National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for basic organic chemicals

  1. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verschueren, K.

    1983-01-01

    This text presents essential data on over 2,000 organic chemicals: synonyms, formulas, properties; effects on plants, animals, people, air, water.

  2. Utilization of oil shales and basic research in organic geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1981-01-13

    This report summarizes current research needs relating to oil shale utilization which might also provide new insight into the organic geochemistry of the Green River formation. There are two general topics which cross boundaries and are particularly worthy of emphasis. The first is a study of changes in the kerogen structure and biological markers with depth and location, and how these changes affect the pyrolysis products. This information would be particularly useful to the retort diagnostic methods. It might also lead to a better chemical reaction model of diagenesis and metagenesis. The second is a study of the heteroatom chemistry of the kerogen and how it relates to mineral matter and trace metals. This would be useful not only to present utilization methods, but also might suggest new nonthermal methods of organic materials recovery.

  3. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basics Basics ATLAS users belong to the "atlas" NERSC repository, and the Principal Investigator (PI) for ATLAS computing at NERSC is Ian Hinchliffe. ALICE users work in the sl53 chos environment. See the Chos page for more information. For more information about ATLAS computing at PDSF see the ATLAS twiki webpages which are maintained by ATLAS users. Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:26

  4. Project Profile: Hybrid Organic Silicone HTF Utilizing Endothermic Chemical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reactions for Latent Heat Storage | Department of Energy Hybrid Organic Silicone HTF Utilizing Endothermic Chemical Reactions for Latent Heat Storage Project Profile: Hybrid Organic Silicone HTF Utilizing Endothermic Chemical Reactions for Latent Heat Storage Los Alamos National Lab logo Los Alamos National Laboratory, under an ARRA CSP Award, is developing a thermally stable, working heat transfer fluid (HTF) that is integrated with chemical reactions as a methodology to store large amounts

  5. Membrane-Organized Chemical Photoredox Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurst, James K.

    2014-09-18

    This project has three interrelated goals relevant to solar water photolysis, which are to develop: (1) vesicle-organized assemblies for H2 photoproduction that utilize pyrylium and structurally related compounds as combined photosensitizers and cyclic electroneutral transmembrane electron carriers; (2) transmembrane redox systems whose reaction rates can be modulated by light; and (3) homogeneous catalysts for water oxidation. . In area (1), initial efforts to photogenerate H2 from vectorially-organized vesicles containing occluded colloidal Pt and commonly available pyrylium ions as transmembrane redox mediators were unsuccessful. New pyrylium compounds with significantly lower reduction potentials have been synthesized to address this problem, their apparent redox potentials in functioning systems have been now evaluated by using a series of occluded viologens, and H2 photoproduction has been demonstrated in continuous illumination experiments. In area (2), spirooxazine-quinone dyads have been synthesized and their capacity to function as redox mediators across bilayer membranes has been evaluated through continuous photolysis and transient spectrophotometric measurements. Photoisomerization of the spiro moiety to the ring-open mero form caused net quantum yields to decrease significantly, providing a basis for photoregulation of transmembrane redox. Research on water oxidation (area 3) has been directed at understanding mechanisms of catalysis by cis,cis-[(bpy)2Ru(OH2)]2O4+ and related polyimine complexes. Using a variety of physical techniques, we have: (i) identified the redox state of the complex ion that is catalytically active; (ii) shown using 18O isotopic labeling that there are two reaction pathways, both of which involve participation of solvent H2O; and (iii) detected and characterized by EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopies new species which may be key intermediates in the catalytic cycle.

  6. Workshop report on basic research in organic geochemistry applied to national energy needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The schedule of the workshop shows its organization. After a series of overview presentations, the participants were divided - according to their interests - into three subgroups to consider the exploration, exploitation, and environmental impact problems associated with the production and utilization of natural and synthetic carbonaceous fuels. As a result of these concentrated deliberations, each subgroup evolved a general recommendation and a series of specific recommendations for their particular topic. These are recapitulated, followed by a policy statement resulting from consideration of a means to implement basic research in organic geochemistry, and the subgroup reports. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the papers which are in the appendix of this report for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  7. Identification and quantification of organic chemicals in supplemental fuel blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salter, F.

    1996-12-31

    Continental Cement Company, Inc. (Continental) burns waste fuels to supplement coal in firing the kiln. It is to be expected that federal and state agencies want an accounting of the chemicals burned. As rules and regulations become more plentiful, a company such as Continental must demonstrate that it has made a reasonable attempt to identify and quantify many specific organic compounds. The chemicals on the SARA 313 list can change frequently. Also the number and concentrations of compounds that can disqualify a material from consideration as a supplemental fuel at Continental continues to change. A quick and reliable method of identifying and quantifying organics in waste fuel blends is therefore crucial. Using a Hewlett-Packard 5972 GC/MS system Continental has developed a method of generating values for the total weight of compounds burned. A similar procedure is used to verify that waste streams meet Continental`s acceptance criteria.

  8. Apparatus for sensing volatile organic chemicals in fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Robert C.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Kottenstette, Richard; Patel, Sanjay V.

    2005-06-07

    A chemical-sensing apparatus is formed from the combination of a chemical preconcentrator which sorbs and concentrates particular volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and one or more chemiresistors that sense the VOCs after the preconcentrator has been triggered to release them in concentrated form. Use of the preconcentrator and chemiresistor(s) in combination allows the VOCs to be detected at lower concentration than would be possible using the chemiresistor(s) alone and further allows measurements to be made in a variety of fluids, including liquids (e.g. groundwater). Additionally, the apparatus provides a new mode of operation for sensing VOCs based on the measurement of decay time constants, and a method for background correction to improve measurement precision.

  9. Mechanical-chemical coupling and self-organization in mudstones.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.

    2010-06-01

    Shales and other mudstones are the most abundant rock types in sedimentary basins, yet have received comparatively little attention. Common as hydrocarbon seals, these are increasingly being targeted as unconventional gas reservoirs, caprocks for CO{sub 2} sequestration, and storage repositories for waste. The small pore and grain size, large specific surface areas, and clay mineral structures lend themselves to rapid reaction rates accompanying changes in stress, pressure, temperature and chemical conditions. Under far from equilibrium conditions, mudrocks display a variety of spatio-temporal self-organized phenomena arising from the nonlinear coupling of mechanics with chemistry. Beginning with a detailed examination of nano-scale pore network structures in mudstones, we discuss the dynamics behind such self-organized phenomena as pressure solitons, chemically-induced flow self focusing and permeability transients, localized compaction, time dependent well-bore failure, and oscillatory osmotic fluxes as they occur in clay-bearing sediments. Examples are draw from experiments, numerical simulation, and the field. These phenomena bear on the ability of these rocks to serve as containment barriers.

  10. Biomass Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education & Workforce Development » Resources » Biomass Basics Biomass Basics Biomass is an energy resource derived from organic matter, which includes wood, agricultural waste, and other living-cell material that can be burned to produce heat energy. It also includes algae, sewage, and other organic substances that may be used to make energy through chemical processes. Biomass currently supplies about 3% of total U.S. energy consumption in the form of electricity, process heat, and

  11. Accelerating the development of transparent graphene electrodes through basic science driven chemical functionalization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Calvin; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; Ohta, Taisuke; Brumbach, Michael T.; Wheeler, David Roger; Veneman, Alexander; Gearba, I. Raluca; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2013-09-01

    Chemical functionalization is required to adapt graphenes properties to many applications. However, most covalent functionalization schemes are spontaneous or defect driven and are not suitable for applications requiring directed assembly of molecules on graphene substrates. In this work, we demonstrated electrochemically driven covalent bonding of phenyl iodoniums onto epitaxial graphene. The amount of chemisorption was demonstrated by varying the duration of the electrochemical driving potential. Chemical, electronic, and defect states of phenyl-modified graphene were studied by photoemission spectroscopy, spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurement. Covalent attachment rehybridized some of the delocalized graphene sp2 orbitals to localized sp3 states. Control over the relative spontaneity (reaction rate) of covalent graphene functionalization is an important first step to the practical realization of directed molecular assembly on graphene. More than 10 publications, conference presentations, and program highlights were produced (some invited), and follow-on funding was obtained to continue this work.

  12. Basic theory and methods of dosimetry for use in risk assessment of genotoxic chemicals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrenberg, L.; Granath, F.

    1992-12-31

    This project is designed to be theoretical, with limited experimental input. The work then would have to be directed towards an identification of problems, with an emphasis on the potential ability of molecular/biochemical methods to reach a solution, rather than aiming at solutions of the problems. In addition, the work is dependent on experimental work within parallel projects. Initially, projects running at this laboratory were strongly tied up with practical matters, such as the development of monitoring methods for specific exposures, with limited resources for basic research. As sketched in the scientific report below, section 4 the meaningfulness of molecular/biochemical methods and their potential contribution to the problem of dsk estimation has to be seen against a broad overview of this problem and current efforts to solve it. This overview, given as a brief summary in section 3, shows the necessity of combining different fields of research, holding them together by strictly quantitative aspects.

  13. Basic mechanisms of photosynthesis and applications to improved production and conversion of biomass to fuels and chemical products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Sayed, M.; Greenbaum, E.; Wasielewski, M.

    1996-09-01

    Natural photosynthesis, the result of 3.5 billion years of evolutionary experimentation, is the best proven, functional solar energy conversion technology. It is responsible for filling the vast majority of humanity`s energy, nutritional, and materials needs. Understanding the basic physical chemical principles underlying photosynthesis as a working model system is vital to further exploitation of this natural technology. These principles can be used to improve or modify natural photosynthesis so that it is more efficient or so that it can produce unusual products such as hydrogen, methane, methanol, ethanol, diesel fuel substitutes, biodegradable materials, or other high value chemical products. Principles garnered from the natural process can also be used to design artificial photosynthetic devices that employ analogs of natural antenna and reaction center function, self-assembly and repair concepts, photoinduced charge transfer processes, photoprotection, and dark reactions that facilitate catalytic action to convert light into, useful chemical or electrical energy. The present broad understanding of many structural and functional aspects of photosynthesis has resulted from rapid recent research progress. X-ray structures of several key photosynthetic reaction centers and antenna systems are available, and the overall principles controlling photoinduced energy and electron transfer are being established.

  14. Magnetoreological Fluid Template for Basic Studies of Mechanical-Chemical Effects During Polishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, C.; Bristol, K. M.; Marino, A.E.; Shafrir, S.N.; DeGroote, J.E.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2008-01-07

    We developed a new magnetorheological (MR) fluid for studying the relative contributions of mechanics and chemistry in polishing hard materials. The base carrier fluid is a mixture of two non-aqueous liquids. At conventional carbonyl iron (CI) magnetic particle concentrations, removal rates with this formulation were unacceptably low for the polycrystalline optical ceramic aluminum oxynitride (ALON). We overcame this problem by creating a high magnetic solids concentration suspension consisting of blend of large and small CI particles. Our test bed for experiments was a magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spot-taking machine (STM) that can only polish spots into a non-rotating part. We demonstrated that, using this new MR fluid formation, we could substantially increase peak removal rates on ALON with small additions of nonmagnetic, nanodiamond abrasives. Material removal with this fluid was assumed to be predominately driven by mechanics. With the addition of small amounts of DI water to the base fluid containing nanodiamonds, the peak removal rate showed an additional increase, presumably due to the altered fluid rheology and possibly chemical interactions. In this paper we describe the difficult fluid viscosity issues that were addressed in creating a viable, high removal rate, non-aqueous MR fluid template that could be pumped in the STM for several days of experiments.

  15. Degradation of organic chemicals with titanium ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Tunesi, Simonetta; Xu, Qunyin

    1991-01-01

    Complex organic molecules, such as polychlorinated biphenyls can be degraded on porous titanium ceramic membranes by photocatalysis under ultraviolet light.

  16. Inorganic–organic hybrids presenting high basic center content: SBA-15 incorporation, toxic metals sorption and energetic behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, Fernando J.V.E.; Melo, Maurício A.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Mesoporous SBA-15 silicas were organofunctionalized with new silylant agents. ► Thiocarbamate was used to enhance the silylating agent chains and basic centers. ► The synthesized pendant chains contain nitrogen and sulfur basic centers. ► The new hybrids sorb toxic cations from aqueous solutions with high efficiency. ► The thermodynamic data demonstrated favorable cation/basic center interactions. - Abstract: Mesoporous SBA-15 samples were organofunctionalized with mono, di- and tri-aminosilanes that previously reacted with thiocarbamide to enhance the organic chains and attach nitrogen and sulfur basic centers to the surface of the solids. These new organosilanes were synthesized through a non-solvent approach to reduce both cost and hazardous wastes. The high affinities for both hard and soft Lewis acids due to the combination of nitrogen and sulfur atoms attached to the same pendant chain enabled favorable sorption capacities for Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} cations, with maximum capacities of 1.90, 3.48 and 5.30 mmol g{sup −1}, respectively, for the most efficient mesoporous silica. Microcalorimetric investigations allowed the calculation of the thermodynamic data at the solid/liquid interface. All Gibbs energy are negative as expected for spontaneous cation/basic center interactions and the positive entropic values from 49 ± 3 to 108 ± 5 J K{sup −1} mol{sup −1}, also reinforced this favorable interactive process in heterogeneous system. The designed organosilanes covalently bonded to the inorganic siliceous skeleton can be suggested as new materials for toxic metal removal from a wastewater with high efficiency.

