Sample records for basic metal products

  1. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN) [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN) [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA) [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  2. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN); Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN); Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN); Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  3. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  4. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  5. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BES PrincipalBasic EnergyBasics

  6. Cosmic metal production and the mean metallicity of the Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Calura; F. Matteucci

    2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    By means of detailed chemo-photometric models for elliptical, spiral and irregular galaxies, we evaluate the cosmic history of the production of chemical elements as well as the metal mass density of the present-day universe. We then calculate the mean metal abundances for galaxies of different morphological types, along with the average metallicity of galactic matter in the universe (stars, gas and intergalactic medium). For the average metallicity of galaxies in the local universe, we find Z_gal= 0.0175, i.e. close to the solar value. We find the main metal production in spheroids (ellipticals and bulges) to occur at very early times, implying an early peak in the metal production and a subsequent decrease. On the other hand, the metal production in spirals and irregulars is always increasing with time. We perform a self-consistent census of the baryons and metals in the local universe finding that, while the vast majority of the baryons lies outside galaxies in the inter-galactic medium (IGM), 52 % of the metals (with the exception of the Fe-peak elements) is locked up in stars and in the interstellar medium. We estimate indirectly the amount of baryons which resides in the IGM and we derive its mean Fe abundance, finding a value of X_Fe,IGM=0.05 X_Fe,sun. We believe that this estimate is uncertain by a factor of 2, owing to the normalization of the local luminosity function. This means that the Fe abundance of 0.3 solar inferred from X-ray observations of the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) is higher than the average Fe abundance of the inter-galactic gas in the field.

  7. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  8. Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BES PrincipalBasic

  9. Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions Why Hydrogen Production? Hydrogen is a critical. Current methods of hydrogen storage in automobiles are either too bulky (large storage space for gas phase) or require a high input energy (cooling or pressurization systems for liquid hydrogen), making widespread use

  10. Information Basic to Adjustments in Rice Production in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnen, C. A. (Clarence Alfred); Magee, A. C. (Aden Combs)

    1945-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . ................... Usual Practices in the Production of Rice. ...................... Rice Varieties. .......................................... Usual Field Operations. .................................. ............. Labor and Power Requirements for Rice Production... and Production Requirements of Beef Cattle on Rice Farms. Farm Power ..................................................... Cost of Tractor Work. ........................................ Power Costs for Pumping. ..................................... Cost...

  11. Process for production of a metal hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

  12. Production of metal waste forms from spent fuel treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, B.R.; Keiser, D.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Laug, D.V.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Treatment of spent nuclear fuel at Argonne National Laboratory consists of a pyroprocessing scheme in which the development of suitable waste forms is being advanced. Of the two waste forms being proposed, metal and mineral, the production of the metal waste form utilizes induction melting to stabilize the waste product. Alloying of metallic nuclear materials by induction melting has long been an Argonne strength and thus, the transition to metallic waste processing seems compatible. A test program is being initiated to coalesce the production of the metal waste forms with current induction melting capabilities.

  13. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, U.B.; Gazula, G.K.M.; Hasham, A.

    1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements. 6 figs.

  14. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B. (Malden, MA); Gazula, Gopala K. M. (Somerville, MA); Hasham, Ali (Karachi, PK)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.

  15. Metal salen catalyzed production of polytrimethylene carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganguly, Poulomi

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    of Lewis acidic metal salen complexes (Al & Sn), as catalysts for this process. This was followed by the utilization of metal salen complexes of biometals as catalysts for the synthesis of these biodegradable polymers, as well as for the copolymerization...

  16. Growth in metals production for rapid photovoltaics deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavlak, Goksin

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. We quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of annual metals production. If a ...

  17. For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

  18. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

    1995-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

  19. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN); Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

  20. Production of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    on the moon and on Mars for the generation of oxygen along with the production of structural metalsProduction of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide) is the electrolytic decomposition of a metal oxide, most preferably into liquid metal and oxygen gas. The successful

  1. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  2. Friction welded nonconsumable electrode assembly and use thereof for electrolytic production of metals and silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Stephen C. (Monroeville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Rapp, Robert A. (Columbus, OH)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a metal conductor and a ceramic electrode body connected by a friction weld between a portion of the body having a level of free metal or metal alloy sufficient to effect such a friction weld and a portion of the metal conductor.

  3. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  4. Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarcy, Gary P. (Plum Borough, PA); Gavasto, Thomas M. (New Kensington, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic process comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO.sub.2 and/or Cu.sub.2 O.

  5. Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarcy, G.P.; Gavasto, T.M.; Ray, S.P.

    1986-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic process is described comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO[sub 2] and/or Cu[sub 2]O. 2 figs.

  6. Dialing in color with rare earth metals: facile photoluminescent production of true white light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tew, Gregory N.

    Dialing in color with rare earth metals: facile photoluminescent production of true white light of lanthanide ions which is the focus of this report. Rare earth metal complexes have relatively good Combining polymeric architectures with metal ions produces hybrid materials with extremely rich properties

  7. LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ANALYSIS IN THE PRODUCTION OF METALS USED IN PHOTOVOLTAICS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FTHENAKIS,V.M.; KIM, H.C.; WANG, W.

    2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Material flows and emissions in all the stages of production of zinc, copper, aluminum, cadmium, indium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, and molybdenum were investigated. These metals are used selectively in the manufacture of solar cells, and emission and energy factors in their production are used in the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of photovoltaics. Significant changes have occurred in the production and associated emissions for these metals over the last 10 years, which are not described in the LCA databases. Furthermore, emission and energy factors for several of the by-products of the base metal production were lacking. This report aims in updating the life-cycle inventories associated with the production of the base metals (Zn, Cu, Al, Mo) and in defining the emission and energy allocations for the minor metals (Cd, In, Ge, Se, Te and Ga) used in photovoltaics.

  8. Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillon, Anne C.; Heben, Michael J.; Gennett, Thomas; Parilla, Philip A.

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof. The metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes may be produced according to one embodiment of the invention by combining single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material and metal in a solution, and mixing the solution to incorporate at least a portion of the metal with the single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material. Other embodiments may comprise sputter deposition, evaporation, and other mixing techniques.

  9. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic aluminum may be produced by the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ at 700 to 800/sup 0/C in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  10. Apparatus and method for making metal chloride salt product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Homer Glen, IL); Richmann, Michael K. (Carlsbad, NM)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing metal chlorides is disclosed in which chlorine gas is introduced into liquid Cd. CdCl.sub.2 salt is floating on the liquid Cd and as more liquid CdCl.sub.2 is formed it separates from the liquid Cd metal and dissolves in the salt. The salt with the CdCl.sub.2 dissolved therein contacts a metal which reacts with CdCl.sub.2 to form a metal chloride, forming a mixture of metal chloride and CdCl.sub.2. After separation of bulk Cd from the salt, by gravitational means, the metal chloride is obtained by distillation which removes CdCl.sub.2 and any Cd dissolved in the metal chloride.

  11. Interactive influences of bioactive trace metals on biological production in oceanic waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruland, K.W.; Donat, J.R.; Hutchins, D.A. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present an overview of the oceanic chemistries of the bioactive trace metals, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn; the authors combine field data with results from laboratory phytoplankton culture-trace metal studies and speculate on the potential influences of these trace metals on oceanic plankton production and species composition. Most field studies have focused on the effects of single metals. However, they propose that synergistic and antagonistic interactions between multiple trace metals could be very important in the oceans. Trace metal antagonisms that may prove particularly important are those between Cu and the potential biolimiting metals Fe, Mn, and Zn. These antagonistic interactions could have the greatest influence on biological productivity in areas of the open ocean isolated from terrestrial inputs, such as the remote high nutrient regions of the Pacific and Antarctic Oceans. The emerging picture of trace metal-biota interactions in these oceanic areas is one in which biology strongly influences distribution and chemical speciation of all these bioactive trace metals. It also seems likely that many of these bioactive trace metals and their speciation may influence levels of primary productivity, species composition, and trophic structure. Future investigations should give more complete consideration to the interactive effects of biologically important trace metals.

  12. Massive zero-metal stars: Energy production and mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. W. Straka; W. M. Tscharnuter

    2001-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-dependent nuclear network calculations at constant temperature show that for zero-metal stars >= 20 Msun (i) beta-decay reactions and (ii) the 13N(p,gamma)14O reaction must be included. It is also shown that the nuclear timescale in these zero-metal stars is shorter than the mixing timescale and therefore the assumption of instantaneous mixing across convective regions is not fulfilled. We conclude that proper modeling of these processes may alter the evolution of massive zero-metal stars.

  13. Comparison of Nonprecious Metal Cathode Materials for Methane Production by Electromethanogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contributed to electromethanogenic gas production. KEYWORDS: Biocathode, Carbon capturing and sequestration generation, we examined several cathode materials: plain graphite blocks, graphite blocks coated with carbon black or carbon black containing metals (platinum, stainless steel or nickel) or insoluble minerals

  14. Leaching characteristics of the metal waste form from the electrometallurgical treatment process: Product consistency testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, S. G.; Keiser, D. D.; Frank, S. M.; DiSanto, T.; Noy, M.

    1999-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing an electrometallurgical treatment for spent fuel from the experimental breeder reactor II. A product of this treatment process is a metal waste form that incorporates the stainless steel cladding hulls, zirconium from the fuel and the fission products that are noble to the process, i.e., Tc, Ru, Nb, Pd, Rh, Ag. The nominal composition of this waste form is stainless steel/15 wt% zirconium/1--4 wt% noble metal fission products/1--2 wt % U. Leaching results are presented from several tests and sample types: (1) 2 week monolithic immersion tests on actual metal waste forms produced from irradiated cladding hulls, (2) long term (>2 years) pulsed flow tests on samples containing technetium and uranium and (3) crushed sample immersion tests on cold simulated metal waste form samples. The test results will be compared and their relevance for waste form product consistency testing discussed.

  15. Production of crystalline refractory metal oxides containing colloidal metal precipitates and useful as solar-effective absorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narayan, Jagdish (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a new process for producing refractory crystalline oxides having improved or unusual properties. The process comprises the steps of forming a doped-metal crystal of the oxide; exposing the doped crystal in a bomb to a reducing atmosphere at superatmospheric pressure and a temperature effecting precipitation of the dopant metal in the crystal lattice of the oxide but insufficient to effect net diffusion of the metal out of the lattice; and then cooling the crystal. Preferably, the cooling step is effected by quenching. The process forms colloidal precipitates of the metal in the oxide lattice. The process may be used, for example, to produce thermally stable black MgO crystalline bodies containing magnetic colloidal precipitates consisting of about 99% Ni. The Ni-containing bodies are solar-selective absorbers, having a room-temperature absorptivity of about 0.96 over virtually all of the solar-energy spectrum and exhibiting an absorption edge in the region of 2 .mu.m. The process parameters can be varied to control the average size of the precipitates. The process can produce a black MgO crystalline body containing colloidal Ni precipitates, some of which have the face-centered-cubic structure and others of which have the body-centered cubic structure. The products of the process are metal-precipitate-containing refractory crystalline oxides which have improved or unique optical, mechanical, magnetic, and/or electronic properties.

  16. Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    regolith at 1600 şC was investigated. Oxygen gas at the anode was generated concomitantly with productionDirect Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon A Center, Florida 32899, USA The feasibility of producing oxygen by direct electrolysis of molten lunar

  17. CLIMATE PRODUCTS Basic Climatology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    System (AWOS) Operated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) About 600 FAA stations Data (COOP) #12;NWS ­ ASOS and AWOS Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) 882 NWS/FAA stations

  18. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  19. Bacterial Production of Mixed Metal Oxide Nanoparticles - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugustDecade5-F,INITIAL JohnE P T EProduction

  20. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash anealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  1. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash annealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  2. Progressive Powder Coating: New Infrared Curing Oven at Metal Finishing Plant Increases Production by 50%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progressive Powder Coating in Mentor, Ohio, is a metal finishing plant that uses a convection oven in its manufacturing process. In an effort to save energy and improve production, the company installed an infrared oven in between the powder coating booth and the convection oven on its production line. This installation allowed the plant to increase its conveyor line speed and increase production by 50 percent. In addition, the plant reduced its natural gas consumption, yielding annual energy savings of approximately$54,000. With a total project cost of$136,000, the simple payback is 2.5 years.

  3. Mass production of multi-wall carbon nanotubes by metal dusting process with high yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghorbani, H. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, A.M., E-mail: Rashidiam@ripi.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, P.O. Box 14665-1998, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rastegari, S.; Mirdamadi, S. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alaei, M. [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, P.O. Box 14665-1998, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, P.O. Box 14665-1998, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthesis of carbon nanotubes over Fe-Ni nanoparticles supported alloy 304L. {yields} Production of carbon nanotubes with high yield (700-1000%) and low cost catalyst. {yields} Optimum growth condition is CO/H{sub 2} = 1/1, 100 cm{sup 3}/min, at 620 {sup o}C under long term repetitive thermal cycling. {yields} Possibility of the mass production by metal dusting process with low cost. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube materials were synthesized over Fe-Ni nanoparticles generated during disintegration of the surface of alloy 304L under metal dusting environment. The metal dusting condition was simulated and optimized through exposing stainless steel samples during long term repetitive thermal cycling in CO/H{sub 2} = 1/1, total gas flow rate 100 cm{sup 3}/min, at 620 {sup o}C for 300 h. After reaction, surface morphology of the samples and also carbonaceous deposition which had grown on sample surfaces were examined by stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that multi-wall carbon nanotubes could be formed over nanocatalyst generated on the alloy surface by exploiting metal dusting process. By optimization of reaction parameters the yields of carbon nanotube materials obtained were 700-1000%. Also it has been shown herein that the amount of carbon nanotube materials remarkably increases when the reaction time is extended up to 300 h, indicating a possibility of the mass production by this easy method.

  4. A New Process for Hot Metal Production at Low Fuel Rate - Phase 1 Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Wei-Kao Lu

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is part of the continuing effort by the North American steel industry to develop a coal-based, cokeless process for hot metal production. The objective of Phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of designing and constructing a pilot scale facility with the capacity of 42,000 mtpy of direct reduced iron (DRI) with 95% metallization. The primary effort is performed by Bricmont, Inc., an international engineering firm, under the supervision of McMaster University. The study focused on the Paired Straight Hearth furnace concept developed previously by McMaster University, The American Iron and Steel Institute and the US Department of Energy.

  5. A Two-Dimensional Approach to Evaluate the Scientific Production of Countries (Case Study: The Basic Sciences)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nejati, Ammar; 10.1007/s11192-009-0103-1

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantity and quality of scientific output of the topmost 50 countries in the four basic sciences (agricultural and biological sciences, chemistry, mathematics, and physics and astronomy) are studied in the period of the recent 12 years (1996-2007). In order to rank the countries, a novel two-dimensional method is proposed, which is inspired by the H-index and other methods based on quality and quantity measures. The countries data are represented in a "quantity-quality diagram", and partitioned by a conventional statistical algorithm (k-means), into three clusters, members of which are rather the same in all of the basic sciences. The results offer a new perspective on the global positions of countries with regards to their scientific output.

  6. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from condensation of vaporized material and subsequent rapid formation of aggregates. Particles of larger size, resulting from ejection of melted material or fragments from the cutting zone, were also observed. This study presents data regarding the metal cutting rate, particle size distribution, and their generation rate, while using different cutting tools and metals. The study shows that respirable particles constitute only a small fraction of the released kerf.

  7. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  8. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH2BH3)n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  9. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Q.S.; Chen, J.J.; Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Apopka, FL (United States)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 {mu} g per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  10. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  11. The chemistry of transition metal complexes related to solar energy storage : H? production and small molecule (CO? and HX; X = Cl, Br) chemistry.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Changhoon, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The studies in this thesis have focused on the chemistry of transition metal complexes related to solar energy storage: electrochemical H? production, HX splitting and CO? activation mediated by transition metal complexes. ...

  12. Effects of Dopant Metal Variation and Material Synthesis Method on the Material Properties of Mixed Metal Ferrites in Yttria Stabilized Zirconia for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leonard, Jeffrey; Reyes, Nichole; Allen, Kyle M.; Randhir, Kelvin; Li, Like; AuYeung, Nick; Grunewald, Jeremy; Rhodes, Nathan; Bobek, Michael; Klausner, James F.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed metal ferrites have shown much promise in two-step solar-thermochemical fuel production. Previous work has typically focused on evaluating a particular metal ferrite produced by a particular synthesis process, which makes comparisons between studies performed by independent researchers difficult. A comparative study was undertaken to explore the effects different synthesis methods have on the performance of a particular material during redox cycling using thermogravimetry. This study revealed that materials made via wet chemistry methods and extended periods of high temperature calcination yield better redox performance. Differences in redox performance between materials made via wet chemistry methods were minimal and thesemore »demonstrated much better performance than those synthesized via the solid state method. Subsequently, various metal ferrite samples (NiFe2O4, MgFe2O4, CoFe2O4, and MnFe2O4) in yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) were synthesized via coprecipitation and tested to determine the most promising metal ferrite combination. It was determined that 10?wt.% CoFe2O4in 8YSZ produced the highest and most consistent yields of O2and CO. By testing the effects of synthesis methods and dopants in a consistent fashion, those aspects of ferrite preparation which are most significant can be revealed. More importantly, these insights can guide future efforts in developing the next generation of thermochemical fuel production materials.« less

  13. Solidification/stabilization of toxic metal wastes using coke and coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vempati, R.K.; Mollah, M.Y.A.; Chinthala, A.K.; Cocke, D.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States); Beeghly, J.H. [Dravo Lime, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Dravo Lime, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been conducted to evaluate the potential of a special rubber waste, NISCO Cyclone Ash (NCA), which contains substantial calcium oxide and calcium sulfites/sulfates for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of toxic metal wastes. The mineralogical compositions of the NCA and a class ``C`` fly ash have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hydrated mixtures of these wastes have been examined by XRD and found to form ettringite. Low concentrations of As (15 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), Ba (500 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), Pb (15 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), and Zn (1,000 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}) were added to these hydrated mixtures and found to be successfully immobilized and solidified, as determined by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). In addition, the mineralogy, chemistry and leaching characteristics of these combined waste products and their interactions with toxic metals are discussed.

  14. A survey of foundries that cast red brass products to ascertain an effective pouring rate of molten metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom, Ronald Kee

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A SURVEY OF FOUNDRIES THAT CAST RED BRASS PRODUCTS TO ASCERTAIN AN EFPECTIVE POURING RATE OF MOLTEN METAL A Thesis by RONALD KEE TOM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1974 Major Subject: Industrial Technology A SURVEY OF FOUNDRIES THAT CAST RED BRASS PRODUCTS TO ASCERTAIN AN EFFECTIVE POURING RATE OF MOLTEN METAL A Thesis by RONALD KEE TOM Approved as to style and content by...

  15. Daylighting Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Daylighting is the use of windows and skylights to bring sunlight into buildings. Daylighting in businesses and commercial buildings can result in substantial savings on electric bills, and not only provides a higher quality of light but also improves productivity and health.

  16. Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use was held May 13-15, 2003 to assess the basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. This report is based on t

  17. Basic CMYK

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugustDecade5-F,INITIAL JohnEAdvanced Structure1358

  18. Basic CMYK

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugustDecade5-F,INITIAL JohnEAdvanced

  19. Production of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dihua

    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is the electrolytic decomposition of a metal oxide, most preferably into liquid metal and oxygen gas. The successful deployment of MOE hinges upon the existence of an inert anode capable of ...

  20. Method for the preparation of metal colloids in inverse micelles and product preferred by the method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcoxon, Jess P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for preparing catalytic elemental metal colloidal particles (e.g. gold, palladium, silver, rhodium, iridium, nickel, iron, platinum, molybdenum) or colloidal alloy particles (silver/iridium or platinum/gold). A homogeneous inverse micelle solution of a metal salt is first formed in a metal-salt solvent comprised of a surfactant (e.g. a nonionic or cationic surfactant) and an organic solvent. The size and number of inverse micelles is controlled by the proportions of the surfactant and the solvent. Then, the metal salt is reduced (by chemical reduction or by a pulsed or continuous wave UV laser) to colloidal particles of elemental metal. After their formation, the colloidal metal particles can be stabilized by reaction with materials that permanently add surface stabilizing groups to the surface of the colloidal metal particles. The sizes of the colloidal elemental metal particles and their size distribution is determined by the size and number of the inverse micelles. A second salt can be added with further reduction to form the colloidal alloy particles. After the colloidal elemental metal particles are formed, the homogeneous solution distributes to two phases, one phase rich in colloidal elemental metal particles and the other phase rich in surfactant. The colloidal elemental metal particles from one phase can be dried to form a powder useful as a catalyst. Surfactant can be recovered and recycled from the phase rich in surfactant.

  1. Final LDRD report : metal oxide films, nanostructures, and heterostructures for solar hydrogen production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronawitter, Coleman X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Mao, Samuel S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distinction between electricity and fuel use in analyses of global power consumption statistics highlights the critical importance of establishing efficient synthesis techniques for solar fuels-those chemicals whose bond energies are obtained through conversion processes driven by solar energy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes show potential for the production of solar fuels because of their demonstrated versatility in facilitating optoelectronic and chemical conversion processes. Tandem PEC-photovoltaic modular configurations for the generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight (solar water splitting) provide an opportunity to develop a low-cost and efficient energy conversion scheme. The critical component in devices of this type is the PEC photoelectrode, which must be optically absorptive, chemically stable, and possess the required electronic band alignment with the electrochemical scale for its charge carriers to have sufficient potential to drive the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. After many decades of investigation, the primary technological obstacle remains the development of photoelectrode structures capable of efficient conversion of light with visible frequencies, which is abundant in the solar spectrum. Metal oxides represent one of the few material classes that can be made photoactive and remain stable to perform the required functions.

  2. NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY Technology Transfer Basic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is an important step in mitigating environmental risks associated with conventional energy production. The Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) Process is an award-winning...

  3. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  4. The Role of Primary 16O as a Neutron Poison in AGB stars and Fluorine primary production at Halo Metallicities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallino, R; Cristallo, S; Straniero, O

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of a historical bug in the s-post-process AGB code obtained so far by the Torino group forced us to reconsider the role of primary 16O in the 13C-pocket, produced by the 13C(a, n)16O reaction, as important neutron poison for the build up of the s-elements at Halo metallicities. The effect is noticeable only for the highest 13C-pocket efficiencies (cases ST*2 and ST). For Galactic disc metallicities, the bug effect is negligible. A comparative analysis of the neutron poison effect of other primary isotopes (12C, 22Ne and its progenies) is presented. The effect of proton captures, by 14N(n, p)14C, boosts a primary production of Fluorine in Halo AGB stars, with [F/Fe] comparable to [C/Fe], without affecting the s-elements production.

