of the problem in a national and world context, and with knowledge of the engineering, design, and control issues in any eventual solution. It is necessary to find ways in which this can be done while still preserving the ability to do first-class basic science. The traditional structure of research, with specific disciplinary groupings, will not be sufficient. This presents great challenges and opportunities for the funders of the research that must be done. For example, the applied research programs in the DOE need a greater awareness of the user facilities and an understanding of how to use them to solve their unique problems. The discussions reinforced what all of the participants already knew: the issue of energy security is of major importance both for the U.S. and for the world. Furthermore, it is clear that major changes in the primary energy sources, in energy conversion, and in energy use, must be achieved within the next fifty years. This time scale is determined by two drivers: increasing world population and increasing expectations of that population. Much of the research and development currently being done are concerned with incremental improvements in what has been done in the immediate past; and it is necessary to take this path because improvements will be needed across the board. These advances extend the period before the radical changes have to be made; however, they will not solve the underlying, long-range problem. The Subpanel recommends that a major program be funded to conduct a multidisciplinary research program to address the issues to ensure a secure energy future for the U.S. It is necessary to recognize that this program must be ensured of a long-term stability. It is also necessary that a management and funding structure appropriate for such an approach be developed. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences is well positioned to support this initiative by enhancement of their already world-class scientific research programs and user facilities.

  16. Low temperature thin film transistors with hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, S. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, B.; Ozgit-Akgun, C.; Biyikli, N.; Okyay, A. K. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    2014-06-16

    We report GaN thin film transistors (TFT) with a thermal budget below 250?C. GaN thin films are grown at 200?C by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). HCPA-ALD-based GaN thin films are found to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 9.3?nm. TFTs with bottom gate configuration are fabricated with HCPA-ALD grown GaN channel layers. Fabricated TFTs exhibit n-type field effect characteristics. N-channel GaN TFTs demonstrated on-to-off ratios (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF}) of 10{sup 3} and sub-threshold swing of 3.3?V/decade. The entire TFT device fabrication process temperature is below 250?C, which is the lowest process temperature reported for GaN based transistors, so far.

  17. Air stable n-doping of WSe{sub 2} by silicon nitride thin films with tunable fixed charge density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kevin; Kiriya, Daisuke; Hettick, Mark; Tosun, Mahmut; Ha, Tae-Jun; Madhvapathy, Surabhi Rao; Desai, Sujay; Sachid, Angada; Javey, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Stable n-doping of WSe{sub 2} using thin films of SiN{sub x} deposited on the surface via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is presented. Positive fixed charge centers inside SiN{sub x} act to dope WSe{sub 2} thin flakes n-type via field-induced effect. The electron concentration in WSe{sub 2} can be well controlled up to the degenerate limit by simply adjusting the stoichiometry of the SiN{sub x} through deposition process parameters. For the high doping limit, the Schottky barrier width at the metal/WSe{sub 2} junction is significantly thinned, allowing for efficient electron injection via tunneling. Using this doping scheme, we demonstrate air-stable WSe{sub 2} n-MOSFETs with a mobility of ?70 cm{sup 2}/V?s.

  18. Preparation and structure characterization of SmCo{sub 5}(0001) epitaxial thin films grown on Cu(111) underlayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2009-04-01

    SmCo{sub 5}(0001) epitaxial films were prepared on Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers formed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates at 500 deg. C. The nucleation and growth mechanism of (0001)-oriented SmCo{sub 5} crystal on Cu(111) underlayer is investigated and a method to control the nucleation is proposed. The SmCo{sub 5} epitaxial thin film formed directly on Cu underlayer consists of two types of domains whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 30 deg. each other. By introducing a thin Co seed layer on the Cu underlayer, a SmCo{sub 5}(0001) single-crystal thin film is successfully obtained. Nucleation of SmCo{sub 5} crystal on Cu underlayer seems controllable by varying the interaction between the Cu underlayer and the SmCo{sub 5} layer.