  17. Degradation of organic chemicals with titanium ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Tunesi, S.; Xu, Q.

    1991-07-30

    Complex organic molecules, such as polychlorinated biphenyls can be degraded on porous titanium ceramic membranes by photocatalysis under ultraviolet light. 3 figures.

  18. LANL organic analysis detection capabilities for chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansell, G.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Hollis, K.W.; Monagle, M.

    1996-12-31

    Organic analysis is the analytical arm for several Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) research programs and nuclear materials processes, including characterization and certification of nuclear and nonnuclear materials used in weapons, radioactive waste treatment and waste certification programs. Organic Analysis has an extensive repertoire of analytical technique within the group including headspace gas, PCBs/pesticides, volatile organics and semivolatile organic analysis. In addition organic analysis has mobile labs with analytic capabilities that include volatile organics, total petroleum hydrocarbon, PCBs, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and high explosive screening. A natural extension of these capabilities can be applied to the detection of chemical and biological agents,

  19. Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

  20. Chemical Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARPA-E Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Chemical Engineering HomeTag:Chemical ...

  1. Measuring indigenous photosynthetic organisms to detect chemical warefare agents in water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2005-11-15

    A method of testing water to detect the presence of a chemical or biological warfare agent is disclosed. The method is carried out by establishing control data by providing control water containing indigenous organisms but substantially free of a chemical and a biological warfare agent. Then measuring photosynthetic activity of the control water with a fluorometer to obtain control data to compare with test data to detect the presence of the chemical or agent. The test data is gathered by providing test water comprising the same indigenous organisms as contained in the control water. Further, the test water is suspected of containing the chemical or agent to be tested for. Photosynthetic activity is also measured by fluorescence induction in the test water using a fluorometer.

  2. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2014 Research Summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts and highlights for more than 1,200 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2014 at some 200 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES Divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  3. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2011 Research Summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts for more than 1,300 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2011 at some 180 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  4. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2012 Research Summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts and highlights for more than 1,400 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2012 at some 180 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES Divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  5. Biomass Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis Photo of a pair of hands holding corn stover, the unused parts of harvested corn. Humans have used biomass for thousands of years. Biomass is any organic material that has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. Wood is a well-known example of biomass: it can be burned for heat or shaped into building materials. There are many additional types of biomass that can be used to derive fuels, chemicals, and

  6. Revisiting benzene cluster cations for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide and select volatile organic compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, M. J.; Zoerb, M. C.; Campbell, N. R.; Zimmermann, K. J.; Blomquist, B. W.; Huebert, B. J.; Bertram, T. H.

    2015-10-01

    Benzene cluster cations were revisited as a sensitive and selective reagent ion for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and a select group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Laboratory characterization was performed using both a new set of compounds (i.e. DMS, ?-caryophyllene) as well as previously studied VOCs (i.e., isoprene, ?-pinene). Using a field deployable chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-ToFMS), benzene cluster cations demonstrated high sensitivity (> 1 ncps ppt?1) to DMS, isoprene, and ?-pinene standards. Parallel measurements conducted using a chemical-ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer, with a weaker electric field, demonstrated that ion-molecule reactions likely proceed through amorecombination of ligand-switching and direct charge transfer mechanisms. Laboratory tests suggest that benzene cluster cations may be suitable for the selective ionization of sesquiterpenes, where minimal fragmentation (R2=0.80) over a wide range of sampling conditions.less

  7. Real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowry, Curtis Dale; Thornberg, Steven Michael

    1999-01-01

    A system for on-line quantitative monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) includes pressure reduction means for carrying a gaseous sample from a first location to a measuring input location maintained at a low pressure, the system utilizing active feedback to keep both the vapor flow and pressure to a chemical ionization mode mass spectrometer constant. A multiple input manifold for VOC and gas distribution permits a combination of calibration gases or samples to be applied to the spectrometer.

  8. Program of technical assistance to the organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons, informal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Currently, U.S. organizations provide technical support to the U.S. Delegation for its work as part of the Preparatory Commission (PrepCom) of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague. The current efforts of the PrepCom are focussed on preparations for the Entry-Into-Force (EIF) of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons (often referred to as the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} (CWC)). EIF of the CWC is expected in 1995, and shortly thereafter the PrepCom will cease to exist, with the OPCW taking over responsibilities under the CWC. A U.S. program of technical assistance to the OPCW for its verification responsibilities may be created as part of U.S. policy objectives after EIF of the CWC. In the summary below, comments by participants are presented in Square Brackets Some of the same points arose several times during the discussions; they are grouped together under the most pertinent heading.

  9. Method of making AlInSb by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baucom, Kevin C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A method for producing aluminum-indium-antimony materials by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). This invention provides a method of producing Al.sub.X In.sub.1-x Sb crystalline materials by MOCVD wherein an Al source material, an In source material and an Sb source material are supplied as a gas to a heated substrate in a chamber, said Al source material, In source material, and Sb source material decomposing at least partially below 525.degree. C. to produce Al.sub.x In.sub.1-x Sb crystalline materials wherein x is greater than 0.002 and less than one.

  10. Life cycle cost study for coated conductor manufacture by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, J.N.

    1999-07-13

    The purpose of this report is to calculate the cost of producing high temperature superconducting wire by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process. The technology status is reviewed from the literature and a plant conceptual design is assumed for the cost calculation. The critical issues discussed are the high cost of the metal organic precursors, the material utilization efficiency and the capability of the final product as measured by the critical current density achieved. Capital, operating and material costs are estimated and summed as the basis for calculating the cost per unit length of wire. Sensitivity analyses of key assumptions are examined to determine their effects on the final wire cost. Additionally, the cost of wire on the basis of cost per kiloampere per meter is calculated for operation at lower temperatures than the liquid nitrogen boiling temperature. It is concluded that this process should not be ruled out on the basis of high cost of precursors alone.

  11. Energy Basics

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students will complete a scavenger hunt worksheet in order to learn about the basics of energy and its sources.

  12. Formation and aging of secondary organic aerosol from toluene: changes in chemical composition, volatility, and hygroscopicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Paciga, A. L.; Cerully, K. M.; Nenes, A.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-07-24

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is transformed after its initial formation, but this chemical aging of SOA is poorly understood. Experiments were conducted in the Carnegie Mellon environmental chamber to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the photo-oxidation of toluene and other small aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of NOx under different oxidizing conditions. The effects of the oxidizing condition on organic aerosol (OA) composition, mass yield, volatility, and hygroscopicity were explored. Higher exposure to the hydroxyl radical resulted in different OA composition, average carbon oxidation state (OSc), and mass yield. The OA oxidation state generally increased duringmore » photo-oxidation, and the final OA OSc ranged from -0.29 to 0.16 in the performed experiments. The volatility of OA formed in these different experiments varied by as much as a factor of 30, demonstrating that the OA formed under different oxidizing conditions can have a significantly different saturation concentration. There was no clear correlation between hygroscopicity and oxidation state for this relatively hygroscopic SOA.« less

  13. Regeneration of carboxylic acid-laden basic sorbents by leaching with a volatile base in an organic solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson; Husson, Scott M.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with an organic solution of alkylamine thus forming an alkylamine/carboxylic acid complex which is decomposed with improved efficiency to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. Carbon dioxide addition can be used to improve the adsorption or the carboxylic acids by the solid phase sorbent.

  14. Revisiting benzene cluster cations for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide and select volatile organic compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Michelle J.; Zoerb, Matthew C.; Campbell, Nicole R.; Zimmermann, Kathryn J.; Blomquist, Byron W.; Huebert, Barry J.; Bertram, Timothy H.

    2016-04-05

    Here, benzene cluster cations were revisited as a sensitive and selective reagent ion for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and a select group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Laboratory characterization was performed using both a new set of compounds (i.e., DMS, β-caryophyllene) as well as previously studied VOCs (i.e., isoprene, α-pinene). Using a field deployable chemical-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-ToFMS), benzene cluster cations demonstrated high sensitivity (> 1 ncps ppt−1) to DMS, isoprene, and α-pinene standards. Parallel measurements conducted using a chemical-ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer, with a much weaker electric field, demonstrated that ion–molecule reactions likely proceed through a combinationmore » of ligand-switching and direct charge transfer mechanisms. Laboratory tests suggest that benzene cluster cations may be suitable for the selective ionization of sesquiterpenes, where minimal fragmentation (< 25 %) was observed for the detection of β-caryophyllene, a bicyclic sesquiterpene. The in-field stability of benzene cluster cations using CI-ToFMS was examined in the marine boundary layer during the High Wind Gas Exchange Study (HiWinGS). The use of benzene cluster cation chemistry for the selective detection of DMS was validated against an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer, where measurements from the two instruments were highly correlated (R2 > 0.95, 10 s averages) over a wide range of sampling conditions.« less

  15. Bioproducts Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioproducts Basics Bioproducts Basics Today, petroleum is refined to make chemical feedstocks used in thousands of products. Many of these petroleum-based feedstocks could be replaced with value-added chemicals produced from biomass to manufacture clothing, plastics, lubricants, and other products. The emerging U.S. biobased products industry combines expertise and technology from the agriculture, forest products, and chemical industries to create plastics, chemicals, and composite materials

  16. Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy Biomass is any organic material that has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy, such as plants, agricultural crops or residues, municipal wastes, and algae. DOE is focusing on new and better ways to make liquid transportation fuels, or "biofuels," like ethanol, biodiesel, and renewable gasoline. DOE is also investigating the potential of producing power and a range of products from biomass. Biomass

  17. Revisiting benzene cluster cations for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide and select volatile organic compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Michelle J.; Zoerb, Matthew C.; Campbell, Nicole R.; Zimmermann, Kathryn J.; Blomquist, Byron W.; Huebert, Barry J.; Bertram, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    Benzene cluster cations were revisited as a sensitive and selective reagent ion for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and a select group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Laboratory characterization was performed using both a new set of compounds (i.e., DMS, β-caryophyllene) as well as previously studied VOCs (i.e., isoprene, α-pinene). Using a field deployable chemical-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-ToFMS), benzene cluster cations demonstrated high sensitivity (> 1 ncps ppt−1) to DMS, isoprene, and α-pinene standards. Parallel measurements conducted using a chemical-ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer, with a much weaker electric field, demonstrated that ion–molecule reactions likely proceed through a combination of ligand-switching and directmore » charge transfer mechanisms. Laboratory tests suggest that benzene cluster cations may be suitable for the selective ionization of sesquiterpenes, where minimal fragmentation (< 25 %) was observed for the detection of β-caryophyllene, a bicyclic sesquiterpene. The in-field stability of benzene cluster cations using CI-ToFMS was examined in the marine boundary layer during the High Wind Gas Exchange Study (HiWinGS). The use of benzene cluster cation chemistry for the selective detection of DMS was validated against an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer, where measurements from the two instruments were highly correlated (R2 > 0.95, 10 s averages) over a wide range of sampling conditions.« less

  18. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  19. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  20. Chemical sensing of copper phthalocyanine sol-gel glass through organic vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridhi, R.; Gawri, Isha; Abbas, Saeed J.; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-05-15

    The sensitivities of metallophthalocyanine to vapor phase electron donors has gained significance in many areas and disciplines due to their sensing properties and ease of operation. In the present study the interaction mechanism of organic vapors in Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) sol-gel glass has been studied. The interaction mechanism is affected by many factors like morphology, electrical or optical properties of film. CuPc sol-gel glass has been synthesized using chemical route sol-gel method. Its structural characterization was conducted using XRD and the amorphous nature of the silicate glass was observed with characteristic α polymorph phase of CuPc at around 6.64° with 13.30Å interplanar spacing. The size of the particle as determined using Debbye Scherre’s formula comes out around 15.5 nm. The presence of α phase of CuPc was confirmed using FTIR with the appearance of crystal parameter marker band at 787 cm-1. Apart from this A2u and Eu symmetry bands of CuPc have also been observed. The UV absorption spectrum of CuPc exhibits absorption peaks owing to π→ π* and n→ π* transitions. A blue shift in the prepared CuPc glass has been observed as compared to the dopant CuPc salt indicating increase of band gap. A split in B (Soret) band and Q band appears as observed with the help of Lorentzian fitting. CuPc sol gel glass has been exposed with chemical vapors of Methanol, Benzene and Bromine individually and the electrical measurements have been carried out. These measurements show the variation in conductivity and the interaction mechanism has been analyzed.

  1. Stress-induced chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Hesketh, Peter J.; Gall, Kenneth A.; Choudhury, A.; Pikarsky, J.; Andruszkiewicz, Leanne; Houk, Ronald J. T.; Talin, Albert Alec

    2009-09-01

    In this work we demonstrate the concept of stress-induced chemical detection using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by integrating a thin film of the MOF HKUST-1 with a microcantilever surface. The results show that the energy of molecular adsorption, which causes slight distortions in the MOF crystal structure, can be efficiently converted to mechanical energy to create a highly responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. This sensor responds to water, methanol, and ethanol vapors, but yields no response to either N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}. The magnitude of the signal, which is measured by a built-in piezoresistor, is correlated with the concentration and can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, we show that the hydration state of the MOF layer can be used to impart selectivity to CO{sub 2}. We also report the first use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of a MOF film. We conclude that the synthetic versatility of these nanoporous materials holds great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes. A force field model is described that successfully predicts changes in MOF properties and the uptake of gases. This model is used to predict adsorption isotherms for a number of representative compounds, including explosives, nerve agents, volatile organic compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The results show that, as a result of relatively large heats of adsorption (> 20 kcal mol{sup -1}) in most cases, we expect an onset of adsorption by MOF as low as 10{sup -6} kPa, suggesting the potential to detect compounds such as RDX at levels as low as 10 ppb at atmospheric pressure.