  5. Methanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  6. Ethanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  7. Process for making surfactant capped metal oxide nanocrystals, and products produced by the process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Rockenberger, Joerg

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals of metal oxides which are dispersable in organic solvents. The process comprises decomposing a metal cupferron complex of the formula MXCupX, wherein M is a metal, and Cup is a N-substituted N-Nitroso hydroxylamine, in the presence of a coordinating surfactant, the reaction being conducted at a temperature ranging from about 150 to about 400.degree. C., for a period of time sufficient to complete the reaction. Also disclosed are compounds made by the process.

  8. Geothermal: Basic Search

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic Search Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News Related Links Search...

  9. Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widom, A; Larsen, L

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

  10. Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

    2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

  11. PARKING AND BACKING BASICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Denise

    PARKING AND BACKING BASICS BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE DRIVING DRIVE SAFELY WORK WEEK in parking lots. Safe parking and backing is an important basic for all driver groups to master. GET BASICS GOT KIDS OR GRANDKIDS? ·It is estimated that backing over pedestrians causes 45% of non- traffic

  12. Hydrogen production in single-chamber tubular microbial electrolysis cells using non-precious-metal catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Hydrogen production in single-chamber tubular microbial electrolysis cells using non August 2009 Keywords: Hydrogen production Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) NiMo NiW Cathode catalystMo cathode accomplished a hydrogen production rate of 2.0 m3 /day/m3 at current density of 270 A/m3 (12 A/m2

  13. Anionic group 6B metal carbonyls as homogeneous catalysts for carbon dioxide/hydrogen activation: the production of alkyl formates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darensbourg, D.J.; Ovalles, C.

    1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of alkyl formates from the hydrocondensation of carbon dioxide in alcohols utilizing anionic group 6B carbonyl hydrides as catalysts is herein reported. HM(CO)/sub 5//sup -/ (M = Cr, W; derived from ..mu..-H(M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/)/sup -/) and their products of carbon dioxide insertion, HCO/sub 2/M(CO)/sub 5//sup -/, have been found to be effective catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO/sub 2/ in alcohols under rather mild conditions (loading pressures of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/, 250 psi each, and 125/sup 0/C) to provide alkyl formates. The only metal carbonyl species detected in solution via spectroscopy, both at the end of a catalytic period and during catalysis, were M(CO)/sub 6/ and HCO/sub 2/M(CO)/sub 5//sup -/. The metal hexacarbonyls were independently shown to be catalytically inactive. A catalytic cycle is proposed which initially involves release of formic acid from the metal center, either by reductive elimination of the hydrido formato ligands or ligand-assisted heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen with loss of formic acid. In a rapid subsequent process HCOOH reacts with alcohols to yield HCOOR. The addition of carbon monoxide retards alkyl formate production, strongly implying CO/sub 2/ to be the primary source of the carboxylic carbon atom in HCOOR. This was verified by carrying out reactions in the presence of HCO/sub 2/W(/sup 13/CO)/sub 5//sup -/ which provided only H/sup 12/COOR after short reaction periods. However, in the absence of hydrogen and carbon dioxide ..mu..-H(M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/)/sup -/ species were observed to be effective catalyst precursors for converting CO and methanol into methyl formate. 36 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

  15. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, A.A.

    1985-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  16. Method for hydrogen production and metal winning, and a catalyst/cocatalyst composition useful therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dhooge, Patrick M. (Corrales, NM)

    1987-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst/cocatalyst/organics composition of matter is useful in electrolytically producing hydrogen or electrowinning metals. Use of the catalyst/cocatalyst/organics composition causes the anode potential and the energy required for the reaction to decrease. An electrolyte, including the catalyst/cocatalyst composition, and a reaction medium composition further including organic material are also described.

  17. NEGATIVE-HYDROGEN-ION PRODUCTION BY BACKSCATTERING FROM ALKALI-METAL TARGETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, P.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tion of Negative Hydrogen ions and Beams, Brookhaven 1977,of the Workshop on Hydrogen Recycling, Dublin, CA, October"18, 1979 NEGATIVE-HYDROGEN-ION PRODUCTION BY BACKSCATTERING

  18. Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

  19. Studies on the optimization of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, T.W.

    1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology for the production of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites from hyper-eutectic copper-chromium alloys was developed. This methodology was derived from a basic study of the precipitation phenomena in these alloys encompassing evaluation of microstructural, electrical, and mechanical properties. The methodology developed produces material with a superior combination of electrical and mechanical properties compared to those presently available in commercial alloys. New and novel alloying procedures were investigated to extend the range of production methods available for these material. These studies focused on the use of High Pressure Gas Atomization and the development of new containment technologies for the liquid alloy. This allowed the production of alloys with a much more refined starting microstructure and lower contamination than available by other methods. The knowledge gained in the previous studies was used to develop two completely new families of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites. These composites are based on immissible alloys with yttrium and magnesium matrices and refractory metal reinforcement. This work extends the physical property range available in deformation processed metal metal matrix composites. Additionally, it also represents new ways to apply these metals in engineering applications.

  20. Production of pulsed, mass-selected beams of metal and semiconductor clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamalou, Omar; Rangama, Jimmy; Ramillon, Jean-Marc; Guinement, Patrick; Huber, Bernd A. [CIMAP, CEA-CNRS-ENSICaen-UCBN, Bv. Henry Becquerel (B.P. 5133), F-14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the development of a beam line for mass-selected metal and semiconductor clusters. The cluster source combines the principles of plasma sputtering and gas condensation. Both techniques together allow to produce clusters in a wide size range. With the aid of a time-of-flight system, small clusters (i.e., Cu{sub n}{sup +}, n<100) are selected and pure beams containing only one cluster size are provided. For large clusters (containing several thousands of atoms), a beam with a narrow size distribution is obtained. A 90 deg. quadrupole deviator is used to separate charged clusters from neutral ones.

  1. Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirk, Aislinn H.

    The feasibility of producing oxygen by direct electrolysis of the molten lunar regolith at 1600 C was investigated and the generation of usable oxygen gas at the anode and concomitant production of iron and silicon at the ...

  2. Dust production from sub-solar to super-solar metallicity in Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambra, Nanni; Paola, Marigo; Léo, Girardi; Atefeh, Javadi; Jacco, van Loon

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the dust chemistry and growth in the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) star models computed with the COLIBRI code, at varying initial mass and metallicity (Z=0.001, 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06). A relevant result of our analysis deals with the silicate production in M-stars. We show that, in order to reproduce the observed trend between terminal velocities and mass-loss rates in Galactic M-giants, one has to significantly reduce the efficiency of chemisputtering by H2 molecules, usually considered as the most effective dust destruction mechanism. This indication is also in agreement with the most recent laboratory results, which show that silicates may condense already at T=1400 K, instead than at Tcond=1000 K, as obtained by models that include chemisputtering. From the analysis of the total dust ejecta, we find that the total dust-to-gas ejecta of intermediate-mass stars are much less dependent on metallicity than usually assumed. In a broader contex...

  3. Influence of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser-irradiated metallic targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Ziyu; Li Jianfeng; Yu Yong; Li Xiaoya; Peng Qixian; Zhu Wenjun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Wang Jiaxiang [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influences of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser interaction with metallic targets have been investigated. Particle-in-cell simulations at high laser intensities show that the yield of hot electrons tends to increase with lateral target size, because the larger surface area reduces the electrostatic field on the target, owing to its expansion along the target surface. At lower laser intensities and longer time scales, experimental data characterizing electromagnetic pulse emission as a function of lateral target size also show target-size effects. Charge separation and a larger target tending to have a lower target potential have both been observed. The increase in radiation strength and downshift in radiation frequency with increasing lateral target size can be interpreted using a simple model of the electrical capacity of the target.

  4. Tritium production from a low voltage deuterium discharge on palladium and other metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claytor, T.N.; Jackson, D.D.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past year the authors have been able to demonstrate that a plasma loading method produces an exciting and unexpected amount of tritium from small palladium wires. In contrast to electrochemical hydrogen or deuterium loading of palladium, this method yields a reproducible tritium generation rate when various electrical and physical conditions are met. Small diameter wires (100--250 microns) have been used with gas pressures above 200 torr at voltages and currents of about 2,000 V at 3--5 A. By carefully controlling the sputtering rate of the wire, runs have been extended to hundreds of hours allowing a significant amount (> 10`s nCi) of tritium to accumulate. they show tritium generation rates for deuterium-palladium foreground runs that are up to 25 times larger than hydrogen-palladium control experiments using materials from the same batch. They illustrate the difference between batches of annealed palladium and as received palladium from several batches as well as the effect of other metals (Pt, Ni, Nb, Zr, V, W, Hf) to demonstrate that the tritium generation rate can vary greatly from batch to batch.

  5. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  6. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  7. Impact of Fission Products Impurity on the Plutonium Content of Metal- and Oxide- Fuels in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This short report presents the neutronic analysis to evaluate the impact of fission product impurity on the Pu content of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) metal- and oxide- fuel fabrication. The similar work has been previously done for PWR MOX fuel [1]. The analysis will be performed based on the assumption that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate SFR fuels. Only non-gaseous FPs have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1 of Reference 1). Throughout of this report, we define the mixture of Pu and FPs as PuFP. The main objective of this analysis is to quantify the increase of the Pu content of SFR fuels necessary to maintain the same average burnup at discharge independently of the amount of FP in the Pu stream, i.e. independently of the PuFP composition. The FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  8. Measurements of actinide-fission product yields in Caliban and Prospero metallic core reactor fission neutron fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casoli, P.; Authier, N. [CEA, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Laurec, J.; Bauge, E.; Granier, T. [CEA, Centre DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the 1970's and early 1980's, an experimental program was performed on the facilities of the CEA Valduc Research Center to measure several actinide-fission product yields. Experiments were, in particular, completed on the Caliban and Prospero metallic core reactors to study fission-neutron-induced reactions on {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 239}Pu. Thick actinide samples were irradiated and the number of nuclei of each fission product was determined by gamma spectrometry. Fission chambers were irradiated simultaneously to measure the numbers of fissions in thin deposits of the same actinides. The masses of the thick samples and the thin deposits were determined by mass spectrometry and alpha spectrometry. The results of these experiments will be fully presented in this paper for the first time. A description of the Caliban and Prospero reactors, their characteristics and performances, and explanations about the experimental approach will also be given in the article. A recent work has been completed to analyze and reinterpret these measurements and particularly to evaluate the associated uncertainties. In this context, calculations have also been carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code Tripoli-4, using the published benchmarked Caliban description and a three-dimensional model of Prospero, to determine the average neutron energy causing fission. Simulation results will be discussed in this paper. Finally, new fission yield measurements will be proposed on Caliban and Prospero reactors to strengthen the results of the first experiments. (authors)

  9. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis)

    1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  10. Introduction Basic dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaCasce, Joseph H.

    Introduction Basic dynamics The Gulf Stream The thermohaline circulation Ocean currents: some misconceptions and some dynamics Joe LaCasce Dept. Geosciences October 30, 2012 Joe LaCasce Dept. Geosciences Ocean currents: some misconceptions and some dynamics #12;Introduction Basic dynamics The Gulf Stream

  11. Basic Microfluidic Lithographic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    CHAPTER 2 Basic Microfluidic and Soft Lithographic Techniques Sindy K.Y. Tang and George M in these devices are based on those developed for microfluidics used in biochemical anal- ysis. This chapter describes the basic ideas of microfluidics. We first summarize the materials most commonly used

  12. Basic principle of superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian De Cao

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  13. AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EPSILON-METAL WASTE FORMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Strachan, Denis M.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines and ranks a total of seven materials processing techniques that may be potentially utilized to consolidate the undissolved solids from nuclear fuel reprocessing into a low-surface area form. Commercial vendors of processing equipment were contacted and literature researched to gather information for this report. Typical equipment and their operation, corresponding to each of the seven techniques, are described in the report based upon the discussions and information provided by the vendors. Although the report does not purport to describe all the capabilities and issues of various consolidation techniques, it is anticipated that this report will serve as a guide by highlighting the key advantages and disadvantages of these techniques. The processing techniques described in this report were broadly classified into those that employed melting and solidification, and those in which the consolidation takes place in the solid-state. Four additional techniques were examined that were deemed impractical, but were included for completeness. The techniques were ranked based on criteria such as flexibility in accepting wide-variety of feed-stock (chemistry, form, and quantity), ease of long-term maintenance, hot cell space requirements, generation of additional waste streams, cost, and any special considerations. Based on the assumption of ~2.5 L of waste to be consolidated per day, sintering based techniques, namely, microwave sintering, spark plasma sintering and hot isostatic pressing, were ranked as the top-3 choices, respectively. Melting and solidification based techniques were ranked lower on account of generation of volatile phases and difficulties associated with reactivity and containment of the molten metal.

  14. (Data in thousand metric tons of metal, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1996, 13 companies operated 22 primary aluminum reduction plants. Montana,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . 18.5% ad val. Unwrought (other than aluminum alloys) 7601.10.6000 Free 11.0% ad val. Waste and scrap18 ALUMINUM1 (Data in thousand metric tons of metal, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1996, 13 companies operated 22 primary aluminum reduction plants. Montana, Oregon

  15. (Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2004, 6 companies operated 14 primary aluminum reduction plants; 6 smelters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Unwrought (other than aluminum alloys) 7601.10.6000 Free. Waste and scrap 7602.00.0000 Free. Depletion20 ALUMINUM1 (Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2004, 6 companies operated 14 primary aluminum reduction plants; 6 smelters continued

  16. (Data in thousand metric tons of metal, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1999, 12 companies operated 23 primary aluminum reduction plants. Montana,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .10.3000 2.6% ad val. Unwrought (other than aluminum alloys) 7601.10.6000 Free. Waste and scrap 760222 ALUMINUM1 (Data in thousand metric tons of metal, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1999, 12 companies operated 23 primary aluminum reduction plants. Montana, Oregon

  17. (Data in thousand metric tons of metal, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2001, 12 companies operated 23 primary aluminum reduction plants. The 11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    coils) 7601.10.3000 2.6% ad val. Unwrought (other than aluminum alloys) 7601.10.6000 Free. Waste20 ALUMINUM1 (Data in thousand metric tons of metal, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2001, 12 companies operated 23 primary aluminum reduction plants. The 11 smelters east

  18. (Data in thousand metric tons of metal, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2003, 7 companies operated 15 primary aluminum reduction plants; 6 smelters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Unwrought (other than aluminum alloys) 7601.10.6000 Free. Waste and scrap 7602.00.0000 Free. Depletion, prices in the aluminum scrap and secondary aluminum alloy markets fluctuated through September but closed20 ALUMINUM1 (Data in thousand metric tons of metal, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production

  19. (Data in thousand metric tons of silicon content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal (excluding semiconductor-and solar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal (excluding semiconductor- and solar- grade silicon) produced in the United States in 2009 was $470 million. Four companies produced silicon materials in six plants. Of those companies, three produced ferrosilicon in four plants. Metallurgical

  20. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, D.C.

    1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

  1. Basic Instructor Training

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Emergency Operations Training Academy, NA 40.2, Readiness and Training, Albuquerque, NM is pleased to announce site certification by the National Training Center for conduct of the Basic Instructor Training class

  2. Notes on basic algebraic geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 16, 2008 ... Notes on basic algebraic geometry ...... Having discovered the basic equation ..... back to a rational function on X. Thus we get a nonzero ...

  3. Intellectual Patent Basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    Intellectual Property Patent Basics Roland W. Norris Pauley Petersen Kinne & Erickson 2800 W;Introduction Intellectual property: Patents Trademarks Copyrights Trade Secrets #12;What is a Patent? A right For the term of the patent 20 years from date of filing of earliest related patent or application #12;A

  4. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  5. Hydrogen Production - Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    consumer on a cost-per-mile-driven basis as a comparable conventional internal-combustion engine or hybrid vehicle. DOE is engaged in research and development of a variety of...

  6. Geothermal Electricity Production Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To: Congestion StudyForecasting.Energy InDOE Geothermal A photo of

  7. Hydrogen Production Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe SolarContamination Detectorof Energy Leak DetectionEducation

  8. NREL: Learning - Geothermal Electricity Production Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NREL isDataWorking withFuel Cell Vehicle

  9. URANIUM METAL POWDER PRODUCTION, PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS, AND REACTION RATE STUDIES OF A HYDRIDE-DEHYDRIDE PROCESS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sames, William

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Work was done to study a hydride-dehydride method for producing uranium metal powder. Particle distribution analysis was conducted using digital microscopy and grayscale image analysis software. The particle size was found to be predominantly...

  10. Effects of trace metals on diatom export products from the euphotic zone and significance for biogeochemical cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richter, Daniel J.

    metal are also reported (Cu from Coale and Bruland, 1988;Zn from Bruland, 1989; Cd from Lane et al. , 2008). Free52:843–855. Buck, K. N. and Bruland, K. W. (2005). Copper

  11. Health Care Basics: Choosing the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    ;Health Care Basics 3 · Sickle Cell Anemia · HIV/AIDS(chroniccondition) · Low Back problems (chronic

  12. (Basic properties of coals and other solids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses basic properties of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Properties of coal liquids are also investigated. Heats of immersion in strong acids are found for Pittsburgh {number sign}8, Illinois {number sign}6, and Wyodak coals. Production of coal liquids by distillation is discussed. Heats of titration of coal liquids and coal slurries are reported. (VC)

  13. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  14. NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency Visit |Infrastructure TheSolar EnergyHydrogen Basics

  15. Basic Energy Sciences Jobs

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,,of Science (SC) BESAC Home Basic Energy

  16. Basic Energy Sciences Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BES PrincipalBasic Energy Sciences

  17. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  18. EFFECTS ON CHP PLANT EFFICIENCY OF H2 PRODUCTION THROUGH PARTIAL OXYDATION OF NATURAL GAS OVER TWO GROUP VIII METAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFECTS ON CHP PLANT EFFICIENCY OF H2 PRODUCTION THROUGH PARTIAL OXYDATION OF NATURAL GAS OVER TWO with natural gas in spark ignition engines can increase for electric efficiency. In-situ H23 production for spark ignition engines fuelled by natural gas has therefore been investigated recently, and4 reformed

  19. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  20. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of...

  1. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

  2. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quartery report, August 1994--November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This first quarterly report describes work during the first three months of the University of Pittsburgh`s (Pitt`s) project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quotes} Participating with Pitt on this project are Dravo Lime Company (DLC), Mill Service, Inc. (MSO and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research (CHMR)). The report states the goals of the project - both general and specific - and then describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. All of this work has been organizational and developmental in nature. No data has yet been collected. Technical details and data will appear for the first time in the second quarterly report and be the major topic of subsequent reports.

  3. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  4. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  5. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  6. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  7. The Basicity of Texas Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

    1929-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    basicity is here used to mean the bases which neutralize dilute nitric acid, sulphuric acid or similar acids, as measured by titra- tion of the acid after contact with the soil. It is recognized that this does not correctly represent the real basicity... of the soil and other circumstances. The use of nitrate of soda on acid soils tends to reduce the acidity. A mixture of nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia in proper proportions will not affect the acidity of the soil. THE BASICITY OF TEXAS SOILS 7...

  8. Biopower Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWindConversionResults inBiopower Basics Biopower Basics

  9. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J. (Chicago, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  10. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  11. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J. (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  12. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA); Curtis, Paul G. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof.

  13. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, O.H.; Curtis, P.G.

    1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof. 1 figure.

  14. The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011Dry ProductionThe Basics

  15. Establishing Greener Products and Manufacturing Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linke, Barbara; Huang, Yu-Chu; Dornfeld, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hazardous Substances Directive WEEE = Waste Electrical andelectronic products (RoHS, WEEE). Complementary metal oxide

  16. Nanostructured Basic Catalysts: Opportunities for Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, William C; Huber, George; Auerbach, Scott

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research studied and developed novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We focused on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts zeolites. These catalysts were compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, that were being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and would be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we had studied the aldolpyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

  17. Net-Baryon Physics: Basic Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Alvarez-Muniz; R. Conceicao; J. Dias de Deus; M. C. Espirito Santo; J. G. Milhano; M. Pimenta

    2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that, in nuclear collisions, a sizable fraction of the available energy is carried away by baryons. As the baryon number is conserved, the net-baryon $B-\\bar{B}$ retains information on the energy-momentum carried by the incoming nuclei. A simple but consistent model for net-baryon production in high energy hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The basic ingredients of the model are valence string formation based on standard PDFs with QCD evolution and string fragmentation via the Schwinger mechanism. The results of the model are presented and compared with both data and existing models. These results show that a good description of the main features of net-baryon data is possible on the framework of a simplistic model, with the advantage of making the fundamental production mechanisms manifest.

  18. Basics of advanced software Lecture 5 monoprocessor scheduling & basics of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navet, Nicolas

    /s ? · Q2: is it possible to trigger the opening of an airbag· Q2: is it possible to trigger the opening of an airbag through a 125kbit/s CAN bus ? 30/03/2012N. Navet - Basics of Advanced Software Systems - Univers

  19. Cosmic Particle Acceleration: Basic Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. W. Jones

    2000-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic-rays are ubiquitous, but their origins are surprisingly difficult to understand. A review is presented of some of the basic issues common to cosmic particle accelerators and arguments leading to the likely importance of diffusive shock acceleration as a general explanation. The basic theory of diffusive shock acceleration is outlined, followed by a discussion of some of the key issues that still prevent us from a full understanding of its outcomes. Some recent insights are mentioned at the end that may help direct ultimate resolution of our uncertainties.

  20. Basic Research Needs: Catalysis for Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Alexis T.; Gates, Bruce C.; Ray, Douglas; Thompson, Michael R.

    2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents results of a workshop held August 6-8, 2007, by DOE SC Basic Energy Sciences to determine the basic research needs for catalysis research.

  1. Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Homes & Buildings Space Heating & Cooling Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings...

  2. Hydrogen Delivery - Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Delivery Hydrogen Delivery - Basics Hydrogen Delivery - Basics Photo of light-duty vehicle at hydrogen refueling station. Infrastructure is required to move hydrogen from the...

  3. Keep Communication Professional BASIC TIPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    Keep Communication Professional BASIC TIPS: Staying professional in your career is vital. You the way through your career until you retire. It's important to not become too casual when communicating with employers or other professionals while seeking an internship/co-op. Don't use slang when communicating

  4. Spray casting of metallic preforms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Burch, Joseph V. (Shelley, ID); Sears, James W. (Niskayuna, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal alloy is melted in a crucible and ejected from the bottom of the crucible as a descending stream of molten metal. The descending stream is impacted with a plurality of primary inert gas jets surrounding the molten metal stream to produce a plume of atomized molten metal droplets. An inert gas is blown onto a lower portion of the plume with a plurality of auxiliary inert gas jets to deflect the plume into a more restricted pattern of high droplet density, thereby substantially eliminating unwanted overspray and resulting wasted material. The plume is projected onto a moving substrate to form a monolithic metallic product having generally parallel sides.