  19. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rambach, Glenn D.; Randich, Erik

    1999-01-01

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  20. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rambach, Glenn D.; Randich, Erik

    1998-01-01

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  1. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

    1998-05-19

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

  2. Microstructure factor and mechanical and electronic properties of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films for microelectromechanical systems applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mouro, J.; Gualdino, A.; Chu, V. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias (INESC-MN) and IN Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Conde, J. P. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias (INESC-MN) and IN Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Tcnico (IST), 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2013-11-14

    Thin-film silicon allows the fabrication of MEMS devices at low processing temperatures, compatible with monolithic integration in advanced electronic circuits, on large-area, low-cost, and flexible substrates. The most relevant thin-film properties for applications as MEMS structural layers are the deposition rate, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stress. In this work, n{sup +}-type doped hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films were deposited by RF-PECVD, and the influence of the hydrogen dilution in the reactive mixture, the RF-power coupled to the plasma, the substrate temperature, and the deposition pressure on the structural, electrical, and mechanical properties of the films was studied. Three different types of silicon films were identified, corresponding to three internal structures: (i) porous amorphous silicon, deposited at high rates and presenting tensile mechanical stress and low electrical conductivity, (ii) dense amorphous silicon, deposited at intermediate rates and presenting compressive mechanical stress and higher values of electrical conductivity, and (iii) nanocrystalline silicon, deposited at very low rates and presenting the highest compressive mechanical stress and electrical conductivity. These results show the combinations of electromechanical material properties available in silicon thin-films and thus allow the optimized selection of a thin silicon film for a given MEMS application. Four representative silicon thin-films were chosen to be used as structural material of electrostatically actuated MEMS microresonators fabricated by surface micromachining. The effect of the mechanical stress of the structural layer was observed to have a great impact on the device resonance frequency, quality factor, and actuation force.

  3. Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-02-25

    The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

  4. Thin film photovoltaic device with multilayer substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1984-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic device which utilizes at least one compound semiconductor layer chosen from Groups IIB and VA of the Periodic Table is formed on a multilayer substrate The substrate includes a lowermost support layer on which all of the other layers of the device are formed. Additionally, an uppermost carbide or silicon layer is adjacent to the semiconductor layer. Below the carbide or silicon layer is a metal layer of high conductivity and expansion coefficient equal to or slightly greater than that of the semiconductor layer.

  5. Flat or curved thin optical display panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-01-10

    An optical panel includes a plurality of waveguides stacked together, with each waveguide having a first end and an opposite second end. The first ends collectively define a first face, and the second ends collectively define a second face of the panel. The second face is disposed at an acute face angle relative to the waveguides to provide a panel which is relatively thin compared to the height of the second face. In an exemplary embodiment for use in a projection TV, the first face is substantially smaller in height than the second face and receives a TV image, with the second face defining a screen for viewing the image enlarged. 7 figures.

  6. Study of Laser Interaction with Thin Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boley, C D; Cutter, K P; Fochs, S N; Pax, P H; Rotter, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Yamamoto, R M

    2009-03-06

    For many targets of interest, the thickness is small compared to the conduction length during the engagement. In addition, the laser-material interaction region can be treated as flat. We have studied this regime with our 25 kW solid-state laser. We have demonstrated that airflow can reduce by approximately 40% the energy required to break through a thin target. This reduction is caused by the bulging of the softened material and the tearing and removal of the material by aerodynamic forces. We present elastic modeling which explains these results.

  7. Rigid thin windows for vacuum applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Glenn Allyn; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Myers, Booth Richard; Chen, Hao-Lin; Wakalopulos, George

    1999-01-01

    A thin window that stands off atmospheric pressure is fabricated using photolithographic and wet chemical etching techniques and comprises at least two layers: an etch stop layer and a protective barrier layer. The window structure also comprises a series of support ribs running the width of the window. The windows are typically made of boron-doped silicon and silicon nitride and are useful in instruments such as electron beam guns and x-ray detectors. In an electron beam gun, the window does not impede the electrons and has demonstrated outstanding gun performance and survivability during the gun tube manufacturing process.

  8. Influence of nanostructure on charge transport in RuO{sub 2} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeves, M. M.; Lad, R. J.