  2. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpet cushions: Screening measurements. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Phan, T.A.

    1994-05-01

    The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has received complaints from consumers regarding the occurrence of adverse health effects following the installation of new carpeting (Schachter, 1990). Carpet systems are suspected of emitting chemicals which may be the cause of these complaints, as well as objectionable odors. Carpets themselves have been shown to emit a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The objective of this study was to screen the representative samples of carpet cushions for emissions of individual VOCS, total VOCs (TVOC), formaldehyde, and, for the two types of polyurethane cushions, isomers of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The measurements of VOCS, TVOC and formaldehyde were made over six-hour periods using small-volume (4-L) dynamic chambers. Sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify many of the VOCs emitted by the cushion samples and to obtain quantitative estimates of the emission rates of selected compounds. Separate screening measurements were conducted for TDI. The data from the screening measurements were used by the CPSC`s Health Sciences Laboratory to help design and conduct week-long measurements of emission rates of selected compounds.

  3. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  4. Photocatalytic and chemical oxidation of organic compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide. Progress report for FY97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.; Bryant, D.L.; Reinsch, V.

    1997-09-30

    and using makeup scCO{sub 2}. A chemical polishing operation can reduce the release of CO{sub 2} from the process. It can also reduce the consumption of reagents that may be used in the process to enhance extraction and cleaning. A polishing operation will also reduce or avoid formation of an additional waste stream. Photocatalytic and other photochemical oxidation chemistry have not been investigated in scCO{sub 2}. The large base of information for these reactions in water, organic solvents, or air suggest that the chemistry will work in carbon dioxide. There are compelling reasons to believe that the properties of scCO{sub 2} should increase the performance of photocatalytic chemistry over that found in more conventional fluid phases.'

  5. Double-sided reel-to-reel metal-organic chemical vapor deposition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; BARIUM OXIDES; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; COPPER OXIDES; CRITICAL CURRENT; HIGH-TC SUPERCONDUCTORS; ...

  6. Testing of a model to estimate vapor concentration of various organic chemicals. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakalyar, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A model developed by Dr. Parker C. Reist to predict the build-up and decay rates of vapor concentrations following a chemical spill and clean-up was tested. The chemicals tested were: acetone, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, hexane, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene. The evaporation rates of these chemicals were determined both by prediction, using a model developed by I. Kawamura and D. Mackay, and empirically and these rates were used in the Reist model. Chamber experiments were done to measure actual building-up and decay of vapor concentrations for simulated spills and simulated clean-up.

  7. Chemical & Engineering News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARPA-E Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Chemical & Engineering News Home...

  8. Effects of polymethylmethacrylate-transfer residues on the growth of organic semiconductor molecules on chemical vapor deposited graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kratzer, Markus Teichert, Christian; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Kidambi, Piran R.; Matkovi?, Aleksandar; Gaji?, Rado; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Weatherup, Robert S.; Hofmann, Stephan

    2015-03-09

    Scalably grown and transferred graphene is a highly promising material for organic electronic applications, but controlled interfacing of graphene thereby remains a key challenge. Here, we study the growth characteristics of the important organic semiconductor molecule para-hexaphenyl (6P) on chemical vapor deposited graphene that has been transferred with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) onto oxidized Si wafer supports. A particular focus is on the influence of PMMA residual contamination, which we systematically reduce by H{sub 2} annealing prior to 6P deposition. We find that 6P grows in a flat-lying needle-type morphology, surprisingly independent of the level of PMMA residue and of graphene defects. Wrinkles in the graphene typically act as preferential nucleation centers. Residual PMMA does however limit the length of the resulting 6P needles by restricting molecular diffusion/attachment. We discuss the implications for organic device fabrication, with particular regard to contamination and defect tolerance.

  9. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  10. Aging of secondary organic aerosol from small aromatic VOCs. Changes in chemical composition, mass yield, volatility and hygroscopicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Paciga, A. L.; Cerully, K.; Nenes, A.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2014-12-12

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is transformed after its initial formation, but this chemical aging of SOA is poorly understood. Experiments were conducted in the Carnegie Mellon environmental chamber to form and transform SOA from the photo-oxidation of toluene and other small aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of NOx. The effects of chemical aging on organic aerosol (OA) composition, mass yield, volatility and hygroscopicity were explored. Higher exposure to the hydroxyl radical resulted in different OA composition, average carbon oxidation state OSC) and mass yield. The OA oxidation state generally increased during photo-oxidation, and the final OA OSmore » C ranged from -0.29 to 0.45 in the performed experiments. The volatility of OA formed in these different experiments varied by as much as a factor of 30, demonstrating that the OA formed under different oxidizing conditions can have significantly different saturation concentration. There was no clear correlation between hygroscopicity and oxidation state for this relatively hygroscopic SOA.« less

  11. Role of chemical reactions of arylamine hole transport materials in operational degradation of organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondakov, Denis Y.

    2008-10-15

    We report that the representative arylamine hole transport materials undergo chemical transformations in operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices. Although the underlying chemical mechanisms are too complex to be completely elucidated, structures of several identified degradation products point at dissociations of relatively weak carbon-nitrogen and carbon-carbon bonds in arylamine molecules as the initiating step. Considering the photochemical reactivities, the bond dissociation reactions of arylamines occur by the homolysis of the lowest singlet excited states formed by recombining charge carriers in the operating OLED device. The subsequent chemical reactions are likely to yield long-lived, stabilized free radicals capable of acting as deep traps--nonradiative recombination centers and fluorescence quenchers. Their presence in the hole transport layer results in irreversible hole trapping and manifests as a positive fixed charge. The extent and localization of chemical transformations in several exemplary devices suggest that the free radical reactions of hole transporting materials, arylamines, can be sufficient to account for the observed luminance efficiency loss and voltage rise in operating OLEDs. The relative bond strengths and excited state energies of OLED materials appear to have a determining effect on the operational stability of OLED devices.

  12. OLED Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SSL Basics » OLED Basics OLED Basics OLEDs are organic LEDs, which means that their key building blocks are organic (i.e., carbon-based) materials. Unlike LEDs, which are small-point light sources, OLEDs are made in sheets that are diffuse-area light sources. OLED technology is developing rapidly, and there are a handful of product offerings with efficacy, lifetime, and color quality specs that are comparable to their LED counterparts. However, OLEDs are still some years away from widespread

  13. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of 111-v compounds on silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, Stanley M.

    1986-01-01

    Expitaxial composite comprising thin films of a Group III-V compound semiconductor such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) on single crystal silicon substrates are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for manufacturing, by chemical deposition from the vapor phase, epitaxial composites as above described, and to semiconductor devices based on such epitaxial composites. The composites have particular utility for use in making light sensitive solid state solar cells.

  14. Crystal Engineering of an nbo Topology Metal-Organic Framework for Chemical Fixation of CO₂ under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Chen, Yao; Niu, Youhong; Williams, Kia; Cash, Lindsay; Perez, Pastor J.; Wojtas, Lukasz; Cai, Jianfeng; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-02-20

    Crystal engineering of the nbo metal–organic framework (MOF) platform MOF-505 with a custom-designed azamacrocycle ligand (1,4,7,10-tetrazazcyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetra-p-methylbenzoic acid) leads to a high density of well-oriented Lewis active sites within the cuboctahedral cage in MMCF-2, [Cu₂(Cu-tactmb)(H₂O)₃(NO₃)₂]. This MOF demonstrates high catalytic activity for the chemical fixation of CO₂ into cyclic carbonates at room temperature under 1 atm pressure.

  15. Basic Energy Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic Energy Sciences Basic Energy Sciences Supporing research to understand, predict and ... The DOE Office of Science's Basic Energy Sciences program equips scientists with a ...

  16. Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Basics Vehicle Battery Basics November 22, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Vehicle Battery Basics Batteries are essential for electric drive technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (AEVs). WHAT IS A BATTERY? A battery is a device that stores chemical energy and converts it on demand into electrical energy. It carries out this process through an electrochemical reaction, which is a chemical reaction involving the

  17. Connecting Organic Aerosol Climate-Relevant Properties to Chemical Mechanisms of Sources and Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Joel

    2015-01-26

    The research conducted on this project aimed to improve our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere, and how the properties of the SOA impact climate through its size, phase state, and optical properties. The goal of this project was to demonstrate that the use of molecular composition information to mechanistically connect source apportionment and climate properties can improve the physical basis for simulation of SOA formation and properties in climate models. The research involved developing and improving methods to provide online measurements of the molecular composition of SOA under atmospherically relevant conditions and to apply this technology to controlled simulation chamber experiments and field measurements. The science we have completed with the methodology will impact the simulation of aerosol particles in climate models.

  18. Chemical and isotopic kinetics of sulfate reduction by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of nonbacterial sulfate reduction by organic matter in geologic environments. Sulfate is reduced by dextrose under acidic conditions at temperatures of 230-270 C. Reaction products include sulfide and organic-sulfur compounds; sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were not detected. The rate law for the initial one- or two-electron reduction of sulfate at 250C is first-order in bisulfate and about one-half-order in initial dextrose concentration, and shows a very strong dependence on pH. The kinetics of sulfate reduction by fructose at 250C are virtually the same. The lack of sulfate reduction by formaldehyde, methanol, ethanol and acetic acid at 250 C indicates that the reducing power of dextrose and fructose cannot be attributed to carbonyl, carboxyl or hydroxyl functional groups. The form of the rate law for sulfate reduction by dextrose and the presence of an induction period rather suggest that the initial reduction of sulfate occurs with free radicals derived from the thermal decomposition of the hexoses or their alteration products. The inferred sulfate-reduction reaction mechanism suggest that aqueous sulfate may be reduced to sulfide in geologic environments such as deep sedimentary basins. The observed acid-catalysis of the reaction in the laboratory may be supplanted by clay-mineral catalysis in geologic environments. Sulfur isotopes are fractionated during the reduction of sulfate by dextrose under hydrothermal conditions. Computer simulations of the isotopic evolution of the experiments suggest that sulfate-sulfide isotopic exchange largely controls the isotopic composition of sulfate and sulfide. The extent of isotopic fractionation due solely to sulfate reduction thus cannot be determined from the experiments

  19. Chemical microsensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, Basil I.

    1995-01-01

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

  20. Biomass Energy Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Energy Basics We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"-the energy from plants and plant-derived materials-since people began burning wood to cook food and keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can also be used. These include food crops, grassy and woody plants, residues from agriculture or forestry, oil-rich algae, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes. Even the fumes from landfills (which are

  1. SSL Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SSL Basics SSL Basics Solid-state lighting (SSL) differs from other kinds of lighting in that it's based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or organic LEDs (OLEDs) instead of filaments, plasma, or gases. In addition to having the potential to be more energy efficient than any other existing lighting technology, it also has a number of other advantages-including directionality, controllability, vibration resistance, long life, color tunability, and aesthetic appeal. But SSL is still at a relatively

  2. Old and stable soil organic matter is not necessarily chemically recalcitrant: Implications for modeling concepts and temperature sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleber, M.; Nico, P.S.; Plante, A.; Filley, T.; Kramer, M.; Swanston, C.; Sollins, P.

    2010-03-01

    Soil carbon turnover models generally divide soil carbon into pools with varying intrinsic decomposition rates. Although these decomposition rates are modified by factors such as temperature, texture, and moisture, they are rationalized by assuming chemical structure is a primary controller of decomposition. In the current work, we use near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy in combination with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and alkaline cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation to explore this assumption. Specifically, we examined material from the 2.3-2.6 kg L{sup -1} density fraction of three soils of different type (Oxisol, Alfisol, Inceptisol). The density fraction with the youngest {sup 14}C age (Oxisol, 107 years) showed the highest relative abundance of aromatic groups and the lowest O-alkyl C/aromatic C ratio as determined by NEXAFS. Conversely, the fraction with the oldest C (Inceptisol, 680 years) had the lowest relative abundance of aromatic groups and highest O-alkyl C/aromatic C ratio. This sample also had the highest proportion of thermally labile materials as measured by DSC, and the highest ratio of substituted fatty acids to lignin phenols as indicated by CuO oxidation. Therefore, the organic matter of the Inceptisol sample, with a {sup 14}C age associated with 'passive' pools of carbon (680 years), had the largest proportion of easily metabolizable organic molecules with low thermodynamic stability, whereas the organic matter of the much younger Oxisol sample (107 years) had the highest proportion of supposedly stable organic structures considered more difficult to metabolize. Our results demonstrate that C age is not necessarily related to molecular structure or thermodynamic stability, and we suggest that soil carbon models would benefit from viewing turnover rate as codetermined by the interaction between substrates, microbial actors, and abiotic driving variables. Furthermore, assuming that old carbon is composed of

  3. The Statistical Evolution of Multiple Generations of Oxidation Products in the Photochemical Aging of Chemically Reduced Organic Aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Kevin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kessler, Sean; Kroll, Jesse H.