  5. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  6. (Data in thousand metric tons of silicon content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon metal and alloys (excluding semiconductor-grade silicon)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    metal: Brazil, 37%; South Africa, 25%; Canada, 14%; Norway, 6%; and other, 18%. Total: Brazil, 20%; China, 16%; South Africa, 13%; Canada, 12%; and other, 39%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations energy costs. Demand for silicon metal comes primarily from the aluminum and chemical industries

  7. Biopower Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWindConversionResults inBiopower Basics Biopower

  8. Bioproducts Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWindConversionResults inBiopower Basics

  9. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  10. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  11. Energy Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register /of Energy 3 BTOWebinar EnergyJuly 2012Basics Energy

  12. Sandia Energy - Basic Energy Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Press ReleasesInApplied & Computational Math HomeBasic

  13. Biomass Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWindConversionResults in First AlgaeDepartment ofBasics

  14. Hydropower Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogen and FuelInnovation Portal BiomassBasics

  15. BASIC Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions Inc Jump to:AurigaPlantillas Jump to:­nculosAzurRB9BASIC Solar

  16. BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Denise

    BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE DRIVING FINE-TUNE THE FUNDAMENTALS DRIVE SAFELY WORK WEEK: FRIDAY an occasional refresher. In fact, most company fleet safety programs emphasize basic skills and defensive

  17. Back to basics: Measuring rainfall at sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quartly, Graham

    Back to basics: Measuring rainfall at sea: Part 1 - In situ sensors G. D. Quartly, T. H. Guymer-320 #12;#12;Back to basics: Measuring rainfall at sea: Part 1 ± In situ sensors G. D. Quartly, T. H

  18. Fuel Cells - Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cells Fuel Cells - Basics Fuel Cells - Basics Photo of a fuel cell stack A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity with...

  19. Your UNIX Account Basic Unix Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    Your UNIX Account 2 Basic Unix Tools 3 Unix Power Tools Weigang Qiu Introduction & UNIX Tutorial #12 & UNIX Tutorial #12;Your UNIX Account Basic Unix Tools Unix Power Tools UNIX Directory Structure FileYour UNIX Account Basic Unix Tools Unix Power Tools Introduction & UNIX Tutorial Weigang Qiu

  20. Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ramana Reddy

    2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  2. (Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2005, 6 companies operated 15 primary aluminum smelters; 4 smelters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: In 2005, 6 companies operated 15 primary aluminum smelters; 4 smelters continued. Most of the production decreases continued to take place in the Pacific Northwest. Domestic smelters from 693 thousand tons at yearend 2004. World Smelter Production and Capacity: Production Yearend

  3. Revised: 6 November 1991 Trends in the Consumption of Energy-Intensive Basic Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revised: 6 November 1991 Trends in the Consumption of Energy-Intensive Basic Materials on the consumption, rather than production, of materials. Earlier analyses of trends in basic materials consumption materials consumption patterns on energy use is the recognition that physical units (kilograms) are more

  4. Supported molten-metal catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datta, Ravindra (Iowa City, IA); Singh, Ajeet (Iowa City, IA); Halasz, Istvan (Iowa City, IA); Serban, Manuela (Iowa City, IA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An entirely new class of catalysts called supported molten-metal catalysts, SMMC, which can replace some of the existing precious metal catalysts used in the production of fuels, commodity chemicals, and fine chemicals, as well as in combating pollution. SMMC are based on supporting ultra-thin films or micro-droplets of the relatively low-melting (<600.degree. C.), inexpensive, and abundant metals and semimetals from groups 1, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, of the periodic table, or their alloys and intermetallic compounds, on porous refractory supports, much like supported microcrystallites of the traditional solid metal catalysts. It thus provides orders of magnitude higher surface area than is obtainable in conventional reactors containing molten metals in pool form and also avoids corrosion. These have so far been the chief stumbling blocks in the application of molten metal catalysts.

  5. Noble Metal-Free Reduced Graphene Oxide-ZnxCd1-xS Nanocomposite with Enhanced Solar Photocatalytic H2Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Jian Ru

    Noble Metal-Free Reduced Graphene Oxide-ZnxCd1-xS Nanocomposite with Enhanced Solar Photocatalytic and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China National of China § Department of Chemistry, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242, United States *S Supporting

  6. Phys780: Basic Plasma Physics 1 PHYS 780. Basic Plasma Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phys780: Basic Plasma Physics 1 PHYS 780. Basic Plasma Physics Course objective The course objective is to introduce students to basic concepts of plasma physics and magneto-hydrodynamics with applications to solar-terrestrial physics. The course topics include: plasma classification, basic plasma prop

  7. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  8. Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s ReplyApplicationCommittee | DepartmentDesign BasisBigRenewable Energy »

  9. Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform isEnergyMeeting | Department of Energy Big DataBillBiomass »

  10. Establishing Greener Products and Manufacturing Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linke, Barbara; Dornfeld, David; Huang, Yu-Chu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    = LCI = Mfg = MRR = RoHS = WEEE = Application programmingelectronic products (RoHS, WEEE). Complementary metal oxide

  11. (Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2008, 6 companies operated 14 primary aluminum smelters; 4 smelters were

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: In 2008, 6 companies operated 14 primary aluminum smelters; 4 smelters were temporarily idled primary aluminum production increased substantially owing to smelter restarts after new power contracts, production was curtailed at two smelters owing to high electricity prices, power supply issues, and a sharp

  12. (Data in thousand metric tons of metal, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2000, 12 companies operated 23 primary aluminum reduction plants. Montana,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and Issues: Domestic primary aluminum production decreased owing in large part to the smelter production cutbacks caused by increased energy costs, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Domestic smelters aluminum smelter in Hawesville, KY. The acquisition was subject to the completion of a labor agreement

  13. (Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2006, 5 companies operated 13 primary aluminum smelters; 6 smelters were

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: In 2006, 5 companies operated 13 primary aluminum smelters; 6 smelters were temporarily idled. Domestic smelters operated at about 62% of rated or engineered capacity. Imports for consumption increased Smelter Production and Capacity: Production Yearend capacity 2005 2006e 2005 2006e United States 2,481 2

  14. Metals 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boensch, F.D. [6025 Oak Hill Lane, Centerville, OH (United States); Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

  15. Dendritic metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

  16. Electric-Drive Vehicle Basics (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Describes the basics of electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles, and the various charging options.

  17. Formation of metal oxides by cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Rubin, M.; Wang, Z.; Raoux, S.; Kong, F.; Brown, I.G.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxide thin films are of interest for a number of applications. Cathodic arc deposition, an established, industrially applied technique for formation of nitrides (e.g. TiN), can also be used for metal oxide thin film formation. A cathodic arc plasma source with desired cathode material is operated in an oxygen atmosphere, and metal oxides of various stoichiometric composition can be formed on different substrates. We report here on a series of experiments on metal oxide formation by cathodic arc deposition for different applications. Black copper oxide has been deposited on ALS components to increase the radiative heat transfer between the parts. Various metal oxides such as tungsten oxide, niobium oxide, nickel oxide and vanadium oxide have been deposited on ITO glass to form electrochromic films for window applications. Tantalum oxide films are of interest for replacing polymer electrolytes. Optical waveguide structures can be formed by refractive index variation using oxide multilayers. We have synthesized multilayers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si as possible basic structures for passive optoelectronic integrated circuits, and Al{sub 2-x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films with a variable Er concentration which is a potential component layer for the production of active optoelectronic integrated devices such as amplifiers or lasers at a wavelength of 1.53 {mu}m. Aluminum and chromium oxide films have been deposited on a number of substrates to impart improved corrosion resistance at high temperature. Titanium sub-oxides which are electrically conductive and corrosion resistant and stable in a number of aggressive environments have been deposited on various substrates. These sub-oxides are of great interest for use in electrochemical cells.

  18. Displacement method and apparatus for reducing passivated metal powders and metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrell; Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN), Ripley; Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reducing target metal oxides and passivated metals to their metallic state. A reduction reaction is used, often combined with a flux agent to enhance separation of the reaction products. Thermal energy in the form of conventional furnace, infrared, or microwave heating may be applied in combination with the reduction reaction.

  19. Frequency Regulation Basics and Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, BJ

    2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric power system must address two unique requirements: the need to maintain a near real-time balance between generation and load, and the need to adjust generation (or load) to manage power flows through individual transmission facilities. These requirements are not new: vertically integrated utilities have been meeting them for a century as a normal part of conducting business. With restructuring, however, the services needed to meet these requirements, now called ''ancillary services'', are being more clearly defined. Ancillary services are those functions performed by the equipment and people that generate, control, and transmit electricity in support of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has defined such services as those ''necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system''. This statement recognizes the importance of ancillary services for both bulk-power reliability and support of commercial transactions. Balancing generation and load instantaneously and continuously is difficult because loads and generators are constantly fluctuating. Minute-to-minute load variability results from the random turning on and off of millions of individual loads. Longer-term variability results from predictable factors such as the daily and seasonal load patterns as well as more random events like shifting weather patterns. Generators also introduce unexpected fluctuations because they do not follow their generation schedules exactly and they trip unexpectedly due to a range of equipment failures. The output from wind generators varies with the wind. Storage technologies should be ideal suppliers of several ancillary services, including regulation, contingency reserves (spinning reserve, supplemental reserve, replacement reserve), and voltage support. These services are not free; in regions with energy markets, generators are paid to supply these services. In vertically integrated utilities (without energy markets) the utility incurs significant costs to supply these services. Supplying these services may be a significant business opportunity for emerging storage technologies. This report briefly explores the various ancillary services that may be of interest to storage. It then focuses on regulation, the most expensive ancillary service. It also examines the impact that increasing amounts of wind generation may have on regulation requirements, decreasing conventional regulation supplies, and the implications for energy storage.

  20. Commercial Implementation of Model-Based Manufacturing of Nanostructured Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, Terry C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational modeling is an essential tool for commercial production of nanostructured metals. Strength is limited by imperfections at the high strength levels that are achievable in nanostructured metals. Processing to achieve homogeneity at the micro- and nano-scales is critical. Manufacturing of nanostructured metals is intrinsically a multi-scale problem. Manufacturing of nanostructured metal products requires computer control, monitoring and modeling. Large scale manufacturing of bulk nanostructured metals by Severe Plastic Deformation is a multi-scale problem. Computational modeling at all scales is essential. Multiple scales of modeling must be integrated to predict and control nanostructural, microstructural, macrostructural product characteristics and production processes.

  1. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a multi-metal oxide/sulfide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jevnikar, M. G.; Kuch, Ph. L.

    1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalytic composition containing an oxide and/or sulfide of at least one of molybdenum, tungsten, iron, chromium and vanadium in combination with at least one promoter metal, e.g. a catalyst of the formula Cs Cu /SUB 0.2/ Zn /SUB 0.5/ Mn /SUB 0.5/ Sn /SUB 2.4/ Mo O /SUB x/ S /SUB y/ .

  2. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  3. Patent Information Basics Andrea Twiss-Brooks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ober, Carole

    Patent Information Basics Andrea Twiss-Brooks Bibliographer for Chemistry, Physics, Geophysical Patent Information Basics What are patents? Where do patents come from? Where will I see patent references? How do I find the full text of a patent? Where to go for more information? #12;11/30/2006Page 3

  4. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  5. Back to basics: Measuring rainfall at sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quartly, Graham

    Back to basics: Measuring rainfall at sea: Part 2 - Space-borne sensors G. D. Quartly, T. H. Guymer-366 & ii #12;#12;Back to basics: Measuring rainfall at sea: Part 2 ­ Space-borne sensors G. D. Quartly, T are present the measure- ment will correspond to the cloud-top tem- peratures (see Fig. 1, back cover

  6. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  7. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  8. CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection Up things, on the lighting that illuminates the scene, and on the interaction of light with the objects in the scene. Some of the basic qualitative properties of lighting and object reflectance that we need

  9. ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009 OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENT & REGISTRATION INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009 OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENT & REGISTRATION INFORMATION ACT Basic Training ­ May 8, 2009 PURPOSE: The ACT Basic Training is designed to help staff who are new to Assertive Community Treatment

  10. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay 18-19,DepartmentEnergyMetalMetal

  11. Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    carbon nanotubes, nanohorns, and fullerene derivatives, organic-inorganic composites, aerogels, and metal-organic frameworks. The development of a suitable hydrogen storage system...

  12. Nordic Energy Basics Tiina Koljonen, Esa Pursiheimo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    production and fuel reserves; · Energy production and consumption ; · Hydrogen production in the Nordic fossil fuel production and fossil fuel reserves 4 2 Energy production and consumption 5 3 Hydrogen;2 Energy production and consumption Table 3. Key figures 2002. Total energy consumption and electricity

  13. Analysis of two basic variables of timeout 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zella, William Francis

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ANALYSIS OF TWO BASIC VARIABLES OF TIMEOUT A Thesis WILLIAM FRANCIS ZELLA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AaM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August l974 Major Subjects... Psychology ANALYSI QF TWQ BASIC VARIABLES CF TINEQU '. A Thesis V/ILLIAM FRANCIS ZELLA Approved as to s+yle and content bye Chairman of Commi, ee Head of De artment) (Membe Member) Member ABSTRACT Analysis of Two Basic Variables of Timeout. (August...

  14. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing...

  15. New combustion synthesis technique for the production of (InxGa1-x)2O3 powders: Hydrazine/metal nitrate method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKittrick, Joanna

    New combustion synthesis technique for the production of (InxGa1-x)2O3 powders: Hydrazine. The combustion reaction occurred when heating the precursors between 150 and 200 °C in a closed vessel filled by a more typical combustion synthesis reaction between nitrates and a carbonaceous fuel at a higher

  16. (Data in thousand metric tons of metal, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2002, 11 companies operated 16 primary aluminum reduction plants; 6 smelters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: In 2002, 11 companies operated 16 primary aluminum reduction plants; 6 smelters were temporarily idled. The 11 smelters east of the Mississippi River accounted for 75% of the production; whereas the remaining 11 smelters, which included the 9 Pacific Northwest smelters, accounted for only 25%. Based upon

  17. (Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2010, five companies operated nine primary aluminum smelters; six smelters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: In 2010, five companies operated nine primary aluminum smelters; six smelters were closed the entire year. Demolition of two smelters that had been idle for several years was started in 2010. Based: During the first half of 2010, production from domestic primary aluminum smelters had stabilized after

  18. (Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2007, 6 companies operated 14 primary aluminum smelters; 5 smelters were

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: In 2007, 6 companies operated 14 primary aluminum smelters; 5 smelters were temporarily idled primary aluminum production increased substantially owing to smelter restarts after new power contracts were obtained by producers. Domestic smelters operated at about 69% of rated or engineered capacity

  19. I-NERI ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Frank

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An attractive alternative to the once-through disposal of electrorefiner salt is to selectively remove the active fission products from the salt and recycle the salt back to the electrorefiner (ER). This would allow salt reuse for some number of cycles before ultimate disposal of the salt in a ceramic waste form. Reuse of ER salt would, thus, greatly reduce the volume of ceramic waste produced during the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This final portion of the joint I-NERI research project is to demonstrate the separation of fission products from molten ER salt by two methods previously selected during phase two (FY-08) of this project. The two methods selected were salt/zeolite contacting and rare-earth fission product precipitation by oxygen bubbling. The ER salt used in these tests came from the Mark-IV electrorefiner used to anodically dissolved driver fuel from the EBR-II reactor on the INL site. The tests were performed using the Hot Fuel Dissolution Apparatus (HFDA) located in the main cell of the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels complex on the INL site. Results from these tests were evaluated during a joint meeting of KAERI and INL investigators to provide recommendations as to the future direction of fission product removal from electrorefiner salt that accumulate during spent fuel treatment. Additionally, work continued on kinetic measurements of surrogate quaternary salt systems to provide fundamental kinetics on the ion exchange system and to expand the equilibrium model system developed during the first two phases of this project. The specific objectives of the FY09 I-NERI research activities at the INL include the following: • Perform demonstration tests of the selected KAERI precipitation and INL salt/zeolite contacting processes for fission product removal using radioactive, fission product loaded ER salt • Continue kinetic studies of the quaternary Cs/Sr-LiCl-KCl system to determine the rate of ion exchange during the salt/zeolite contacting process • Compare the adsorption models to experimentally obtained, ER salt results • Evaluate results obtained from the oxygen precipitation and salt/zeolite ion exchange studies to determine the best processes for selective fission-product removal from electrorefiner salt.

  20. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  1. Craypat basics Craypat Automatic Performance Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    approach Detecting load imbalance Apprentice2 basics XT5 Introduction Workshop - CSCS July 2-3, 2009 Slide CrayPat & Cray Apprentice2 module files module load xt-craypat apprentice2 Build application make clean

  2. Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine Grades: 5-8, 9-12 Topic: Wind Energy Owner: Kidwind Project This educational material is brought to you by the U.S. Department of Energy's...

  3. Evaluation of GaN substrates grown in supercritical basic ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Makoto; Yamada, Hisashi; Iso, Kenji; Sato, Hitoshi; Hirasawa, Hirohiko; Kamber, Derrick S.; Hashimoto, Tadao; Baars, Steven P. den; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    GaN crystals grown by the basic ammonothermal method were investigated for their use as substrates for device regrowth. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the substrates contained multiple grains while secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) revealed a high concentration of hydrogen, oxygen, and sodium. Despite these drawbacks, the emission from the light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on both the c-plane and m-plane epitaxial wafers was demonstrated. The SIMS depth profiles showed that the diffusion of the alkali metal from the substrate into the epitaxial film was small, especially in the m-direction.

  4. Evaluating the End-of-Life Phase of Consumer Electronics:Methods and Tools to Improve Product Design and Material Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangold, Jennifer Ann

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L. Meyer and B. Bras. Rare earth metal recycling. In IEEEattention on recovering rare earth metals from electronics,available to extract rare earth metals from waste products;

  5. New Metallization Technique Suitable for 6-MW Pilot Production of Efficient Multicrystalline Solar Cells Using Upgraded Metallurgical Silicon: Final Technical Progress Report, December 17, 2007-- June 16, 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes CaliSolar's work as a Photovoltaic Technology Incubator awardee within the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program. The term of this subcontract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was two years. During this time, CaliSolar evolved from a handful of employees to over 100 scientists, engineers, technicians, and operators. On the technical side, the company transitioned from a proof-of-concept through pilot-scale to large-scale industrial production. A fully automated 60-megawatt manufacturing line was commissioned in Sunnyvale, California. The facility converts upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon feedstock to ingots, wafers, and high-efficiency multicrystalline solar cells.

  6. activated terbium metal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow...

  7. active metal brazing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow...

  8. active filler metal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow...

  9. activated metals 6-year: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow...

  10. Oil, Gas, and Metallic Minerals (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operators of oil, gas, and metallic mineral exploration and production operations are required to obtain a drilling permit from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and file specific forms with...

  11. DOE Office of Basic Sciences: An Overview of Basic Research Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Basic Energy Sciences Overview Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC ) Grid Storage and the Energy Frontier...

  12. Process for the production of hydrogen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL)

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device for the production of hydrogen from water and electricity using an active metal alloy. The active metal alloy reacts with water producing hydrogen and a metal hydroxide. The metal hydroxide is consumed, restoring the active metal alloy, by applying a voltage between the active metal alloy and the metal hydroxide. As the process is sustainable, only water and electricity is required to sustain the reaction generating hydrogen.

  13. Geothermal Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heat Pump Basics Geothermal Heat Pump Basics

  14. FEMA: Family Basic Disaster Supplies There are six basics you should stock in your home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    the containers with dishwashing soap and water, and rinse completely so there is no residual soap. Follow the bottles with dishwashing soap and water, and rinse completely so #12;there is no residual soapFEMA: Family Basic Disaster Supplies There are six basics you should stock in your home: Water

  15. Hydrogen-permeable composite metal membrane and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR)

    1993-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Various hydrogen production and hydrogen sulfide decomposition processes are disclosed that utilize composite metal membranes that contain an intermetallic diffusion barrier separating a hydrogen-permeable base metal and a hydrogen-permeable coating metal. The barrier is a thermally stable inorganic proton conductor.

  16. Clean Energy Finance Guide (Chapter 5: Basic Concepts for Clean...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Provides basic concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured Lending and Loan Loss Reserve Funds. Author: U. S. Department of Energy Chapter 5: Basic Concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured...

  17. DOE Selects Seven Contractors for Waste Treatment Basic Ordering...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Selects Seven Contractors for Waste Treatment Basic Ordering Agreements DOE Selects Seven Contractors for Waste Treatment Basic Ordering Agreements June 4, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis...

  18. Energy Saving Performance Contracting (ESPC) Basics (Text Version...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Saving Performance Contracting (ESPC) Basics (Text Version) Energy Saving Performance Contracting (ESPC) Basics (Text Version) Chani Vines: Hello. We'll be starting in five...

  19. Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis &...

  20. Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text Version Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text Version Download presentation slides and a text...

  1. applying basic science: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    basic and applied domains (physics and meteorology). We Zhao, Yuxiao 2 189188 Master of Science in Informatics, Major in Applied Informatics 189 Basic Courses (30 ECTS)...

  2. 'Grand Challenge' for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    'Grand Challenge' for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage Solicitation 'Grand Challenge' for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage Solicitation DOE is issuing a...

  3. A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Policy, Guidance & Reports Worker Health & Safety A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees...

  4. GOALS FOR BASIC RESEARCH IN CONSTRUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommelein, Iris D.

    1 GOALS FOR BASIC RESEARCH IN CONSTRUCTION A Report on a Workshop Sponsored by THE STANFORD CONSTRUCTION INSTITUTE and Funded by THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FQUNDATION Grant ENG 74-23lll Boyd C, Paulson, Jr, construction will be challenged by increasingly difficult and complex problems in both engineering

  5. Online Course Syllabus STATS 7: Basic Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loudon, Catherine

    Online Course Syllabus Page 1 STATS 7: Basic Statistics Summer Session I 2011 Class Meeting at UC Irvine where she has been teaching statistics for many years. She is also involved in the development of educational material for statistics, from helping to conceive a TV program for distance

  6. of Basic Energy S Present, Shaping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    , Office of Basic Energy Sciences In July of 1996, the camera recording APS construction captured; the Argonne central campus and the APS central laboratory office building are beneath the lightning strike for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our p

  7. Molecular Biology Basics Planning Restriction Enzyme Digests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    Molecular Biology Basics Planning Restriction Enzyme Digests A. Checklist: Buffer type Addition of BSA Optimum temperature Number of units of enzyme B. Plan to digest DNA with an "excess" of enzyme activity. Plan for the "excess" to be divided between time of digestion and number of units of enzyme

  8. BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Denise

    BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE DRIVING BUCKLE UP! Seat belts should never have time off DRIVE the back seat to the front seat.4 ·The back is the best place for pets. According to AAA, similar. Never place the shoulder portion under your arm or behind your back! ·Drivers should sit with at least

  9. Sam Madden Basically Everyone Except My Bank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, James F.

    Sam Madden Physicists Biologists Basically Everyone Except My Bank #12;· Benefit(DBMS) DBMS? · DBMS setup & boundary crossings painful ­ Especially if you have to do it multiple times! MATLAB a fleet of 40 cabs on Boston streets · Pipeline ­ Raw data in DBMS ­ Trajectories with Matlab ­ Queries

  10. Event simulation for colliders - A basic overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Reuschle

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we will discuss the basic calculational concepts to simulate particle physics events at high energy colliders. We will mainly focus on the physics in hadron colliders and particularly on the simulation of the perturbative parts, where we will in turn focus on the next-to-leading order QCD corrections.