    2010-07-15

    Polycrystalline thin films of RuO{sub 2} were grown on fused-quartz substrates and a parametric study was carried out to probe the influence of film nanostructure on the four-point Van der Pauw resistivity and Hall coefficient. The films were grown via reactive rf magnetron sputtering of a Ru target in an Ar/O{sub 2} plasma using deposition rates from 0.27 to 3.5 A/s and substrate temperatures from 16 to 500 deg. C Room-temperature resistivities of the RuO{sub 2} films ranged from 58 to 360 {mu}{Omega} cm. Upon first heating following deposition, some films showed decreasing resistivity with increasing temperature, but the resistivities also decreased upon subsequent cooling suggesting that the annealing treatment reduces the film defect density. The temperature coefficient of resistance was found to be small (<0.001 K{sup -1}) in agreement with previous investigations. Hall coefficient measurements of the polycrystalline thin films demonstrated that either n-type or p-type majority carriers can be present depending on deposition conditions and the resulting nanostructure, in contrast to single-crystal RuO{sub 2}, which is an n-type metal. Grain size and homogeneous strain within the films were measured by x-ray diffraction and are correlated to the majority carrier type.

  9. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  10. Frequency dispersion of nonlinear response of thin superconducting films in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless state (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Frequency dispersion of nonlinear response of thin superconducting films in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless state Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Frequency dispersion of nonlinear response of thin superconducting films in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless state The effects of microwave radiation on transport properties of atomically thin La2-xSrxCuO₄ films were studied in the

  11. A Sensitivity Analysis of a Thin Film Conductivity Estimation Method

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: A Sensitivity Analysis of a Thin Film Conductivity Estimation Method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Sensitivity Analysis of a Thin Film Conductivity Estimation Method An analysis method was developed for determining the thermal conductivity of a thin film on a substrate of known thermal properties using the flash diffusivity method. In order to determine the thermal conductivity of the film using this method, the volumetric heat

  12. Methods for making thin layers of crystalline materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max G; Paskiewicz, Deborah M; Tanto, Boy

    2013-07-23

    Methods for making growth templates for the epitaxial growth of compound semiconductors and other materials are provided. The growth templates are thin layers of single-crystalline materials that are themselves grown epitaxially on a substrate that includes a thin layer of sacrificial material. The thin layer of sacrificial material, which creates a coherent strain in the single-crystalline material as it is grown thereon, includes one or more suspended sections and one or more supported sections.

  13. Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films | Stanford Synchrotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Lightsource Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films Monday, September 17, 2012 - 10:00am SSRL Bldg. 137, room 226 Daniel Kaefer The synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a very powerful tool to unravel the orientation of organic molecules on surfaces or in thin films. This information on the alignment of - most often - highly anisotropic molecules can become crucial if an epitaxial or even crystalline organic growth is desired, if such thin film should serve

  14. Frequency dispersion of nonlinear response of thin superconducting films in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless state (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Frequency dispersion of nonlinear response of thin superconducting films in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless state Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Frequency dispersion of nonlinear response of thin superconducting films in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless state The effects of microwave radiation on transport properties of atomically thin La2-xSrxCuO₄ films were studied in the 0.1-20 GHz frequency

  15. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruffner, Judith A.; Bullington, Jeff A.; Clem, Paul G.; Warren, William L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Schwartz, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    A monolithic infrared detector structure which allows integration of pyroelectric thin films atop low thermal conductivity aerogel thin films. The structure comprises, from bottom to top, a substrate, an aerogel insulating layer, a lower electrode, a pyroelectric layer, and an upper electrode layer capped by a blacking layer. The aerogel can offer thermal conductivity less than that of air, while providing a much stronger monolithic alternative to cantilevered or suspended air-gap structures for pyroelectric thin film pixel arrays. Pb(Zr.sub.0.4 Ti.sub.0.6)O.sub.3 thin films deposited on these structures displayed viable pyroelectric properties, while processed at 550.degree. C.

  16. Conductive Polymer/Fullerene Blend Thin Films with Honeycomb...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Conductive PolymerFullerene Blend Thin Films with Honeycomb Framework Brookhaven National Laboratory...

  17. Radiative Importance of ThinŽ Liquid Water Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Radiative Transfer Models Turner et al., JAS, 2004 * AERI observations ... Long et al., JGR, 2006 Radiative Importance of "Thin" Liquid Water Clouds Shortwave Turner ...

  18. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  19. Thin-Film Lithium-Based Electrochromic Devices - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Thin-Film Lithium-Based Electrochromic Devices ... For lithium-based electrochromic cells, the electrolyte contains mobile lithium which ...

  20. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley scientists have made progress toward this goal, successfully directing the self--assembly of nanoparticles into device-ready thin films, which have...