    2011-10-03

    The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with squalane and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (BES) particles are used as model systems to examine how distributions of reactionproducts evolve during the oxidation of chemically reduced organic aerosol. A kinetic model of multigenerational chemistry, which is compared to previously measured (squalane) and new(BES) experimental data, reveals that it is the statistical mixtures of different generations of oxidation products that control the average particle mass and elemental composition during thereaction. The model suggests that more highly oxidized reaction products, although initially formed with low probability, play a large role in the production of gas phase reaction products.In general, these results highlight the importance of considering atmospheric oxidation as a statistical process, further suggesting that the underlying distribution of molecules could playimportant roles in aerosol formation as well as in the evolution of key physicochemical properties such as volatility and hygroscopicity.

  4. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds

  5. Final Report: Fiscal Year 1997 demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation of organic solids and liquids using peroxydisulfate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment, chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992. The process uses solutions of the peroxydisulfate ion (typically sodium or ammonium salts) to completely mineralize the organics to carbon dioxide and water. The expended oxidant may be electrolytically regenerated to minimize secondary waste. The paper briefly describes: free radical and secondary oxidant formation; electrochemical regeneration; offgas stream; and throughput.

  6. APPLICATION OF STIR BAR SORPTIVE EXTRACTION TO ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE AND SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN IN SOLIDS AND AQUEOUS SAMPLES FROM THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRYE JM; KUNKEL JM

    2009-03-05

    Stir bar sorptive extraction was applied to aqueous and solid samples for the extraction and analysis of organic compounds from the Hanford chemicals of potential concern list, as identified in the vapor data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory analyzed these compounds from vapor samples on thermal desorption tubes as part of the Hanford Site industrial hygiene vapor sampling effort.

  7. Basic Energy Sciences Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic Energy Sciences Reports Basic Energy Sciences Reports The list below of Basic Energy Sciences workshop reports addresses the status of some important research areas that can help identify research directions for a decades-to-century materials and energy strategy. Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Workshop Reports The Energy Challenges Report: New Science for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future This Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) report summarizes a 2008 study by the

  8. Effect of oxidant concentration, exposure time, and seed particles on secondary organic aerosol chemical composition and yield

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lambe, A. T.; Chhabra, P. S.; Onasch, T. B.; Brune, W. H.; Hunter, J. F.; Kroll, J. H.; Cummings, M. J.; Brogan, J. F.; Parmar, Y.; Worsnop, D. R.; et al

    2015-03-18

    We performed a systematic intercomparison study of the chemistry and yields of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from OH oxidation of a common set of gas-phase precursors in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) continuous flow reactor and several environmental chambers. In the flow reactor, SOA precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2.0 × 108 to 2.2 × 1010 molec cm-3 over exposure times of 100 s. In the environmental chambers, precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2 × 106 to 2 × 107 molec cm-3 over exposure times of several hours. The OH concentration in themore » chamber experiments is close to that found in the atmosphere, but the integrated OH exposure in the flow reactor can simulate atmospheric exposure times of multiple days compared to chamber exposure times of only a day or so. In most cases, for a specific SOA type the most-oxidized chamber SOA and the least-oxidized flow reactor SOA have similar mass spectra, oxygen-to-carbon and hydrogen-to-carbon ratios, and carbon oxidation states at integrated OH exposures between approximately 1 × 1011 and 2 × 1011 molec cm-3 s, or about 1–2 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. This observation suggests that in the range of available OH exposure overlap for the flow reactor and chambers, SOA elemental composition as measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer is similar whether the precursor is exposed to low OH concentrations over long exposure times or high OH concentrations over short exposure times. This similarity in turn suggests that both in the flow reactor and in chambers, SOA chemical composition at low OH exposure is governed primarily by gas-phase OH oxidation of the precursors rather than heterogeneous oxidation of the condensed particles. In general, SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than measured in chambers for the range of equivalent OH exposures that can be measured in both the flow reactor and chambers. The influence of

  9. Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences programs: FWP executive summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vook, F.L.; Samara, G.A.

    1989-02-01

    The goals of our Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Materials Science Program at Sandia are: (1) Perform basic, forefront interdisciplinary research using the capabilities of several organizations. (2) Choose programs broadly complementary to Sandia's weapons laboratory mission, but separably identifiable. (3) Perform research in a setting which enhances technological impact because of Sandia's spectrum of basic research, applied research and development engineering. (4) Use large, capital-intensive research facilities not usually found at universities. The BES Materials Science program at Sandia Albuquerque has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia's expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics, and materials-processing science to produce new classes of tailorable materials for the US energy industry, the electronics industry and for defense needs. Current research in this program includes ion-implantation-modified materials, physics and chemistry of ceramics, tailored surfaces for materials applications, strained-layer semiconductors, chemical vapor deposition, surface photo kinetics, organic and high-temperature superconductors, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures and boron-rich very high temperature semiconductors.

  10. Basic Energy Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic Energy Sciences Basic Energy Sciences Supporing research to understand, predict and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Get Expertise Toni Taylor (505) 665-0030 Email Quanxi Jia (505) 667-2716 Email David Morris (505) 665-6487 Email Claudia Mora (505) 665-7832 Email Research fosters fundamental scientific discoveries to meet energy, environmental, and national security challenges The DOE Office of Science's Basic Energy Sciences program

  11. Biofuels Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Basics Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most ...

  12. Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics The industrial sector is vital to the U.S. economy, but at the same time consumes the most energy in the country to manufacture products we use every day. Among the most energy-intensive industries are aluminum, chemicals, forest product, glass, metal casting, mining, petroleum refining, and steel. The energy supply chain begins with electricity, steam, natural gas, coal, and other fuels supplied to a manufacturing plant

  13. Chemical inducible promoter used to obtain transgenic plants with a silent marker and organisms and cells and methods of using same for screening for mutations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Jianru; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2007-06-12

    Disclosed is a chemically inducible promoter for transforming plants or plant cells with genes which are regulatable by adding the plants or cells to a medium containing an inducer or by removing them from such medium. The promoter is inducible by a glucocorticoid, estrogen or inducer not endogenous to plants. Such promoters may be used with any plant genes that can promote shoot regeneration and development to induce shoot formation in the presence of a glucocorticoid, estrogen or inducer. The promoter may be used with antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes or other genes which are regulatable by the presence or absence of a given inducer. Also presented are organisms or cells comprising a gene wherein the natural promoter of the gene is disrupted and the gene is placed under the control of a transgenic inducible promoter. These organisms and cells and their progeny are useful for screening for conditional gain of function and loss of function mutations.

  14. Solar Energy Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Basics Solar is the Latin word for sun-a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That's because more energy from ...

  15. Biomass Basics Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is hosting a Biomass Basics Webinar on August 27, 2015, from 4:00-4:40pm EDT. This webinar will provide high school students and teachers with background...

  16. NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen is a clean-burning fuel, and when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, it produces heat and electricity with only water vapor as a by-product. But hydrogen...

  17. Chemical Control of Charge Trapping and Charge Transfer Processes at the Organic-Inorganic Interface within Quantum Dot-Organic Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Emily A.

    2015-11-06

    Within the research program funded through the Early Career Research Award we designed complexes of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and organic molecules in which the interfacial chemistry controls the electronic structure and dynamics of the excitonic state of the QD. The program included two main projects; (1) investigation of the mechanisms by which organic surfactants control the quantum confinement of excitonic charge carriers; and (2) development of models for electron transfer between QDs and adsorbed molecules as a function of interfacial chemistry. This project was extremely successful in that our achievements in those two areas addressed the great majority of questions we outlined in the original proposal and answered questions I did not think to ask in that original proposal. Our work led to the discovery of “exciton delocalizing ligands”, which change the electronic structure of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals by altering, with small synthetic modifications to their surfaces, their most defining characteristic – the quantum confinement of their excited states. It also led to detailed, quantitative descriptions of how the surface chemistry of a QD dictates, thermodynamically and kinetically, the probability of exchange of electrons between the QD and a small molecule. We used two of the three major techniques in the proposal (transient photoluminescence and transient absorption). Electrogenerated chemiluminescence was also proposed, but was too technically difficult with these systems to be useful. Instead, NMR spectroscopy emerged as a major analytical tool in our studies. With the fundamental advancements we made with this project, we believe that we can design QDs to be the next great class of visible-light photocatalysts.

  18. Geothermal Energy Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Resources » Geothermal Basics Geothermal Basics Geothermal heat is most prevalent in the western United States, where the heat resource can sometimes be spotted from the earth's surface. Geothermal heat is most prevalent in the western United States, where the heat resource can sometimes be spotted from the earth's surface. Geothermal energy-geo (earth) + thermal (heat)-is heat energy from the earth. What is a geothermal resource? Geothermal resources are reservoirs of hot water

  19. Chemical changes to nonagrregtaed particulate soil organic matter following grassland-to woodland transition ina subtropical savanna.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filley, T. R.; Boutton, T. W.; Liao, J. D.; Jastrow, J. D.; Gamblin, D. E.; Biosciences Division; Purdue Univ.; Texas A&M

    2008-07-19

    Encroachment of thorn woodlands into grasslands of southern Texas has resulted in greater aboveground and belowground biomass and greater soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Our previous studies showed that a large percentage of the SOC accrued under invading woody clusters was not stabilized within protective soil aggregates or on mineral-surfaces. Here we evaluated lignin and cutin- and suberin-derived substituted fatty acid (SFA) chemistry to determine if the accrual of nonaggregated particulate organic matter (POM) in woodlands was promoted by inherently greater recalcitrance of tissues from woody versus grass species, and if there was selective input of aboveground versus belowground plant carbon to POM. Woody clusters exhibited reduced concentrations of cutin-derived SFA and cinnamyl phenols within surface litter compared to fresh aboveground plant material. However, root litter exhibited relatively minor changes in biopolymer chemistry compared to fresh root tissue, suggesting it was either more stable or was refreshed at a greater rate. Between 14 and 105 years of woody plant encroachment, SFA in free POM fractions appeared to be consistently derived from root material while SFA within intraaggregate POM were increasingly derived from cutin sources. In addition, the shift from herbaceous to woody input was accompanied by enrichment in the amount of cutin and suberin-derived aliphatics with respect to lignin in both root and surface litter as well as nonaggregated POM. Woody plant encroachment at this site results in the rapid accrual of POM pools that are biochemically recalcitrant, providing a mechanism by which soil organic carbon can accumulate in this sandy soil system. Our results also lend further credence to the hypothesis that aliphatic biopolymers, particularly root-derived suberin, are important components of long-term soil organic carbon stabilization.

  20. Constraining the sensitivity of iodide adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry to multifunctional organic molecules using the collision limit and thermodynamic stability of iodide ion adducts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Iyer, Siddarth; Mohr, Claudia; Lee, Ben H.; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Kurten, Theo; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-04-06

    The sensitivity of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ions formed per number density of analytes) is fundamentally limited by the collision frequency between reagent ions and analytes, known as the collision limit, the ion–molecule reaction time, and the transmission efficiency of product ions to the detector. We use the response of a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS) to N2O5, known to react with iodide at the collision limit, to constrain the combined effects of ion–molecule reaction time, which is strongly influenced by mixing and ion losses in the ion–molecule reaction drift tube. A mass spectrometric voltage scanning procedure elucidatesmore » the relative binding energies of the ion adducts, which influence the transmission efficiency of molecular ions through the electric fields within the vacuum chamber. Together, this information provides a critical constraint on the sensitivity of a ToF-CIMS towards a wide suite of routinely detected multifunctional organic molecules for which no calibration standards exist. Lastly, we describe the scanning procedure and collision limit determination, and we show results from the application of these constraints to the measurement of organic aerosol composition at two different field locations.« less

  1. Constraining the sensitivity of iodide adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry to multifunctional organic molecules using the collision limit and thermodynamic stability of iodide ion adducts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Iyer, Siddarth; Mohr, Claudia; Lee, Ben H.; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Kurtén, Theo; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-04-06

    The sensitivity of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ions formed per number density of analytes) is fundamentally limited by the collision frequency between reagent ions and analytes, known as the collision limit, the ion–molecule reaction time, and the transmission efficiency of product ions to the detector. We use the response of a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS) to N2O5, known to react with iodide at the collision limit, to constrain the combined effects of ion–molecule reaction time, which is strongly influenced by mixing and ion losses in the ion–molecule reaction drift tube. A mass spectrometric voltage scanning procedure elucidatesmore » the relative binding energies of the ion adducts, which influence the transmission efficiency of molecular ions through the electric fields within the vacuum chamber. Together, this information provides a critical constraint on the sensitivity of a ToF-CIMS towards a wide suite of routinely detected multifunctional organic molecules for which no calibration standards exist. We describe the scanning procedure and collision limit determination, and we show results from the application of these constraints to the measurement of organic aerosol composition at two different field locations.« less

  2. Anaerobic Digestion Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anaerobic digestion is an alternative to composting for a wide range of organic substances including livestock manure, municipal wastewater solids, food waste, industrial wastewater and residuals, fats, oils and grease, and other organic waste streams.

  3. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  4. Energy Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Energy Basics Energy Basics The basics about renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: learn how they work, what they're used for, and how they can improve our lives, homes, businesses, and industries. The basics about renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: learn how they work, what they're used for, and how they can improve our lives, homes, businesses, and industries. RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES Biomass Technology Basics Geothermal Technology Basics

  5. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S.