  11. NPTEL Syllabus Basic Electrical Circuits -Video course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnapura, Nagendra

    with an introduction to basic linear elements used in electrical circuits. Mesh and node analysis for systematic analysis of large circuits will be studied. Fundamental circuit theorems and their use in analysis steady state analysis for simple analysis of such circuits will be studied. The concepts of power

  12. Climate Change Basics: Science, Adaptation, & Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    Science Global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have increased from ice cores spanning many thousands of years. The global increases in carbon dioxide concentrationClimate Change Basics: Science, Adaptation, & Mitigation with a Family Forest Perspective Baylor

  13. Multi-phase glass-ceramics as a waste form for combined fission products: alkalis, alkaline earths, lanthanides, and transition metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, multi-phase silicate-based glass-ceramics were investigated as an alternate waste form for immobilizing non-fissionable products from used nuclear fuel. Currently, borosilicate glass is the waste form selected for immobilization of this waste stream, however, the low thermal stability and solubility of MoO{sub 3} in borosilicate glass translates into a maximum waste loading in the range of 15-20 mass%. Glass-ceramics provide the opportunity to target durable crystalline phases, e.g., powellite, oxyapatite, celsian, and pollucite, that will incorporate MoO{sub 3} as well as other waste components such as lanthanides, alkalis, and alkaline earths at levels 2X the solubility limits of a single-phase glass. In addition a glass-ceramic could provide higher thermal stability, depending upon the properties of the crystalline and amorphous phases. Glass-ceramics were successfully synthesized at waste loadings of 42, 45, and 50 mass% with the following glass additives: B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO and SiO{sub 2} by slow cooling form from a glass melt. Glass-ceramics were characterized in terms of phase assemblage, morphology, and thermal stability. The targeted phases: powellite and oxyapatite were observed in all of the compositions along with a lanthanide borosilicate, and cerianite. Results of this initial investigation of glass-ceramics show promise as a potential waste form to replace single-phase borosilicate glass.

  14. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  15. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  16. Aerosol flow reactor production of superconducting ceramic powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodas, T. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Engler, E.; Lee, V.; Parkin, L.S. (Research Div., Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (US))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential applications and basic studies of superconducting ceramics require the reproducible production of chemically homogeneous, ultrapure powders with controlled particle size distributions. Previous work has mainly examined the use of liquid and solid phase methods for superconducting powder production. In this work, it is shown that carbon-free, submicron powders based on the Y-Ba-Cu-O, La-Sr-Cu-O, Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O systems can be produced in a gaseous flow system by reacting aerosol particles containing the nitrate salts of the appropriate metals in flowing oxygen at temperatures of 900 - 1100C. It is also demonstrated that composite Cu/YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/ wires can be fabricated by thermophoretic deposition of the particles onto the inner surface of a Cu tube hby sintering/annealing.

  17. atmospheric reaction products: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    These observations suggest that proton-metal initiated reactions occur in such LENR cells. This paper discusses evidence that the production of these reaction products is...

  18. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  19. Department of Basic Sciences Philadelphia University Module Syllabus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Basic Sciences ­ Philadelphia University Module Syllabus: Course Title: Computational

  20. Strengthening porous metal skeletons by metal deposition from a nanoparticle dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crane, Nathan B., 1974-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accuracy of solid freeform fabrication processes such as three-dimensional printing (3DP) and selective laser sintering (SLS) must be improved for them to achieve wide application in direct production of metal parts. ...

  1. National Energy Information System basic concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic concepts on which the National Energy Information System (NEIS) rests are described and clarified. Identified are the current state of, as well as future information gathering activities of the system. The NEIS was originally created under Congressional mandate to collect, process, and disseminate data useful for analysis of energy supply and consumption issues. An overview of NEIS, data descriptions, metadata (directories, documentation), and procedures of the NEIS system are discussed in a question-and-answer format.

  2. 1. BASICS 1 1 Lattices 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micciancio, Daniele

    Contents Preface ix 1. BASICS 1 1 Lattices 1 1.1 Determinant 6 1.2 Successive minima 7 1.3 Minkowski's theorems 11 2 Computational problems 14 2.1 Complexity Theory 15 2.2 Some lattice problems 17 2.3 Hardness of approximation 19 3 Notes 21 2. APPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS 23 1 Solving SVP in dimension 2 24 1.1

  3. Metal Hydrides - Science Needs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with traditions in metal hydride research Metal and Ceramic Sciences Condensed Matter Physics Materials Chemistry Chemical and Biological Sciences Located on campus of Tier...

  4. Waste water treatment and metal recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Waste water treatment and metal recovery Nickel catalysts for hydrogen production Nickel and single versions of which contained cobalt, chromium, carbon, molybdenum, tungsten, and nickel. In 1911 and 1912% on their stainless steel production. The company paid sizable dividends to its owners until it was dissolved

  5. [Basic properties of coals and other solids]. Eighth quarterly report, [September--November 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses basic properties of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Properties of coal liquids are also investigated. Heats of immersion in strong acids are found for Pittsburgh {number_sign}8, Illinois {number_sign}6, and Wyodak coals. Production of coal liquids by distillation is discussed. Heats of titration of coal liquids and coal slurries are reported. (VC)

  6. Final Technical Report: Viral Infection of Subsurface Microorganisms and Metal/Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Karrie A.; Bender, Kelly S.; Li, Yusong

    2013-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbially mediated metabolisms have been identified as a significant factor either directly or indirectly impacting the fate and transport of heavy metal/radionuclide contaminants. To date microorganisms have been isolated from contaminated environments. Examination of annotated finished genome sequences of many of these subsurface isolates from DOE sites, revealed evidence of prior viral infection. To date the role that viruses play influencing microbial mortality and the resulting community structure which directly influences biogeochemical cycling in soils and sedimentary environments remains poorly understood. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the role of viral infection of subsurface bacteria and the formation of contaminant-bearing viral particles. This objective was approached by examining the following working hypotheses: (i) subsurface microorganisms are susceptible to viral infections by the indigenous subsurface viral community, and (ii) viral surfaces will adsorb heavy metals and radionuclides. Our results have addressed basic research needed to accomplish the BER Long Term Measure to provide sufficient scientific understanding such that DOE sites would be able to incorporate coupled physical, chemical and biological processes into decision making for environmental remediation or natural attenuation and long-term stewardship by establishing viral-microbial relationships on the subsequent fate and transport of heavy metals and radionuclides. Here we demonstrated that viruses play a significant role in microbial mortality and community structure in terrestrial subsurface sedimentary systems. The production of viral-like particles within subsurface sediments in response to biostimulation with dissolved organic carbon and a terminal electron acceptor resulted in the production of viral-like particles. Organic carbon alone did not result in significant viral production and required the addition of a terminal electron acceptor (nitrate), indicating that nutrients are not limiting viral production, but rather substrates that can be converted into energy for host metabolism. Our results also revealed that cell abundance was not correlated to the mineralization of organic carbon, but rather viruses were positively correlated with carbon mineralization. This is a result of viral-mediated cell lysis and demonstrates that viruses are sensitive indicators of microbial activity. Viruses as an indicator of microbial activity was not unique to batch culture studies as results obtained from an in situ field experiment conducted at the DOE Old Rifle Field site. This study revealed that viral abundance increased in response to the injection of oxygenated groundwater and influx of dissolved organic carbon whereas cell abundance changes were minimal. However, the extent to which viral-mediated cell lysis alters organic matter pools subsequently influencing microbial community structure and biogeochemical function remains a critical question in subsurface biogeochemical cycling. The production of significant numbers of viruses in groundwater has implications for nanoparticulate metal as well as carbon transport in groundwater. We have demonstrated that the virus surface is reactive and will adsorb heavy metals. Thus viruses can promote colloidal contaminant mobility. Interestingly, the presence of heavy metals has a positive effect on infectivity of the phage, increasing phage infection which could lead to further production of viruses. Together, the results indicate that the sorption of metals to the surface of viruses could not only contribute to nanoparticulate metal as well as carbon transport but could also enhance infectivity further contributing to cell lysis which could subsequently influence biogeochemical cycling. As more viruses infect host microbial populations the high concentration of metals would enhance infection, resulting in cell lysis, and decreasing the metabolically active host population while yielding greater numbers of viruses capable of transporting contaminats. Additional studie

  7. Productivity and Firm Size Distribution: Evidence from India's Organized and Unorganized Manufacturing Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nataraj, Shanthi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic Fibers Jute and Vegetable Fibers Textile Products Wood Paper Leather Basic Chemicals Rubber,Synthetic Textiles Jute, Vegetable Fiber Textile Products Wood, Furniture, Fixtures Paper, Printing, Finishing Leather Basic Chemicals Rubber,Synthetic Textiles Jute, Vegetable Fiber Textile Products Wood, Furniture, Fixtures Paper, Printing, Finishing Leather Basic Chemicals Rubber,

  8. Business Cycle Effects on Metal and Oil Prices: Understanding the Price Retreat of 2008-9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Business Cycle Effects on Metal and Oil Prices: Understanding the Price Retreat of 2008 of macroeconomic business cycles on six metals traded on the London Metal Exchange and oil prices. Reduced GDP oil prices (as a proxy for energy inputs in metals production) are derived. The estimated trend

  9. GRASP: BASIC COMPONENTS AND ENHANCEMENTS 1 ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 1, 2008 ... An analysis of a rail car unloading area for a consumer products manufacturer. J. of the Operational Research Society, 48:873–883, 1997.

  10. Heavy metal biosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

  11. Metal-carbon nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puretzky, A.A.; Hettich, R.L.; Jin, Changming; Haufler, R.E.; Compton, R.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tuinman, A.A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafine particles formed by XeCl laser photolysis of M(CO){sub 6}, M = V, Cr, Mo, and W, have been analyzed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry and other techniques. Novel metal carbide clusters, (MoC{sub 4}){sub n}, n = 1 {minus} 4 and (WC{sub 4}){sub m}, m = 1 {minus} 8, were detected and studied. The material produced by photolysis of V(CO){sub 6} shows a series of vanadium-oxygen clusters, V{sub x}O{sub 2x+2}, x = 2 {minus} 10. No clusters of any type were detected in the photolysis product of Cr(CO){sub 6}. Structures based on the experimental evidence are proposed and discussed in light of their chemical reactivity.

  12. The History of Metals and Ceramics Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, D.F.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The division was formed in 1946 at the suggestion of Dr. Eugene P. Wigner to attack the problem of the distortion of graphite in the early reactors due to exposure to reactor neutrons, and the consequent radiation damage. It was called the Metallurgy Division and assembled the metallurgical and solid state physics activities of the time which were not directly related to nuclear weapons production. William A. Johnson, a Westinghouse employee, was named Division Director in 1946. In 1949 he was replaced by John H Frye Jr. when the Division consisted of 45 people. He was director during most of what is called the Reactor Project Years until 1973 and his retirement. During this period the Division evolved into three organizational areas: basic research, applied research in nuclear reactor materials, and reactor programs directly related to a specific reactor(s) being designed or built. The Division (Metals and Ceramics) consisted of 204 staff members in 1973 when James R. Weir, Jr., became Director. This was the period of the oil embargo, the formation of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by combining the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) with the Office of Coal Research, and subsequent formation of the Department of Energy (DOE). The diversification process continued when James O. Stiegler became Director in 1984, partially as a result of the pressure of legislation encouraging the national laboratories to work with U.S. industries on their problems. During that time the Division staff grew from 265 to 330. Douglas F. Craig became Director in 1992.

  13. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1990-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  14. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  15. Photovoltaic Cell Structure Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM5Parabolic TroughPhotoCell Structure Basics Photovoltaic Cell

  16. Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM5Parabolic TroughPhotoCell Structure Basics

  17. Photovoltaic System Performance Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM5Parabolic TroughPhotoCell Structure BasicsEnergySystem

  18. Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO Overview OCHCO OCHCOControlGuide to aEnergy LivingSystem Basics

  19. Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sureReportsofDepartmentSeries |Attacks | DepartmentVentilation System Basics

  20. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Technology Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifNREL NRELChemical andWhatTechnology Basics Concentrating

  1. Basic Instructor Training | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromof EnergyBILIWG:Background:BagdadBaseballs andBasic

  2. Basic Plasma Science | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About BecomeTechnologiesVehicleAuthorAwardsarticleOfficeBasic

  3. NREL: Learning - Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NREL isDataWorking withFuel Cell Vehicle Basics

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2NorthAvailabilityBasics to someone by

  5. Radiant Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012 Qualified11 Connecticut Ave NW,Radiant Heating Basics

  6. Metal loading and reactivity of Zeolite Y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sa?enz, Marc Gerard

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . XRD pattern for calcined MoNiY 13. IR spectra for NiY 14. IR spectra for MoNiY 15. HDN product distribution, alumina based catalyst 16. HDN product distribution, zeolite based catalyst 17. Adjusted HDN product distribution, alumina based catalyst...V) are transi- tion metal oxides or sulfides on an alumina support. These catalysts were not specifically developed for hydrodenitrogenaiion but were adopted from hydrocracking or hydrodesul- furization (HDS) processes. HDN is more difficult than HDS; thus...

  7. PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Growth and structure of supported metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Peter J F

    hydrogenation in the fine chemicals industry to the control of vehicle emissions. Yet many basic questions aboutManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd 98 Harris Supported metal catalyst particles metal catalysts, which play an essential role in oil refining, in the che

  8. Carbonation of metal silicates for long-term CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blencoe, James G; Palmer, Donald A; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Beard, James S

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to a process of sequestering carbon dioxide. The process comprises the steps of: (a) reacting a metal silicate with a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide to produce a hydroxide of the metal formerly contained in the silicate; (b) reacting carbon dioxide with at least one of a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide and an alkali-metal silicate to produce at least one of an alkali-metal carbonate and an alkali-metal bicarbonate; and (c) reacting the metal hydroxide product of step (a) with at least one of the alkali-metal carbonate and the alkali-metal bicarbonate produced in step (b) to produce a carbonate of the metal formerly contained in the metal silicate of step (a).

  9. Carbonation of metal silicates for long-term CO.sub.2 sequestration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN); Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN); Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN); Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to a process of sequestering carbon dioxide. The process comprises the steps of: (a) reacting a metal silicate with a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide to produce a hydroxide of the metal formerly contained in the silicate; (b) reacting carbon dioxide with at least one of a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide and an alkali-metal silicate to produce at least one of an alkali-metal carbonate and an alkali-metal bicarbonate; and (c) reacting the metal hydroxide product of step (a) with at least one of the alkali-metal carbonate and the alkali-metal bicarbonate produced in step (b) to produce a carbonate of the metal formerly contained in the metal silicate of step (a).

  10. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    and paper mills in concrete. INTRODUCTION Concrete is a porous solid that is created by combining four basicCenter for By-Products Utilization CURING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE By Tarun For presentation and publication at the symposium entitled "High-Performance Concrete and Concrete for Marine

  11. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  12. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:00am Addthis Photo of a large blue truck with...

  13. Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Homes & Buildings Space Heating and Cooling Basics Space Heating and Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:04pm Addthis A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and...

  14. adult basic education: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ranging from the design of sorting. In this survey we review basic facts regarding expander graphs that are most relevant to the theory Goldreich, Oded 312 PHD BASIC SEMINAR...

  15. MetalLigand-Containing Polymers: Terpyridine as the Supramolecular Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tew, Gregory N.

    -assemble molecules into supramolecular materials including hydrogen and metal bonds, p­p and donor of supramolecular chemistry, the use of polymeric macromolecules as basic elements in supramo- lecular materials has and express their functionality in the final material. Such materials are referred to as supramolecular

  16. Detection of Macrosegregation in a Large Metallic Specimen Using XRF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Detection of Macrosegregation in a Large Metallic Specimen Using XRF E.J. Pickeringa , M. Hollandb the removal of significant quantitites of material. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, on the other hand being enclosed in a vacuum or destroyed beyond basic surface preparation. XRF spectroscopy has its

  17. Assessment of basic research needs for greenhouse gas control technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, S.M.; Chandler, W.; Edmonds, J.; Houghton, J.; Levine, M.; Bates, L.; Chum, H.; Dooley, J.; Grether, D.; Logan, J.; Wiltsee, G.; Wright, L.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is an outgrowth of an effort undertaken by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to assess the fundamental research needs to support a national program in carbon management. Five topics were identified as areas where carbon management strategies and technologies might be developed: (1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide disposal and utilization; (2) hydrogen development and fuel cells; (3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle; (4) biomass production and utilization; and (5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, and utilization. Within each of these general areas, experts came together to identify targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for stabilizing or decreasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Basic research to support the options outlined above are far reaching-from understanding natural global processes such as the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles to development of new materials and concepts for chemical separation. Examples of fundamental research needs are described in this paper.

  18. Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of x-ray producing

  19. Basic Ground-Water Hydrology By RALPH C. HEATH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    #12;Basic Ground-Water Hydrology By RALPH C. HEATH Prepared in cooperation with the North Carolina., 1983, Basic ground-water hydrology: U .S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2220, 86 p. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publications Data Heath, Ralph C . Basic ground-water hydrology (Geological Survey

  20. Illustration: Sean Kelly Back to basics for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, W. Stephen

    Illustration: Sean Kelly Back to basics for the "division clueless" DECEMBER 6, 2010 | BY LISA research in algebraic topology to question basic math education. At two well- regarded private schools to only 31 percent of the 2006 students. As another experiment, Wilson gave a short test of basic math

  1. Actual energy implementations and basic investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nockemann, C.; Wuestenberg, H. [BAM, Berlin (Germany). Federal Inst. of Materials Research and Testing

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The actual implementations in guaranteeing the reliability of NDE systems applied in service inspections in nuclear power plants will be presented. The difference between the American PDI (Performance Demonstration Initiative) which is based on blind trials and the European ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) approach which is based on a mixed procedure of physical modeling, experience data and test experiments will be discussed. The ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) has been adapted from the signal detection theory to NDE problems at BAM to be used for basic investigations and for the validation of new exceptional NDE systems where modeling and reference to standards is not yet possible. Examples of application will be shown and critical discussed especially concerning the influence of the grading unit raster.

  2. Mirror Symmetry in Physics: The Basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callum Quigley

    2014-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    These notes are aimed at mathematicians working on topics related to mirror symmetry, but are unfamiliar with the physical origins of this subject. We explain the physical concepts that enable this surprising duality to exist, using the torus as an illustrative example. Then, we develop the basic foundations of conformal field theory so that we can explain how mirror symmetry was first discovered in that context. Along the way we will uncover a deep connection between conformal field theories with (2,2) supersymmetry and Calabi-Yau manifolds. (Based on lectures given during the "Thematic Program on Calabi-Yau Varieties: Arithmetic, Geometry and Physics" at the Fields Institute in Toronto, October 10-11, 2013.)

  3. Basic mechanisms for the new millennium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This part of the Short Course will review the basic mechanisms for radiation effects in semiconductor devices. All three areas of radiation damage will be considered -- total dose, displacement effects, and single event effects. Each of these areas will be discussed in turn. First an overview and background will be provided on the historical understanding of the damage mechanism. Then there will be a discussion of recent enhancements to the understanding of those mechanisms and an up-to-date picture provided of the current state of knowledge. Next the potential impact of each of these damage mechanisms on devices in emerging technologies and how the mechanisms may be used to understand device performance will be described, with an emphasis on those likely to be of importance in the new millennium. Finally some additional thoughts will be presented on how device scaling expected into the next century may impact radiation hardness.

  4. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alekseev, A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

  5. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  6. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  7. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This primer is intended for people interested in environmental problems of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. The second edition of the primer incorporates recent findings by researchers in DOE's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on the physical-chemical environment, microbial communities, and nature of the contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through the addition of nutrients (biostimulation) or inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation). Over the past few years, interest in bioremediation has increased. It has become clear that many organic contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels can be degraded to relatively harmless products such as CO{sub 2} (the end result of the degradation process). Waste water managers and scientists have also found that microorganisms can interact with metals and convert them from one chemical form to another. Laboratory tests and ex situ bioremediation applications have shown that microorganisms can change the valence, or oxidation state, of some heavy metals (e.g., chromium and mercury) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium) by using them as electron acceptors. In some cases, the solubility of the altered species decreases and the contaminant is immobilized in situ, i.e., precipitated into an insoluble salt in the sediment. In other cases, the opposite occurs--the solubility of the altered species increases, increasing the mobility of the contaminant and allowing it to be more easily flushed from the environment. Both of these kinds of transformations present opportunities for bioremediation of metals and radionuclides--either to lock them in place, or to accelerate their removal. DOE's goal is to reduce the risk and related exposure to ground water, sediment, and soil contamination at Department of Energy facilities. Subsurface bioremediation of metals and radionuclides at the site of contamination (in situ bioremediation) is not yet in widespread use. However, successful in situ applications of bioremediation to petroleum products and chlorinated solvents provide experience from which scientists can draw. Taken together, the accomplishments in these areas have led scientists and engineers to be optimistic about applying this technology to the mixtures of metals and radionuclides that are found at some of the most contaminated DOE sites. This primer examines some of the basic microbial and chemical processes that are a part of bioremediation, specifically the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. The primer is divided into six sections, with the information in each building on that of the previous. The sections include features that highlight topics of interest and provide background information on specific biological and chemical processes and reactions. The first section briefly examines the scope of the contamination problem at DOE facilities. The second section gives a summary of some of the most commonly used bioremediation technologies, including successful in situ and ex situ techniques. The third discusses chemical and physical properties of metals and radionuclides found in contaminant mixtures at DOE sites, including solubility and the most common oxidation states in which these materials are found. The fourth section is an overview of the basic microbial processes that occur in bioremediation. The fifth section looks at specific in s

  8. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  9. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  10. Energy Management: Back to the Basics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamond, S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2005, Texas Petrochemicals LP achieved a reduction in energy usage of 6.2 percent when compared to 2004. This is based on the but per pound of plant-wide production. Also, halfway through 2006, the company has achieved ...