  1. Method of forming a thin unbacked metal foil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1983-02-23

    The present invention relates generally to metal foils and methods of making the same. More particularly, this invention pertains to the fabrication of very thin, unbacked metal foils.

  2. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Payne, Stephen A.; Powell, Howard; Krupke, William F.; Sutton, Steven B.

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  3. Solar Thin Films Inc formerly American United Global Inc | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Films Inc formerly American United Global Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Thin Films Inc (formerly American United Global Inc) Place: New York, New York Zip: 10038...

  4. Detecting and Evaluating the Effect of Overlaying Thin Cirrus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thin cirrus clouds and examining their potential effects on the DER retrievals (King et al. 1992; 2003). Case studies are presented here using MODIS data to investigate the...

  5. Tunable Electrical Conductivity in Metal-Organic Framework Thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tunable Electrical Conductivity in Metal-Organic Framework Thin-Film Devices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tunable Electrical Conductivity in Metal-Organic Framework...

  6. Utility-scale flat-plate thin film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The thin-film photovoltaics section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  7. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for...

  8. Structural characterization of impurified zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trinca, L. M.; Galca, A. C. Stancu, V. Chirila, C. Pintilie, L.

    2014-11-05

    Europium doped zinc oxide (Eu:ZnO) thin films have been obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). 002 textured thin films were achieved on glass and silicon substrates, while hetero-epilayers and homo-epilayers have been attained on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} and ZnO, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was employed to characterize the Eu:ZnO thin films. Extended XRD studies confirmed the different thin film structural properties as function of chosen substrates.

  9. Tax Credits Give Thin-Film Solar a Big Boost

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California company will expand its capacity to make its thin-film solar panels by more than ten times, thanks to two Recovery Act tax credits.

  10. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor Kotovksy, J; Tooker,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A; Horsley, D 42 ENGINEERING; 42 ENGINEERING; ACCURACY; ACTUATORS; SILICON This thin, MEMS contact-stress sensor continuously and accurately measures time-varying, solid...

  11. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor Kotovsky, J; Tooker,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ACCURACY; ACTUATORS; CALIBRATION; DIAPHRAGM; SILICON; STABILITY; THICKNESS This thin, MEMS contact-stress (CS) sensor continuously and accurately measures time-varying, solid...

  12. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor Kotovsky, J; Tooker,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LIFETIME; PACKAGING; PERFORMANCE; SILICON; THICKNESS This work offers the first, thin, MEMS contact-stress (CS) sensor capable of accurate in situ measruement of time-varying,...

  13. New modalities of strain-control of ferroelectric thin films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of strain-control of ferroelectric thin films This content will become publicly available on May 17, 2017 Prev Next Title: New modalities of strain-control of ...

  14. Agreement Type Union

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Type Union Local Name Number of Employees Project Labor Agreement International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and Allied Workers 135 2 International Brothehood of ...

  15. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; McLean, II, William

    1996-01-01

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

  16. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

    1993-09-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

  17. Thin layer chromatography residue applicator sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Haas, Jeffrey S.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2007-07-24

    A thin layer chromatograph residue applicator sampler. The residue applicator sampler provides for rapid analysis of samples containing high explosives, chemical warfare, and other analyses of interest under field conditions. This satisfied the need for a field-deployable, small, hand-held, all-in-one device for efficient sampling, sample dissolution, and sample application to an analytical technique. The residue applicator sampler includes a sampling sponge that is resistant to most chemicals and is fastened via a plastic handle in a hermetically sealed tube containing a known amount of solvent. Upon use, the wetted sponge is removed from the sealed tube and used as a swiping device across an environmental sample. The sponge is then replaced in the hermetically sealed tube where the sample remains contained and dissolved in the solvent. A small pipette tip is removably contained in the hermetically sealed tube. The sponge is removed and placed into the pipette tip where a squeezing-out of the dissolved sample from the sponge into the pipette tip results in a droplet captured in a vial for later instrumental analysis, or applied directly to a thin layer chromatography plate for immediate analysis.

  18. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-12-09

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DCmore » field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.« less

  19. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-01-01

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DC field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented here may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.

  20. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; McLean, W. II

    1996-02-13

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus. 9 figs.