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  6. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, P. Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.; Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Martinez, J.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ?10{sup 7?}cm{sup ?2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300?cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  7. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acidic media using newly synthesized heterocyclic organic molecules: Correlation between inhibition efficiency and chemical structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouici, H. B. Guendouzi, A.; Benali, O.

    2015-03-30

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 5% HCl solutions by some new synthesized organic compounds namely 3-(2-methoxyphenyl) 5-mercapto-1. 2. 4-triazole (2-MMT), 3-(3-methoxyphenyl) 5-mercapto-1. 2. 4-triazole (3-MMT) and 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl) 5-mercapto-1. 2. 4-triazole (2-HMT) was investigated using weight loss and potentiostatic polarization techniques. These measurements reveal that the inhibition efficiency obtained by these compounds increased by increasing their concentration. The inhibition efficiency follows the order 2-MMT >3-MMT >2-HMT. Polarization studies show that these compounds are of the mixed type but dominantly act as a cathodic inhibitors for mild steel in 5% HCl solutions. These inhibitors function through adsorption following Langmuir isotherm. Activation energy and Gibbs free energy for adsorption of inhibitors are calculated. Molecular modeling has been conducted to correlate the corrosion inhibition properties with the calculated quantum chemical parameters.

  8. Interfacial chemical reaction and multiple gap state formation on three layer cathode in organic light-emitting diode: Ca/BaF{sub 2}/Alq{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tae Gun; Kim, Jeong Won; Lee, Hyunbok; Yi, Yeonjin; Lee, Seung Mi

    2015-07-14

    A three layer cathode is a promising stack structure for long lifetime and high efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes. The interfacial chemical reactions and their effects on electronic structures for alkaline-earth metal (Ca, Ba)/Alq{sub 3} [tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum] and Ca/BaF{sub 2}/Alq{sub 3} are investigated using in-situ X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as molecular model calculation. The BaF{sub 2} interlayer initially prevents direct contact between Alq{sub 3} and the reactive Ca metal, but it is dissociated into Ba and CaF{sub 2} by the addition of Ca. As the Ca thickness increases, the Ca penetrates the interlayer to directly participate in the reaction with the underlying Alq{sub 3}. This series of chemical reactions takes place irrespective of the BaF{sub 2} buffer layer thickness as long as the Ca overlayer thickness is sufficient. The interface reaction between the alkaline-earth metal and Alq{sub 3} generates two energetically separated gap states in a sequential manner. This phenomenon is explained by step-by-step charge transfer from the alkaline-earth metal to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital states of Alq{sub 3}, forming new occupied states below the Fermi level.

  9. Biomass Basics Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 27, 2015 Biomass Basics Alexis Martin Fellow, Bioenergy Technologies Office Department of Energy 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Agenda * Overview of Bioenergy * Biomass to Biofuels Life Cycle * Importance of Bioenergy * 2016 BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge 3 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Questions and Comments Please record any questions and comments you may have during the webinar and send them to BioenergizeME@ee.doe.gov As a follow-up to the webinar, the presenter(s) will

  10. Hydrogen Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen is a clean-burning fuel, and when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, it produces heat and electricity with only water vapor as a by-product. But hydrogen does not exist freely in nature: it is only produced from other sources of energy, so it is often referred to as an energy carrier, that is, an efficient way to store and transport energy. A photo of a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). A

  11. Wind Energy Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of years. From old Holland to farms in the United States, windmills have been used for pumping water or grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine-can use the wind's energy to generate electricity. Text Version Wind turbines, like windmills, are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and less turbulent

  12. Basic Solar Energy Research in Japan (2011 EFRC Forum)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domen, Kazunari

    2011-05-26

    Kazunari Domen, Chemical System Engineering Professor at the University of Tokyo, was the second speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Domen talked about basic solar energy research in Japan. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  13. Basic Solar Energy Research in Japan (2011 EFRC Forum)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Domen, Kazunari (University of Tokyo)

    2012-03-14

    Kazunari Domen, Chemical System Engineering Professor at the University of Tokyo, was the second speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Domen talked about basic solar energy research in Japan. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several ?grand challenges? and use-inspired ?basic research needs? recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  14. 2 BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES 2.1 Adenosine Triphosphate: The Energy Currency of Life

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 6/1/2011 2 BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES 2.1 Adenosine Triphosphate: The Energy Currency of Life The energy cycle of all living organisms involves the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which captures the chemical energy released by the metabolism of nutrients and makes it available for cellular functions such as muscle contraction and transmission of nerve messages. A hard-working human adult can convert almost a ton of ATP daily. From the early 1960s through 1994, the Office of Science supported

  15. BasicODT

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-09-25

    BasicODT is a Monte Carlo simulation that numerically implements One-Dimensional Turbulence (ODT), a stochastic model of turbulent flow that was developed by the author of the code. This code is set up to simulate channel flow, which is the flow between two parallel flat walls driven by a fixed pressure gradient, with no-slip conditions at the walls. The code writes output files containing flow statistics gathered during the simulation. The code is accompanied by documentationmore » that explains how ODT modeling principles are numerically implemented within the code. The code and documentation are intended as an introduction to ODT for use as a learning tool for people who are unfamiliar with the model and its numerical implementation. ODT is fully described in published literature.« less

  16. Infrared Basics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Infrared Basics Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Infrared Basics Author Protherm Published Publisher Not Provided, 2013 DOI Not Provided...

  17. Effects of growth temperature on the properties of InGaN channel heterostructures grown by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yachao; Zhou, Xiaowei; Xu, Shengrui; Wang, Zhizhe; Chen, Zhibin; Zhang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jincheng E-mail: xd-zhangyachao@163.com; Hao, Yue E-mail: xd-zhangyachao@163.com

    2015-12-15

    Pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition (P-MOCVD) is introduced into the growth of high quality InGaN channel heterostructures. The effects of InGaN channel growth temperature on the structural and transport properties of the heterostructures are investigated in detail. High resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the quality of InGaN channel strongly depends on the growth temperature. Meanwhile, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) results show that the interface morphology between the InGaN channel and the barrier layer also relies on the growth temperature. Since the variation of material properties of InGaN channel has a significant influence on the electrical properties of InAlN/InGaN heterostructures, the optimal transport properties can be achieved by adjusting the growth temperature. A very high two dimension electron gas (2DEG) density of 1.92 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} and Hall electron mobility of 1025 cm{sup 2}/(V⋅s) at room temperature are obtained at the optimal growth temperature around 740 °C. The excellent transport properties in our work indicate that the heterostructure with InGaN channel is a promising candidate for the microwave power devices, and the results in this paper will be instructive for further study of the InGaN channel heterostructures.

  18. Low-temperature growth and orientational control in RuO{sub 2} thin films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, G.R.; Wang, A.; Foster, C.M.; Vetrone, J.; Patel, J.; Wu, X.

    1996-08-01

    For growth temperatures in the range of 275 C to 425 C, highly conductive RuO{sub 2} thin films with either (110)- or (101)-textured orientations have been grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on both SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) and Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates. Both the growth temperature and growth rate were used to control the type and degree of orientational texture of the RuO{sub 2} films. In the upper part of this growth temperature range ({approximately} 350 C) and at a low growth rate (< 30 {angstrom}/min.), the RuO{sub 2} films favored a (110)-textured. In contrast, at the lower part of this growth temperature range ({approximately} 300 C) and at a high growth rate (> 30 {angstrom}/min.), the RuO{sub 2} films favored a (101)-textured. In contrast, a higher growth temperatures (> 425 C) always produced randomly-oriented polycrystalline films. For either of these low-temperature growth processes, the films produced were crack-free, well-adhered to the substrates, and had smooth, specular surfaces. Atomic force microscopy showed that the films had a dense microstructure with an average grain size of 50--80 nm and a rms. surface roughness of {approximately} 3--10 nm. Four-probe electrical transport measurements showed that the films were highly conductive with resistivities of 34--40 {micro}{Omega}-cm ({at} 25 C).

  19. Benchmarking density functional theory predictions of framework structures and properties in a chemically diverse test set of metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarian, Dalar; Ganesh, P.; Sholl, David S.

    2015-09-30

    We compiled a test set of chemically and topologically diverse Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs) with high accuracy experimentally derived crystallographic structure data. The test set was used to benchmark the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) functionals (M06L, PBE, PW91, PBE-D2, PBE-D3, and vdW-DF2) for predicting lattice parameters, unit cell volume, bonded parameters and pore descriptors. On average PBE-D2, PBE-D3, and vdW-DF2 predict more accurate structures, but all functionals predicted pore diameters within 0.5 Å of the experimental diameter for every MOF in the test set. The test set was also used to assess the variance in performance of DFT functionals for elastic properties and atomic partial charges. The DFT predicted elastic properties such as minimum shear modulus and Young's modulus can differ by an average of 3 and 9 GPa for rigid MOFs such as those in the test set. Moreover, we calculated the partial charges by vdW-DF2 deviate the most from other functionals while there is no significant difference between the partial charges calculated by M06L, PBE, PW91, PBE-D2 and PBE-D3 for the MOFs in the test set. We find that while there are differences in the magnitude of the properties predicted by the various functionals, these discrepancies are small compared to the accuracy necessary for most practical applications.

  20. Chemical characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosol generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-04-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- andmore » post-treatment conditions for six different coniferous plant types. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA chemical composition was measured using a Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+), m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, MeJA, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O : C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3 and 0.47. The O : C of standard MeJA SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient data sets collected in forest environments.« less

  1. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences An ASCR / BES / NERSC Workshop February 9-10, 2010 Jim Davenport Program Manager for Theoretical Condensed Material Physics Mark R. Pederson Program Manager for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry Nicholas B. Woodward Program Manager, Geosciences Research Program Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for

  2. Division Director, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division is seeking a motivated and highly qualified individual to...

  3. Benchmarking density functional theory predictions of framework structures and properties in a chemically diverse test set of metal-organic frameworks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nazarian, Dalar; Ganesh, P.; Sholl, David S.

    2015-09-30

    We compiled a test set of chemically and topologically diverse Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs) with high accuracy experimentally derived crystallographic structure data. The test set was used to benchmark the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) functionals (M06L, PBE, PW91, PBE-D2, PBE-D3, and vdW-DF2) for predicting lattice parameters, unit cell volume, bonded parameters and pore descriptors. On average PBE-D2, PBE-D3, and vdW-DF2 predict more accurate structures, but all functionals predicted pore diameters within 0.5 Å of the experimental diameter for every MOF in the test set. The test set was also used to assess the variance in performance of DFT functionalsmore » for elastic properties and atomic partial charges. The DFT predicted elastic properties such as minimum shear modulus and Young's modulus can differ by an average of 3 and 9 GPa for rigid MOFs such as those in the test set. Moreover, we calculated the partial charges by vdW-DF2 deviate the most from other functionals while there is no significant difference between the partial charges calculated by M06L, PBE, PW91, PBE-D2 and PBE-D3 for the MOFs in the test set. We find that while there are differences in the magnitude of the properties predicted by the various functionals, these discrepancies are small compared to the accuracy necessary for most practical applications.« less

  4. Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CDE Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering We support stockpile manufacturing, surveillance, applied and basic energy sciences, threat reduction, public health, the environment, and space exploration. Contact Us Group Leader Peter Stark Deputy Group Leader Tom Yoshida Group Office (505) 667-5740 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy The Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering (C-CDE) Group combines engineering design with routine analytical services and state-of-the-art

  5. LED Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SSL Basics » LED Basics LED Basics Unlike incandescent lamps, LEDs are not inherently white light sources. Instead, LEDs emit nearly monochromatic light, making them highly efficient for colored light applications such as traffic lights and exit signs. However, to be used as a general light source, white light is needed. White light can be achieved with LEDs in three ways: Phosphor conversion, in which a phosphor is used on or near the LED to convert the colored light to white light RGB

  6. Biofuels Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education & Workforce Development » Resources » Biomass Basics » Biofuels Basics Biofuels Basics Biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel can make a big difference in improving our environment, helping our economy, and reducing our dependence on foreign oil. This page discusses biofuels research supported by the Bioenergy Technologies Office. Biofuels for Transportation Ethanol Biodiesel Renewable Diesel Biofuels for Transportation Most vehicles on the road today are fueled by gasoline and

  7. Daylighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting & Daylighting » Daylighting Basics Daylighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 11:24am Addthis Energy 101: Daylighting Basics This video explains how homeowners and businesses can use highly efficient, strategically placed windows to save money. Text Version Daylighting is the use of windows and skylights to bring sunlight into buildings. Daylighting in businesses and commercial buildings can result in substantial savings on electric bills, and not only provides a higher quality of light

  8. NREL: Learning - Solar Energy Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Basics Photo of a solar electric system in Colorado with snow-covered mountain ... & Renewable Energy Solar Energy Conversion Data U.S. Energy Information Administration

  9. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV gets its name from the process ...

  10. Solar Process Heat Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Process Heat Basics Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for ...

  11. Office of Basic Energy Sciences; ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Final Technical Report submitted to the Department of Energy - Office of Basic Energy Sciences; Dr. Lane C. Wilson, Program Manager Period of performance for Sept 15, 2010 - Sept ...