  11. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO); Goggin, Rita M. (Englewood, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  12. PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    Plants Chelating agents Pb hyperaccumulation Effects of pH on metal extraction Disposal options contaminants from soils Contaminants must be in harvestable portions of the plant (Wongkongkatep et al. 2003) Chelating Agents: desorb heavy metals from soil matrix and form water-soluble metal complexes (Shen et al

  13. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  14. Synthesis of transition metal carbonitrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Munir, Zuhair A. R. (Davis, CA); Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam (Davis, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal carbonitrides (in particular, titanium carbonitride, TiC.sub.0.5 N.sub.0.5) are synthesized by a self-propagating reaction between the metal (e.g., titanium) and carbon in a nitrogen atmosphere. Complete conversion to the carbonitride phase is achieved with the addition of TiN as diluent and with a nitrogen pressure .gtoreq.0.6 MPa. Thermodynamic phase-stability calculations and experimental characterizations of quenched samples provided revealed that the mechanism of formation of the carbonitride is a two-step process. The first step involves the formation of the nonstoichiometric carbide, TiC.sub.0.5, and is followed by the formation of the product by the incorporation of nitrogen in the defect-structure carbide.

  15. Homogeneous fast-flux isotope-production reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for producing tritium in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Lithium target material is dissolved in the liquid metal coolant in order to facilitate the production and removal of tritium.

  16. Preparation and use of crystalline bis-monoorganic phosphonate and phosphate salts of tetravalent metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, L.

    1980-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing and using the crystalline organic derivatives of the tetravalent metal phosphates and phosphonates provides for the contacting of an aqueous solution of a metal nitrate, with a solution of an organophosphorus acid for a period of time at room temperature that is sufficient for the formation of a metal phosphate product, and thereafter recovering said product. According to the invention, the product of the disclosed process is used in effecting analytical separations, such as ion exchange and chromatography.

  17. Production of H2 at Fast Rates Using a Nickel Electrocatalyst in Water/Acetonitrile Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffert, Wesley A.; Roberts, John A.; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2013-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient production of molecular hydrogen for storage of energy from renewable sources is crucial for the development of wind and solar power. Hydrogenase enzymes in nature catalyze H2 production using earth-abundant metals (iron and nickel) using precise delivery of protons to the metal center. Here we report a synthetic nickel complex containing proton relays, [Ni(PPh2NC6H4OH2)2](BF4)2 (PPh2NC6H4OH2 = 1,5-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane), that catalyzes the production of H2 in an aqueous environment with turnover frequencies of 750-170,000 s-1 at directly measured overpotentials of 310-470 mV. The remarkable performance of this catalyst in aqueous environments exceeds the requirements necessary for molecular catalytic production of H2 by energy derived from photovoltaic solar cells. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. METALLIC AND HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURES: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murph, S.

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This book chapter presents an overview of research conducted in our laboratory on preparation, optical and physico-chemical properties of metallic and nanohybrid materials. Metallic nanoparticles, particularly gold, silver, platinum or a combination of those are the main focus of this review manuscript. These metallic nanoparticles were further functionalized and used as templates for creation of complex and ordered nanomaterials with tailored and tunable structural, optical, catalytic and surface properties. Controlling the surface chemistry on/off metallic nanoparticles allows production of advanced nanoarchitectures. This includes coupled or encapsulated core-shell geometries, nano-peapods, solid or hollow, monometallic/bimetallic, hybrid nanoparticles. Rational assemblies of these nanostructures into one-, two- and tridimensional nano-architectures is described and analyzed. Their sensing, environmental and energy related applications are reviewed.

  19. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

  20. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izatt, Reed M. [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC] [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC; Izatt, Steven R. [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC] [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC; Bruening, Ronald L. [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC] [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC; Izatt, Neil [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC] [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling and improved processing of metals. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low metal recycling rates coupled with increasing demand for products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements in separations technology, especially employing molecular recognition, is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  1. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Royer, Lamar T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  2. New Insights into the Mechanism of Bacterial Metal Respiration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiChristina, Thomas J.

    2004-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This project goal is to identify genes and gene products required for microbial metal reduction: reductive dissolution of iron; reductive dissolution of manganese; reductive precipitation of selenium; reductive precipitation of uranium; and reductive precipitation of technetium.

  3. Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

  4. (Data in thousand metric tons of silicon content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal produced in the United States in 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .44 billion. Three companies produced silicon materials in seven plants east of the Mississippi River. Ferrosilicon and metallurgical-grade silicon metal were each produced in four plants. One company produced both and aluminum alloys and the chemical industry. The semiconductor and solar industries, which manufacture chips

  5. (Data in thousand metric tons of silicon content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal produced in the United States in 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,400 million. Two companies produced silicon materials in seven plants east of the Mississippi River. Ferrosilicon and metallurgical-grade silicon metal were each produced in four plants. One company produced both and aluminum alloys and the chemical industry. The semiconductor and solar industries, which manufacture chips

  6. Basic ReseaRch DiRections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugustDecade5-F,INITIAL JohnEAdvancedReseaRch

  7. The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota"YearProductionShale ProvedA(MillionGrossNatural Gas

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta Fe Metro Fleet RunsTexas PutsVehicle

  9. Basic Research Needs for Electrical Energy Storage: Report of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    their extraordinarily high discharge rate properties and cyclability, we need an infusion of basic science to provide the vital background for the materials and mechanisms...

  10. EES and Batteries: The Basics | University of Texas Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EES AND BATTERIES: THE BASICS Virtually all portable electronic devices, including cell phones, PDAs and laptop computers, rely on chemical energy stored in batteries. Batteries...

  11. Grand Challenge for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Grand Challenge for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC....

  12. Grand Challenge for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage: Statement of Objectives Grand Challenge for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage: Statement of Objectives Statement of objectives for the Grand Challenge for...

  13. Chapter 5. Basic Concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured Lending...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DRAFT U.S. DOE CLEAN ENERGY FINANCE GUIDE, THIRD EDITION DECEMBER 9, 2010 Chapter 5. Basic Concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured...

  14. A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Analysis & Reporting A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting September 2012 This pamphlet is intended to provide a short summary...

  15. atmospheric aerosols basic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of atmospheric aerosol. Aplin, KL 2012-01-01 13 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 1....

  16. Metal-oxide-based energetic materials and synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA), Simpson; Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing energetic metal-oxide-based energetic materials using sol-gel chemistry has been invented. The wet chemical sol-gel processing provides an improvement in both safety and performance. Essentially, a metal-oxide oxidizer skeletal structure is prepared from hydrolyzable metals (metal salts or metal alkoxides) with fuel added to the sol prior to gelation or synthesized within the porosity metal-oxide gel matrix. With metal salt precursors a proton scavenger is used to destabilize the sol and induce gelation. With metal alkoxide precursors standard well-known sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation reactions are used. Drying is done by standard sol-gel practices, either by a slow evaporation of the liquid residing within the pores to produce a high density solid nanocomposite, or by supercritical extraction to produce a lower density, high porous nanocomposite. Other ingredients may be added to this basic nanostructure to change physical and chemical properties, which include organic constituents for binders or gas generators during reactions, burn rate modifiers, or spectral emitters.

  17. Recovery of non-ferrous metals from smelter flue dusts and sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, R.W.

    1993-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for treating a smelter by-product so as to recover copper, nickel, zinc, an cobalt metal therefrom and convert any arsenic and sulfur in the smelter by-product into non-leachable forms of arsenic and sulfur, the method comprising: (a) mixing the smelter by-product with hydrated lime to form a paste; (b) forming the paste into agglomerates, (c) roasting the agglomerates in air at a temperature sufficient to oxidize the arsenic and sulfur therein and cause said oxidized arsenic and sulfur to react with the lime in the agglomerates to form non-leachable arsenic-containing and sulfur-containing calcium compounds within the roasted agglomerates; and (d) contacting the roasted agglomerates with a basic aqueous lixiviant solution comprising dissolved ammonia and an ammonium salt so as to dissolve copper, nickel, zinc and cobalt from the roasted agglomerates into the lixiviant solution, thereby converting the lixiviant solution to a pregnant liquor enriched in said copper, nickel, zinc and cobalt.

  18. Transition metals on the (0001) surface of graphite: Fundamental aspects of adsorption, diffusion, and morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appy, David [Ames Laboratory; Lei, Huaping [Ames Laboratory; Wang, Cai-Zhuang [Ames Laboratory; Tringides, Michael C [Ames Laboratory; Liu, Da-Jiang [Ames Laboratory; Evans, James W [Ames Laboratory; Thiel, Patricia A [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we review basic information about the interaction of transition metal atoms with the (0 0 0 1) surface of graphite, especially fundamental phenomena related to growth. Those phenomena involve adatom-surface bonding, diffusion, morphology of metal clusters, interactions with steps and sputter-induced defects, condensation, and desorption. General traits emerge which have not been summarized previously. Some of these features are rather surprising when compared with metal-on-metal adsorption and growth. Opportunities for future work are pointed out.

  19. Metal Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium in Cosmological Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony Aguirre; Lars Hernquist; Joop Schaye; Neal Katz; David H. Weinberg; Jeffrey Gardner

    2001-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations have established that the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) at z ~ 3 is enriched to ~0.1-1% solar metallicity and that the hot gas in large clusters of galaxies (ICM) is enriched to 1/3-1/2 solar metallicity at z=0. Metals in the IGM may have been removed from galaxies (in which they presumably form) during dynamical encounters between galaxies, by ram-pressure stripping, by supernova-driven winds, or as radiation-pressure driven dust efflux. This study develops a method of investigating the chemical enrichment of the IGM and of galaxies, using already completed cosmological simulations. To these simulations, we add dust and (gaseous) metals, distributing the dust and metals in the gas according to three simple parameterized prescriptions, one for each enrichment mechanism. These prescriptions are formulated to capture the basic ejection physics, and calibrated when possible with empirical data. Our results indicate that dynamical removal of metals from >~ 3*10^8 solar mass galaxies cannot account for the observed metallicity of low-column density Ly-alpha absorbers, and that dynamical removal from >~ 3*10^10 solar mass galaxies cannot account for the ICM metallicities. Dynamical removal also fails to produce a strong enough mass-metallicity relation in galaxies. In contrast, either wind or radiation-pressure ejection of metals from relatively large galaxies can plausibly account for all three sets of observations (though it is unclear whether metals can be distributed uniformly enough in the low-density regions without overly disturbing the IGM, and whether clusters can be enriched quite as much as observed). We investigate in detail how our results change with variations in our assumed parameters, and how results for the different ejection processes compare. (Abridged)

  20. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  1. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X-ray sources, neutron sources, nanoscale science research centers, and supercomputers, offer the opportunity to transform and accelerate the fundamental materials and chemical sciences that underpin technology development for advanced nuclear energy systems. The fundamental challenge is to understand and control chemical and physical phenomena in multi-component systems from femto-seconds to millennia, at temperatures to 1000?C, and for radiation doses to hundreds of displacements per atom (dpa). This is a scientific challenge of enormous proportions, with broad implications in the materials science and chemistry of complex systems. New understanding is required for microstructural evolution and phase stability under relevant chemical and physical conditions, chemistry and structural evolution at interfaces, chemical behavior of actinide and fission-product solutions, and nuclear and thermomechanical phenomena in fuels and waste forms. First-principles approaches are needed to describe f-electron systems, design molecules for separations, and explain materials failure mechanisms. Nanoscale synthesis and characterization methods are needed to understand and design materials and interfaces with radiation, temperature, and corrosion resistance. Dynamical measurements are required to understand fundamental physical and chemical phenomena. New multiscale approaches are needed to integrate this knowledge into accurate models of relevant phenomena and complex systems across multiple length and time scales.

  2. Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 Protocol Title: Training for Sealed Source Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

  3. PROCESSING TIP . . . BACK TO BASICS: REVISITING BLOOD COLLECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navara, Kristen

    MAY 2009 PROCESSING TIP . . . BACK TO BASICS: REVISITING BLOOD COLLECTION Technological advances it is often a good idea to periodically step back from the small details and revisit the basics. One that approximately 50% of the blood in the carcass will drain out. This represents about 3-4% of total body weight

  4. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    June 2014 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA Issues of access, quality, equity and impact Sara Humphreys with Lee Crawfurd #12;Review of the literature on basic education in Nigeria EDOREN ­ Education Data, Research and Evaluation in Nigeria i Acknowledgements Thanks are due to many individuals who

  5. Energy and Development: Is Energy a Basic Human Right?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy and Development: Is Energy a Basic Human Right? Skype/Video presentation for senior pupils national Laboratory/DTU Denmark #12;Is energy a basic human right? · What is energy? ­ the ability to make something happen · Different kinds of energy ­ or energy carriers - fuels · What do we use energy for

  6. Ecology-basics and applications Planned activities 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ecology- basics and applications Planned activities 2013 Last update 2013-04-23 Anna-Sara Liman Activities Approximate dates Contact persons Advances in Basic Ecology Nov ­February 2013 Pär Forslund of Ecological Ideas January 2013 Jan.Bengtsson@slu.se Statistical programming in R 22-26th April 2013 Matt

  7. Accident/Injury Reporting, Investigation, & Basic First Aid Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Nicholas

    Accident/Injury Reporting, Investigation, & Basic First Aid Plan Environmental Health, Safety of accidents/injuries at Stephen F. Austin State University (SFASU) and provides basic first aid practices. It is designed to help reduce injuries by reducing unsafe or hazardous conditions and discouraging accident

  8. alternate product facility: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    San Francisco field... Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando 2003-01-01 25 Dialing in color with rare earth metals: facile photoluminescent production of true white light Chemistry...

  9. Basic radiological studies contamination control experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duce, S.W.; Winberg, M.R.; Freeman, A.L.

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of experiments relating to contamination control performed in support of the Environmental Restoration Programs Retrieval Project. During the years 1950 to 1970 waste contaminated with plutonium and other transuranic radionuclides was disposed of in shallow land-filled pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Due to potential for migration of radionuclides to an existing aquifer the feasibility of retrieving and repackaging the waste for placement in a final repository is being examined as part of a retrieval project. Contamination control experiments were conducted to determine expected respirable and nonrespirable plutonium contaminated dust fractions and the effectiveness of various dust suppression techniques. Three soil types were tested to determine respirable fractions: Rocky Flats Plant generic soil, Radioactive Waste Management Complex generic soil, and a 1:1 blend of the two soil types. Overall, the average respirable fraction of airborne dust was 5.4% by weight. Three contamination control techniques were studied: soil fixative sprays, misting agents, and dust suppression agents. All of the tested agents proved to be effective in reducing dust in the air. Details of product performance and recommended usage are discussed.

  10. Heavy Metal Humor: Reconsidering Carnival in Heavy Metal Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Gary Botts

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis considers Bakhtin?s carnivalesque theory by analyzing comedic rhetoric performed by two comedic metal bands. Through the theories of Johan Huizinga and Mikhail Bakhtin, Chapter I: I Play Metal argues that heavy metal culture is a modern...

  11. Transition Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles. Transition Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles....

  12. Metal roofing Shingle roofing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Metal roofing panel Shingle roofing Water & ice barrier Thermal Barrier Plywood Student: Arpit between the roof and the attic. · Apply modifications to traditional roofing assembly and roofing roof with only a water barrier between the plywood and the roofing panels. Metal roofing panel Shingle

  13. Porous metallic bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a

  14. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riemer, R.L.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is important to provide the user with an evaluated nuclear database of the highest quality, dependability, and currency. It is also important that the evaluated nuclear data are easily accessible to the user. In the past the panel concentrated its concern on the cycle time for the publication of A-chain evaluations. However, the panel now recognizes that publication cycle time is no longer the appropriate goal. Sometime in the future, publication of the evaluated A-chains will evolve from the present hard-copy Nuclear Data Sheets on library shelves to purely electronic publication, with the advent of universal access to terminals and the nuclear databases. Therefore, the literature cut-off date in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is rapidly becoming the only important measure of the currency of an evaluated A-chain. Also, it has become exceedingly important to ensure that access to the databases is as user-friendly as possible and to enable electronic publication of the evaluated data files. Considerable progress has been made in these areas: use of the on-line systems has almost doubled in the past year, and there has been initial development of tools for electronic evaluation, publication, and dissemination. Currently, the nuclear data effort is in transition between the traditional and future methods of dissemination of the evaluated data. Also, many of the factors that adversely affect the publication cycle time simultaneously affect the currency of the evaluated nuclear database. Therefore, the panel continues to examine factors that can influence cycle time: the number of evaluators, the frequency with which an evaluation can be updated, the review of the evaluation, and the production of the evaluation, which currently exists as a hard-copy issue of Nuclear Data Sheets.

  15. REPORT OF THE BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES ADVISORY COMMITTEE PANEL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in transition metal multilayers such studies have provided an explanation of the oscillatory exchange coupling in such systems. 51 Building on the concepts of laboratory based...

  16. Ways of arrangement : the basic operations of form-making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Minghong

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Making forms is essentially a matter of arranging things, and arranging things is essentially to establish spatial relations among selected elements. The thesis provides a minimal set of basic operations believed to be ...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Basic Energy Sciences Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by U.S. Department of Energy  at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation meeting about Basic Energy...

  18. OPVs and Solar Cells: The Basics | University of Texas Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OPVs AND SOLAR CELLS: THE BASICS Harvesting solar energy is a key endeavor for this century as we face ever-decreasing fossil fuel world reserves and ever-increasing environmental...

  19. 1. INTRODUCTION Smith (1979) reviewed the basic ways in which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    1. INTRODUCTION Smith (1979) reviewed the basic ways in which upslope flow can affect precipitation is by how closely it achieves Smith's sim- plified model. One of the factors identified by Smith (1979

  20. Basic concepts defining the property of ''reliability'' for energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudenko, Yu.N.; Sin'chugov, F.I.; Smirnov, E.P.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic concepts defining the complex property of ''reliability'' for energy systems (electric-power and pipeline systems) are considered; they include the properties, states, and events that characterize reliability as well as the reliability indices.

  1. Tutorial: The Basics of SAXS Data Analysis | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tutorial: The Basics of SAXS Data Analysis Thursday, November 17, 2011 - 1:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Dr. Alexander V. Shkumatov, Biological Small Angle...

  2. 1.12 Basic Theory of Differential Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRETEX (Halifax NS) #1 1054 1999 Mar 05 10:59:16

    2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 16, 2007 ... Table 1.12.1: A summary of the basic solution techniques for y = f(x,y). Example ... A racquetball player standing at the back wall of the court hits ...

  3. Basic Integrative Models for Offshore Wind Turbine Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aljeeran, Fares

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This research study developed basic dynamic models that can be used to accurately predict the response behavior of a near-shore wind turbine structure with monopile, suction caisson, or gravity-based foundation systems. The marine soil conditions...

  4. Efficacy of Learning Strategies Instruction in Adult Basic Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from randomized controlled trials of learning strategies instruction with 375 adult basic education (AE) participants are reported. Reading outcomes from whole group strategic instruction in one of four learning ...

  5. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  6. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  7. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  8. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  9. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  10. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  11. Cathode for the electrolytic production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolas, E.

    1983-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a cathode for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. The cathode comprises an active surface consisting of a metal oxide obtained by the thermal decomposition of a thermally decomposable compound of a metal chosen from amongst cobalt, iron, manganese or nickel. The cathode is particularly suitable for the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solutions in cells with a permeable diaphragm.

  12. Effect of metal chlorides on thermal degradation of (waste) polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, S.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 243, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sjchiu@ns1.mit.edu.tw; Chen, S.-H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 243, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, C.-T. [Department of Biochemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 243, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we investigated how to treat (waste) polycarbonate efficiently to reduce its degraded residue. The study was carried out in an isothermal reactor under continuous nitrogen flow at atmospheric pressure to pyrolyze polycarbonate (PC) alone and in the presence of metal chloride. Some metal chlorides were shown to be catalytic active for the degradation of PC at 400 deg. C, which increased degradation conversion from 8.5% to more than 58.3%. Among those active metal chlorides, ZnCl{sub 2} and SnCl{sub 2} can produce higher liquid product yields. Effects such as particle size of PC, temperature, the weight ratio of metal chloride/PC, and degradation time on the degradation conversion of PC without and with these two most active metal chlorides were studied. Results of the liquid product analysis by GC/MS demonstrated the product composition of PC degradation over the metal chlorides is much simpler than that of degradation alone. The main liquid product is phenol, p-isopropylphenol, diphenyl carbonate, and bisphenol A for all cases.

  13. Characterization of CMPO and its radiolysis products by Direct Infusion ESI-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Groenewold; G. Elias; B. J. Mincher; S. P. Mezyk

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct infusion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) approaches were developed for rapid identification of octyl,phenyl,(N,N-(diisobutyl)carbamoylmethyl) phosphine oxide (CMPO) and impurity compounds formed during alpha and gamma irradiation experiments. CMPO is an aggressive Lewis base, and produces extremely abundant metal complex ions in the ESI-MS analysis that make identification of low abundance compounds that are less nucleophilic challenging. Radiolysis products were identified using several approaches including restricting ion trapping so as to exclude the abundant natiated CMPO ions, extraction of acidic products using aqueous NaOH, and extraction of basic products using HNO3. These approaches generated protonated, natiated and deprotonated species derived from CMPO degradation products formed via radiolytic cleavages of several different bonds. Cleavages of the amide and methylene-phosphoryl bonds appear to be favored by both forms of irradiation, while alpha irradiation also appears to induce cleavage of the methylene-carbonyl bond. The degradation products observed are formed from recombination of the initially formed radicals with hydrogen, methyl, isopropyl and hydroxyl radicals that are derived either from CMPO, or the dodecane solvent.

  14. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800 C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000--1,550 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification. 2 figs.

  15. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (North Augusta, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Gainesville, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  16. Divalent metal nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVries, Gretchen Anne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal nanoparticles hold promise for many scientific and technological applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, vehicles for drug delivery, and subdiffraction limit waveguides. To fabricate such devices, a ...

  17. Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal Immobilization, and Catalytic Applications. Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal...

  18. Highly-basic large-pore zeolite catalysts for NOx reduction at low temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Merritt, Bernard T.; Vogtlin, George E.

    2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-surface-area (greater than 600 m2/g), large-pore (pore size diameter greater than 6.5 angstroms), basic zeolite having a structure such as an alkali metal cation-exchanged Y-zeolite is employed to convert NO.sub.x contained in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust to N.sub.2 and O.sub.2. Preferably, the invention relates to a two-stage method and apparatus for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust such as diesel engine exhaust that includes a plasma oxidative stage and a selective reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and added hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean-NO.sub.x catalyst including the basic zeolite at relatively low temperatures to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O.