  1. Method of forming a dielectric thin film having low loss composition of Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.y Ca.sub.1-x-y TiO.sub.3 : Ba.sub.0.12-0.25 Sr.sub.0.35-0.47 Ca.sub.0.32-0.53 TiO.sub.3

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    A dielectric thin-film material for microwave applications, including use as a capacitor, the thin-film comprising a composition of barium strontium calcium and titanium of perovskite type (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.y Ca.sub.1-x-y)TiO.sub.3. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of that formula over a wide compositional range through a single deposition process.

  2. Basic Physics of Tokamak Transport Final Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, Amiya K.

    2014-05-12

    The goal of this grant has been to study the basic physics of various sources of anomalous transport in tokamaks. Anomalous transport in tokamaks continues to be one of the major problems in magnetic fusion research. As a tokamak is not a physics device by design, direct experimental observation and identification of the instabilities responsible for transport, as well as physics studies of the transport in tokamaks, have been difficult and of limited value. It is noted that direct experimental observation, identification and physics study of microinstabilities including ITG, ETG, and trapped electron/ion modes in tokamaks has been very difficult and nearly impossible. The primary reasons are co-existence of many instabilities, their broadband fluctuation spectra, lack of flexibility for parameter scans and absence of good local diagnostics. This has motivated us to study the suspected tokamak instabilities and their transport consequences in a simpler, steady state Columbia Linear Machine (CLM) with collisionless plasma and the flexibility of wide parameter variations. Earlier work as part of this grant was focused on both ITG turbulence, widely believed to be a primary source of ion thermal transport in tokamaks, and the effects of isotope scaling on transport levels. Prior work from our research team has produced and definitively identified both the slab and toroidal branches of this instability and determined the physics criteria for their existence. All the experimentally observed linear physics corroborate well with theoretical predictions. However, one of the large areas of research dealt with turbulent transport results that indicate some significant differences between our experimental results and most theoretical predictions. Latter years of this proposal were focused on anomalous electron transport with a special focus on ETG. There are several advanced tokamak scenarios with internal transport barriers (ITB), when the ion transport is reduced to neoclassical values by combined mechanisms of ExB and diamagnetic flow shear suppression of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities. However, even when the ion transport is strongly suppressed, the electron transport remains highly anomalous. The most plausible physics scenario for the anomalous electron transport is based on electron temperature gradient (ETG) instabilities. This instability is an electron analog of and nearly isomorphic to the ITG instability, which we had studied before extensively. However, this isomorphism is broken nonlinearily. It is noted that as the typical ETG mode growth rates are larger (in contrast to ITG modes) than ExB shearing rates in usual tokamaks, the flow shear suppression of ETG modes is highly unlikely. This motivated a broader range of investigations of other physics scenarios of nonlinear saturation and transport scaling of ETG modes.

  3. Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Homepage | U.S. DOE Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Science (SC) BESAC Home Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) BESAC Home Meetings BESAC 2016-2017 Membership Charges/Reports Charter .pdf file (128KB) BES Committees of Visitors Federal Advisory Committees BES Home Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page The Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) - established on September 4, 1986 - provides valuable, independent advice to the Department of Energy on the Basic Energy Sciences program regarding the complex scientific

  4. Gas exchange characteristics as indicators of the basic limiting factors in photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharkey, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    Photosynthesis provides essentially all of the primary productivity on Earth. The rate of photosynthesis varies widely between and even within species. The basic processes are similar in most C{sub 3} plant species and so the differences in the rate of photosynthesis must be governed by feedback mechanisms regulating the rate of photosynthesis to meet the needs of the plant. Understanding these feedback mechanisms may allow us to modify them to adapt photosynthesis to the needs of humans. In this research I have concentrated on one feedback mechanism. This feedback mechanism comes into play when the capacity for starch and sucrose synthesis cannot keep pace with the chloroplast's ability to produce triose phosphate. My colleagues and I have demonstrated that this type of feedback can occur under natural conditions and that both electron transport and Rubisco (RuBP) carboxylase are reduced in activity during this feedback. We demonstrated that the reduced activity of RuBP carboxylase is caused by reduced carbamylation. These studies have led us to speculate that the role of RuBP carboxylase decarbamylation (deactivation) is to regulate the pool of free phosphate inside the chloroplast stroma. In these and other ways this research has contributed to our understanding of how the rate of photosynthesis is established in plants and how that rate might be modified in the future.