  12. Basic physical and chemical information needed for development...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; TRANSPORT THEORY; MONTE CARLO METHOD; ...

  13. Basic physical and chemical information needed for development...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (i.e., statistical physics and physical kinetics in the language of the Landau school). ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND ...

  14. Safety, Codes and Standards - Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Safety, Codes & Standards » Safety, Codes and Standards - Basics Safety, Codes and Standards - Basics Hydrogen has a long history of safe use in the chemical and aerospace industries. An understanding of hydrogen properties, proper safety precautions and engineering controls, and established rules, regulations, and standards are the keys to this successful track record. As the use of hydrogen and fuel cell systems expands, codes and standards will be needed to provide the information to

  15. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organization Organization Organization

  16. Hydropower Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Hydropower Hydropower Resource Basics Hydropower Resource Basics August 16, 2013 ... Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen & Fuel Cells ...

  17. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paine, R.T.

    2000-12-12

    A large body of data has been collected over the last fifty years on the chemical behavior of f-element ions. The ions undergo rapid hydrolysis reactions in neutral or basic aqueous solutions that produce poorly understood oxide-hydroxide species; therefore, most of the fundamental f-element solution chemistry has allowed synthetic and separations chemists to rationally design advanced organic chelating ligands useful for highly selective partitioning and separation of f-element ions from complex acidic solution matrices. These ligands and new examples under development allow for the safe use and treatment of solutions containing highly radioactive species. This DOE/EMSP project was undertaken to address the following fundamental objectives: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and lanthanide (Ln) ions in basic aqueous media containing classical counter anions found in waste matrices; (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonates and phosphonic acids that might act as selective chelator s for Ln ions in model basic pH waste streams; (3) study the binding of the new chelators toward Ln ions and (4) examine the utility of the chelators as decontamination and dissolution agents under basic solution conditions. The project has been successful in attacking selected aspects of the very difficult problems associated with basic pH solution f-element waste chemistry. In particular, the project has (1) shed additional light on the initial stages of Ln ion sol-gel-precipitate formulation under basic solution conditions; (2) generated new families of pyridine phosphonic acid chelators; (3) characterized the function of the chelators and (4) examined their utility as oxide-hydroxide dissolution agents. These findings have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the behavior of Ln ions in basic media containing anions found in typical waste sludges as well as to the development of sludge dissolution agents. The new chelating reagents are easily made and could be

  18. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1997 are presented.

  19. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W.; Miller, J.F.

    1999-08-06

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Hydrogen Basics Production

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Production &

  2. Bisfuel links - Professional organizations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Professional organizations http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content" target="_blank">American Chemical Society

  3. NREL: Learning - Biomass Energy Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Energy Basics Photo of a farmer standing in a field and inspecting corn crops. We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"-the energy from plants and plant-derived...

  4. Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Researchers are developing fuel cells that can be used in vehicles to provide electricity for propulsion as well as for a car's electric and electronic ...

  5. NREL: Learning - Geothermal Energy Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geothermal Energy Basics Photo of a hot spring. The Earth's heat-called geothermal energy-escapes as steam at a hot springs in Nevada. Many technologies have been developed to take...

  6. Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes & Buildings » Lighting & Daylighting » Lighting Basics Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:12pm Addthis Text Version There are many different types of artificial lights (formally called "lamps" in the lighting industry,) which have different applications and uses. Types of lighting include: Fluorescent Lighting High-intensity Discharge Lighting Incandescent Lighting LED Lighting. New lamp designs that use energy-efficient technology are now readily available in the

  7. Biofuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuel Basics Biofuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 11:38am Addthis Text Version Photo of a woman in goggles handling a machine filled with biofuels. Most vehicles on the road today run on gasoline and diesel fuels, which are produced from oil-a non-renewable resource, meaning supplies are limited. Renewable resources, in contrast, are constantly replenished and are unlikely to run out. Biomass is one type of renewable resource that can be converted into liquid fuels (biofuels) for transportation.

  8. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences: Target 2017 Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences: Target 2017 BES-Montage.png This is an invitation-only review organized by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The goal is to determine production high-performance computing, storage, and services that will be needed for BES to

  9. Basic research needs for management and disposal of DOE wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grazis, B.M.; Horwitz, E.P. ); Schulz, W.W. )

    1991-04-01

    This document was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Research. It identifies and describes 87 basic research needs in support of advanced technology for management and disposal of Department of Energy radioactive, hazardous chemical, and mixed wastes. A team of scientists and engineers from several DOE laboratories and sites, from academia, and from industry identified and described the basic research needs called out in this report. Special efforts were made to ensure that basic research needs related to management and disposal of any hazardous chemical wastes generated at nonnuclear DOE sites and facilities were properly identified. It is hoped that scientists in both DOE and nongovernment laboratories and institutions will find this document useful when formulating research efforts relevant to waste management and disposal. For management and disposal of DOE radioactive and mixed wastes, basic research needs are identified in nine separate action areas. Basic research needs for management and disposal of DOE hazardous chemical wastes are identified in five action areas. Sufficient description and background information are provided in the report for each particular research need to enable qualified and imaginative scientists to conceive research efforts and programs that will meet the need. 28 refs., 7 tabs.

  10. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    repository and the Principal Investigator (PI) for ALICE computing at NERSC is Jeff Porter. ALICE users work in the sl53 chos environment. See the Chos page for more...

  11. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in HPSS. The Principal Investigator (PI) for STAR computing at NERSC is Jeff Porter. In general STAR users should work in the chos environment sl53. This means that upon...

  12. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daya Bay has two "production accounts". The dayabay account is used for the automated software builds on common as well as for the diagnostic testing of the processed raw data...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Electricity Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this

  16. Basic research for environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Hydropower Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Resources » Hydropower Basics Hydropower Basics Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player Most people associate water power with the Hoover Dam-a huge facility harnessing the power of an entire river behind its walls-but hydropower facilities come in all sizes. Some may be very large, but they can be tiny too, taking advantage of water flows in municipal water facilities or irrigation ditches. They can even be "dam-less,"

  18. Financing Basics for RE Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basics for RE Projects 1 Agenda: * Overview & Summary Findings * Introduction to Project Finance * The Role of the Players * Structure and Negotiation of Key Documents * Conclusions 2 Overview & Summary Findings 3 Renewable Energy Options: * Wind * PV * Solar * Bio * The evaluative parameters used by financiers is different for each of these technologies - Example: DSC for Wind = 1.4 - 1.5; and DSC for Bio (due to fuel risk) = 1.5 - 1.6 4 Basic Elements #1: * Lots of money now available

  19. Tool Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Buildings » Analysis Tools » Energy Asset Score » Tool Basics Tool Basics Asset Score Scale The Asset Score uses a 10-point scale to evaluate the energy efficiency of a building's physical characteristics and major energy-related systems. The point value is assigned based on a building's predicted source energy use intensity (EUI) according to the energy simulation results. Scores are rounded to the nearest half-point increment (i.e., "6", "6.5", "7",

  20. Program of technical assistance to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons - lessons learned from the U.S. program of technical assistance to IAEA safeguards. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency is sponsoring a technical study of the requirements of a vehicle to meet the OPCW`s future needs for enhanced chemical weapons verification capabilities. This report provides information about the proven mechanisms by which the U.S. provided both short- and long-term assistance to the IAEA to enhance its verification capabilities. Much of the technical assistance has generic application to international organizations verifying compliance with disarmament treaties or conventions. In addition, some of the equipment developed by the U.S. under the existing arrangements can be applied in the verification of other disarmament treaties or conventions. U.S. technical assistance to IAEA safeguards outside of the IAEA`s regular budget proved to be necessary. The U.S. technical assistance was successful in improving the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards for its most urgent responsibilities and in providing the technical elements for increased IAEA {open_quotes}readiness{close_quotes} for the postponed responsibilities deemed important for U.S. policy objectives. Much of the technical assistance was directed to generic subjects and helped to achieve a system of international verification. It is expected that the capabilities of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to verify a state`s compliance with the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} will require improvements. This report presents 18 important lessons learned from the experience of the IAEA and the U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), organized into three tiers. Each lesson is presented in the report in the context of the difficulty, need and history in which the lesson was learned. Only the most important points are recapitulated in this executive summary.

  1. DOE Office of Basic Sciences: An Overview of Basic Research Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Basic Sciences: An Overview of Basic Research Activities on Thermoelectrics DOE ... More Documents & Publications Basic Energy Sciences Overview Progress from DOE EF RC: ...

  2. Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Basics Water Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Addthis Related Articles Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Homes &

  3. Health Care Buildings : Basic Characteristics Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Basic Characteristics Tables Buildings and Size Data by Basic Characteristics for Health Care Buildings Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million...

  4. Basic Research Needs: Catalysis for Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Alexis T.; Gates, Bruce C.; Ray, Douglas; Thompson, Michael R.

    2008-03-11

    The report presents results of a workshop held August 6-8, 2007, by DOE SC Basic Energy Sciences to determine the basic research needs for catalysis research.

  5. Solar Energy Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Solar Solar Energy Resource Basics Solar Energy Resource Basics August 21, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis Solar radiation, often called the solar resource, is a ...

  6. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics August ... Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy. A single ...

  7. Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 - Electricity Basics Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics It's difficult to imagine life without convenient electricity. You just flip a switch or plug in an appliance, and it's there....

  8. Basic Matrix Library (bml), Version 0.x

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-11-24

    The basic matrix library (bml) is a collection of various matrix data formats (in dense and sparse) and their associated algorithms for basic matrix operations.

  9. Basic energy properties of electrolytic solutions database. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Basic energy properties of electrolytic solutions database. Viscosity, thermal conductivity, density, enthalpy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Basic energy properties ...

  10. Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics ... This lattice comprises the solid material that forms the photovoltaic (PV) cell's ...

  11. Photovoltaic Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis Related Articles Quiz: Test Your Solar IQ Energy 101: Solar Photovoltaics Photovoltaic Cell Basics Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen & Fuel ...

  12. Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:00pm Addthis To separate electrical charges, crystalline silicon cells must have a ...

  13. Photovoltaic Cell Performance Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Basics Photovoltaic Cell Performance Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:55pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells use the energy in sunlight to produce electricity. ...

  14. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet), Vehicle Technologies Program ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet), Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet), Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) Fact sheet providing questions and answers on ...

  15. Geothermal Electricity Production Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Production Basics Geothermal power plants use steam produced from reservoirs of hot water found a few miles or more below the Earth's surface to produce electricity. The steam rotates a turbine that activates a generator, which produces electricity. There are three types of geothermal power plants: dry steam, flash steam, and binary cycle. Photo of a geothermal power plant. This geothermal power plant generates electricity for the Imperial Valley in California. Dry Steam Dry steam

  16. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Today's hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) range from small passenger cars to sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and large trucks. Though they often look just like conventional vehicles, HEVs usually include an electric motor as well as a small internal combustion engine (ICE). This combination provides greater fuel economy and fewer emissions than most conventional ICE vehicles do. Photo of the front and part of the side of a bus parked at the curb of a city street with

  17. Concentrating Solar Power Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Basics Many power plants today use fossil fuels as a heat source to boil water. The steam from the boiling water spins a large turbine, which drives a generator to produce electricity. However, a new generation of power plants with concentrating solar power systems uses the sun as a heat source. The three main types of concentrating solar power systems are: linear concentrator, dish/engine, and power tower systems. Linear concentrator systems collect the sun's energy

  18. Basic concepts of contaminant sorption. Summary paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of issue papers and briefing documents which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. In an attempt to make the content of these documents available to a wider audience, RSKERL is developing a series of summary papers which are condensed versions of the original documents. Understanding the processes which dictate transport and fate characteristics of contaminants in soil and ground water is of paramount importance in designing and implementing remediation systems at hazardous waste sites. Sorption is often the most significant of these processes. The summary paper addresses the basic concepts of sorption in soil and ground water with an emphasis on organic contaminants having the characteristics of those often found at existing hazardous waste sites.

  19. Summary of recommendations on basic research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    There has been considerable progress during the past four decades in organic geochemistry research applied to understanding the origin of coal, oil, and gas, and in understanding contemporary and ancient carbon cycles on Earth. Significant contributions have been made by academic research, government laboratories, and industrial research communities either working independently or with informal cooperation. But, important questions still remain. Among the questions answered in this paper are those dealing with the mechanisms of migration of hydrocarbons and the structure of kerogen and coal. During the final plenary session of the workshop, one way of dealing with the problem of coordinating basic research effects between industry, academic institutions, and government laboratories, strongly favored by some of the participants, was discussed--creation of a National Fossil Fuel Research Institute.

  20. Physico-chemical and Bio-chemical Controls on Soil C Saturation Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Six, Johan; Plante, Alain

    2011-06-02

    In this project, we tested through a multitude of lab and field experiments the concept of soil C stabilization and determined metrics for the level of C saturation across soils and soil organic matter fractions. The basic premise of the soil C saturation concept is that there is a maximum amount of C that can be stabilized within a soil, even when C input is further increased. In a first analysis, our results showed that linear regression models do not adequately predict maximal organic C stabilization by fine soil particles. Soil physical and chemical properties associated with soil clay mineralogy, such as specific surface area and organic C loading, should be incorporated into models for predicting maximal organic C stabilization. In a second analysis, we found significantly greater maximal C stabilization in the microaggregate-protected versus the non-microaggregate protected mineral fractions, which provides independent validation that microaggregation plays an important role in increasing the protection and stabilization of soil C leading to greater total soil C accumulation in these pools. In a third study, our results question the role of biochemical preference in mineral C stabilization and of the chemical recalcitrance of specific plant-derived compounds in non-protected soil C accumulation. Because C biochemical composition of slowly turning over mineral protected C pools does not change with C saturation, input C composition is unlikely to affect long-term C stabilization. Rather, C saturation and stabilization in soil is controlled only by the quantity of C input to the soil and the physical and chemical protection mechanisms at play in long-term C stabilization. In conclusion, we have further corroborated the concept of soil C saturation and elucidated several mechanisms underlying this soil C saturation.