  19. Molten metal reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  20. Pyroprocessing of IFR Metal Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laidler, J.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle features the use of an innovative reprocessing method, known as {open_quotes}pyroprocessing{close_quotes} featuring fused-salt electrofining of the spent fuel. Electrofining of IFR spent fuel involves uranium recovery by electro-transport to a solid steel cathode. The thermodynamics of the system preclude plutonium recovery in the same way, so a liquid cadmium cathode located in the electrolyte salt phase is utilized. The deposition of Pu, Am, Np, and Cm takes place at the liquid cadmium cathode in the form of cadmium intermetallic compounds (e.g, PuCd{sub 6}), and uranium deposits as the pure metal when cadmium saturation is reached. A small amount of rare earth fission products deposit together with the heavy metals at both the solid and liquid cadmium cathodes, providing a significant degree of self-protection. A full scope demonstration of the IFR fuel cycle will begin in 1993, using fuel irradiated in EBR-II.

  1. (Data in thousand metric tons of silicon content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal produced in the United States in 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .19 billion. Three companies produced silicon materials in seven plants, all east of the Mississippi River company produced both products at two plants. Most ferrosilicon was consumed in the ferrous foundry producers of aluminum and aluminum alloys and the chemical industry. The semiconductor and solar industries

  2. Activation of flue gas nitrogen oxides by transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.E.; Finseth, D.H.; Pennline, H.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are major flue gas pollutants released by coal-fired electric power plants. In the atmosphere these oxides are converted to sulfuric and nitric acids, which contribute to the acid rain problem. Most of the nitrogen oxides present in coal-derived flue gas exist as the relatively inert and water-insoluble nitric oxide (NO), thus presenting a difficult removal problem. We present preliminary studies intended to establish basic homogeneous chemistry of transition metal complexes with nitrogen oxides. The transition metals considered in this work are volatile carbonyl complexes. The metal carbonyls took up nitric oxide homogeneously in the gas phase. Iron required uv light for reaction with NO, but the same result is expected with the application of heat. Metal carbonyls also reacted with nitrogen dioxide but produced polynuclear metal species. Oxygen did not attack the carbonyl or nitrosyl complexes. Results indicate high potential for NO/sub x/ removal from stack gases by sorption onto supported metal carbonyl complexes. The solid form allows ease in separation from the flue gas. Regeneration of the sorbent might be achieved by treating with CO to liberate NO/sub x/ by displacement or by heating to decompose and drive off NO/sub x/.

  3. Activation of flue gas nitrogen oxides by transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.E.; Finseth, D.H.; Pennline, H.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are major flue gas pollutants released by coal-fired electric power plants. In the atmosphere these oxides are converted to sulfuric and nitric acids, which contribute to the acid rain problem. Most of the nitrogen oxides (90%-95%) present in coal-derived flue gas exist as the relatively inert and water-insoluble nitric oxide (NO), thus presenting a difficult removal problem. A practical strategy for nitrogen oxides removal might utilize a solid support that has been impregnated with an active transition metal complex. Some supported transition metals are expected to remove NO/sub x/ by sorption, with regeneration of the sorbent being a necessary property. Others catalyze NO oxidation to the more soluble NO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O/sub 5/, which has been demonstrated for certain transition metal species. These activated nitrogen oxides can be more efficiently removed along with SO/sub 2/ in conventional scrubbing or spray-drying processes, in which an aqueous slurry of sorbent, such as hydrated lime, is injected into the hot flue gas. We present here preliminary studies intended to establish basic homogeneous chemistry of transition metal complexes with nitrogen oxides. The transition metals considered in this work are volatile carbonyl complexes. This work is the first step in the development of supported metal species for enhanced nitrogen oxides removal.

  4. Plasma treatment of INEL soil contaminated with heavy metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detering, B.A.; Batdorf, J.A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INEL soil spiked with inorganic salts of chromium, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc was melted in a 150 kW plasma furnace to produce a glassy slag product. This glassy slag is an environmentally safe waste form. In order to reduce the melting temperature of the soil, sodium carbonate was added to half of the test batches. Random sample from each batch of glassy slag product were analyzed by an independent laboratory for total metals concentration and leachability of metals via the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxicity characterization leaching procedure (RCLP) tests. These tests showed the residual metals were very tightly bound to the slag matrix and were within EPA TCLP limits under these test conditions. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and emissions dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the vitrified soil also confirmed that the added metals present in the vitrified soil were totally contained in the crystalline phase as distinct oxide crystallites.

  5. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  6. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  7. Cast Metal Coalition Research and Development Closeout Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, D.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cast Metal Coalition, composed of more than 22 research providers and universities and 149 industrial partners, has completed a four-year research and development partnership with the Department of Energy. This report provides brief summaries of the 29 projects performed by the Coalition. These projects generated valuable information in such aspects of the metals industry as process prediction technologies, quality control, improved alloys, product machinability, and casting process improvements.

  8. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

  9. Rapid substitution of gold for aluminum metallization on integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasopoulos, A.V. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Li, J.; Josowicz, M.; Janata, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapid procedure for substitution of gold for aluminum metallization on integrated solid-state circuits, such as solid-state chemical multisensor chips, has been developed. The final product consists of original aluminum overlaid with nickel and gold, both deposited by an electroless process. The final metallization is chemically inert and the resistance of the contacts remains ohmic and unchanged from the original value. The substitution can be performed either at the wafer or at the chip level. After the plasma etching, the metallization process takes only 25 min.

  10. Assessment of the basic energy sciences program. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A list of experts reviewing the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program and their organizations are given. The assessment plan is explained; the program examined the following: quality of science being conducted in the program, quality of performers supported by the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program, and the impact of the research on mission oriented needs. The intent of the assessment is to provide an indication of general status relative to these questions for the BES divisions. The approach to the assessment is described. The sampling plan which was used as a guide in determining the sample size and selecting the sample to evaluate the research program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are discussed. Special analyses were conducted on the dispersion of reviewers' ratings, the ratings of the lower funded projects, and the amount of time the principal investigator devoted to the project. These are presented in the final appendix together with histograms for individual rating variables for each program area. (MCW)

  11. The NIEHS Superfund basic research and training program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, B. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Superfund Basic Research and Training Program; Blackard, B. [Technology Planning and Management Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Basic Research and Training Program (SBRP) was established in 1986 by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). This is a unique program of basic research and training grants directed towards understanding, assessing and attenuating the adverse effects on human health resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. The research findings from this program are being used by state, local, and federal agencies, private organizations and industry in making decisions related to the management of hazardous substances. Many innovative technologies for detecting, assessing and reducing toxic materials in the environment have been developed as a result of funding by the SBRP. To assist grantees, the SBRP has developed a technology transfer strategy designed to handle the unique problems associated with transferring multidisciplinary technology from basic research to applied research.

  12. Method for the continuous production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Getty, John Paul (Knoxville, TN); Orr, Mark T. (Kingsport, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Kingston, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method for the continuous production of hydrogen. The present method comprises reacting a metal catalyst with a degassed aqueous organic acid solution within a reaction vessel under anaerobic conditions at a constant temperature of .ltoreq.80.degree. C. and at a pH ranging from about 4 to about 9. The reaction forms a metal oxide when the metal catalyst reacts with the water component of the organic acid solution while generating hydrogen, then the organic acid solution reduces the metal oxide thereby regenerating the metal catalyst and producing water, thus permitting the oxidation and reduction to reoccur in a continual reaction cycle. The present method also allows the continuous production of hydrogen to be sustained by feeding the reaction with a continuous supply of degassed aqueous organic acid solution.

  13. 'Long-Cell Action' Corrosion: A Basic Mechanism Hidden Behind Components Degradation Issues in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genn Saji [Ex-Secretariate of Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (Japan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite of industries' effort over the last 40 years, corrosion-related issues continue to be one of the largest unresolved problems for nuclear power plants worldwide. There are several types of strange corrosion phenomena from the point of view of our current understanding of corrosion science established in other fields. Some of these are IGSCC, PWSCC, AOA, and FAC (Erosion-Corrosion). Through studying and coping with diverse corrosion phenomena, the author believes that they share a common basis with respect to the assumed corrosion mechanism (e.g., 'local cell action' hypothesis). In general, local cell action is rarely severe since it produces a fairly uniform corrosion. The 'long cell action' that transports electrons through structures far beyond the region of local cell corrosion activities has been identified as a basic mechanism in soil corrosion. If this mechanism is assumed in nuclear power plants, the structure becomes anodic in the area where the potential is less positive and cathodic where this potential is more positive. Metallic ions generated at anodic corrosion sites are transported to remote cathodic sites through the circulation of water and deposits as corrosion products. The SCC, FAC (E-C) and PWSCC occur in the anodic sites as the structure itself acts as a short-circuiting conductor between the two sites, the action is similar to a galvanic cell but in a very large scale. This situation is the same as a battery that has been short-circuited at the terminals. No apparent external potential difference exists between the two electrodes, but an electrochemical reaction is still taking place inside the battery cell with a large internal short current. In this example what is important is the potential difference between the local coolant and the surface of the structural material. Long cell action corrosion is likely enhancing the local cell action's anodic corrosion activities, such as SCC, FAC/E-C, and PWSCC. It tends to be more hazardous because of its localized nature compared with the local cell action corrosion. There exist various mechanisms (electrochemical cell configurations) that induce such potential differences, including: ionic concentration, aeration, temperature, flow velocity, radiation and corrosion potentials. In this paper, the author will discuss these potential differences and their relevance to the un-resolved corrosion issues in nuclear power plants. Due to the importance of this potential mechanism the author is calling for further verification experiments as a joint international project. (author)

  14. Gas Sensing Mechanism in Chemiresistive Cobalt and Metal-Free Phthalocyanine Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Gas Sensing Mechanism in Chemiresistive Cobalt and Metal-Free Phthalocyanine Thin Films Forest I-free phthalocyanine (H2- Pc) thin films were investigated with respect to analyte basicity. Chemiresistive sensors However, when Pc thin films are exposed to O2, the films become doped and the conductivity increases

  15. Introduction Two Applications Basic Operations Tools Overview of the Tools A Survey of Techniques Used in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Manindra

    Introduction Two Applications Basic Operations Tools Overview of the Tools A Survey of Techniques and IIT Kanpur Kunming Tutorial, May 2005 #12;Introduction Two Applications Basic Operations Tools Cryptography Application: RSA Cryptosystem Complexity of Basic Operations Tools for Designing Algorithms

  16. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Vitek, John Michael [ORNL; Wang, Heli [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wilson, Mahlon [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Garzon, Fernando [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Connors, Dan [GenCell Corp; Rakowski, Jim [Allegheny Ludlum; Gervasio, Don [Arizona State University

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives are: (1) Develop and optimize stainless steel alloys amenable to formation of a protective Cr-nitride surface by gas nitridation, at a sufficiently low cost to meet DOE targets and with sufficient ductility to permit manufacture by stamping. (2) Demonstrate capability of nitridation to yield high-quality stainless steel bipolar plates from thin stamped alloy foils (no significant stamped foil warping or embrittlement). (3) Demonstrate single-cell fuel cell performance of stamped and nitrided alloy foils equivalent to that of machined graphite plates of the same flow-field design ({approx}750-1,000 h, cyclic conditions, to include quantification of metal ion contamination of the membrane electrode assembly [MEA] and contact resistance increase attributable to the bipolar plates). (4) Demonstrate potential for adoption in automotive fuel cell stacks. Thin stamped metallic bipolar plates offer the potential for (1) significantly lower cost than currently-used machined graphite bipolar plates, (2) reduced weight/volume, and (3) better performance and amenability to high volume manufacture than developmental polymer/carbon fiber and graphite composite bipolar plates. However, most metals exhibit inadequate corrosion resistance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) environments. This behavior leads to high electrical resistance due to the formation of surface oxides and/or contamination of the MEA by metallic ions, both of which can significantly degrade fuel cell performance. Metal nitrides offer electrical conductivities up to an order of magnitude greater than that of graphite and are highly corrosion resistant. Unfortunately, most conventional coating methods (for metal nitrides) are too expensive for PEMFC stack commercialization or tend to leave pinhole defects, which result in accelerated local corrosion and unacceptable performance.

  17. Metallic coating of microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  18. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  19. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  20. Metal alloy identifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  1. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal

  2. Continuous production of tritium in an isotope-production reactor with a separate circulation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium is allowed to flow through the reactor in separate loops in order to facilitate the production and removal of tritium.

  3. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  4. Metal accumulation in terrestrial pulmonates at a lead/zinc smelter site in Arnoldstein, Austria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabitsch, W.B. [Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)] [Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently,the suitability of terrestrial gastropods was reviewed as quantitative indicator organisms for environmental metal pollution. The peculiar metal accumulation capabilities in molluscs have been known in detail for decades, but {open_quotes}only few data are available for terrestrial pulmonates{close_quotes}. Furthermore, data are restricted to only a few species, and despite similarities in metabolic pathways, species-specific properties in metal-budget strategies exist. Information concerning the potential range of metal burden in these animals form the field are, therefore, of ecophysical relevance. Snails satisfy a basic demand as quantitative indicators of the bioavailable fraction of terrestrial metal pollution. In this study concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc were measured in tissues of 4 species of snails collected in the vicinity of a lead/zinc smelter with a long history of pollution. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Export Control Basics The Johns Hopkins University Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor, Ed

    Export Control Basics for The Johns Hopkins University Community Export Controls at JHU address Introduction to Export Controls and to contact JHU's Export Control Officer whenever they expect to be involved with any of these issues: Frank Barker, Export Control Officer Wyman Park Center W-400 410-516-0415 fwb

  6. Basic Notation and Background Chi-Kwong Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Chi-Kwong

    and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA; Department of Mathematics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan Let Mn be the set (vector space/algebra) of n � n matrices. (a) One can perform A + B, AB and µA for A, B Mn and µ C. (b) One can compute the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A Mn. Chi-Kwong Li Basic

  7. Original article Stem basic density and bark proportion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -scale operation at Burkina Faso for the supply of fuel-wood to the capital Ougadougou [5]. In fact, large forest coppice forests in Burkina Faso Robert Nygĺrd* and Björn Elfving SLU, Department of Silviculture, 901 83 sampled, the stem basic density varied between 301­854 kg m-3. Bark proportion of stem biomass varied

  8. Auction Basics for Wholesale Power Markets: Objectives and Pricing Rules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Auction Basics for Wholesale Power Markets: Objectives and Pricing Rules Leigh Tesfatsion, Member to U.S. restructured wholesale power markets, i.e., centrally-administered wholesale power markets and illustrated. Complicating factors specific to wholesale power markets are clarified, and recent advances

  9. Lesson Summary Students will participate in a very basic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    to introduce the topic of global warming. Prior Knowledge & Skills · Basic knowledge about the sun's warming Models NSES Science Standards Physical Science Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism Science in Personal warms the Earth. Enter Sun. Enter Earth. Enter two Heats. The Sun sends both Heats toward the Earth

  10. Estimation of steady-state basic parameters of stars

    B. V. Vasiliev

    2000-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    From a minimum of total energy of celestial bodies, their basic parameters are obtained. The steady-state values of the mass, radius, and temperature of stars and white dwarfs, as well as masses of pulsars are calculated. The luminosity and giromagnetic ratio of celestial bodies are estimated. All the obtained values are in a satisfactory agreement with observation data.

  11. FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samara, G.A.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

  12. Japan, EU reach basic agreement over ITER The Yomiuri Shimbun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Japan, EU reach basic agreement over ITER The Yomiuri Shimbun The government and the European Union to the unsuccessful candidate country. Japan and France, the EU's candidate, have been bidding to host the facility bidder's country. The ITER project participants--Japan, China, the EU, Russia, South Korea and the United

  13. East Carolina University RADIATION SAFETY BASIC SCIENCE COMMITTEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the Protection Against Radiation dictates that a radiation safety committee will provide oversight for all11/27/2013 East Carolina University RADIATION SAFETY ­ BASIC SCIENCE COMMITTEE Membership: 16 members Members are recommended by the Radiation Safety Officer but the Vice Chancellor of Health Sciences

  14. TruLifesaver American Heart Association Basic Life Support Course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    TruLifesaver American Heart Association Basic Life Support Course The Truman Institute P: 660 concepts of high-quality CPR · The American Heart Association Chain of Survival · Differences between Cost includes all instruction, materials and two year certification with the American Heart Association

  15. KRNFYSIK AK FKF 011 Nuclear Physics, Basic Course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K�RNFYSIK AK FKF 011 Nuclear Physics, Basic Course Antal poäng: 3.0. Obligatorisk för: F3. Valfri för: E4. Kursansvarig: Docent Per Kristiansson, per.kristiansson@nuclear.lu.se Förkunskapskrav. Neutroners egenskaper, framställning och registrering. Kärnreaktioner. Fission och fusion. Acceleratorer

  16. KRNFYSIK AK FKF011 Nuclear Physics, Basic Course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K�RNFYSIK AK FKF011 Nuclear Physics, Basic Course Poäng: 3.0 Betygskala: TH Obligatorisk för: F3 Valfri för: E4 Kursansvarig: Docent Per Kristiansson, per.kristiansson@nuclear.lu.se Förkunskapskrav. Neutroners egenskaper, framställning och registrering. Kärnreaktioner. Fission och fusion. Acceleratorer

  17. Start-Ups for Smarties Introduction and Basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Start-Ups for Smarties 4 Introduction and Basics Introduction Academic researchers frequently suspect that a discovery of theirs may have what it takes to spawn a start-up company. Usually be missing the boat by not being in- volved in a start-up. This is a dramatic change from the situation

  18. 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism whereby absorbed solar system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterized by non CO2. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapor and clouds

  19. Proceedings of the ARO Rotorcraft Wake Prediction Basic Research Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wake Structure Of A Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine 7 A.G. Brand BHTI The Nature Of Vortex Ring State 8 S Disk Model For Interacting Wind Turbine Wakes 15 R.B. Haehnel, Y. Wenren, J. Steinhoff USA CRREL, FProceedings of the ARO Rotorcraft Wake Prediction Basic Research Workshop Daniel Guggenheim School

  20. SECURITY BASICS FOR MOBILE DEVICES UNH IT SECURITY, DECEMBER 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SECURITY BASICS FOR MOBILE DEVICES UNH IT SECURITY, DECEMBER 2011 Choose brands and models of mobile devices that have the options referenced below. Use all available security options that your or sensitive university information in un-approved off-campus services, such as public cloud based services

  1. Class 16: Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jing

    11/17/2010 1 ITCS 3160 Jing Yang 2010 Fall Class 16: Basics of Functional Dependencies Functional Dependency (cont'd.) · Given a populated relation ­ Cannot determine which FDs hold and which do not ­ Unless meaning of and relationships among attributes known ­ Can state that FD does not hold

  2. KH Computational Physics-2006 Basic Numerical Algorithms Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glashausser, Charles

    KH Computational Physics- 2006 Basic Numerical Algorithms Integration Numerical integration competing factors one needs to consider · speed - number of function evaluations or grid points · precision or "smart" meshes with lower order routines Kristjan Haule, 2006 ­1­ #12;KH Computational Physics- 2006

  3. Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research · Basic Energy Sciences · Biological and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics What my students Code ­http://code.google.com/p/net-almanac/ ­Beta release this week #12;Contact Information Jon Dugan

  4. basic student budget 2014 |2015 LIVING ON CAMPUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    basic student budget 2014 |2015 #12;LIVING ON CAMPUS HALL FEES Ł 119.18 ­ average cost x 40 weeks at Ł119.18 per week, and may be cheaper depending on type of accommodation. This budget is meant months (whether you live in the flat over the summer or not). This budget is meant as a realistic guide

  5. Tutorial on seismic interferometry: Part 1 --Basic principles and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snieder, Roel

    Tutorial on seismic interferometry: Part 1 -- Basic principles and applications Kees Wapenaar1 , Deyan Draganov1 , Roel Snieder2 , Xander Campman3 , and Arie Verdel3 ABSTRACT Seismic interferometry is the retrieval of seismic surface-wave responses from ambient noise and the subsequent tomographic determination

  6. Lung, Artificial: Basic Principles and Current Applications William J. Federspiel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, William J.

    Lung, Artificial: Basic Principles and Current Applications William J. Federspiel Kristie A. Henchir University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION Artificial lungs currently of the lung, which is to oxygenate the blood and remove carbon dioxide. Current artificial lungs are also

  7. Process Hijacking Process checkpointing is a basic mechanism required for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Process Hijacking Abstract Process checkpointing is a basic mechanism required for providing High Throughput Computing service on distributively owned resources. We present a new process checkpoint and migration technique, called process hijacking, that uses dynamic program re­writing techniques to add

  8. Process Hijacking Process checkpointing is a basic mechanism required for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Barton P.

    Process Hijacking Abstract Process checkpointing is a basic mechanism required for providing High Throughput Computing service on distributively owned resources. We present a new process checkpoint and migration technique, called process hijacking, that uses dynamic program re-writing techniques to add

  9. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those...

  10. Metal Enrichment in the Early Galactic Halo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Ikuta; N. Arimoto

    1999-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An early history of metal enrichment in the Galactic halo is studied. We investigate chemical inhomogeneity by using a stochastic chemical evolution model. The model confronts with metallicity distribution function of long-lived halo stars which is found to be a clue to obtain the best model prescriptions. We find that the star formation in the halo virtually terminated by around 1 Gyr and that the halo has never been chemically homogeneous in its star formation history. This conclusion does not depend whether mass loss from the halo is taken into account or not. Observed ratios of alpha-elements with respect to iron do not show scatters on a [alpha/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane, but this does not imply that interstellar matter in the halo was homogeneous because a chemical evolution path on this diagram is degenerate in the star formation rate. On the other hand, apparent spread of [Sr/Fe] ratio among metal-poor halo stars does not reflect an inhomogeneous metal enrichment, instead it is due to a sharp increase in a production rate of strontium that is probably synthesised in slightly less massive stars than progenitor of iron-producing SNII.

  11. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc salt in the castable refractory block and it is released over the same time period as the salt. Therefore, to limit the impact of precipitated Fe on the release of 99Tc, both the amount of precipitated Fe in the BV glass and the diameter of these particles should be minimized.

  12. Metallicity and Quasar Outflows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Huiyuan; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Tinggui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlations are investigated of the outflow strength of quasars, as measured by the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) of the CIV line (Wang et al. 2011), with intensities and ratios of broad emission lines, based on composite quasar spectra built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that most of the line ratios of other ions to CIV prominently increases with BAI. These behaviors can be well understood in the context of increasing metallicity with BAI. The strength of dominant coolant, CIV line, decreases and weak collisionally excited lines increase with gas metallicity as a result of the competition between different line coolants. Using SiIV+OIV]/CIV as an indicator of gas metallicity, we present, for the first time, a strong correlation between the metallicitiy and the outflow strength of quasars over a wide range of 1.7 to 6.9 times solar abundance. Our result implies that the metallicity plays an important role in the formation of quasar outflows, likely via affecting outflow acceleration. This ...