  5. Boulder damage symposium annual thin film laser damage competition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stolz, Christopher J.

    2012-11-28

    Optical instruments and laser systems are often fluence-limited by multilayer thin films deposited on the optical surfaces. When comparing publications within the laser damage literature, there can be confusing and conflicting laser damage results. This is due to differences in testing protocols between research groups studying very different applications. In this series of competitions, samples from multiple vendors are compared under identical testing parameters and a single testing service. Unlike a typical study where a hypothesis is tested within a well-controlled experiment with isolated variables, this competition isolates the laser damage testing variables so that trends can be observed betweenmore » different deposition processes, coating materials, cleaning techniques, and multiple coating suppliers. The resulting series of damage competitions has also been designed to observe general trends of damage morphologies and mechanisms over a wide range of coating types (high reflector and antireflector), wavelengths (193 to 1064 nm), and pulse lengths (180 fs to 13 ns). A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity were used in each of the competitions so only a summary of the deposition process, coating materials, layer count and spectral results are presented. Laser resistance was strongly affected by substrate cleaning, coating deposition method, and coating material selection whereas layer count and spectral properties had minimal impact.« less

  6. Low-head feeding system for thin section castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniel, Sabah S. (Allegheny County, PA); Kleeb, Thomas R. (Allegheny County, PA); Lewis, Thomas W. (Allegheny County, PA); McDermott, John F. (Allegheny County, PA); Ozgu, Mustafa R. (Northhampton County, PA); Padfield, Ralph C. (Lehigh County, PA); Rego, Donovan N. (Lehigh County, PA); Vassilicos, Achilles (Allegheny County, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A feed system is provided for conveying molten metal to a thin section caster having mold surfaces moving exclusively in the direction of casting. The feed system has a passage of circular cross section adjacent to one end thereof for receiving molten metal and a rectangular cross section at the delivery end thereof adjacent to the caster. The feed system is designed for supplying molten metal to the caster at low pressure for "closed-pool" type caster operation. The point of highest elevation in the metal flow passage of the feed system is on the upper surface of a transition portion where the cross section changes from circular to rectangular adjacent to the nozzle. The level or height of the high point above the centerline of the nozzle exit is selected so as to be less than the pressure of the metal measured in inches at the nozzle exit. This feature enables the maintenance of positive pressure in the metal within the feed system so that ingress of air into the metal is prevented.

  7. KineticsFinal Report Cover Page Bakajin, O 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    KineticsFinal Report Cover Page Bakajin, O 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 42 ENGINEERING; CONSUMPTION RATES; DEAD TIME; DETECTION; DIFFUSION; DNA; ENERGY TRANSFER; FABRICATION;...

  8. Chapter 5: Basic Concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured Lending and Loan Loss Reserve Funds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clean Energy Finance Guide, Third Edition, December 9, 2010, Chapter 5: Basic Concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured Lending and Loan Loss Reserve Funds.

  9. Apparatus for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells employing materials selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus for forming thin-film, large area solar cells having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n-type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer to evolve into p-type material, thereby defining a thin layer heterojunction device characterized by the absence of voids, vacancies and nodules which tend to reduce the energy conversion efficiency of the system.

  10. YPF uses horizontal reentry to aid thin bed production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acosta, M.R.; Leiro, F.A.; Sesano, G.S.; Hill, D.

    1997-01-01

    Reentry and horizontal drilling/completion techniques have proven themselves useful in exploiting thin beds. A pilot horizontal reentry contracted by Yacimiento Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) for a marginal well in its Lomita Sur field resulted in decreased water coning and production rates four times greater than expected. Further horizontal reentries in this thin-bed field are planned.

  11. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.

    2012-01-03

    This invention provides thin film devices that have been processed on their front- and backside. The devices include an active layer that is sufficiently thin to be mechanically flexible. Examples of the devices include back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  12. TEM characterization of nanodiamond thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, L.-C.; Zhou, D.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    The microstructure of thin films grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) from fullerene C{sub 60} precursors has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), bright-field electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS). The films are composed of nanosize crystallites of diamond, and no graphitic or amorphous phases were observed. The diamond crystallite size measured from lattice images shows that most grains range between 3-5 nm, reflecting a gamma distribution. SAED gave no evidence of either sp2-bonded glassy carbon or sp3-bonded diamondlike amorphous carbon. The sp2-bonded configuration found in PEELS was attributed to grain boundary carbon atoms, which constitute 5-10% of the total. Occasionally observed larger diamond grains tend to be highly faulted.

  13. Hand portable thin-layer chromatography system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.

    2000-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  14. Process for making dense thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2005-07-26

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for firing of device substrate to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  15. Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1984-05-29

    A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

  16. Ultra-thin microporous/hybrid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2012-05-29

    Ultra-thin hybrid and/or microporous materials and methods for their fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, the exemplary hybrid membranes can be formed including successive surface activation and reaction steps on a porous support that is patterned or non-patterned. The surface activation can be performed using remote plasma exposure to locally activate the exterior surfaces of porous support. Organic/inorganic hybrid precursors such as organometallic silane precursors can be condensed on the locally activated exterior surfaces, whereby ALD reactions can then take place between the condensed hybrid precursors and a reactant. Various embodiments can also include an intermittent replacement of ALD precursors during the membrane formation so as to enhance the hybrid molecular network of the membranes.

  17. Flat or curved thin optical display panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    1995-01-10

    An optical panel 10 includes a plurality of waveguides 12 stacked together, with each waveguide 12 having a first end 12a and an opposite second end 12b. The first ends 12a collectively define a first face 16, and the second ends 12b collectively define a second face 18 of the panel 10. The second face 18 is disposed at an acute face angle relative to the waveguides 12 to provide a panel 10 which is relatively thin compared to the height of the second face. In an exemplary embodiment for use in a projection TV, the first face 16 is substantially smaller in height than the second face 18 and receives a TV image, with the second face 18 defining a screen for viewing the image enlarged.

  18. Thin Film Femtosecond Laser Damage Competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J; Ristau, D; Turowski, M; Blaschke, H

    2009-11-14

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  19. Fabrication of Transparent Capacitive Structure by Self-Assembled Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Q.; Shing, Y. J.; Hua, Feng; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Matson, Dean W.

    2008-06-01

    An approach to fabricating transparent electronic devices by using nanomaterial and nanofabrication is presented in this paper. A see-through capacitor is constructed from selfassembled silica nanoparticle layers that are stacked on the transparent substrate. The electrodes are made of indium tin oxide. Unlike the traditional processes used to fabricate such devices, the self-assembly approach enables one to synthesize the thin film layers at lower temperature and cost, and with a broader availability of nanomaterials. The vertical dimension of the selfassembled thin films can be precisely controlled, as well as the molecular order in the thin film layers. The shape of the capacitor is generated by planar micropatterning. The quartz crystal demonstrates the steady growth of the silica nanoparticle multilayer. In addition, because the nanomaterial synthesis and the device fabrication steps are separate, the device is not affected by the harsh conditions required for the material synthesis. A clear pattern is allowed over a large area on the substrate. The prepared capacitive structure has an optical transparency higher than 92% over the visible spectrum. The capacitive impedance is measured at different frequencies and fit the theoretical results. As one of the fundamental components, this type of capacitive structure can serve in the transparent circuits, interactive media and sensors, as well as being applicable to other transparent devices.

  20. Investigation of deep level defects in CdTe thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankar, H.; Castaldini, A.; Dauksta, E.; Medvid, A.; Cavallini, A.

    2014-02-21

    In the past few years, a large body of work has been dedicated to CdTe thin film semiconductors, as the electronic and optical properties of CdTe nanostructures make them desirable for photovoltaic applications. The performance of semiconductor devices is greatly influenced by the deep levels. Knowledge of parameters of deep levels present in as-grown materials and the identification of their origin is the key factor in the development of photovoltaic device performance. Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy technique (PICTS) has proven to be a very powerful method for the study of deep levels enabling us to identify the type of traps, their activation energy and apparent capture cross section. In the present work, we report the effect of growth parameters and LASER irradiation intensity on the photo-electric and transport properties of CdTe thin films prepared by Close-Space Sublimation method using SiC electrical heating element. CdTe thin films were grown at three different source temperatures (630, 650 and 700 C). The grown films were irradiated with Nd:YAG LASER and characterized by Photo-Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy, Photocurrent measurementand Current Voltage measurements. The defect levels are found to be significantly influenced by the growth temperature.