  1. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  2. dBASE IV basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    This is a user`s manual for dBASE IV. dBASE IV is a popular software application that can be used on your personal computer to help organize and maintain your database files. It is actually a set of tools with which you can create, organize, select and manipulate data in a simple yet effective manner. dBASE IV offers three methods of working with the product: (1) control center: (2) command line; and (3) programming.

  3. Chemical Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Science Chemical Science National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Actinide Chemistry» Modeling and Simulation in the Chemical Sciences» Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry» Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science» Chemical Researcher Jeff Pietryga shows two vials of different-size nanocrystals, each

  4. Basic photovoltaic principles and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

    1982-02-01

    This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

  5. Chemical Recycling | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Recycling Chemical Recycling

  6. Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; POLLUTANTS; CHEMILUMINESCENCE; AIR POLLUTION; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; AIR POLLUTION MONITORING; OZONE; ...

  7. PC Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-09

    PC-BLAS is a highly optimized version of the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), a standardized set of thirty-eight routines that perform low-level operations on vectors of numbers in single and double-precision real and complex arithmetic. Routines are included to find the index of the largest component of a vector, apply a Givens or modified Givens rotation, multiply a vector by a constant, determine the Euclidean length, perform a dot product, swap and copy vectors, andmore » find the norm of a vector. The BLAS have been carefully written to minimize numerical problems such as loss of precision and underflow and are designed so that the computation is independent of the interface with the calling program. This independence is achieved through judicious use of Assembly language macros. Interfaces are provided for Lahey Fortran 77, Microsoft Fortran 77, and Ryan-McFarland IBM Professional Fortran.« less

  8. Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-11-13

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

  9. Assessment of the basic energy sciences program. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    A list of experts reviewing the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program and their organizations are given. The assessment plan is explained; the program examined the following: quality of science being conducted in the program, quality of performers supported by the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program, and the impact of the research on mission oriented needs. The intent of the assessment is to provide an indication of general status relative to these questions for the BES divisions. The approach to the assessment is described. The sampling plan which was used as a guide in determining the sample size and selecting the sample to evaluate the research program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are discussed. Special analyses were conducted on the dispersion of reviewers' ratings, the ratings of the lower funded projects, and the amount of time the principal investigator devoted to the project. These are presented in the final appendix together with histograms for individual rating variables for each program area. (MCW)

  10. Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel ...

  11. Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use was held May 13-15, 2003 to assess the basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. This report is based on t

  12. Photovoltaic Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Basics Photovoltaic Cell Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:53pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV) cells, or solar cells, take advantage of the photoelectric effect to produce electricity. PV ...

  13. Lighting and Daylighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes & Buildings » Lighting and Daylighting Basics Lighting and Daylighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:05pm Addthis Buildings can be lit in two ways: by using artificial lighting, or by using daylighting, or the process of using natural sunlight, windows, and skylights to provide lighting. Learn more about: Lighting Daylighting Addthis Related Articles Daylighting Basics Energy 101: Daylighting The Biggest, Brightest Star of Energy Efficiency Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Homes &

  14. Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-01

    Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy. This document provides general information about bioenergy and its creation and potential uses.

  15. Basic ReseaRch DiRections

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Basic ReseaRch DiRections for User Science at the National Ignition Facility Report on the National Nuclear Security Administration - Office of Science Workshop on Basic Research Directions on User Science at the National Ignition Facility BASIC RESEARCH DIRECTIONS FOR USER SCIENCE AT THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY Report on the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) - Office of Science (SC) Workshop on Basic Research Directions on User Science at the National Ignition Facility Chairs:

  16. Energy Basics Website Contact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Basics Website Contact Energy Basics Website Contact Use this form to send us your comments, report problems, and/or ask questions about information on the Energy Basics website. Your Email Message Here * CAPTCHA This question is for testing whether you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Submit

  17. EERE Success Story-New Software Will Enable Chemical Manufacturers...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Photo courtesy of Organic Chemistry (McMurray). Distillation columns like this one are used in a variety of chemical manufacturing applications. Photo courtesy of Organic Chemistry ...

  18. AMO Success Story: New Software Will Enable Chemical Manufacturers...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Photo courtesy of Organic Chemistry (McMurray). Distillation columns like this one are used in a variety of chemical manufacturing applications. Photo courtesy of Organic Chemistry ...

  19. Chemical Characterization of Individual Particles and Residuals...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Chemical Characterization of Individual ... Collected On Board Research Aircraft in the ISDAC ... inorganic or black carbon cores coated by organic materials. ...

  20. Chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2001-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator is disclosed with applications to chemical sensing and analysis. The preconcentrator can be formed by depositing a resistive heating element (e.g. platinum) over a membrane (e.g. silicon nitride) suspended above a substrate. A coating of a sorptive material (e.g. a microporous hydrophobic sol-gel coating or a polymer coating) is formed on the suspended membrane proximate to the heating element to selective sorb one or more chemical species of interest over a time period, thereby concentrating the chemical species in the sorptive material. Upon heating the sorptive material with the resistive heating element, the sorbed chemical species are released for detection and analysis in a relatively high concentration and over a relatively short time period. The sorptive material can be made to selectively sorb particular chemical species of interest while not substantially sorbing other chemical species not of interest. The present invention has applications for use in forming high-sensitivity, rapid-response miniaturized chemical analysis systems (e.g. a "chem lab on a chip").

  1. Chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  2. Chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

  3. Chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1992-06-09

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

  4. Chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

  5. Chemical Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Science Chemical Science Plant fatty acids are used in a vast range of products, from polymers to plastics and soaps to industrial feed stocks -- making up an estimated $150 billion market annually. A new discovery of inserting double bonds in the fatty acids could show the way to the designer production of plant fatty acids, and, in turn, to new industrial applications and new products. <a href

  6. Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior

  7. Bio-Benefits Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education & Workforce Development » Resources » Biomass Basics » Bio-Benefits Basics Bio-Benefits Basics Biomass is an important commodity for the future of the United States. Increased production and use of biofuels will result in a variety of benefits to the nation, including: Improved national energy security Increased economic growth Broad-based environmental benefits. Biomass and U.S. Energy Security The U.S. economy is heavily dependent on oil imports-containing 4% of the world's

  8. Wind Energy Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Resources » Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics Once called windmills, the technology used to harness the power of wind has advanced significantly over the past ten years, with the United States increasing its wind power capacity 30% year over year. Wind turbines, as they are now called, collect and convert the kinetic energy that wind produces into electricity to help power the grid. Wind energy is actually a byproduct of the sun. The sun's uneven heating of

  9. Electric-Drive Vehicle Basics (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    Describes the basics of electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles, and the various charging options.

  10. Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... More Information Learn more about these solar cell materials: Polycrystalline Thin Films Single-Crystalline Thin Films Addthis Related Articles Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics ...

  11. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Technology Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Basics Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies can be a major contributor to our nation's future need for new, clean sources of energy, particularly in the Western...

  12. National Laboratory] Basic Biological Sciences(59) Biological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Achievements of structural genomics Terwilliger, Thomas C. Los Alamos National Laboratory Basic Biological Sciences(59) Biological Science Biological Science Abstract Not...

  13. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xinghua; Wang Tiejun Ma Longlong; Chang Jie

    2008-11-15

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) {approx}205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  14. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2010-11-23

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  15. Review - basic research needs in fluid mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, O.C. Jr.; Kreith, F.; White, F.M.

    1981-12-01

    A small segment of the engineering community was surveyed to obtain their judgement regarding the long-range needs for basic research in fluid mechanics. It is the purpose of this paper to provide a summary of a more detailed report, which identifies basic research needed in fluid mechanics. 12 refs.

  16. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  17. Chemical Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical 'Sponges' Could Make Chemo Safer Chemical 'Sponges' Could Make Chemo Safer July 8, 2016 - 4:22pm Addthis A sample of a polymer-based membrane material created at Berkeley Lab. It’s designed to soak up cancer drugs and limit their side effects. | Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab. A sample of a polymer-based membrane material created at Berkeley Lab. It's designed to soak up cancer drugs and limit their side effects. | Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab. Glenn Roberts Jr.

  18. Chemical reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.L.

    1987-01-13

    This patent describes the process of producing liquid oils from organic waste materials, which comprises: mixing an oil-based carrier with organic waste material selected from the group consisting of organic garbage, raw sewage, sewage sludge and waste paper. The waste material contains at least about 10 weight percent water. The amount of oil-based carrier present is sufficient to permit the mixture to be a more readily flowable material that the corresponding waste material free of oil carrier. The flowable material is pyrolyzed at elevated temperature and pressure to produce the liquid oils. 17. The process of producing liquid oils from organic waste materials selected from the group consisting of organic garbage, raw sewage, sewage sludge, and waste paper, which comprises: mixing an oil-based carrier with organic waste material, the waste material containing at least about 10 weight percent water, the amount of oil-based carrier present being sufficient to permit the mixture to be more readily flowable material than the corresponding waste material free of oil carrier, pyrolysing the flowable material at a temperature of 700/sup 0/ to 950/sup 0/F. and a pressure of 700 to 2,500 p.s.i. to produce the liquid oils, and thereafter passing the heated, substantially continuous stream through heat exchange means to recover heat and to transfer it to an upstream portion of the substantially continuous stream.

  19. Chemical Occurrences

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Classification of Chemical Occurrence Reports into the following four classes: Occurrences characterized by serious energy release, injury or exposure requiring medical treatment, or severe environmental damage, Occurrences characterized by minor injury or exposure, or reportable environmental release, Occurrences that were near misses including notable safety violations and Minor occurrences.

  20. Active Solar Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:23pm Addthis There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid-either liquid or air-that is heated in the solar energy collectors. The collector is the device in which a fluid is heated by the sun. Liquid-based systems heat water or an antifreeze solution in a "hydronic" collector, whereas air-based systems heat air in an "air collector." Both of these systems

  1. Organic Tanks Safety Program: Waste aging studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Lenihan, B.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated from many years of plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. This report details the first year`s findings of a study charged with determining how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds disposed to the tank. Their approach relies on literature precedent, experiments with simulated waste, and studies of model reactions. During the past year, efforts have focused on the global reaction kinetics of a simulated waste exposed to {gamma} radiation, the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion, and the decomposition reactions of nitro compounds. In experiments with an organic tank non-radioactive simulant, the authors found that gas production is predominantly radiolytically induced. Concurrent with gas generation they observe the disappearance of EDTA, TBP, DBP and hexone. In the absence of radiolysis, the TBP readily saponifies in the basic medium, but decomposition of the other compounds required radiolysis. Key organic intermediates in the model are C-N bonded compounds such as oximes. As discussed in the report, oximes and nitro compounds decompose in strong base to yield aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids (from nitriles). Certain aldehydes can react in the absence of radiolysis to form H{sub 2}. Thus, if the pathways are correct, then organic compounds reacting via these pathways are oxidizing to lower energy content. 75 refs.

  2. Photovoltaics: Basic Design Principles and Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This publication will introduce you to the basic design principles and components of PV systems. It will also help you discuss these systems knowledgeably with an equipment supplier or system installer.

  3. FTA Basic Event & Cut Set Ranking.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-05-04

    Version 00 IMPORTANCE computes various measures of probabilistic importance of basic events and minimal cut sets to a fault tree or reliability network diagram. The minimal cut sets, the failure rates and the fault duration times (i.e., the repair times) of all basic events contained in the minimal cut sets are supplied as input data. The failure and repair distributions are assumed to be exponential. IMPORTANCE, a quantitative evaluation code, then determines the probability ofmore » the top event and computes the importance of minimal cut sets and basic events by a numerical ranking. Two measures are computed. The first describes system behavior at one point in time; the second describes sequences of failures that cause the system to fail in time. All measures are computed assuming statistical independence of basic events. In addition, system unavailability and expected number of system failures are computed by the code.« less

  4. NREL: Learning - Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Photo showing a silver four-door sedan being driven on a roadway and containing the words "hydrogen fuel cell electric" across the front and rear doors. ...

  5. Wind Turbine Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This video explains the basics of how wind turbines operate to produce clean power from an abundant, renewable resource-the wind. Text Version Wind turbine assembly Although all ...

  6. Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material than other PV systems. PV cells are the ...

  7. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  8. ENGINEERED ELECTRODES AND ELECTRODE-ORGANIC INTERFACES FOR HIGH-EFFICIENCY ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin J. Marks; R.P.H. Chang; Tom Mason; Ken Poeppelmeier; Arthur J. Freeman

    2008-11-13

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells offer the ultimate promise of low cost, readily manufacturable, and durable solar power. While recent advances have led to cells with impressive performance levels, OPV cells have yet to break the double-digit efficiency barrier. Further gains in efficiency and durability, to that competitive with high-performance inorganic photovoltaics will require breakthroughs in transparent electrode and interfacial materials science and engineering. This project involved an integrated basic research effort carried out by an experienced and highly collaborative interdisciplinary team to address in unconventional ways, critical electrode-interfacial issues underlying OPV performance--controlling band offsets between transparent electrodes and organics, addressing current loss/leakage problems at interfaces, enhancing adhesion, interfacial stability, and device durability while minimizing cost. It synergistically combined materials and interfacial reagent synthesis, nanostructural and photovoltaic characterization, and high level quantum theory. The research foci were: 1) understanding of/development of superior transparent electrode materials and materials morphologies--i.e., better matched electronically and chemically to organic active layers, 2) understanding-based development of inorganic interfacial current-collecting/charge-blocking layers, and 3) understanding-based development of self-assembled adhesion/current-collecting/charge-blocking/cross-linking layers for high-efficiency OPV interfaces. Pursing the goal of developing the fundamental scientific understanding needed to design, fabricate, prototype and ultimately test high-efficiency OPV cells incorporating these new concepts, we achieved a record power conversion efficiency of 5.2% for an organic bulk-heterjunction solar cell.

  9. Hydropower Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydropower Technology Basics Hydropower Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Text Version Photo of the reservoir in front of a hydropower dam. Hydropower, or hydroelectric power, is the most common and least expensive source of renewable electricity in the United States today. According to the Energy Information Administration, more than 6% of the country's electricity was produced from hydropower resources in 2014, and about 48% of all renewable electricity generated in the United

  10. Renewable Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Technology Basics Renewable Energy Technology Basics Renewable energy technologies produce sustainable, clean energy from sources such as the sun, the wind, plants, and water. According to the Energy Information Administration, in 2007, renewable sources of energy accounted for about 7% of total energy consumption and 9.4% of total electricity generation in the United States. Renewable energy technologies have the potential to strengthen our nation's energy security, improve

  11. Fluorescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fluorescent Lighting Basics Fluorescent Lighting Basics October 17, 2013 - 5:39pm Addthis Light from a fluorescent lamp is first created by an electric current conducted through an inert gas producing ultraviolet light that is invisible to the human eye. The ultraviolet light in turn interacts with special blends of phosphors coating the interior surface of the fluorescent lamp tube that efficiently converts the invisible light into useful white light. Fluorescent lamps require a special power

  12. Fluorescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fluorescent Lighting Basics Fluorescent Lighting Basics October 17, 2013 - 5:39pm Addthis Light from a fluorescent lamp is first created by an electric current conducted through an inert gas producing ultraviolet light that is invisible to the human eye. The ultraviolet light in turn interacts with special blends of phosphors coating the interior surface of the fluorescent lamp tube that efficiently converts the invisible light into useful white light. Fluorescent lamps require a special power

  13. Basic Energy Sciences (BES) at LLNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic Energy Sciences at LLNL Eric Schwegler is the Point-of-Contact for DOE Office of Science Programs - Basic Energy Sciences (BES) at LLNL. Highlights Mesoscale Simulations of Coarsening in GB Networks Coherency Does Not Equate to Stability Laser Crystallization of Phase Change Material Extraction of Equilibrium Energy and Kinetic Parameters from Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy Data LLNL BES Programs Theme area 1: Time, Space and Energy Resolved Investigations of Materials in Extreme

  14. Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:10pm Addthis Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance heat can be provided by electric baseboard heaters, electric wall heaters, electric radiant heat, electric space heaters, electric

  15. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Basics Photo of vehicle filling up at renewable hydrogen fueling station. NREL's hydrogen fueling station dispenses hydrogen produced via renewable electrolysis. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL researchers are working to unlock the potential of hydrogen as a fuel and to advance fuel cell technologies for automobiles, equipment, and buildings. View the Hydrogen Program video on NREL's YouTube channel to learn more about the basics of NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell

  16. Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily

  17. Biofuel Conversion Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuel Conversion Basics Biofuel Conversion Basics August 14, 2013 - 12:31pm Addthis The conversion of biomass solids into liquid or gaseous biofuels is a complex process. Today, the most common conversion processes are biochemical- and thermochemical-based. However, researchers are also exploring photobiological conversion processes. Biochemical Conversion Processes In biochemical conversion processes, enzymes and microorganisms are used as biocatalysts to convert biomass or biomass-derived

  18. Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work

  19. LED Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LED Lighting Basics LED Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:07am Addthis Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) efficiently produce light in a fundamentally different way than any legacy or traditional light source. LEDs are compound semiconductor devices that produce light when an appropriate electrical current is applied. Applying electrical current causes electrons to flow from one material in the structure to another and this in turn causes a series of complex interactions at an atomic level that

  20. Lesson 1 - Energy Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 - Energy Basics Lesson 1 - Energy Basics This lesson covers the states and forms of energy, where energy comes from, as well as how the way we live is tied to our energy supply and what that means for the future. Specific topics include: States of energy Potential Kinetic Forms of energy Energy sources Primary and secondary sources Renewable and nonrenewable Conversion Conservation Environmental impacts Greenhouse effect Future sources Lesson 1 - Energy.pptx (8.84 MB) More Documents &

  1. Biodiesel Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Fuel Basics Biodiesel Fuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 2:43pm Addthis Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases. What Is Biodiesel? Biodiesel is a liquid fuel produced from renewable sources such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats and is a cleaner-burning replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel. It is nontoxic and biodegradable. Like petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel is

  2. Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources that are used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form or energy product that are available on a renewable basis are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, algae, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated Energy Crops Dedicated energy crops are non-food

  3. Concentrating Solar Power Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar » Concentrating Solar Power Basics Concentrating Solar Power Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:38pm Addthis Text Version This solar concentrator has a fixed-focus faceted dish with a concentration of about 250 suns. This system can be used for large fields connected to the utility grid, hydrogen generation, or water pumping. Credit: Science Applications International Corporation / PIX 13464 Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a single

  4. Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heating & Cooling » Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp

  5. Electricity Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles & Fuels » Fuels » Electricity Fuel Basics Electricity Fuel Basics August 19, 2013 - 5:44pm Addthis Electricity used to power vehicles is generally provided by the electricity grid and stored in the vehicle's batteries. Vehicles that run on electricity have no tailpipe emissions. Emissions that can be attributed to electric vehicles are generated during electricity production at the power plant. Charging plug-in electric vehicles at home is as simple as plugging them into an

  6. Enhanced Geothermal System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal » Enhanced Geothermal System Basics Enhanced Geothermal System Basics A naturally occurring geothermal system, known as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), is another form of renewable energy. It is defined by three key elements: heat, fluid, and permeability at depth. Essentially, these are engineered reservoirs that produce energy from geothermal resources in areas that are not usually considered economically viable due to a lack of water and/or the ability of that water to pass

  7. Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles & Fuels » Vehicles » Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:11am Addthis Photo of a blue car with 'The Road to Hydrogen' written on it, filling up at a hydrogen fueling station. Fuel cell vehicles, powered by hydrogen, could greatly improve the sustainability of our transportation sector. Although electricity production may contribute to air pollution, they are more efficient than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and produce no

  8. Geothermal Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Geothermal » Geothermal Resource Basics Geothermal Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Although geothermal heat pumps can be used almost anywhere, most direct-use and electrical production facilities in the United States are located in the west, where the geothermal resource base is concentrated. Current drilling technology limits the development of geothermal resources to relatively shallow water- or steam-filled reservoirs, most of which are found in the

  9. Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Hydrogen & Fuel Cells » Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:06pm Addthis Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed in a fuel cell, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic resources, such as natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, and renewable power like solar and wind. These qualities make it an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation applications. It can be used in cars, in houses,

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles & Fuels » Fuels » Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 19, 2013 - 5:45pm Addthis Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely used today as a transportation fuel, government and industry research and development are working toward the goal of clean, economical, and safe hydrogen production and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the

  11. Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July-December 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July-December 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on

  13. Chemical Engineering Division research highlights, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burris, L.; Webster, D. S.; Barney, D. L.; Cafasso, F. A.; Steindler, M. J.

    1980-06-01

    In 1979, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-temperature, rechargeable lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and electric utility load leveling; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (4) coal technology - mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO/sub 2/ sorbent of limestone; (5) heat- and seed- recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (6) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (7) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (8) fuel cycle technology - reprocessing of nuclear fuels, management of nuclear wastes, geologic migration studies, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; (9) magnetic fusion research - lithium processing technology and materials research; and (10) basic energy sciences - homogeneous catalysis, thermodynamics of inorganic and organic materials, environmental chemistry, electrochemistry, and physical properties of salt vapors. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these areas.

  14. Peer review, basic research, and engineering: Defining a role for QA professionals in basic research environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1989-02-01

    Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.

  15. Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. )

    1992-04-01

    This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE's Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

  16. ARM - Evaluation Product - Organic Aerosol Component VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mass spectral matrix data collected by the aerosol chemical speciation monitor and multivariate analysis to obtain an estimate of the types of organic aerosols. Currently, time...

  17. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-10-01

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X

  18. Chemical Technology Division progress report for the period April 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development efforts conducted in the Chemical Technology Division (Chem Tech) during the period April 1, 1985, through December 31, 1986. The following major areas are covered in the discussion: nuclear and chemical waste management, environmental control technology, basic science and technology, biotechnology research, transuranium-element processing, Nuclear Regulatory Commission programs, radioactive materials production, computer/engineering applications, fission energy, environmental cleanup projects, and various other work activities. As an appendix, the Administrative Summary presents a comprehensive compilation of publications, oral presentations, awards and recognitions, and patents of Chem Tech staff members during this report period. An organization chart, a staffing level and financial summary, and lists of seminars and Chem Tech consultants for the period are also included to provide additional information. 78 figs., 40 tabs.

  19. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  20. Ocean Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Ocean Energy Technology Basics Ocean Energy Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:18pm Addthis Text Version Photo of low waves in the ocean. A dock is visible in the background. Oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth's surface. As the world's largest solar collectors, oceans contain thermal energy from the sun and produce mechanical energy from tides and waves. Even though the sun affects all ocean activity, the gravitational pull of the moon primarily drives tides, and wind

  1. Solar Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Solar Energy Technology Basics Solar Energy Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:37pm Addthis Did you know that the amount of sunlight that strikes the earth's surface in an hour and a half is enough to handle the entire world's energy consumption for a full year? Solar energy has amazing potential to power our daily lives thanks to constantly-improving technologies. Solar energy systems come in all shapes and sizes. Residential systems are found on rooftops across the

  2. VIDEO: TM-30 BASICS | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    VIDEO: TM-30 BASICS VIDEO: TM-30 BASICS TM-30 is a new method for evaluating light source color rendition, developed by the Color Metrics Task Group, which was part of the IES Color Committee. And then it was later balloted by the Technical Review Council and the Board of Directors. The Color Metrics Task Force was a group of eight individuals, seven voting members. And we worked collaboratively over about a year and a half to really synthesize and bring in existing research on color rendering.

  3. Incandescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis Incandescent lamps consist of a wire filament inside a glass bulb that is usually filled with inert gas, and they produce light when an electric current heats the filament to a high temperature. Incandescent lamps have a low efficacy (10-17 lumens per watt) compared with other lighting options-because most of the energy released is in the form of heat rather than light-and a short average operating life

  4. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. L. Putman

    1999-09-01

    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates.

  5. Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 - Electricity Basics Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics It's difficult to imagine life without convenient electricity. You just flip a switch or plug in an appliance, and it's there. But how did it get there? Many steps go into providing the reliable electricity we take for granted. This lesson takes a closer look at electricity. It follows the path of electricity from the fuel source to the home, including the power plant and the electric power grid. It also covers the role of electric utilities

  6. Absorption Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:11am Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption coolers available that work on the same principal, but are not reversible and

  7. Wave Energy Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean » Wave Energy Basics Wave Energy Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:30pm Addthis Photo of a large wave. Wave energy technologies extract energy directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. Renewable energy analysts believe there is enough energy in ocean waves to provide up to 2 terawatts of electricity. (A terawatt is equal to a trillion watts.) However, wave energy cannot be harnessed everywhere. Wave power-rich areas of the world include the western coasts of

  8. Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles & Fuels » Vehicles » Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:05am Addthis Photo of a gray van with 'E85 Ethanol' written on the side. Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) have an internal combustion engine and are capable of operating on gasoline, E85 (a high-level blend of gasoline and ethanol), or a mixture of both. There are more than 10.6 million flexible fuel vehicles on U.S. roads today. However, many flexible fuel vehicle owners don't realize

  9. Fuel Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Hydrogen & Fuel Cells » Fuel Cell Basics Fuel Cell Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:09pm Addthis Text Version Photo of two hydrogen fuel cells. Fuel cells can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for vehicles and electronic devices. HOW FUEL CELLS WORK Fuel cells work like batteries, but they do not run down or need recharging. They produce electricity and heat as long as fuel is supplied. A fuel cell consists of two electrodes-a negative electrode

  10. Geothermal Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Heat Pump Basics Geothermal Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:12am Addthis Text Version Geothermal heat pumps use the constant temperature of the earth as an exchange medium for heat. Although many parts of the country experience seasonal temperature extremes-from scorching heat in the summer to sub-zero cold in the winter-the ground a few feet below the earth's surface remains at a relatively constant temperature. Depending on the latitude, ground temperatures range from 45°F