  13. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  14. Speed of Sound in metal Speed of Sound in metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jaehoon

    the metal rod and metal bar. 2. Acquire a metal bar or rod and measure its mass. Use the meter stick and measure and record the length in meters. Use the vernier calipers and measure the other dimensionBar Select the Smart Tool. Position the Smart tool so that the vertical line bisects the pulse. The (x

  15. Future steelmaking technologies and the role of basic research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The steel industry is going through a technological revolution which will not only change how steel is produced but, also, the entire structure of the industry. The drivers for the new or improved technologies, including reduction in capital requirements, possible shortages in raw materials such as coke and low residual scrap, environmental concerns and customer demands are briefly examined. The current status of research and development in the US and selected international producers was examined. As expected, it was found that the industry`s research capabilities have been greatly reduced. Furthermore, less than half of the companies which identified a given technology as critical have significant R and D programs addressing the technology. Examples of how basic research aided in process improvements in the past are given. The examples include demonstrating how fundamentals of reaction kinetics, improved nitrogen control, thermodynamics of systems helped reduce nozzle clogging and fluid flow studies reduced defects in casting. However, in general, basic research did not play a major role in processes previously developed, but helped understanding and aided optimization. To have a major impact, basic research must be focused and be an integral part of any new process development. An example where this has been done successfully is the AISI Direct Ironmaking and Waste Oxide Recycle Projects in which fundamental studies on reduction, slag foaming, and post combustion reactions have led to process understanding, control and optimization. Industry leaders recognize the value and need for basic research but insist it be truly relevant and done with industry input. From these examples the lessons learned on how to make basic research more effective are discussed.

  16. Deformation Behavior of Nanoporous Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, J; Hodge, A M; Hamza, A V

    2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoporous open-cell foams are a rapidly growing class of high-porosity materials (porosity {ge} 70%). The research in this field is driven by the desire to create functional materials with unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties where the material properties emerge from both morphology and the material itself. An example is the development of nanoporous metallic materials for photonic and plasmonic applications which has recently attracted much interest. The general strategy is to take advantage of various size effects to introduce novel properties. These size effects arise from confinement of the material by pores and ligaments, and can range from electromagnetic resonances to length scale effects in plasticity. In this chapter we will focus on the mechanical properties of low density nanoporous metals and how these properties are affected by length scale effects and bonding characteristics. A thorough understanding of the mechanical behavior will open the door to further improve and fine-tune the mechanical properties of these sometimes very delicate materials, and thus will be crucial for integrating nanoporous metals into products. Cellular solids with pore sizes above 1 micron have been the subject of intense research for many years, and various scaling relations describing the mechanical properties have been developed.[4] In general, it has been found that the most important parameter in controlling their mechanical properties is the relative density, that is, the density of the foam divided by that of solid from which the foam is made. Other factors include the mechanical properties of the solid material and the foam morphology such as ligament shape and connectivity. The characteristic internal length scale of the structure as determined by pores and ligaments, on the other hand, usually has only little effect on the mechanical properties. This changes at the submicron length scale where the surface-to-volume ratio becomes large and the effect of free surfaces can no longer be neglected. As the material becomes more and more constraint by the presence of free surfaces, length scale effects on plasticity become more and more important and bulk properties can no longer be used to describe the material properties. Even the elastic properties may be affected as the reduced coordination of surface atoms and the concomitant redistribution of electrons may soften or stiffen the material. If, and to what extend, such length scale effects control the mechanical behavior of nanoporous materials depends strongly on the material and the characteristic length scale associated with its plastic deformation. For example, ductile materials such as metals which deform via dislocation-mediated processes can be expected to exhibit pronounced length scale effects in the sub-micron regime where free surfaces start to constrain efficient dislocation multiplication. In this chapter we will limit our discussion to our own area of expertise which is the mechanical behavior of nanoporous open-cell gold foams as a typical example of nanoporous metal foams. Throughout this chapter we will review our current understanding of the mechanical properties of nanoporous open-cell foams including both experimental and theoretical studies.

  17. Calixarene supported transition metal clusters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Stephanie Merac

    2013-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a series of calix[n]arene polynuclear transition metal and lanthanide complexes. Calix[4]arenes possess lower-rim polyphenolic pockets that are ideal for the complexation of various transition metal ...

  18. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  19. Evolution of the X-ray luminosity and metallicity of starburst blown superbubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergey A. Silich; Guillermo Tenorio-Tagle; Roberto Terlevich; Elena Terlevich; Hagai Netzer

    2000-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the time-dependent metal production expected from starbursts and use them as boundary conditions in our 2D simulations of evolving superbubbles. We assume that the produced metals (oxygen and iron) thoroughly mix with the ejected stellar envelopes, and/or with the matter thermally evaporated from the superbubble cold outer shell. The metal production process determines the time-dependent metallicity in hot superbubble interiors, and leads to values of Z greater or equal than solar, when oxygen is used as tracer, and under-solar when the metallicity is measured with respect to iron. In either case, the enhanced metallicity boosts the X-ray emissivity of superbubbles, bringing theory and observations closer together.

  20. The Interactions and Exchanges of Metal-bound Sulfur Containing Ligands with Various Transition Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, William

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................... 11 3. M(CO) X ADDUCTS OF ZINC (II) AND CADMIUM (II) BIOMIMETIC COMPLEXES ..................................................................................................... 15 Conclusions for Section 3... ....... 26 Figure 4-1 The zinc-platinum adduct (a) and the metal exchange product (b) ... 29 Figure 4-2 Previously studied reactions of zinc and nickel biomimetic pathways 31 Figure 4-3 The ligand cannibalism of Zn-1?-Ac to form the diacetate...

  1. Fabrication of metallic glass structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cline, C.F.

    1983-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous metal powders or ribbons are fabricated into solid shapes of appreciable thickness by the application of compaction energy. The temperature regime wherein the amorphous metal deforms by viscous flow is measured. The metal powders or ribbons are compacted within the temperature regime.

  2. Integrated decontamination process for metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Thomas S. (Oakmont, PA); Whitlow, Graham A. (Murrysville, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

  3. Clean Cities: Ethanol Basics, Fact Sheet, October 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Document answers frequently asked questions about ethanol as a transportation fuel, including those on production, environmental effects, and vehicles.

  4. Power law and exponential ejecta size distributions from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded Cu and Sn metals under melt conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durand, O.; Soulard, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study and to model the ejecta production from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded metals under melt conditions. A generic 3D crystal in contact with vacuum containing about 10{sup 8} atoms and with a sinusoidal free surface roughness is shock loaded so as to undergo a solid-liquid phase change on shock. The reflection of the shock wave at the interface metal/vacuum gives rise to the ejection of 2D jets/sheets of atoms (Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in the continuum limit), which develop and break up, forming ejecta (fragments) of different volumes (or mass). The fragmentation process is investigated by analyzing the evolution of the resulting volume distribution of the ejecta as a function of time. Two metals are studied (Cu and Sn) and the amplitude of the roughness is varied. The simulations show that the associated distributions exhibit a generic behavior with the sum of two distinct terms of varying weight, following the expansion rate of the jets: in the small size limit, the distribution obeys a power law dependence with an exponent equal to 1.15?±?0.08; and in the large size limit, it obeys an exponential form. These two components are interpreted, with the help of additional simple simulations, as the signature of two different basic mechanisms of fragmentation. The power law dependence results from the fragmentation of a 2D network of ligaments arranged following a fractal (scale free) geometry and generated when the sheets of liquid metal expand and tear. The exponential distribution results from a 1D Poisson fragmentation process of the largest ligaments previously generated. Unlike the power law distribution, it is governed by a characteristic length scale, which may be provided by energy balance principle.

  5. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Englund, David J.; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of production of metallic iron nodules comprises assembling a hearth furnace having a moveable hearth comprising refractory material and having a conversion zone and a fusion zone, providing a hearth material layer comprising carbonaceous material on the refractory material, providing a layer of reducible material comprising and iron bearing material arranged in discrete portions over at least a portion of the hearth material layer, delivering oxygen gas into the hearth furnace to a ratio of at least 0.8:1 ponds of oxygen to pounds of iron in the reducible material to heat the conversion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material and to heat the fusion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material, and heating the reducible material to form one or more metallic iron nodules and slag.

  6. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  7. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  8. The thermodynamics of pyrochemical processes for liquid metal reactor fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, I.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamic basis for pyrochemical processes for the recovery and purification of fuel for the liquid metal reactor fuel cycle is described. These processes involve the transport of the uranium and plutonium from one liquid alloy to another through a molten salt. The processes discussed use liquid alloys of cadmium, zinc, and magnesium and molten chloride salts. The oxidation-reduction steps are done either chemically by the use of an auxiliary redox couple or electrochemically by the use of an external electrical supply. The same basic thermodynamics apply to both the salt transport and the electrotransport processes. Large deviations from ideal solution behavior of the actinides and lanthanides in the liquid alloys have a major influence on the solubilities and the performance of both the salt transport and electrotransport processes. Separation of plutonium and uranium from each other and decontamination from the more noble fission product elements can be achieved using both transport processes. The thermodynamic analysis is used to make process design computations for different process conditions.

  9. Target and method for the production of fission product molybdenum-99

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Vissers, D.R.; Marshall, S.L.; Varma, R.

    1987-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A target for the reduction of fission product Mo-99 is prepared from uranium of low U-235 enrichment by coating a structural support member with a preparatory coating of a substantially oxide-free substrate metal. Uranium metal is electrodeposited from a molten halide electrolytic bath onto a substrate metal. The electrodeposition is performed at a predetermined direct current rate or by using pulsed plating techniques which permit relaxation of accumulated uranium ion concentrations within the melt. Layers of as much as to 600 mg/cm/sup 2/ of uranium can be prepared to provide a sufficient density to produce acceptable concentrations of fission product Mo-99. 2 figs.

  10. Target and method for the production of fission product molybdenum-99

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Marshall, Simon L. (Woodridge, IL); Varma, Ravi (Hinsdale, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A target for the reduction of fission product Mo-99 is prepared from uranium of low U-235 enrichment by coating a structural support member with a preparatory coating of a substantially oxide-free substrate metal. Uranium metal is electrodeposited from a molten halide electrolytic bath onto a substrate metal. The electrodeposition is performed at a predetermined direct current rate or by using pulsed plating techniques which permit relaxation of accumulated uranium ion concentrations within the melt. Layers of as much as to 600 mg/cm.sup.2 of uranium can be prepared to provide a sufficient density to produce acceptable concentrations of fission product Mo-99.

  11. Reaction of bisarenyl, cyclopentadienyl, and carbonyl transition metal compounds with polyhydric alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slushkov, A.M.; Petrov, B.I.; Domrachev, G.A.

    1987-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the thermally stable (to 300-400/sup 0/C) transition metal glycolates, glycerates, and pinacolates could be obtained from bisarenyl, cyclopentadienyl, and carbonyl metal compounds by reaction with polymeric alcohols. At 150-180/sup 0/C monomeric compounds are formed; these are converted to polymeric products above 200/sup 0/C. When two glycolates react with various metals or when glycolates react with organometallic compounds, new, mixed complexes of a polymeric nature are obtained.

  12. Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Sang

    in percutaneous coronary interven- tions (PCIs). Unfortunately, in-stent restenosis triggered by metal-eluting stent; restenosis INTRODUCTION Coronary artery narrowing caused by atherosclerosis is treated routinely by percutaneous transluminal coro- nary angioplasty (PTCA); however, restenosis, a seri- ous complication

  13. Automated Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography System for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography System for Enrichment of Escherichia coli Phosphoproteome. Automated Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography System for Enrichment of...

  14. Studies of silicon cluster--metal atom compound formation in a supersonic molecular beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, S.M.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first observation of a reaction between a metal atom and silicon in a supersonic jet to form metal atom silicon clusters is reported. Using the technique of laser vaporization supersonic expansion with metal carbonyl seeded carrier gas, clusters of the form MSi/sub n/ have been detected by ArF and KrF laser photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Three transition metals have been investigated, Cr, Mo, and W. The dominant product cluster peaks observed in the mass spectra obtained for all three metals corresponds to identical but remarkable cluster stoichiometries. The dominant peaks have formulas given by MSi/sub n/ where n = 15 and n = 16. The metal--semiconductor clusters are relatively more stable towards photofragmentation than the bare silicon cluster of the same size. The observation of these new species may be relevant to reactions which occur at the interface between a silicon wafer and deposited metals.

  15. Deadlock Detection in Basic Models of MPI Synchronization Communication Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Ming-xue

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of MPI synchronization communication programs is presented and its three basic simplified models are also defined. A series of theorems and methods for deciding whether deadlocks will occur among the three models are given and proved strictly. These theories and methods for simple models' deadlock detection are the necessary base for real MPI program deadlock detection. The methods are based on a static analysis through programs and with runtime detection in necessary cases and they are able to determine before compiling whether it will be deadlocked for two of the three basic models. For another model, some deadlock cases can be found before compiling and others at runtime. Our theorems can be used to prove the correctness of currently popular MPI program deadlock detection algorithms. Our methods may decrease codes that those algorithms need to change to MPI source or profiling interface and may detects deadlocks ahead of program execution, thus the overheads can be reduced greatly.

  16. Tuning metal–carboxylate coordination in crystalline metal–organic frameworks through surfactant media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Junkuo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ye, Kaiqi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); He, Mi [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Xiong, Wei-Wei; Cao, Wenfang; Lee, Zhi Yi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, Yue [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wu, Tom [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Huo, Fengwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Xiaogang [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Institute of Materials Research Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Zhang, Qichun, E-mail: qczhang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Although it has been widely demonstrated that surfactants can efficiently control the size, shape and surface properties of micro/nanocrystals of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) due to the strong interactions between surfactants and crystal facets of MOFs, the use of surfactants as reaction media to grow MOF single crystals is unprecedented. In addition, compared with ionic liquids, surfactants are much cheaper and can have multifunctional properties such as acidic, basic, neutral, cationic, anionic, or even block. These factors strongly motivate us to develop a new synthetic strategy: growing crystalline MOFs in surfactants. In this report, eight new two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) MOFs have been successfully synthesized in an industrially-abundant and environmentally-friendly surfactant: polyethylene glycol-200 (PEG-200). Eight different coordination modes of carboxylates, ranging from monodentate ?{sup 1} mode to tetra-donor coordination µ{sub 3}-?{sup 1}:?{sup 2}:?{sup 1} mode, have been founded in our research. The magnetic properties of Co-based MOFs were investigated and MOF NTU-Z6b showed a phase transition with a Curie temperature (T{sub c}) at 5 K. Our strategy of growing crystalline MOFs in surfactant could offer exciting opportunities for preparing novel MOFs with diverse structures and interesting properties. - Graphical abstract: Surfactants have been used as reaction media to grow MOF single crystals for the first time. Eight new two-dimensional or three-dimensional MOFs were successfully synthesized in surfactant polyethylene glycol-200 (PEG-200). Coordination modes of carboxylates up to eight were founded. Our strategy of growing crystalline MOFs in surfactant could offer exciting opportunities for preparing novel MOFs with diverse structures and interesting properties. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Surfactant-thermal synthesis of crystalline metal–organic frameworks. • Eight new 2-D or 3-D metal–organic frameworks. • Eight different metal–carboxylate coordination modes.

  17. Functional Metal Phosphonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Houston Phillipp

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ......................................................... 39 12 Zr6 prepared at 205 ?C with HF as a solubilizing agent ................................ 43 13 Layered structure of Zn(O3PC6H4CN)(H2O) and Mn(O3PC6H4CN)(H2O) viewed along the c-axis. The coordinating water molecules are between... acid groups form hydrogen-bonded pairs in in Zn(O3PC6H4CO2H)(H2O) and Mn(O3PC6H4CO2H)(H2O). ..................... 55 15 Inorganic layered structure common to divalent metal phosphonates. Octahedral metal ions are coordinated by five phosphonate...

  18. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  19. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  20. Metal enrichment processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Schindler; A. Diaferio

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many processes that can transport gas from the galaxies to their environment and enrich the environment in this way with metals. These metal enrichment processes have a large influence on the evolution of both the galaxies and their environment. Various processes can contribute to the gas transfer: ram-pressure stripping, galactic winds, AGN outflows, galaxy-galaxy interactions and others. We review their observational evidence, corresponding simulations, their efficiencies, and their time scales as far as they are known to date. It seems that all processes can contribute to the enrichment. There is not a single process that always dominates the enrichment, because the efficiencies of the processes vary strongly with galaxy and environmental properties.

  1. A basic result on the integral for birthdeath Markov processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in changing the death rate or state n, ÂŻ n , from nÂŻ to (n \\Gamma 1)ÂŻ. The other approximation consists(t) be a birth­death process on a subset of N = 0; 1;2; :::, with birth and death rates â?? i ; and ÂŻ iA basic result on the integral for birth­death Markov processes Carlos M. Hern'andez­Su'arez CGIC

  2. Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyGlossaryProgramRussiaSpace Heating and Cooling Basics Space

  3. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, Rudolph G. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.

  4. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  5. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfs, Denise Y. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, Le Roy R. (Baytown, TX); Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Kalina, Theodore (Morris Plains, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  6. Characterization of Irradiated Metal Waste from the Pyrometallurgical Treatment of Used EBR-II Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.R. Westphal; K.C. Marsden; W.M. McCartin; S.M. Frank; D.D. Keiser, Jr.; T.S. Yoo; D. Vaden; D.G. Cummings; K.J. Bateman; J. J. Giglio; T. P. O'Holleran; P. A. Hahn; M. N. Patterson

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the pyrometallurgical treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel, a metal waste stream is generated consisting primarily of cladding hulls laden with fission products noble to the electrorefining process. Consolidation by melting at high temperature [1873 K (1600 degrees C)] has been developed to sequester the noble metal fission products (Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Te, and Pd) which remain in the iron-based cladding hulls. Zirconium from the uranium fuel alloy (U-10Zr) is also deposited on the hulls and forms Fe-Zr intermetallics which incorporate the noble metals as well as residual actinides during processing. Hence, Zr has been chosen as the primary indicator for consistency of the metal waste. Recently, the first production-scale metal waste ingot was generated and sampled to monitor Zr content for Fe-Zr intermetallic phase formation and validation of processing conditions. Chemical assay of the metal waste ingot revealed a homogeneous distribution of the noble metal fission products as well as the primary fuel constituents U and Zr. Microstructural characterization of the ingot confirmed the immobilization of the noble metals in the Fe-Zr intermetallic phase.

  7. Polymers near Metal Surfaces: Selective Adsorption and Global Conformations L. Delle Site,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, Ali

    of a polycarbonate melt near a nickel surface as a model system for the interaction of polymers with metal surfaces- level modeling of polymers near metal surfaces. Liquid polycarbonate near a nickel surface is taken.g., production of compact disks). We combine ab initio calculations for the interaction of fragments of bisphenol-A-polycarbonate

  8. a-si alloy production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for silicon metal comes primarily from the aluminum and chemical industries. Domestic secondary aluminum production--the primary materials source for aluminum-silicon alloys--was...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A NON-NOBLE METAL HYDROGEN PURIFICATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P; Kyle Brinkman, K; Thad Adams, T; George Rawls, G

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of advanced hydrogen separation membranes in support of hydrogen production processes such as coal gasification and as front end gas purifiers for fuel cell based system is paramount to the successful implementation of a national hydrogen economy. Current generation metallic hydrogen separation membranes are based on Pd-alloys. Although the technology has proven successful, at issue is the high cost of palladium. Evaluation of non-noble metal based dense metallic separation membranes is currently receiving national and international attention. The focus of the reported work was to develop a scaled reactor with a VNi-Ti alloy membrane to replace a production Pd-alloy tube-type purification/diffuser system.

  10. Method for synthesizing metal bis(borano) hypophosphite complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph G.

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes the synthesis of a family of metal bis(borano) hypophosphite complexes. One procedure described in detail is the syntheses of complexes beginning from phosphorus trichloride and sodium borohydride. Temperature, solvent, concentration, and atmosphere are all critical to ensure product formation. In the case of sodium bis(borano) hypophosphite, hydrogen gas was evolved upon heating at temperatures above 150.degree. C. Included in this family of materials are the salts of the alkali metals Li, Na and K, and those of the alkaline earth metals Mg and Ca. Hydrogen storage materials are possible. In particular the lithium salt, Li[PH.sub.2(BH.sub.3).sub.2], theoretically would contain nearly 12 wt % hydrogen. Analytical data for product characterization and thermal properties are given.

  11. Interplay between electronic structure and catalytic activity in transition metal oxide model system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suntivich, Jin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of many energy storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow kinetics of the oxygen ...

  12. Metal Catalyzed Formation of Aliphatic Polycarbonates Involving Oxetanes and Carbon Dioxide as Monomers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncada, Adriana I.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    including phosgene and its derivatives. Therefore, it has been of great interest to investigate greener routes for the production of this important class of polymers. Toward this goal, the synthesis of aliphatic polycarbonates via the metal catalyzed...

  13. Biologically mediated reductive dissolution and precipitation of metals and radionuclides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    AND APPROACH Microbial Reduction of Metals and Radionuclides Subsurface contaminants of greatest con- cern) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium, strontium, cesium, technetium, and plutonium). These elements are long- remediation to organic chemicals, microbes can degrade contaminants into daughter products while using

  14. 2005 Minerals Yearbook platinuM-group Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    production as the quantity of PGms contained in concentrate at the time it was shipped to the smelter both mines are processed first at the precious metal smelter. the concentrate, which contains 1 to 2 and transported to the refinery. the slag from the tBrC is returned to the eaF for further treatment. the smelter

  15. Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu JW, Liu XB

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher e±ciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coe±cient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

  16. Pressurized molten ferrous metal chemical reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, H.W.; Malone, D.P.; Margrave, J.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)]|[Ashland Petroleum Co., Houston, TX (United States)]|[Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is in progress to develop a liquid ferrous metal chemical reactor to produce valuable products from petroleum refining waste and to achieve totally contained destruction of toxic chemicals. The work is an extension of the Hymelt{trademark} Process (patent pending) developed by the Ashland Petroleum Company. Materials to be processed, such as hydrocarbons, are fed into a crucible of molten iron at 1,600 C. The material decomposes, evolving hydrogen gas and combining carbon with the iron to form molten steel. Research is being pursued as a collaborative effort to Ashland Petroleum Company, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Houston Advanced Research Center, and others.

  17. Fission Product Separation from Pyrochemical Electrolyte by Cold Finger Melt Crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshua R. Versey

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work contributes to the development of pyroprocessing technology as an economically viable means of separating used nuclear fuel from fission products and cladding materials. Electrolytic oxide reduction is used as a head-end step before electrorefining to reduce oxide fuel to metallic form. The electrolytic medium used in this technique is molten LiCl-Li2O. Groups I and II fission products, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), have been shown to partition from the fuel into the molten LiCl-Li2O. Various approaches of separating these fission products from the salt have been investigated by different research groups. One promising approach is based on a layer crystallization method studied at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Despite successful demonstration of this basic approach, there are questions that remain, especially concerning the development of economical and scalable operating parameters based on a comprehensive understanding of heat and mass transfer. This research explores these parameters through a series of experiments in which LiCl is purified, by concentrating CsCl in a liquid phase as purified LiCl is crystallized and removed via an argon-cooled cold finger.

  18. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  19. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z Site Map OrganizationFAQTrending: Metal Oxo

  20. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z Site Map OrganizationFAQTrending: Metal

  1. METALS DESIGN HANDBOOK DISCLAIMER

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found TheHot electron dynamics in807 DE899 06 Revision 0 METALS

  2. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print

  3. Metal coupled emission process

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMayEnergy Metal Organic Heat Carrierscom,

  4. Corrosion behavior of mesoporous transition metal nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Minghui, E-mail: m.yang@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853-1301, NY (United States); Allen, Amy J.; Nguyen, Minh T. [Department of Chemistry, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853-1301, NY (United States); Ralston, Walter T. [College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley 94720-1460, CA (United States); MacLeod, Michelle J. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139-4307, MA (United States); DiSalvo, Francis J., E-mail: fjd3@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853-1301, NY (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal nitrides (TMN) have many desirable characteristics such as high hardness and good thermal stability under reducing conditions. This work reports an initial survey of the chemical stability of mesoporous TMNs (TM=Nb, V, Cr and Ti) in water at 80 °C at neutral, acidic and alkaline pH. The mesoporous TMNs had specific surface areas of 25–60 m{sup 2}/g with average pore sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm. The high surface areas of these materials enhance the rate of corrosion per unit mass over that of a bulk material, making detection of corrosion much easier. The products were characterized by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Several nitrides have corrosion rates that are, within error, not distinguishable from zero (±1 Ĺ/day). Of the nitrides examined, CrN appears to be the most corrosion resistant under acidic conditions. None of the nitrides studied are corrosion resistant under alkaline conditions. - Graphical abstract: Corrosion behavior of mesoporous transition metal nitrides (TM=Nb, V, Cr and Ti) in acidic and alkaline solutions at 80 °C for 2 weeks. Display Omitted - highlights: • Corrosion rates of mesoporous transition metal nitrides in aqueous solution is reported. • The mesoporous TMNs had surface areas of 25–60 m{sup 2}/g. • CrN is the most corrosion resistant under the conditions studied.

  5. Metastable Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Graetz, Jason

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of using hydrogen as a reliable energy carrier for both stationary and mobile applications has gained renewed interest in recent years due to improvements in high temperature fuel cells and a reduction in hydrogen production costs. However, a number of challenges remain and new media are needed that are capable of safely storing hydrogen with high gravimetric and volumetric densities. Metal hydrides and complex metal hydrides offer some hope of overcoming these challenges; however, many of the high capacity “reversible” hydrides exhibit a large endothermic decomposition enthalpy making it difficult to release the hydrogen at low temperatures. Onmore »the other hand, the metastable hydrides are characterized by a low reaction enthalpy and a decomposition reaction that is thermodynamically favorable under ambient conditions. The rapid, low temperature hydrogen evolution rates that can be achieved with these materials offer much promise for mobile PEM fuel cell applications. However, a critical challenge exists to develop new methods to regenerate these hydrides directly from the reactants and hydrogen gas. This spotlight paper presents an overview of some of the metastable metal hydrides for hydrogen storage and a few new approaches being investigated to address the key challenges associated with these materials.« less

  6. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-2 (C-2948)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis W. Powers; Washington Regultory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    SNL-2 was drilled in the northwest quarter of Section 12, T22S, R30E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 2-1). It is located 574 ft from the north line (fnl) and 859 ft from the west line (fwl) of the section (Figure 2-2). This location places the drillhole east of the Livingston Ridge escarpment among oil wells of the Cabin Lake field. SNL-2 will be used to test hydraulic properties and to monitor ground water levels of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation. SNL-2 was permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-2948. [Official correspondence regarding permitting and regulatory information must reference this permit number.] In the plan describing the integrated groundwater hydrology program (Sandia National Laboratories, 2003), SNL-2 is also codesignated WTS-1 because the location also satisfies needs for long-term monitoring of water quality and movement in the Culebra Dolomite for RCRA permitting; this program is under the management of Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS). In the event that additional wells are established on the SNL-2 drillpad to monitor other hydrological units (e.g., the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation), the current drillhole will likely be referred to as SNL-2C because it is completed in the Culebra. Most drillholes at WIPP have been described after completion to provide an account of the geology, hydrology, or other basic data acquired during drilling and immediate completion of the drillhole. In addition, the basic data report provides an account of the drilling procedures and activities that may be helpful to later interpretations of data or for further work in the drillhole, including test activities and eventual plugging and abandoning activities. The basic data report also provides a convenient means of reporting information about administrative activities necessary to drill the hole.

  7. Novel method for the prediction of an interface bonding species at alumina/metal interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshitake, Michiko, E-mail: yoshitake.michiko@nims.go.jp; Yagyu, Shinjiro [National Institute for Materials Science, 3-13, Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Chikyow, Toyohiro [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1, Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Interface bonding between alumina and various metals is discussed from the viewpoint of chemical thermodynamics. A method to predict the interface bonding species at an alumina/metal interface under equilibrium conditions is proposed by using the concept of chemical equilibrium for interface termination. The originality of this method is in the way a simple estimation of the interface binding energy, which is generally applicable to most metals, is developed. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by careful examination of the experimental results. Comparison of the predicted and experimentally observed interface terminations reveals that the proposed method agrees well with the reported results. The method uses only basic quantities of pure elements and the formation enthalpy of oxides. Therefore, it can be applied to most metals in the periodic table and is useful for screening materials in the quest to develop interfaces with particular functions.

  8. Field Deployment for In-situ Metal and Radionuclide Stabilization by Microbial Metabolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turick, C. E.; Knox, A. S.; Dixon, K. L.; Roseberry, R. J.; Kritzas, Y. G

    2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel biotechnology is reported here that was demonstrated at SRS that facilitates metal and actinide immobilization by incorporating the physiology and ecology of indigenous bacteria. This technology is based on our previous work with pyomelanin-producing bacteria isolated from SRS soils. Through tyrosine supplementation, overproduction of pyomelanin was achieved, which lead ultimately to metal and actinide immobilization, both in-vitro and in-situ. Pyomelanin is a recalcitrant microbial pigment and a humic type compound in the class of melanin pigments. Pyomelanin has electron shuttling and metal chelation capabilities and thus accelerates the bacterial reduction and/or immobilization of metals. Pyomelanin is produced outside the cell and either diffuses away or attaches to the cell surface. In either case, the reduced pyomelanin is capable of transferring electrons to metals as well as chelating metals. Because of its recalcitrance and redox cycling properties, pyomelanin molecules can be used over and over again for metal transformation. When produced in excess, pyomelanin produced by one bacterial species can be used by other species for metal reduction, thereby extending the utility of pyomelanin and further accelerating metal immobilization rates. Soils contaminated with Ni and U were the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, metal bioimmobilization technologies. We have demonstrated pyomelanin production in soil from the Tims Branch area of SRS as a result of tyrosine amendments. These results were documented in laboratory soil column studies and field deployment studies. The amended soils demonstrated increased redox behavior and sequestration capacity of U and transition metals following pyomelanin production. Treatments incorporating tyrosine and lactate demonstrated the highest levels of pyomelanin production. In order to determine the potential use of this technology at other areas of SRS, pyomelanin producing bacteria were also quantified from metal contaminated soils at TNX and D areas of SRS. A bacterial culture collection from subsurface studies near P Area of SRS were also evaluated for pyomelanin production. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were determined to be >10{sup 6} cells/g soil at TNX and D areas. In addition, approximately 25% of isolates from P area demonstrated pyomelanin production in the presence of tyrosine. Biogeochemical activity is an ongoing and dynamic process due, in part, to bacterial activity in the subsurface. Bacteria contribute significantly to biotransformation of metals and radionuclides. An understanding and application of the mechanisms of metal and radionuclide reduction offers tremendous potential for development into bioremedial processes and technologies. This report demonstrates the application of recent advances in bacterial physiology and soil ecology for future bioremediation activities involving metal and actinide immobilization.

  9. Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use, May 13-15, 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresselhaus, M; Crabtree, G.; Buchanan, M.; Mallouk, T.; Mets, L.; Taylor, K.; Jena, P.; DiSalvo, F.; Zawodzinski, T.; Kung, H.; Anderson, I.S.; Britt, P.; Curtiss, L.; Keller, J.; Kumar, R.; Kwok, W.; Taylor, J.; Allgood, J.; Campbell, B.; Talamini, K.

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coupled challenges of a doubling in the world's energy needs by the year 2050 and the increasing demands for ''clean'' energy sources that do not add more carbon dioxide and other pollutants to the environment have resulted in increased attention worldwide to the possibilities of a ''hydrogen economy'' as a long-term solution for a secure energy future.

  10. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasecki, John V. (Livonia, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system.

  11. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasecki, J.V.; Novak, R.F.; McBride, J.R.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system. 11 figures.

  12. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  13. Nuclear reactor engineering: Reactor design basics. Fourth edition, Volume One

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glasstone, S.; Sesonske, A.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This new edition of this classic reference combines broad yet in-depth coverage of nuclear engineering principles with practical descriptions of their application in design and operation of nuclear power plants. Extensively updated, the fourth edition includes new material on reactor safety and risk analysis, regulation, fuel management, waste management, and operational aspects of nuclear power. This volume contains the following: energy from nuclear fission; nuclear reactions and radiations; neutron transport; nuclear design basics; nuclear reactor kinetics and control; radiation protection and shielding; and reactor materials.

  14. Lindblad resonance torques in relativistic discs: I. Basic equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher M. Hirata

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lindblad resonances have been suggested as an important mechanism for angular momentum transport and heating in discs in binary black hole systems. We present the basic equations for the torque and heating rate for relativistic thin discs subjected to a perturbation. The Lindblad resonance torque is written explicitly in terms of metric perturbations for an equatorial disc in a general axisymmetric, time-stationary spacetime with a plane of symmetry. We show that the resulting torque formula is gauge-invariant. Computations for the Schwarzschild and Kerr spacetimes are presented in the companion paper.

  15. Basic visual observation skills training course: Appendix B. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following this training is an integrating exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection. This report contains the in-class exercises in the five skill areas; pre- and post-course exercises in closure, hidden figures, map memory, and mental rotations; the final examination; a training evaluation form; and the integrating exercise.

  16. Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM5Parabolic TroughPhotoCell Structure Basics Photovoltaic

  17. Building the Basic PVC Wind Turbine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy FutureDepartment of EnergyRolandBuilding the Basic PVC Wind

  18. Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads|ofEvents »SSL BasicsKawtarSue CangeWendeWood and Pellet

  19. Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM - Building Americaof42.2Air-Source Heat Pump Basics

  20. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

    1980-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  1. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, Moshe (Haifa, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Sheft, Irving (Oak Park, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  2. Metal-ceramic joint assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian (New Milford, CT)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal-ceramic joint assembly in which a brazing alloy is situated between metallic and ceramic members. The metallic member is either an aluminum-containing stainless steel, a high chromium-content ferritic stainless steel or an iron nickel alloy with a corrosion protection coating. The brazing alloy, in turn, is either an Au-based or Ni-based alloy with a brazing temperature in the range of 9500 to 1200.degree. C.

  3. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  4. Epsilon Metal Summary Report FY 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Zumhoff, Mac R.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Windisch, Charles F.; Riley, Brian J.

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Epsilon-metal ({var_epsilon}-metal) phase was selected in FY 2009 as a potential waste form to for immobilizing the noble metals found in the undissolved solids + aqueous stream, and the soluble Tc from ion-exchange process, each resulting from proposed aqueous reprocessing. {var_epsilon}-metal phase is observed in used nuclear fuel and the natural reactors of Oklobono in Gabon, where the long-term corrosion behavior was demonstrated. This makes {var_epsilon}-metal a very attractive waste form. Last fiscal year, {var_epsilon}-metal was successfully fabricated by combining the five-metals, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd and Re (surrogate for Tc), into pellets followed by consolidation with an arc melter. The arc melter produced fully dense samples with the epsilon structure. However, some chemistry differences were observed in the microstructure that resulted in regions rich in Re and Mo, and others rich in Pd, while Ru and Rh remained fairly constant throughout. This year, thermal stability (air), and corrosion testing of the samples fabricated by arc melting were the main focus for experimental work. Thermal stability was measured with a differential scanning calorimeter - thermogravimetric analyzer, by both ramp heating as well as step heating. There is clear evidence during the ramp heating experiment of an exothermic event + a weight loss peak both beginning at {approx}700 C. Step heating showed an oxidation event at {approx}690 C with minimal weight gain that occurs just before the weight loss event at 700 C. The conclusion being that the e-metal begins to oxidize and then become volatile. These findings are useful for considering the effects of voloxidation process. Three different pellets were subjected to electrochemical testing to study the corrosion behavior of the epsilon-metal phase in various conditions, namely acidic, basic, saline, and inert. Test was done according to an interim procedure developed for the alloy metal waste form. First an open circuit potential was measured, followed by linear polarization sweeps. The linear polarization sweep range was the Tafel equation was fit to the linear polarization sweep data to determine the corrosion rate of each pellet in each test solution. The average calculated corrosion rates of the three pellets according to solution conditions were: -1.91 x 10{sup -4} mm/yr (0.001 M NaOH), -1.48 x 10{sup -3} mm/yr (0.01 M NaCl), -8.77 x 10{sup -4} mm/yr (0.001 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), -2.09 x 10{sup -3} mm/yr (0.001 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaCl), and -1.54 x 10{sup -3} mm/yr (0.001 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.01 M NaCl). Three single-pass flow through (SPFT) test were conducted at a flow rate of 10 ml/day, at 90 C, and pH of 2.5, 7.0, and 9.0 for up to 322 days. Results of the tests indicate that dissolution rates were 5 x 10{sup -4} g m{sup 2} d{sup -1} at pH 9.0, 1.2 x 10{sup -4} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} at pH 7.0, and 2 x 10{sup -4} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} at pH 2.5. The sample used for the pH 7.0 SPFT test contains extra Re compared to samples used for the other two SPFT test, which came from a single pellet. The corrosion data measured this year indicate that the {var_epsilon}-metal phase is chemically durable. The two chemically different phases, but structurally the same, behave differently during dissolution according to the microstructure changes observed in both the electrochemical and in SPFT test. Characterization of the test specimens after testing suggests that the dissolution is complex and involves oxidative dissolution followed by precipitation of both oxide and metallic phases. These data suggest that the dissolution in the electrochemical and SPFT tests is different; a process that needs further investigation.

  5. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  6. Backyard Production of Meat Rabbits in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukefahr, Steven D.; Paschal, Joseph C.; Ford, John E.

    1998-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    and timely manage- ment, the enterprise goal of year-round fryer production is certainly possible. One or more of these three basic necessities is usually lacking when poor fertility or produc- tion problems occur. Commercial Meat Stock Commercially bred... bred stock, have more vigor and are more productive (for example, have higher fertility, kindle larger litters, and pro- duce meatier fryers). For the backyard meat rabbit enter- prise, purebred or fancy stock may not produce as well as the commercial...

  7. Magnetic metallic multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hood, R.Q.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilizing self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations, several aspects of multilayers and interfaces are explored: enhancement and reduction of the local magnetic moments, magnetic coupling at the interfaces, magnetic arrangements within each film and among non-neighboring films, global symmetry of the systems, frustration, orientation of the various moments with respect to an outside applied field, and magnetic-field induced transitions. Magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic-normal-metal multilayers is found by solving the Boltzmann equation. Results explain the giant negative magnetoresistance encountered in these systems when an initial antiparallel arrangement is changed into a parallel configuration by an external magnetic field. The calculation depends on (1) geometric parameters (thicknesses of layers), (2) intrinsic metal parameters (number of conduction electrons, magnetization, and effective masses in layers), (3) bulk sample properties (conductivity relaxation times), (4) interface scattering properties (diffuse scattering versus potential scattering at the interfaces, and (5) outer surface scattering properties (specular versus diffuse surface scattering). It is found that a large negative magnetoresistance requires considerable asymmetry in interface scattering for the two spin orientations. Features of the interfaces that may produce an asymmetrical spin-dependent scattering are studied: varying interfacial geometric random roughness with no lateral coherence, correlated (quasi-periodic) roughness, and varying chemical composition of the interfaces. The interplay between these aspects of the interfaces may enhance or suppress the magnetoresistance, depending on whether it increases or decreases the asymmetry in the spin-dependent scattering of the conduction electrons.

  8. ``Towards Strange Metallic Holography'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Polchinski, Joseph; Silverstein, Eva; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Tong, David; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara

    2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We initiate a holographic model building approach to 'strange metallic' phenomenology. Our model couples a neutral Lifshitz-invariant quantum critical theory, dual to a bulk gravitational background, to a finite density of gapped probe charge carriers, dually described by D-branes. In the physical regime of temperature much lower than the charge density and gap, we exhibit anomalous scalings of the temperature and frequency dependent conductivity. Choosing the dynamical critical exponent z appropriately we can match the non-Fermi liquid scalings, such as linear resistivity, observed in strange metal regimes. As part of our investigation we outline three distinct string theory realizations of Lifshitz geometries: from F theory, from polarized branes, and from a gravitating charged Fermi gas. We also identify general features of renormalization group flow in Lifshitz theories, such as the appearance of relevant charge-charge interactions when z {ge} 2. We outline a program to extend this model building approach to other anomalous observables of interest such as the Hall conductivity.

  9. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  10. Opportunities for discovery: Theory and computation in Basic Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, Bruce; Kirby, Kate; McCurdy, C. William

    2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    New scientific frontiers, recent advances in theory, and rapid increases in computational capabilities have created compelling opportunities for theory and computation to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). The prospects for success in the experimental programs of BES will be enhanced by pursuing these opportunities. This report makes the case for an expanded research program in theory and computation in BES. The Subcommittee on Theory and Computation of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee was charged with identifying current and emerging challenges and opportunities for theoretical research within the scientific mission of BES, paying particular attention to how computing will be employed to enable that research. A primary purpose of the Subcommittee was to identify those investments that are necessary to ensure that theoretical research will have maximum impact in the areas of importance to BES, and to assure that BES researchers will be able to exploit the entire spectrum of computational tools, including leadership class computing facilities. The Subcommittee s Findings and Recommendations are presented in Section VII of this report.

  11. Basic Solar Energy Research in Japan (2011 EFRC Forum)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Domen, Kazunari (University of Tokyo)

    2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Kazunari Domen, Chemical System Engineering Professor at the University of Tokyo, was the second speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Domen talked about basic solar energy research in Japan. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several ?grand challenges? and use-inspired ?basic research needs? recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  12. anagin Forests because Carbon Matters: In grating Energy, Products, and Land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    -have the potential 10 increase biomass supply. Unlike metals, concrete, and plastic, forest products store carbon sources. Expanding forest biomass use for biofuels and energy generation will competeanagin Forests because Carbon Matters: In grating Energy, Products, and Land Management Policy

  13. Method for making radioactive metal articles having small dimensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohriner, Evan K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for making a radioactive article such as wire, includes the steps of providing a metal article having a first shape, such a cylinder, that is either radioactive itself or can be converted to a second, radioactive isotope by irradiation; melting the metal article one or more times; optionally adding an alloying metal to the molten metal in order to enhance ductility or other properties; placing the metal article having the first shape (e.g., cylindrical) into a cavity in the interior of an extrusion body (e.g., a cylinder having a cylindrical cavity therein); extruding the extrusion body and the article having the first shape located in the cavity therein, resulting in an elongated extrusion body and an article having a second shape; removing the elongated extrusion body, for example by chemical means, leaving the elongated inner article substantially intact; optionally repeating the extrusion procedure one or more times; and then drawing the elongated article to still further elongate it, into wire, foil, or another desired shape. If the starting metal is enriched in a radioactive isotope or a precursor thereof, the end product can provide a more intense radiation source than conventionally manufactured radioactive wire, foil, or the like.

  14. Development of materials resistant to metal dusting degradation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.

    2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal dusting corrosion has been a serious problem in the petroleum and petrochemical industries, such as reforming and syngas production systems. This form of deterioration has led to worldwide material loss for 50 years. For the past three years, we have studied the mechanism of metal dusting for Fe- and Ni-base alloys. In this report, we present a correlation between the weight loss and depth of pits that form in Ni-base alloys. Nickel-base alloys were also tested at 1 and 14.8 atm (210 psi), in a high carbon activity environment. Higher system pressure was found to accelerate corrosion in most Ni-base alloys. To reduce testing time, a pre-pitting method was developed. Mechanical scratches on the alloy surface led to fast metal dusting corrosion. We have also developed preliminary data on the performance of weldments of several Ni-base alloys in a metal dusting environment. Finally, Alloy 800 tubes and plates used in a reformer plant were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopy. The oxide scale on the surface of the Alloy 800 primarily consists of Fe{sub 1+x}Cr{sub 2-X}O{sub 4} spinel phase with high Fe content. Carbon can diffuse through this oxide scale. It was discovered that the growth of metal dusting pits could be stopped by means of a slightly oxidized alloy surface. This leads to a new way to solve metal dusting problem.

  15. Evaluation of coal minerals and metal residues as coal-liquefaction catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E. N.; Schweighardt, F. K.; Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.; Huang, W. J.; Shridharani, K.; Clinton, J. H.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic activity of various minerals, metallic wastes, and transition metals was investigated in the liquefaction of various coals. The effects of coal type, process variables, coal cleaning, catalyst addition mode, solvent quality, and solvent modification on coal conversion and oil production were also studied. Coal conversion and oil production improved significantly by the addition of pyrite, reduced pyrite, speculite, red mud, flue dust, zinc sulfide, and various transition metal compounds. Impregnation and molecular dispersion of iron gave higher oil production than particulate incorporation of iron. However, the mode of molybdenum addition was inconsequential. Oil production increased considerably both by adding a stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and pyrite and by simultaneous impregnation of coal with iron and molybdenum. Hydrogenation activity of disposable catalysts decreased sharply in the presence of nitrogen compounds. The removal of heteroatoms from process solvent improved thermal as well as catalytic coal liquefaction. The improvement in oil production was very dramatic with a catalyst.

  16. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

  17. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  18. Back to the Basics using Developing Technologies JT Land and Cattle LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Back to the Basics using Developing Technologies #12;JT Land and Cattle LLC #12;#12;"Unfavorable;#12;#12;#12;Negligent Management? Resilient Management? #12;Back to the Basics using Developing Technologies #12

  19. Pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease: From Clinical Neurology to Basic Neuroscience and Back

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Nir

    Pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease: From Clinical Neurology to Basic Neuroscience and Back of the basic research is oriented toward the study of tremor. In this review, we use the PD tremor as our main

  20. Videos on Clean Energy That Give You the Basics and More | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Videos on Clean Energy That Give You the Basics and More Videos on Clean Energy That Give You the Basics and More October 11, 2011 - 6:37am Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology...