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1

Recommended inorganic chemicals for calibration  

SciTech Connect

All analytical techniques depend on the use of calibration chemicals to relate analyte concentration to an instrumental parameter. A fundamental component in the preparation of calibration solutions is the weighing of a pure chemical or metal before preparing a solution standard. The analyst must be assured that the purity, stoichiometry, and assay of the chemical are known. These terms have different meanings, and each has an important influence. This report is intended to assist the analyst in the selection and use of chemical standards for instrumental calibration. Purity, stoichiometry, and preparation of solutions for different purposes are discussed, and a critical evaluation of the best materials available for each element is presented for use in preparing solutions or calibration standards. Information on the chemical form, source, purity, drying, and appropriate precautions is given. In some cases, multiple sources or chemical forms are available. Certain radioactive elements, the transuranic elements, and the noble gases are not considered.

Moody, J.R.; Greenberg, R.R.; Pratt, K.W.; Rains, T.C.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY MILLENNIUM INORGANIC CHEMICALS, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MILLENNIUM INORGANIC CHEMICALS, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE MILLENNIUM INORGANIC CHEMICALS, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN PATENT RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-FC36-04GO14153; W(A)-04-084; CH-1263 As set out in the attached waiver petition and in subsequent discussions with DOE patent counsel, Millennium Inorganic Chemicals, Inc. (Millennium) has requested an advance waiver of domestic and foreign patent rights for all subject inventions made under the above- identified cooperative agreement by its employees and its subcontractors' employees, regardless of tier, except inventions made by subcontractors eligible to retain title to inventions pursuant to P.L. 96-517, as amended, and National Laboratories. Millennium is leading a teaming arrangement including Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering and Sandia National

3

Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Final report, August 1992--May 1995  

SciTech Connect

SRI International conducted a theoretical and experimental program to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate the gaseous products of coal gasification. A variety of developmental efforts are underway, including a number of projects sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to improve the selectivity and permeability of porous inorganic membranes. DOE is also sponsoring efforts to extend the use of metallic membranes to new applications. Most developmental efforts have focused on hydrogen separation by inorganic membranes, which may be used to maximize hydrogen production from coal gas or to remove H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} contaminants via thermal or catalytic decomposition in integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. Membrane materials that have been investigated include glass (silica), alumina, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt). This report describes inorganic membrane materials, long term membrane exposure tests, membrane permeation tests, coal gasifier exposure tests, conclusions, and recommendations.

Damle, A.S.; Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Empirical MOdels for the Uptake of Inorganic Chemicals from Soil by Plants (BJC/OR-133)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

33 33 Empirical Models for the Uptake of Inorganic Chemicals from Soil by Plants This document has received the appropriate reviews for release to the public. Date: 9/23/98 BJC/OR-133 Empirical Models for the Uptake of Inorganic Chemicals from Soil by Plants Date Issued-September 1998 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management BECHTEL JACOBS COMPANY LLC managing the Environmental Management Activities at the East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge National Laboratory Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant under contract DE-AC05-98OR22700 for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY iii CONTENTS FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae  

SciTech Connect

Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H. (Saskatchewan)

2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

6

Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09  

SciTech Connect

Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat limited success observed during recent attempts to remove sludge heels from SRS Tanks 5F and 6F using oxalic acid. Additionally, based on the results of the solubility tests conducted, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Hematite dissolution in oxalic acid is a stoichiometric process dependant upon the provision of sufficient oxalate molar equivalents to complex the iron and sufficient H{sup +} to promote the dissolution reaction. (2) The optimal utilization of oxalic acid for hematite dissolution requires an additional proton source, such as nitric acid, and a pH of {le} 1. In the absence of a supplemental proton source, greater than stoichiometric amounts of oxalate are required. (3) Magnetite is generally more soluble than hematite in all acids tested. (4) Gibbsite is generally more soluble than the boehmite form of aluminum in all acids tested. (5) The OLI Thermodynamic Model is a useful tool for the prediction of equilibrium iron concentrations, but predictions must be experimentally verified. The OLI model appears to over-predict the solubility of the iron and aluminum phases studied in mineral acids.

Hay, M.; King, W.

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

7

A Mechanistic Study of Chemically Modified Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Liquid Separations  

SciTech Connect

This final report will summarize the progress made during the period August 1, 1993 - October 31, 2010 with support from DOE grant number DE-FG03-93ER14363. The objectives of the research have been to investigate the transport mechanisms in micro- and mesoporous, metal oxide membranes and to examine the relationship between the microstructure of the membrane, the membrane surface chemistry, and the separation performance of the membrane. Examples of the membrane materials under investigation are the microporous silica hollow fiber membrane manufactured by PPG Industries, chemically modified mesoporous oxide membranes, and polymer membranes containing microporous oxides (mixed matrix membranes). Analytical techniques such as NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and gas adsorption were used to investigate membrane microstructure and to probe the chemical interactions occurring at the gas-membrane interface.

Way, J Douglas

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

8

A model of the exchange of inorganic chemicals between water and sediments  

SciTech Connect

A simple mathematical model is developed to describe the movement of radioisotopes added to lake enclosures, first during initial loss from water to sediments, and second during release from sediments into isotope-free water. The model is based on the concept of aquivalent concentration, an equilibrium criterion analogous to fugacity, but suitable for involatile chemicals. It treats two homogeneous compartments, water and an active layer of sediments, and exchange by bidirectional diffusion, sediment deposition, and resuspension. Model simulations of isotope loss agree well with experimental results obtained for seven isotopes added to two lake enclosures. Simulations of isotope release from sediments were satisfactory but less accurate. The results illustrate that the behavior of isotopes can be estimated from their differing particle-sorption characteristics, as quantified by the isotope-specific K{sub p} and by enclosure-specific suspended particle concentrations and sediment deposition/resuspension rates.

Diamond, M.L.; Mackay, D. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Cornett, R.J.; Chant, L.A. (Chalk River Nuclear Labs., Ontario (Canada))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

ChBE 4505/4525 Chemical Process Design/Biochemical Process Design Basic Curriculum and Learning Outcomes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of flowsheet synthesis and economic analysis and optimization. A complete design on a chemical process, targeting, tradeoffs. To teach students basic skills in process design;economic evaluation, sizing. Economic evaluation of process designs, applications of a) net present value b) time value of money c

Sherrill, David

10

Inorganic nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Terrones and Humberto Terrones Inorganic nanotubes Reshef Tenne 1 C. N. R. Rao 2 1 Department...discovery of carbon fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, it was hypothesized that nanoparticles...not be stable against folding and form nanotubes and fullerene-like structures: IF...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Mechanisms for formation of organic and inorganic by-products and their control in nonthermal plasma chemical processing of VOCs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the major by-products derived from Nonthermal Plasma (NTP) chemical processing of different types of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), mechanisms for their formation, effects of reactor types and additives such as water and gaseous oxygen on by-product distribution, and safe operations of NTP reactors for the removal of VOCs.

Shigeru Futamura; Masami Sugasawa

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Basic theory and methods of dosimetry for use in risk assessment of genotoxic chemicals. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project is designed to be theoretical, with limited experimental input. The work then would have to be directed towards an identification of problems, with an emphasis on the potential ability of molecular/biochemical methods to reach a solution, rather than aiming at solutions of the problems. In addition, the work is dependent on experimental work within parallel projects. Initially, projects running at this laboratory were strongly tied up with practical matters, such as the development of monitoring methods for specific exposures, with limited resources for basic research. As sketched in the scientific report below, section 4 the meaningfulness of molecular/biochemical methods and their potential contribution to the problem of dsk estimation has to be seen against a broad overview of this problem and current efforts to solve it. This overview, given as a brief summary in section 3, shows the necessity of combining different fields of research, holding them together by strictly quantitative aspects.

Ehrenberg, L.; Granath, F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Basic model Basic model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Early days Basic model Literature Classical literature Bayes pre-MCMC Bayes post-MCMC Basic model systems via latent factors Hedibert Freitas Lopes Booth School of Business University of Chicago Col / 66 #12;Early days Basic model Literature Classical literature Bayes pre-MCMC Bayes post-MCMC Basic

Liu, I-Shih

14

5.04 Principles of Inorganic Chemistry II, Fall 2004  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Systematic presentation of the chemical applications of group theory. Emphasis on the formal development of the subject and its applications to the physical methods of inorganic chemical compounds. Against the backdrop of ...

Nocera, Daniel G., 1957-

15

FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Central Versus Distributed Production Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of hydrogen production in photobioreactor Hydrogen, chemical symbol "H", is the simplest element on earth. An atom of hydrogen has only one proton and one electron. Hydrogen gas is a diatomic

16

FCT Fuel Cells: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology DOE R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of a fuel cell stack A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity with water and heat as byproducts. (How much water?) Fuel cells are unique in terms of the variety of their potential applications; they can provide energy for systems as large as a utility

17

PEGylated Inorganic Nanoparticles. | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

body. The current review describes the role of surface modification of oxides by polyethylene glycol (PEG) in providing versatile characteristics to inorganic oxide...

18

Questions and Answers - Is carbon found in all organic and inorganic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

atoms make up sugar? atoms make up sugar? Previous Question (What atoms make up sugar?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (In the equation for methane, why is there more hydrogen than carbon?) In the equation for methane, why isthere more hydrogen than carbon? Is carbon found in all organic and inorganic matter? The answer is yes and no. Yes, carbon IS found in all organic matter, but NOT in inorganic matter. Although there are many definitions of "organic," in the scientific disciplines, the basic definition comes from chemistry. In chemistry, organic means chemical compounds with carbon in them. In a more general sense, organic refers to living things. And this is connected to the idea of organic chemistry being based on carbon compounds. Organic

19

Effect of chronic inhalation of inorganic arsenic on the risk of stillbirth in a community surrounding an agriculture chemical production facility: a hospital-based study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. However, the extent and severity of the effects of chronic inhalation of low levels of arsenic on health and reproduction are not known. Bryan, Texas was the site of an agricultural chemical production facility for over 60 years. 'Me primary products...

Ihrig, Melanie M

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

Energy Basics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Students will complete a scavenger hunt worksheet in order to learn about the basics of energy and its sources.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Inorganic concepts relevant to metal binding, activity, and toxicity in a biological system  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to review selected physical and inorganic concepts and factors which might be important in assessing and/or understanding the fact and disposition of a metal system in a biological environment. Hopefully, such inquiries will ultimately permit us to understand, rationalize, and predict differences and trends in biological effects as a function of the basic nature of a metal system and, in optimal cases, serve as input to a system of guidelines for the notion of Chemical Dosimetry.'' The plan of this paper is to first review, in general terms, the basic principles of the Crystal Field Theory (CFT), a unifying theory of bonding in metal complexes. This will provide the necessary theoretical background for the subsequent discussion of selected concepts and factors. 21 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Hoeschele, J.D. (Warner-Lambert Co., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Research Div.); Turner, J.E.; England, M.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Bioproducts Basics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Today, petroleum is refined to make chemical feedstocks used in thousands of products. Many of these petroleum-based feedstocks could be replaced with value-added chemicals produced from biomass to...

23

Basic Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THIS is a good introduction to thermodynamics which deals with the three laws, basic kinetic theory (viscosity is not mentioned) ... The last part deals with thermal measurements. Students will obtain a good working knowledge of thermodynamics from this book.

P. T. LANDSBERG

1973-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

24

Basic Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 II Basic Research The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) office within the DOE Office of Science supports the DOE Hydrogen Program by providing basic, fundamental research in those technically challenging areas facing the Program, complementing the applied research and demonstration projects conducted by the Offices of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Fossil Energy; and Nuclear Engineering, Science and Technology. In May 2005 Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman announced the selection of over $64 million in BES research and development projects aimed at making hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and refueling stations available, practical and affordable for American consumers by 2020. A total of 70 hydrogen research projects were selected to focus on fundamental science and enable

25

Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide- and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to establish a method for biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure, the chemical species of arsenic were measured in the urine and hair of gallium arsenide (GaAs) plant and copper smelter workers. Determination of urinary inorganic arsenic concentration proved sensitive enough to monitor the low-level inorganic arsenic exposure of the GaAs plant workers. The urinary inorganic arsenic concentration in the copper smelter workers was far higher than that of a control group and was associated with high urinary concentrations of the inorganic arsenic metabolites, methylarsonic acid (MAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). The results established a method for exposure level-dependent biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure. Low-level exposures could be monitored only by determining urinary inorganic arsenic concentration. High-level exposures clearly produced an increased urinary inorganic arsenic concentration, with an increased sum of urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites (inorganic arsenic + MAA + DMAA). The determination of urinary arsenobetaine proved to determine specifically the seafood-derived arsenic, allowing this arsenic to be distinguished clearly from the arsenic from occupational exposure. Monitoring arsenic exposure by determining the arsenic in the hair appeared to be of value only when used for environmental monitoring of arsenic contamination rather than for biological monitoring.

Yamauchi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Mashiko, M.; Yamamura, Y. (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Fuel Cells - Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Basics Fuel Cells - Basics Photo of a fuel cell stack A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity with water and heat as...

27

Inorganic membranes: The new industrial revolution  

SciTech Connect

Separation systems are a vital part of most industrial processes. These systems account for a large fraction of the capital equipment used and the operating costs of industrial processes. Inorganic membranes have the potential for providing separation systems that can significantly reduce both the capital equipment and operating costs. These separation processes include waste management and recycle as well as the primary production of raw materials and products. The authors are rapidly learning to understand the effect of physical and chemical properties on the different transport mechanisms that occur in inorganic membranes. Such understanding can be expected to provide the information needed to design, engineer and manufacture inorganic membranes to produce very high separation factors for almost any separation function. To implement such a revolution, the authors need to organize a unique partnership between the national laboratories, and industry. The university can provide research to understand the materials and transport mechanisms that produce various separations, the national laboratories the development of an economical fabrication and manufacturing capability, and industry the practical understanding of the operational problems required to achieve inplementation.

Fain, D.E. [Martin Merietta Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Argonne CNM Highlight: Using Biomolecules to Guide Assembly of Inorganic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Biomolecules to Guide Assembly of Inorganic Nanostructures Using Biomolecules to Guide Assembly of Inorganic Nanostructures Lee Makowski A number of potential methods might be useful in guiding the assembly of inorganic nanostructures. A key objective in this effort is the ability to specify the exact locations of different nanoparticles within a nanostructure, a capability that will be critical in designing and producing future nanodevices. Nanoparticles One technique discussed involves the possibility of using proteins to create a framework on which nanoparticles could then be attached at specified points. Some type of chemical processing could then be used to remove the organics after assembly. Attaching the inorganic particles to a protein framework might be accomplished using binding sites identified via "phage display" techniques where phage-displaying proteins with randomized surfaces are selected for an affinity to a desired inorganic material. The advantages of this method include the ability to isolate a single binding phage and then grow large quantities of it for characterization. A particularly advantageous type of protein for these constructs are diabodies, constructed from fragments of antibodies. These can incorporate binding sites identified through phage display and then be used to attach inorganic materials at preselected places on the protein framework.

29

Release of Inorganic Constituents from Leached Biomass during Thermal Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Release of Inorganic Constituents from Leached Biomass during Thermal Conversion ... This suggests that while leaching reduces fuel nitrogen, it may also affect the nitrogen combustion chemistry in that a larger fraction of the fuel-bound nitrogen was converted to NO(g) during combustion of the leached samples compared to the unleached samples. ... Six biomasses with different chemical compositions ... ...

D. C. Dayton; B. M. Jenkins; S. Q. Turn; R. R. Bakker; R. B. Williams; D. Belle-Oudry; L. M. Hill

1999-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

30

Geothermal Basics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Geothermal energy—geo (earth) + thermal (heat)—is heat energy from the earth. What is a geothermal resource? To understand the basics of geothermal energy production, geothermal resources are reservoirs of hot water that exist at varying temperatures and depths below the Earth's surface. Mile-or-more-deep wells can be drilled into underground reservoirs to tap steam and very hot water that can be brought to the surface for use in a variety of applications, including electricity generation, direct use, and heating and cooling. In the United States, most geothermal reservoirs are located in the western states. This page represents how geothermal energy can be harnessed to generate electricity.

31

Basic Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basic Bacteria Basic Bacteria Name: Valerie Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I'm doing a science project on bacteria. WHat I'm doing is washing forks with different dishwashing liquids, then wiping any remaining bacteria on to Agar petri dishes. Then incubating it and seeing which soap removed the most. My question is what kind of bacteria would be growing? and also do I just count the colonies to compare? and how long and at what temperature should I incubate this bacteria? Thank you very much for your time. I'll be looking forward to your response. Replies: The temperature is easy: 37 degrees C is optimal for many bacteria. The medium will determine which bacteria grow best. So if you don't see growth on one medium, but you see growth on another, it tells you that there is a difference in nutrients present in those media that is required for that bacteria. Look at your plates after 24 hr, then put them back in the incubator (keep them sterile) and look at them after 48 hrs--do you see the difference? any slow-growing bacteria visible or did the fast-growing take over the complete plate?

32

Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Large-scale synthesis of inorganic and organic nanomaterials (single-crystalline nanowires and functionalized conducting polymer thin films) together with strategies for large-scale assembly are discussed

33

Sunspace basics  

SciTech Connect

Anyone who lives in a home with a sunspace will tell you that the sunspace is the most enjoyable room in the house. Many times the homeowner`s only regret is that the sunspace is not larger. Although aesthetics often drive the decision to add a sunspace or include one in a new home design, sunspaces can also provide supplemental space heating and a healthy environment for plants and people. In fact, a well-designed sunspace can provide up to 60% of a home`s winter heating requirements. This publication addresses basic elements of sunspace design; design considerations for supplemental space heating, growing plants, and use as a living space; design guidelines including siting, heat distribution, and glazing angles; and major sunspace components including glazing options, thermal mass, insulation, and climate controls. A list of sources for more information is also provided.

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Environmental Inorganic Geochemistry Group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and innovative testing and is able to characterise waste and provide a comprehensive picture of current, offering avoidance and remediation strategies. http://geology.curtin.edu.au/research/eigg/eigg.cfm Curtin discussion 1430 Control and remediation 1500 Afternoon break 1530 Chemical time bombs 1600 Summary

Tobar, Michael

35

Preparation and screening of crystalline inorganic materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Danville, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA); Brice{hacek over (n)}o, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xiao-Dong (Fremont, CA); Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

36

Combinatorial screening of inorganic and organometallic materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Alameda, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Combinatorial synthesis of inorganic or composite materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials or, alternatively, allowing the components to interact to form at least two different materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, nonbiological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA); Ross, Debra A. (Mountain Ranch, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Briceno, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xian-Dong (Fremont, CA); Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

38

Basic Energy Sciences Reports  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basic Energy Sciences Reports Basic Energy Sciences Reports The list below of Basic Energy Sciences workshop reports addresses the status of some important research areas that can...

39

Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

July Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Inorganic chemistry can provide insight and improve technical...

40

Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2011)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2011) Instructor: Assistant Professor Mathew M. Maye Chemistry", 5th Edition, Freeman Press. Available at SU bookstore. The solution manual is optional. (Suggested for CHE611 Students pursuing Inorganic) Huheey, "Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure

Mather, Patrick T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Introduction Basic dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction Basic dynamics The Gulf Stream The thermohaline circulation Ocean currents: some Ocean currents: some misconceptions and some dynamics #12;Introduction Basic dynamics The Gulf Stream. Geosciences Ocean currents: some misconceptions and some dynamics #12;Introduction Basic dynamics The Gulf

LaCasce, Joseph H.

42

Basic Chemical Safety and Laboratory Survival Skills  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

talk about safety in your lab Hopefully this presentation will help you to be: More aware of lab with safety glasses Safety Glasses are required in all areas where soldering or machining occurs. Safety

Gallivan, Martha A.

43

Hierarchical Assembly of Inorganic Nanostructure Building Blocks...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanostructure Building Blocks to Octahedral Superstructures – A True Template-Free Self Hierarchical Assembly of Inorganic Nanostructure Building Blocks to Octahedral...

44

The Basicity of Texas Soils.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical prob- lems connected with the investigations of cotton root rot being made by the Division of Plant Pathology and Physiology. Lab- oratory methods were needed for estimating the amounts of acid or sulphur required to bring experimental soils... approxi- mately to a desired degree of acidity. Information was needed regarding the amounts of acid or sulphur required to make acid various kinds of soil. This Bulletin discusses the basicity of Texas soils, and the amounts of acid or sulphur...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

1929-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Chemicals from Metabolic Pathways  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A few basic raw materials, petroleum, natural gas, +S from oil or natural gas, and O2 + N2 from air, generate first primary (or platform) chemicals, next secondary (commodity) chemicals, then intermediates, and f...

John Villadsen; Jens Nielsen; Gunnar Lidén

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Lesson 1 Energy Basics ENERGY BASICS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Table of Contents Table of Contents Lesson 1 - Energy Basics Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics Lesson 3 - Atoms and Isotopes Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 5 - Fission, Chain Reactions Lesson 6 - Atom to Electricity Lesson 7 - Waste from Nuclear Power Plants Lesson 8 - Concerns Lesson 9 - Energy and You 1 Lesson 1 Energy Basics ENERGY BASICS What is energy? Energy is the ability to do work. But what does that really mean? You might think of work as cleaning your room, cutting the grass, or studying for a test. And all these require energy. To a scientist, "work" means something more exact. Work is causing a change. It can be a change in position, like standing up or moving clothes from the floor to the laundry basket. It can be a change in temperature, like heating water for a cup

47

Inorganic Chemistry in Hydrogen Storage and Biomass Catalysis  

SciTech Connect

Making or breaking C-H, B-H, C-C bonds has been at the core of catalysis for many years. Making or breaking these bonds to store or recover energy presents us with fresh challenges, including how to catalyze these transformations in molecular systems that are 'tuned' to minimize energy loss and in molecular and material systems present in biomass. This talk will discuss some challenging transformations in chemical hydrogen storage, and some aspects of the inorganic chemistry we are studying in the development of catalysts for biomass utilization.

Thorn, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

48

Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& Publications Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries...

49

Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

50

Organic-Inorganic Hetero Junction White Light Emitting Diode.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The purpose of this thesis work is to design and fabricates organic-inorganic hetero junction White Light Emitting Diode (WLED). In this WLED, inorganic material… (more)

Lubuna Beegum, Shafeek

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Inorganic chemistry can provide insight and improve technical issues surrounding nuclear power production and waste...

52

NSF/DOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics NSFDOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle...

53

Application of Oak Ridge Inorganic Membrane  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oak Ridge Inorganic Membrane Oak Ridge Inorganic Membrane Technology to Cat Cracker Recycle Gas Hydrogen* FINAL REPORT DOE FEW FEAC324 June 2003 L.D. Trowbridge *AKA: Application of Inorganic Membrane Technology to Hydrogen-Hydrocarbon Separations ORNL/TM-2003/139 Application of Inorganic Membrane Technology To Hydrogen-hydrocarbon Separations June 2003 Prepared by L. D. Trowbridge DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge: Web site: http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following source: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone: 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847)

54

Polygonal model for layered inorganic nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiwalled inorganic nanotubes with circular cross sections must have either an incoherent interface or a large amount of strain. However, nanotubes with a polygonal cross section can have a coherent interface with ...

Tibbetts, Kevin

55

Inorganic nanotubes and electro-fluidic devices fabricated therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nanofluidic devices incorporating inorganic nanotubes fluidly coupled to channels or nanopores for supplying a fluid containing chemical or bio-chemical species are described. In one aspect, two channels are fluidly interconnected with a nanotube. Electrodes on opposing sides of the nanotube establish electrical contact with the fluid therein. A bias current is passed between the electrodes through the fluid, and current changes are detected to ascertain the passage of select molecules, such as DNA, through the nanotube. In another aspect, a gate electrode is located proximal the nanotube between the two electrodes thus forming a nanofluidic transistor. The voltage applied to the gate controls the passage of ionic species through the nanotube selected as either or both ionic polarities. In either of these aspects the nanotube can be modified, or functionalized, to control the selectivity of detection or passage.

Yang, Peidong (Kensington, CA); Majumdar, Arunava (Orinda, CA); Fan, Rong (Pasadena, CA); Karnik, Rohit (Cambridge, MA)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Basic First Aid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Keep this list handy so you'll know how to give basic first aid to treat cuts, heat exhaustion, and other accidents and injuries....

Schoessow, Courtney

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

57

Basic Energy Sciences Jobs  

Office of Science (SC) Website

General EngineerPhysical Scientist
15 DE SC HQ 011
Office: Basic Energy Sciences
URL:

58

Energy Basics Website Contact  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

his form is used to submit comments, report problems, and/or ask questions about information on the Energy Basics website.

59

Basic Microfluidic Lithographic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHAPTER 2 Basic Microfluidic and Soft Lithographic Techniques Sindy K.Y. Tang and George M in these devices are based on those developed for microfluidics used in biochemical anal- ysis. This chapter describes the basic ideas of microfluidics. We first summarize the materials most commonly used

Prentiss, Mara

60

Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Matter using Inorganic and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Matter using Inorganic and Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Matter using Inorganic and Organic Species as Tracers Title Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Matter using Inorganic and Organic Species as Tracers Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Wang, Yungang, Philip K. Hopke, X. Xia, Oliver V. Rattigan, David C. Chalupa, and M. J. Source Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 55 Start Page 525 Pagination 525-532 Date Published 01/2012 Keywords source apportionment positive matrix factorization (pmf) particulate matter (pm) molecular markers (mm) aethalometer delta-c Abstract Source apportionment is typically performed on chemical composition data derived from particulate matter (PM) samples. However, many common sources no longer emit significant amounts of characteristic trace elements requiring the use of more comprehensive chemical characterization in order to fully resolve the PM sources. Positive matrix factorization (EPA PMF, version 4.1) was used to analyze 24-hr integrated molecular marker (MM), secondary inorganic ions, trace elements, carbonaceous species and light absorption data to investigate sources of PM2.5 in Rochester, New York between October 2009 and October 2010 to explore the role of specific MMs. An eight-factor solutionwas found for which the factors were identified as isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA), airborne soil, other SOA, diesel emissions, secondary sulfate, wood combustion, gasoline vehicle, and secondary nitrate contributing 6.9%, 12.8%, 3.7%, 7.8%, 45.5%, 9.1%, 7.9%, and 6.3% to the average PM2.5 concentration, respectively Concentrations of pentacosane, hexacosane, heptacosane, and octacosane in the gasoline vehicles factor were larger compared to diesel emissions. Aethalometer Delta-C was strongly associated with wood combustion. The compounds, n-heptacosanoic acid and n-octacosanoic acid, occasionally used in the past as tracers for road dust, were found to largely associate with SOA in this study. In comparison with a standard PMF analyses without MM, inclusion of themwas necessary to resolve SOA and wood combustion factors in urban areas.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

A BASIC GUIDE TO CHEMICAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING AT UA Much of the information included in this handout can be found at che.eng.ua.edu click on undergraduate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemistry I (N) 4 CHE 125 Introduction to Chemical Engineering 1 ENGR 111 Engineering the Future 1 EN 101 102 General Chemistry II (N) 4 EN 102 English Composition II (FC) 3 ENGR 141 Engineering Concepts Chemistry I 3 CHE 254 Chemical Engineering Calculations 4 MATH 227 Calculus III (MA) 4 PH 105 General

Carver, Jeffrey C.

62

Energy Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services » Energy Basics Services » Energy Basics Energy Basics The basics about renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: learn how they work, what they're used for, and how they can improve our lives, homes, businesses, and industries. The basics about renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: learn how they work, what they're used for, and how they can improve our lives, homes, businesses, and industries. RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES Biomass Technology Basics Geothermal Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydropower Technology Basics Ocean Energy Technology Basics Solar Energy Technology Basics Wind Energy Technology Basics More HOME & BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES Lighting and Daylighting Basics Passive Solar Building Design Basics Space Heating and Cooling Basics

63

Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Battery Basics Vehicle Battery Basics Vehicle Battery Basics November 22, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Batteries are essential for electric drive technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (AEVs). What is a Battery? A battery is a device that stores chemical energy and converts it on demand into electrical energy. It carries out this process through an electrochemical reaction, which is a chemical reaction involving the transfer of electrons. Batteries have three main parts, each of which plays a different role in the electrochemical reaction: the anode, cathode, and electrolyte. The anode is the "fuel" electrode (or "negative" part), which gives up electrons to the external circuit to create a flow of electrons, otherwise

64

Basic Research for Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Coordination Meeting 6/2/2003 DOE DOE - - BES Sponsored Workshop on BES Sponsored Workshop on Basic Research for Hydrogen Basic Research for Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use Production, Storage and Use Walter J. Stevens Walter J. Stevens Director Director Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division Office of Basic Energy Sciences Office of Basic Energy Sciences Workshop dates: May 13-15, 2003 A follow-on workshop to BESAC-sponsored workshop on "Basic Research Needs to Assure a Secure Energy Future" Basic Energy Sciences Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

65

Basic Instructor Training  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Emergency Operations Training Academy, NA 40.2, Readiness and Training, Albuquerque, NM is pleased to announce site certification by the National Training Center for conduct of the Basic Instructor Training class

66

WEATHER HAZARDS Basic Climatology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Wildfires (Jun 02) Recent Declared Disasters in Colorado No Map from FEMA provided #12;National WeatherWEATHER HAZARDS Basic Climatology Colorado Climate Center Funding provided by NOAA Sectoral

67

Acquisition of Basic Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The basic information allows the auditor to take a look of the actual situation of the building and facilities and can be gathered from the technical documentation and administrative documentation that the cli...

Giuliano Dall’O’

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

NETL: Novel Inorganic/Polymer Composite Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Inorganic/Polymer Composite Membranes Novel Inorganic/Polymer Composite Membranes Project No.: DE-FE0007632 Ohio State University is developing a cost-effective design and manufacturing process for new membrane modules that capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas. The membranes consist of a thin, selective inorganic layer, embedded in a polymer structure so that it can be made in a continuous manufacturing process. They will be incorporated in spiral-wound modules for bench-scale tests using coal-fired flue gas. Preliminary cost calculations show that a single-stage membrane process is economically unfavorable, primarily because of the low concentration of CO2 (~14 percent) in the flue gas stream. A two-stage process is more economical, but requires plant operation with a CO2-enriched recycle stream.

69

Removing dissolved inorganic contaminants from water  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the physicochemical treatment processes typically used to remove the more common inorganic contaminants from water and wastewater. These are precipitation, coprecipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, membrane separations by reverse osmosis and electrodialysis, and combinations of these processes. The general criteria for process selection are discussed, and the processes and their typical applications are described.

Clifford, D.; Subramonian, S.; Sorg, T.J.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

FACULTY POSITION IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Department of Chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FACULTY POSITION IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Department of Chemistry Syracuse University The Department of Chemistry at Syracuse University invites applications for a tenure track faculty position at the Assistant Professor level in inorganic chemistry with specialization in materials chemistry (broadly defined

Doyle, Robert

71

Cost Sharing Basics Definitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Sharing Basics Definitions Some funding agencies require the grantee institution the project costs. Cost sharing is defined as project costs not borne by the sponsor. Cost sharing funds may resources or facilities. If the award is federal, only acceptable non-federal costs qualify as cost sharing

Finley Jr., Russell L.

72

MONITORING DROUGHT Basic Climatology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MONITORING DROUGHT Basic Climatology Colorado Climate Center Funding provided by NOAA Sectoral? Streamflow? Plants wilting? Wildfire? Famine? Other? #12;Drought seems so obvious... Yet it remains of 2002 Drought -- Colorado's worst recent Drought August, 2002 #12;Percentage of US in Drought (D1-D4

73

Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- 1 - Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined July 31, 2013 The journal Inorganic Chemistry published a special Forum issue on the role of inorganic chemistry in nuclear energy. John Gordon and Argonne National Laboratory collaborated on the work. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy and the Office

74

Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: October-December 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period October--December 1997. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within six major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of Hot Cell Operations included efforts to optimize the processing conditions for Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford tank sludge, the testing of candidate absorbers and ion exchangers under continuous-flow conditions using actual supernatant from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks, and attempts to develop a cesium-specific spherical inorganic sorbent for the treatment of acidic high-salt waste solutions. Within the area of Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, the problem of solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge was addressed and experimental collaborative efforts with Russian scientists to determine the solidification conditions of yttrium barium, and copper oxides from their melts were completed.

Jubin, R.T.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

LED Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Basics LED Basics Unlike incandescent and fluorescent lamps, LEDs are not inherently white light sources. Instead, LEDs emit nearly monochromatic light, making them highly...

76

Utilization of renewably generated power in the chemical process industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The chemical process industry, mainly the production of organic and inorganic ... On the contrary, the dependency of electricity supply in Germany on volatile wind and solar power increases. To use this power eff...

Julia Riese; Marcus Grünewald; Stefan Lier

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

NREL: Learning - Biofuels Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biofuels Basics Biofuels Basics Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player This video provides an overview of NREL research on converting biomass to liquid fuels. Text Version Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels in use today are ethanol and biodiesel. Ethanol is an alcohol, the same as in beer and wine (although ethanol used as a fuel is modified to make it undrinkable). It is most commonly made by fermenting any biomass high in carbohydrates through a process similar to beer brewing. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but NREL scientists are developing technology to allow it to be made from cellulose

78

Transportation Fuel Basics - Electricity | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transportation Fuel Basics - Electricity Transportation Fuel Basics - Electricity Transportation Fuel Basics - Electricity August 19, 2013 - 5:44pm Addthis Electricity used to power vehicles is generally provided by the electricity grid and stored in the vehicle's batteries. Fuel cells are being explored as a way to use electricity generated on board the vehicle to power electric motors. Unlike batteries, fuel cells convert chemical energy from hydrogen into electricity. Vehicles that run on electricity have no tailpipe emissions. Emissions that can be attributed to electric vehicles are generated in the electricity production process at the power plant. Home recharging of electric vehicles is as simple as plugging them into an electric outlet. Electricity fueling costs for electric vehicles are

79

Biomass Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis Photo of a pair of hands holding corn stover, the unused parts of harvested corn. There are many types of biomass-organic matter such as plants, residue from agriculture and forestry, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes-that can now be used to produce fuels, chemicals, and power. Wood has been used to provide heat for thousands of years. This flexibility has resulted in increased use of biomass technologies. According to the Energy Information Administration, 53% of all renewable energy consumed in the United States was biomass-based in 2007. Biomass technologies break down organic matter to release stored energy from the sun. The process used depends on the type of biomass and its

80

Biomass Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics Biomass Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis Photo of a pair of hands holding corn stover, the unused parts of harvested corn. There are many types of biomass-organic matter such as plants, residue from agriculture and forestry, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes-that can now be used to produce fuels, chemicals, and power. Wood has been used to provide heat for thousands of years. This flexibility has resulted in increased use of biomass technologies. According to the Energy Information Administration, 53% of all renewable energy consumed in the United States was biomass-based in 2007. Biomass technologies break down organic matter to release stored energy from the sun. The process used depends on the type of biomass and its

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics The industrial sector is vital to the U.S. economy, but at the same time consumes the most energy in the country to manufacture products we use every day. Among the most energy-intensive industries are aluminum, chemicals, forest product, glass, metal casting, mining, petroleum refining, and steel. The energy supply chain begins with electricity, steam, natural gas, coal, and other fuels supplied to a manufacturing plant from off-site power plants, gas companies, and fuel distributors. Energy then flows to either a central energy generation utility system or is distributed immediately for direct use. Energy is then processed using a variety of highly energy-intensive systems, including steam, process heating, and

82

Ethanol Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ethanol Fuel Basics Ethanol Fuel Basics Ethanol Fuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis biomass in beekers Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from various plant materials, which collectively are called "biomass." Ethanol contains the same chemical compound (C2H5OH) found in alcoholic beverages. Studies have estimated that ethanol and other biofuels could replace 30% or more of U.S. gasoline demand by 2030. Nearly half of U.S. gasoline contains ethanol in a low-level blend to oxygenate the fuel and reduce air pollution. Ethanol is also increasingly available in E85, an alternative fuel that can be used in flexible fuel vehicles. Several steps are required to make ethanol available as a vehicle fuel. Biomass feedstocks are grown and transported to ethanol production

83

Evaluation of CuAl2O4 as an Oxygen Carrier in Chemical-Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaluation of CuAl2O4 as an Oxygen Carrier in Chemical-Looping Combustion ... † Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Division of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden ...

Mehdi Arjmand; Abdul-Majeed Azad; Henrik Leion; Tobias Mattisson; Anders Lyngfelt

2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

84

Hydropower Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Basics Hydropower Basics Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player Most people associate water power with the Hoover Dam -- a huge...

85

Infrared Basics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Infrared Basics Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Infrared Basics Author Protherm Published Publisher Not Provided, 2013 DOI Not Provided...

86

Introduction Ammonium is the most reduced form of inorganic nitrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

144 Introduction Ammonium is the most reduced form of inorganic nitrogen in seawater time. Uncertainties result from a com- bination of factors including: sample storage effects, contami

87

Chemical Engineering Division research highlights, 1979  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-temperature, rechargeable lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and electric utility load leveling; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (4) coal technology - mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO/sub 2/ sorbent of limestone; (5) heat- and seed- recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (6) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (7) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (8) fuel cycle technology - reprocessing of nuclear fuels, management of nuclear wastes, geologic migration studies, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; (9) magnetic fusion research - lithium processing technology and materials research; and (10) basic energy sciences - homogeneous catalysis, thermodynamics of inorganic and organic materials, environmental chemistry, electrochemistry, and physical properties of salt vapors. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these areas.

None

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Institution Project Title Category A: Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials Massachusetts Institute of Technology Theory and Modeling of Materials for Hydrogen Storage Washington University In Situ NMR Studies of Hydrogen Storage Systems University of Pennsylvania Chemical Hydrogen Storage in Ionic Liquid Media Colorado School of Mines Molecular Hydrogen Storage in Novel Binary Clathrate Hydrates at Near-Ambient Temperatures and Pressures Georgia Institute of Technology First-Principles Studies of Phase Stability and Reaction Dynamics in Complex Metal Hydrides Louisiana Tech University Understanding the Local Atomic-Level Effect of Dopants In Complex Metal Hydrides Using Synchrotron X-ray Absorption

89

Inorganic Nanotubes DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803447  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Angewandte Chemie Inorganic Nanotubes DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803447 Core­Shell PbI2@WS2 Inorganic Nanotubes from Capillary Wetting** Ronen Kreizman, Sung You Hong, Jeremy Sloan, Ronit Popovitz-Biro, Ana cavity. Capillarity has been shown to drive the wetting and filling of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

Davis, Ben G.

90

Microporous Inorganic Membranes for Hydrogen Purification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microporous Microporous Inorganic Membranes for Hydrogen Purification Brian L. Bischoff, Roddie R. Judkins, and Timothy R. Armstrong Oak Ridge National Laboratory Presented at: DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies Arlington, Virginia September 8, 2004 2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Hydrogen Separation Membranes * Non-Porous - Palladium based films - Ion transport membranes * Porous - Ordered microporous membranes (IUPAC Recommendations 2001), e.g. zeolite membranes - Microporous membranes 3 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Microporous Membranes * IUPAC defines micropores as pores smaller than 2nm in diameter * Generally a microporous membrane is made by applying 1 to 3 thin layers to a porous support * Porous support can be ceramic or metallic

91

Determination of organic inorganic associations of trace elements in New Albany shale kerogen  

SciTech Connect

The inorganic and organic trace element associations in the kerogen isolated from the New Albany shale were studied by analysis of kerogen fractions and a mineral residue obtained using density separations. Elemental mass balance data from these fractions indicate a predominantly inorganic association with pyrite and marcasite for several elements (As, Co, Ga, Mn, Ni, Sb and Se). The degree of inorganic association of these elements was determined by treatment of the mineral residue ({approximately}85% FeS{sub 2}) with dilute HNO{sub 3} to remove pyrite and marcasite. The association of several other elements in minerals which are insoluble in dilute HNO{sub 3} (rutile, zircon, etc.) were also determined. The results of these studies indicate an essentially total organic association for V and approximately 95% organic association for Ni in New Albany kerogen. The determination of organically combined elements is very difficult for those elements which are predominantly concentrated in the mineral fraction. Correction methods based on low temperature ashing, chemical removal of pyrite, and physical methods of separation are compared.

Mercer, G.E.; Filby, R.H. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

basic exchange telecommunications radio service  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A service that extends telecommunications service to rural, outlying, and remote...Common abbreviation BETRS. Note: In the basic exchange telecommunications radio service (BETRS), the (a)....

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

MagLab - Basic Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fruits of Faradays discovery of electromagnetic induction. A more recent example is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which originated in basic research that started in the...

94

Toward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers and Inorganic Nanocrystals in Close  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to traditional silicon solar cells due to the capacity of producing high- efficiency solar energy in a cost these advantages and progress, organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells still exhibit much lower PCEs (iToward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers

Lin, Zhiqun

95

MagLab Audio Dictionary: Basic Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basic Research? Now Playing: What's Basic Research? Enable Javascript and Flash to stream the Magnet Minute Greg Boebinger Associated Links Basic...

96

Inorganic Compounds in Biomass Feedstocks. 1. Effect on the Quality of Fast Pyrolysis Oils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inorganic Compounds in Biomass Feedstocks. 1. ... Inorganic compoundsespecially potassium, calcium, sodium, silicon, phosphorus, and chlorineare the main constituents of the ash in biomass feedstocks. ...

F. A. Agblevor; S. Besler

1996-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

97

E-Print Network 3.0 - applied inorganic chemistry Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

inorganic chemistry Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: applied inorganic chemistry Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Our research...

98

Electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly of hybrid thin films using polyelectrolytes and inorganic nanoparticles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Polymer/inorganic nanoparticle hybrid thin films, primarily composed of functional inorganic nanoparticles, are of great interest to researchers because of their interesting electronic, photonic, and optical… (more)

Peng, Chunqing

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Organic Molecule Functionalized Zn3P2 Nanowire Inorganic-Organic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Organic Molecule Functionalized Zn3P2 Nanowire Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics Organic Molecule Functionalized Zn3P2 Nanowire Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics...

100

Lecture outline Basic inventory problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lecture outline Basic inventory problems The economic order quantity An inventory game.B. Powell 1 #12;© 2013 W.B. Powell 2 Basic inventory problems Examples: » Products: · Customers consume). · Rainfall randomly replenishes reservoirs. · Release water from dam to maintain level. » Oil being stored

Powell, Warren B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The Tutorial 1 Basic Editing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

17 Topics Not Covered #12;#12;Basic Editing THE VIM EDITOR IS ONE OF THE MOST powerful text editors. This chapter teaches you the basic set of 10 Vim commands you need to get started editing. In this chapter, you the more advanced editing commands. Before You Start If you have not installed Vim, you need to read

Faccanoni, Gloria

102

Casting inorganic structures with DNA molds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cathodoluminescence, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy study . Nano Lett. 12...Simulating electron energy loss spectroscopy with the...optical activity in hybrid single molecule-plasmonic nanostructures...National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN...Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department...

Wei Sun; Etienne Boulais; Yera Hakobyan; Wei Li Wang; Amy Guan; Mark Bathe; Peng Yin

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

103

SYLLABUS CH317 Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The course has been organized into three modules: 1) Basic skills and the scientific method; 2) Energy. The course does not require students to have extensive prior laboratory experience. As part of the course that include plastics and textiles, and from the formation of low-energy LED light sources to porous materials

104

Research and development of hydrogen separation technology with inorganic membranes  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic membrane technology has long been expected to provide new economical methods for industrial and waste management processes. At this time, the only commercially valuable inorganic membranes are the ultra filters derived from the French process that was used to produce the barrier for the French Gaseous Diffusion Plants. But these membranes are very expensive and have limited areas of application. Over the past fifteen years, scientists now in the Inorganic Membrane Technology Laboratory (IMTL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have developed theories and processes for inorganic membranes that can be used to design and produce inorganic membranes for a very broad range of applications. A part of the fabrication process is an adaptive spinoff from the still classified process used to manufacture barriers for the U.S. Gaseous Diffusion Process. Although that part of the process is classified, it is a very flexible and adaptable process and it can be used with a broad range of materials. With the theories and design capabilities developed in the last fifteen years, this new adaptive manufacturing technology can be used to manufacture commercial inorganic membranes that are not useful for the separation of uranium isotopes and they have little or no relation to the barriers that were used to separate uranium isotopes. The development and deployment of such inorganic membranes can be very beneficial to U.S. industry. Inorganic membranes can be specifically designed and manufactured for a large number of different applications. Such membranes can greatly improve the efficiency of a broad range of industrial processes and provide new technology for waste management. These inorganic membranes have the potential for major energy savings and conservation of energy. They can provide the means for significant improvements in the competitiveness of US Industry and improve the economy and health and welfare of the nation.

Fain, D.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Polyelectrolyte multilayers as nanostructured templates for inorganic synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin film nanocomposites consisting of inorganic matter embedded within a soft polymeric matrix on the nanometer length scale are an important class of materials with potential application in optoelectronics and photonics, ...

Wang, Tom Chih-Hung, 1973-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nano-technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light, have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging ...

Yafei Zhang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang…

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Is thioacetamide a serious health hazard in inorganic chemistry laboratories?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Is thioacetamide a serious health hazard in inorganic chemistry laboratories? ... The dangerous properties of thioacetamide seemingly are not well known by many of those who use it; presented here is a collection of data on its toxic effects. ...

Hannu Elo

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

The Inorganic Chemistry of Biomass Combustion: Problems and Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High temperature molten products of the combustion of biomass present special problems related to fouling and ... performed calculations of the total inorganic chemistry of biomass combustion using a free energy ...

M. Blander

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Daylighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Daylighting Basics Daylighting Basics Daylighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 11:24am Addthis Energy 101: Daylighting Basics This video explains how homeowners and businesses can use highly efficient, strategically placed windows to save money. Text Version Daylighting is the use of windows and skylights to bring sunlight into buildings. Daylighting in businesses and commercial buildings can result in substantial savings on electric bills, and not only provides a higher quality of light but also improves productivity and health. Daylighting in schools has even improved student grades and attendance. Today's highly energy-efficient windows, as well as advances in lighting design, allow efficient use of windows to reduce the need for artificial lighting during daylight hours without causing heating or cooling problems.

110

Basic Control of Parabolic Troughs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The chapter outlines the main features of the different modeling and basic control approaches used during the last 25 years to control the distributed collector systems (DCS). The DCS may be described by a dis...

Prof. Eduardo F. Camacho; Manuel Berenguel…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Electronic imaging fundamentals: Basic theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Introduction of the computer into the field of medical imaging, as typified by the extensive use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), created an important need for a basic understanding of the principles ...

Kalman N. Vizy P.E.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Estimating background concentrations of inorganic analytes from on-site soil sample data  

SciTech Connect

At Superfund sites, regulatory agencies have commonly required that an extensive off-site study be performed to identify background concentrations of chemicals of concern in the sample medium for the purpose of establishing action levels. However, in an effort to save time and money, graphic statistics were used to estimate background concentrations of inorganic chemicals from 127 on-site soil samples collected at Andersen Air Force Base, a Superfund site on Guam. The statistical method used for this evaluation utilized probability plots, and was a modification of a technique used in mineral exploration to identify anomalous and background geochemical data. This paper provides an overview of the modified statistical method and its application at Andersen Air Force Base, and the results of the evaluation, including estimated background concentrations.

Cook, P.D. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

Reverse osmosis treatment to remove inorganic contaminants from drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research project was to determine the removal of inorganic contaminants from drinking water using several state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membrane elements. A small 5-KGPD reverse osmosis system was utilized and five different membrane elements were studied individually with the specific inorganic contaminants added to several natural Florida ground waters. Removal data were also collected on naturally occurring substances.

Huxstep, M.R.; Sorg, T.J.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Organic—inorganic hybrid solar cells: A comparative review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organic materials have recently become of great interest for photovoltaic applications, due to their potential to utilise high throughput, solution phase processing, which will lead to low cost electricity production. Hybrid solar cells combine organic and inorganic materials with the aim of utilising the low cost cell production of organic photovoltaics (OPV) as well as obtaining other advantages, such as tuneable absorption spectra, from the inorganic component. Whilst hybrid solar cells have the potential to achieve high power conversion efficiencies (PCE), currently obtained efficiencies are quite low. The design of the inorganic material used as the electron acceptor in hybrid solar cells, particularly the electronic structure, is crucial to the performance of the device. There exists an optimal electronic structure design for an inorganic acceptor. To date, four major material types have been investigated, being cadmium compounds, silicon, metal oxide nanoparticles and low band gap nanoparticles. Currently, Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) quantum dots represent the state of the art, yielding a PCE of greater than 4%. This review compares the electronic structure of these materials with the optimal design components of an inorganic material and also explores possible limitations to the PCE of these devices, such as nanomorphology control and nanoparticle surface chemistry. This report provides the reader with a concise synthesis of the current state of the art for bulk heterojunction organic—inorganic hybrid solar cells. Additionally, it highlights key research areas which require attention to allow for the commercialisation of this technology.

Matthew Wright; Ashraf Uddin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Biopower Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

gas. This process offers several advantages over directly burning the biomass: The biogas can be cleaned and filtered to remove problem chemical compounds. The gas can be used...

116

Controlled synthesis of hyper-branched inorganic nanocrystals withrich three-dimensional structures  

SciTech Connect

Studies of crystal growth kinetics are tightly integrated with advances in the creation of new nanoscale inorganic building blocks and their functional assemblies 1-11. Recent examples include the development of semiconductor nanorods which have potential uses in solar cells 12-17, and the discovery of a light driven process to create noble metal particles with sharp corners that can be used in plasmonics 18,19. In the course of studying basic crystal growth kinetics we developed a process for preparing branched semiconductor nanocrystals such as tetrapods and inorganic dendrimers of precisely controlled generation 20,21. Here we report the discovery of a crystal growth kinetics regime in which a new class of hyper-branched nanocrystals are formed. The shapes range from 'thorny balls', to tree-like ramified structures, to delicate 'spider net'-like particles. These intricate shapes depend crucially on a delicate balance of branching and extension. The multitudes of resulting shapes recall the diverse shapes of snowflakes 22.The three dimensional nature of the branch points here, however, lead to even more complex arrangements than the two dimensionally branched structures observed in ice. These hyper-branched particles not only extend the available three-dimensional shapes in nanoparticle synthesis ,but also provide a tool to study growth kinetics by carefully observing and modeling particle morphology.

Kanaras, Antonios G.; Sonnichsen, Carsten; Liu, Haitao; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2005-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

117

Inorganic Nanoarchitectures by Organic Self Assembly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.2 Photonic device architectures for enhanced light absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 4 Experimental and analytical techniques 59 4... T 1 T 2 T 3 T c T 5 fr e e e n e rg y ? G f A f ’’ A f ’ A b 5 ?m C C’ Figure 1.2: Phase separation of polymer blends. a) Schematic of two chemically distinct ho- mopolymer chains. b) Atomic force microscopy image of a phase separated polymer film...

Guldin, Stefan

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

118

Biodiesel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Basics Biodiesel Basics Biodiesel Basics July 30, 2013 - 2:43pm Addthis Looking for Biodiesel stations? Checkout the Alternative Fuels Data Center station locator. Biodiesel station locator Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases. What is Biodiesel? Biodiesel is a liquid fuel made up of fatty acid alkyl esters, fatty acid methyl esters, or long-chain mono alkyl esters. It is produced from renewable sources such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats and is a cleaner-burning replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel. It is nontoxic and biodegradable. Like petroleum diesel, biodiesel is used to fuel compression-ignition (diesel) engines. B20, which is 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel, is

119

Biopower Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biopower Basics Biopower Basics Biopower Basics August 14, 2013 - 12:35pm Addthis Biopower is the production of electricity or heat from biomass resources. With 10 gigawatts of installed capacity, biopower technologies are proven options in the United States today. Biopower technologies include direct combustion, co-firing, and anaerobic digestion. Direct Combustion Most electricity generated from biomass is produced by direct combustion using conventional boilers. These boilers primarily burn waste wood products from the agriculture and wood-processing industries. When burned, the wood produces steam, which spins a turbine. The spinning turbine then activates a generator that produces electricity. Co-Firing Co-firing involves replacing a portion of the petroleum-based fuel in

120

Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lighting Basics Lighting Basics Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:12pm Addthis Text Version There are many different types of artificial lights, all of which have different applications and uses. Types of lighting include: Fluorescent Lighting High-intensity Discharge Lighting Incandescent Lighting LED Lighting Low-pressure Sodium Lighting. Which type is best depends on the application. See the chart below for a comparison of lighting types. Lighting Comparison Chart Lighting Type Efficacy (lumens/watt) Lifetime (hours) Color Rendition Index (CRI) Color Temperature (K) Indoors/Outdoors Fluorescent Straight Tube 30-110 7000-24,000 50-90 (fair to good) 2700-6500 (warm to cold) Indoors/outdoors Compact Fluorescent 50-70 10,000 65-88 (good) 2700-6500 (warm to cold) Indoors/outdoors

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Biopower Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biopower Basics Biopower Basics Biopower Basics August 14, 2013 - 12:35pm Addthis Biopower is the production of electricity or heat from biomass resources. With 10 gigawatts of installed capacity, biopower technologies are proven options in the United States today. Biopower technologies include direct combustion, co-firing, and anaerobic digestion. Direct Combustion Most electricity generated from biomass is produced by direct combustion using conventional boilers. These boilers primarily burn waste wood products from the agriculture and wood-processing industries. When burned, the wood produces steam, which spins a turbine. The spinning turbine then activates a generator that produces electricity. Co-Firing Co-firing involves replacing a portion of the petroleum-based fuel in

122

Biofuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biofuel Basics Biofuel Basics Biofuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 11:38am Addthis Text Version Photo of a woman in goggles handling a machine filled with biofuels. Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels produced from biomass. Most biofuels are used for transportation, but some are used as fuels to produce electricity. The expanded use of biofuels offers an array of benefits for our energy security, economic growth, and environment. Current biofuels research focuses on new forms of biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, and on biofuels conversion processes. Ethanol Ethanol-an alcohol-is made primarily from the starch in corn grain. It is most commonly used as an additive to petroleum-based fuels to reduce toxic air emissions and increase octane. Today, roughly half of the gasoline sold in the United States includes 5%-10% ethanol.

123

Transportation Fuel Basics - Electricity | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electricity Electricity Transportation Fuel Basics - Electricity August 19, 2013 - 5:44pm Addthis Electricity used to power vehicles is generally provided by the electricity grid and stored in the vehicle's batteries. Fuel cells are being explored as a way to use electricity generated on board the vehicle to power electric motors. Unlike batteries, fuel cells convert chemical energy from hydrogen into electricity. Vehicles that run on electricity have no tailpipe emissions. Emissions that can be attributed to electric vehicles are generated in the electricity production process at the power plant. Home recharging of electric vehicles is as simple as plugging them into an electric outlet. Electricity fueling costs for electric vehicles are reasonable compared to gasoline, especially if consumers take advantage of

124

Chemical Sciences Division annual report 1994  

SciTech Connect

The division is one of ten LBL research divisions. It is composed of individual research groups organized into 5 scientific areas: chemical physics, inorganic/organometallic chemistry, actinide chemistry, atomic physics, and chemical engineering. Studies include structure and reactivity of critical reaction intermediates, transients and dynamics of elementary chemical reactions, and heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis. Work for others included studies of superconducting properties of high-{Tc} oxides. In FY 1994, the division neared completion of two end-stations and a beamline for the Advanced Light Source, which will be used for combustion and other studies. This document presents summaries of the studies.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Cosmic Particle Acceleration: Basic Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cosmic-rays are ubiquitous, but their origins are surprisingly difficult to understand. A review is presented of some of the basic issues common to cosmic particle accelerators and arguments leading to the likely importance of diffusive shock acceleration as a general explanation. The basic theory of diffusive shock acceleration is outlined, followed by a discussion of some of the key issues that still prevent us from a full understanding of its outcomes. Some recent insights are mentioned at the end that may help direct ultimate resolution of our uncertainties.

T. W. Jones

2000-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

126

How does landfill leachate affect the chemical processes in a lake system downgradient from a landfill site?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A field study on the geochemical properties of a chemically-stressed limnic environment was performed in Lake Silbersee, which receives leachate water of high inorganic loading from an upgradient landfill site. T...

Thomas Striebel; Wolfgang Schäfer; Stefan Peiffer

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

BASICS OF GENERALIZED PARTON DISTRIBUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of the theory of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is given. We discuss the basic concepts of the GPD theory and relationship between GPDs and simpler phenomenological functions, viz. form factors, parton densities and distribution amplitudes. A special emphasis is given to the formulation of GPDs in terms of double distributions.

Anatoly Radyushkin

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Single molecule fluorescence (the basics)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single molecule fluorescence (the basics) #12;light time light time No averaging, no need;knrkr S0 S1 Iph . . Iexc #12;Single molecule emitters #12;K. Brejc et.al., PNAS 94 (1997) 2306 1 nm glass, notch holographic, multidielectric,... #12;Optical schemes to detect single molecules Excitation

Ritort, Felix

129

Hydrogen Delivery - Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Delivery Hydrogen Delivery - Basics Hydrogen Delivery - Basics Photo of light-duty vehicle at hydrogen refueling station. Infrastructure is required to move hydrogen from the...

130

Electricity Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Vehicles & Fuels Fuels Electricity Fuel Basics Electricity Fuel Basics August 19, 2013 - 5:44pm Addthis Electricity used to power vehicles is generally provided by the...

131

Alternative Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ethanol Hydrogen Natural Gas Propane Addthis Related Articles Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics Glossary of Energy-Related Terms Natural Gas Fuel Basics...

132

Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Basics for Sustainability Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability Institutional change integrates technology, policy, and behavior to make new sustainability practices and...

133

Heterostructures based on inorganic and organic van der Waals systems  

SciTech Connect

The two-dimensional limit of layered materials has recently been realized through the use of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures composed of weakly interacting layers. In this paper, we describe two different classes of vdW heterostructures: inorganic vdW heterostructures prepared by co-lamination and restacking; and organic-inorganic hetero-epitaxy created by physical vapor deposition of organic molecule crystals on an inorganic vdW substrate. Both types of heterostructures exhibit atomically clean vdW interfaces. Employing such vdW heterostructures, we have demonstrated various novel devices, including graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and MoS{sub 2} heterostructures for memory devices; graphene/MoS{sub 2}/WSe{sub 2}/graphene vertical p-n junctions for photovoltaic devices, and organic crystals on hBN with graphene electrodes for high-performance transistors.

Lee, Gwan-Hyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chul-Ho [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Zande, Arend M. van der [Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC), Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Han, Minyong [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Cui, Xu; Arefe, Ghidewon; Hone, James [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Nuckolls, Colin [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Heinz, Tony F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Kim, Philip, E-mail: pk2015@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Chemical Transformations | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Chemical Transformations Chemical Transformations Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, & Biosciences (CSGB) Division CSGB Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation Hubs Scientific Highlights Reports & Activities Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Research Areas Chemical Transformations Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Research themes include the characterization, control, and optimization of chemistry in many forms. Catalysis science underpins the design of new catalytic methods for the clean and efficient production of fuels and chemicals and emphasizes inorganic and organic complexes; interfacial chemistry, nanostructured and supramolecular catalysts, photocatalysis and electrochemistry, and bio-inspired catalytic processes. Heavy element

135

Chemical Sciences Division | Advanced Materials |ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Sciences Chemical Sciences Division SHARE Chemical Sciences Division The Chemical Sciences Division performs discovery and uses inspired research to understand, predict, and control the physical processes and chemical transformations at multiple length and time scales, especially at interfaces. The foundation of the division is a strong Basic Energy Sciences (BES) portfolio that pushes the frontiers of catalysis, geosciences, separations and analysis, chemical imaging, neutron science, polymer science, and interfacial science. Theory is closely integrated with materials synthesis and characterization to gain new insights into chemical transformations and processes with the ultimate goal of predictive insights. Applied research programs naturally grow out of our fundamental

136

Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coordinator Basics to Coordinator Basics to someone by E-mail Share Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics on Facebook Tweet about Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics on Twitter Bookmark Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics on Google Bookmark Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics on Delicious Rank Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics on Digg Find More places to share Clean Cities: Clean Cities Coordinator Basics on AddThis.com... Coordinator Basics Clean Cities Program Structure Reference Materials Technical Support Fundraising Redesignation Outreach Education & Webinars Meetings Reporting Contacts Clean Cities Coordinator Basics Explore these resources for basic information to help you effectively support your Clean Cities coalition. Icon of an organization chart. Program Structure

137

NREL: Learning - Energy Storage Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Storage Basics Energy Storage Basics The demand for electricity is seldom constant over time. Excess generating capacity available during periods of low demand can be used to energize an energy storage device. The stored energy can then be used to provide electricity during periods of high demand, helping to reduce power system loads during these times. Energy storage can improve the efficiency and reliability of the electric utility system by reducing the requirements for spinning reserves to meet peak power demands, making better use of efficient baseload generation, and allowing greater use of renewable energy technologies. A "spinning reserve" is a generator that is spinning and synchronized with the grid, ready for immediate power generation - like a car engine running with the gearbox

138

NREL: Learning - Distributed Energy Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Distributed Energy Basics Distributed Energy Basics Photo of transmission towers and lines extending for miles towards a pink sunset in the distance. Distributed energy technologies can relieve transmission bottlenecks by reducing the amount of electricity that must be sent long distances down high-voltage power lines. Distributed energy refers to a variety of small, modular power-generating technologies that can be combined with load management and energy storage systems to improve the quality and/or reliability of the electricity supply. They are "distributed" because they are placed at or near the point of energy consumption, unlike traditional "centralized" systems, where electricity is generated at a remotely located, large-scale power plant and then transmitted down power lines to the consumer.

139

Microhydropower Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics Basics Microhydropower Basics August 15, 2013 - 3:09pm Addthis Microhydropower systems are small hydroelectric power systems of less than 100 kilowatts (kW) used to produce mechanical energy or electricity for farms, ranches, homes, and villages. How a Microhydropower System Works All hydropower systems use the energy of flowing water to produce electricity or mechanical energy. Although there are several ways to harness moving water to produce energy, "run-of-the-river systems," which do not require large storage reservoirs, are most often used for microhydropower systems. Illustration of an example microhydropower system. A river flows down from some hills. The river first flows through an intake, which is indicated as two white walls on each side of the river. The intake diverts water to a canal. From the canal, the water travels to a forebay, which looks like a white, rectangular, aboveground pool. A pipeline, called a penstock, extends from the forebay to a building, called the powerhouse. You can see inside the powerhouse, which contains a turbine and other electric generation equipment. The water flows in and out of the powerhouse, returning to the river. Power lines also extend from the powerhouse, along and through two electrical towers, to a house that sits near the river's edge.

140

Poster Presentations 1 Poster Presentation Basics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basics Poster Presentations 1 Poster Presentation Basics #12;Poster presentations involve two things Poster Presentation Basics2 Creating an effective poster The oral presentation you do standing by your poster #12;Effective posters A poster should convey the basic, most crucial points of your work

Texas at Arlington, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Just the Basics to Just the Basics to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Just the Basics on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Fuels & Lubricants Materials Technologies Just the Basics Technology Overviews Biodiesel Combustion Diesel Engine Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles Ethanol Fuel Cells Hydrogen Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Propane)

142

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Basics Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Blends Production & Distribution Specifications Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fuel Basics Related Information National Biofuels Action Plan Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be

143

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Basics to Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Production & Distribution Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Propane Fuel Basics Propane dispenser Also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or autogas, propane is a clean-burning, high-energy alternative fuel that's been used for decades to

144

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Basics to Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends Specifications Production & Distribution Feedstocks Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Fuel Basics Related Information National Biofuels Action Plan Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from various plant materials collectively

145

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Basics to Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Hydrogen Basics Production & Distribution Research & Development Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely used today as a

146

Phonon Confinement Effects in Hybrid Virus-Inorganic Nanotubes for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phonon Confinement Effects in Hybrid Virus-Inorganic Nanotubes for Nanoelectronic Applications as nanotemplates, viruses can actually improve the electron transport properties in semiconductor nanotubes grown nanotubes deposited on tobacco mosaic viruses, the confined acoustic phonons are found to be redistributed

Fonoberov, Vladimir

147

Engineering Organic/inorganic hybrids comprise a mixture of oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

examine the current status of using organic/inorganic hybrids in fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells, and reactions on solid oxide fuel cell catalysts. The objectives of his research program are (i) developing of potential applications in coatings, fuel cells, solar cells, and sensors. Organic amino (-NH2) silane

148

Rapid extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon from seawater and groundwater samples for radiocarbon dating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The focus of this thesis is the design and development of a system for rapid extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon from seawater and groundwater samples for radiocarbon dating. The Rapid Extraction of Dissolved Inorganic ...

Gospodinova, Kalina Doneva

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Chemical Sciences Division: Annual report 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Sciences Division (CSD) is one of twelve research Divisions of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a Department of Energy National Laboratory. The CSD is composed of individual groups and research programs that are organized into five scientific areas: Chemical Physics, Inorganic/Organometallic Chemistry, Actinide Chemistry, Atomic Physics, and Physical Chemistry. This report describes progress by the CSD for 1992. Also included are remarks by the Division Director, a description of work for others (United States Office of Naval Research), and appendices of the Division personnel and an index of investigators. Research reports are grouped as Fundamental Interactions (Photochemical and Radiation Sciences, Chemical Physics, Atomic Physics) or Processes and Techniques (Chemical Energy, Heavy-Element Chemistry, and Chemical Engineering Sciences).

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - People - Catalysis and Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Projects Support Electrochemical Projects Support Walter F. Podolski, Chemical Engineer and Group Leader phone: 630/252-7558, fax: 630/972-4430, podolski@anl.gov Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University Technical contract management and support of research, development, and demonstration of fuel-cell-powered vehicles Thomas G. Benjamin, Chemical Engineer phone: 630/252-1632, fax: 630/252-4176, e-mail: benjamin@anl.gov BS, MS Chemical Engineering, University of Connecticut MBA University of Chicago Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells Hydrogen storage William L. Cleary, Mechanical Engineer, Project Manager phone: 202/506-1570 e-mail: bill.cleary@ee.DOE.gov John Kopasz, Inorganic Chemist phone : 630/252-7531, fax : 630/972-4405, e-mail: kopasz@anl.gov Ph.D., Inorganic Chemistry, State University of New York at Buffalo

151

Basic photovoltaic principles and methods  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Catalyst for splitting water &Catalyst for splitting water & Synthetic Modeling of InorganicSynthetic Modeling of Inorganic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Importance Hydrogen technology in fuel cellsHydrogen technology in fuel cells As a combustion fuel, it producesCatalyst for splitting water &Catalyst for splitting water & Synthetic Modeling of Inorganic of evolution ·Optimized catalyst for water splitting in all oxygenic phototrophs S0 S4 S1 S2 S3 O2 2 H O2 e- e

Petta, Jason

153

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Electricity Fuel Electricity Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Electricity Basics Production & Distribution Research & Development Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Electricity Fuel Basics Photo of a plug-in hybrid vehicle fueling. Electricity is considered an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act

154

Hybrid Core-Shell Nanowire Forests as Self-Selective Chemical Connectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hybrid Core-Shell Nanowire Forests as Self-Selective Chemical Connectors Hyunhyub Ko,,,§,| Jongho are presented that limit their successful operation. Here, we report unisex, chemical connectors based on hybridW bonding interactions of hybrid inorganic/organic NW forests. The weak vdW bond strengths result in the low

Javey, Ali

155

EIA - Natural Gas Analysis Basics  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

for Natural Gas Basics for Natural Gas Basics Where Our Natural Gas Comes From Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas Statistics Natural Gas Kid's Page (Not Just for Kids) How natural gas was formed, how we get it, how it is stored and delivered, how it is measured, what it is used for, how it affects the environment and more. Natural Gas Residential Choice This site provides an overview of the status of natural gas industry restructuring in each state, focusing on the residential customer class. About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines State Energy Profiles What role does liquefied natural gas (LNG) play as an energy source for the United States? This Energy In Brief discusses aspects of LNG industry in the United States. LNG is natural gas that has been cooled to about minus 260 degrees Fahrenheit for shipment and/or storage as a liquid. Growth in LNG imports to the United States has been uneven in recent years, with substantial changes in year-over-year imports as a result of suppliersÂ’ decisions to either bring spare cargos to the United States or to divert cargos to countries where prices may be higher. Categories: Imports & Exports/Pipelines (Released, 12/11/2009)

156

Chemical process hazards analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Effects of composted dairy manure on soil chemical properties and forage yield and nutritive value of coastal Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research was conducted to compare the effects of composted dairy manure and raw dairy manure alone, or in combination with supplemental inorganic fertilizer, on soil chemical properties and Coastal bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] yield...

Helton, Thomas J.

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

158

Recycling of cleach plant filtrates by electrodialysis removal of inorganic non-process elements.  

SciTech Connect

Water use in the pulp and paper industry is very significant, and the U.S. pulp and paper industries as well as other processing industries are actively pursuing water conservation and pollution prevention by in-process recycling of water. Bleach plant effluent is a large portion of the water discharged from a typical bleached kraft pulp mill. The recycling of bleach plant effluents to the kraft recovery cycle is widely regarded as an approach to low effluent bleached kraft pulp production. The focus of this work has been on developing an electrodialysis process for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached Kraft pulp mills. Electrodialysis is uniquely suited as a selective kidney to remove non-process elements (NPEs) from bleach plant effluent before they reach the chemical recovery cycle. Using electrodialysis for selective NPE removal can prevent the problems caused by accumulation of inorganic NPEs in the pulping cycle and recovery boiler. In this work, acidic bleach plant filtrates from three mills using different bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The analyses showed no fundamental differences in the inorganic NPE composition or other characteristics among these filtrates. The majority of total dissolved solids in the effluents were found to be inorganic NPEs. Chloride and nitrate were present at significant levels in all effluent samples. Sodium was the predominant metal ion, while calcium and magnesium were also present at considerable levels. The feasibility of using electrodialysis to selectively remove inorganic NPEs from the acidic bleach effluent was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments with effluents from all these three mills. Although there were some variations in these effluents, chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently from the bleach effluents into a small-volume, concentrated purge stream. This effective removal of inorganic NPEs can enable the mills to recycle bleach effluents to reduce water consumption. The electrodialysis process also effectively retained up to 98% of the organics and can reduce the organic discharge in the mill wastewater. By using suitable commercially available electrodialysis membranes, there were no indications of rapid or irreversible membrane fouling or scale formation, even in extended laboratory scale operations up to 100 hours. Results of laboratory experiments also showed that commercially available membranes properly selected for this process would have good stability to withstand the potentially oxidative conditions of the filtrate. A pilot-scale field demonstration was also conducted at a southern mill, using the D0 filtrate from the bleach plant. During the field demonstration we found serious membrane 2 stack clogging problems, which apparently were caused by fine fibers that escaped through the 5-micron pre-filters, although such a pre-filtration method had been satisfactory in the laboratory tests. Additional R&D is recommended to address this pre-filtration or clogging issue with systems approaches integrating pre-filtration, other separation methods, and stack design. After the pre-filtration/clogging issue is overcome, laboratory development and pilot demonstration are recommended to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the long-term process parameters. The key technical issues here include membrane lives, control and mitigation of fouling and scaling, and cleaning-in-place protocols. From the data collected in this work, a preliminary process design and economic evaluations were performed for a model mill with 1,000-ton/day pulp production that uses a bleaching sequence based on chlorine dioxide. Assuming 3 m{sup 3} acidic effluents to be treated per ton of pulp produced, the electrodialysis process would require a membrane area of about 361 m{sup 2} for this model mill. The energy consumption of the electrodialytic stack for separation is estimated to be about $160/day, and the estimated capital cost of the electrodia

Tsai, S. P.; Pfromm, P.; Henry, M. P.; Fracaro, A. T.; Swanstrom, C. P.; Moon, P.; Energy Systems; Inst. of Paper Science and Tech.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Recycling of bleach plant filtrates by electrodialysis removal of inorganic non-process elements.  

SciTech Connect

Water use in the pulp and paper industry is very significant, and the U.S. pulp and paper industries as well as other processing industries are actively pursuing water conservation and pollution prevention by in-process recycling of water. Bleach plant effluent is a large portion of the water discharged from a typical bleached kraft pulp mill. The recycling of bleach plant effluents to the kraft recovery cycle is widely regarded as an approach to low effluent bleached kraft pulp production. The focus of this work has been on developing an electrodialysis process for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached Kraft pulp mills. Electrodialysis is uniquely suited as a selective kidney to remove non-process elements (NPEs) from bleach plant effluent before they reach the chemical recovery cycle. Using electrodialysis for selective NPE removal can prevent the problems caused by accumulation of inorganic NPEs in the pulping cycle and recovery boiler. In this work, acidic bleach plant filtrates from three mills using different bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The analyses showed no fundamental differences in the inorganic NPE composition or other characteristics among these filtrates. The majority of total dissolved solids in the effluents were found to be inorganic NPEs. Chloride and nitrate were present at significant levels in all effluent samples. Sodium was the predominant metal ion, while calcium and magnesium were also present at considerable levels. The feasibility of using electrodialysis to selectively remove inorganic NPEs from the acidic bleach effluent was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments with effluents from all these three mills. Although there were some variations in these effluents, chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently from the bleach effluents into a small-volume, concentrated purge stream. This effective removal of inorganic NPEs can enable the mills to recycle bleach effluents to reduce water consumption. The electrodialysis process also effectively retained up to 98% of the organics and can reduce the organic discharge in the mill wastewater. By using suitable commercially available electrodialysis membranes, there were no indications of rapid or irreversible membrane fouling or scale formation, even in extended laboratory scale operations up to 100 hours. Results of laboratory experiments also showed that commercially available membranes properly selected for this process would have good stability to withstand the potentially oxidative conditions of the filtrate. A pilot-scale field demonstration was also conducted at a southern mill, using the D0 filtrate from the bleach plant. During the field demonstration we found serious membrane stack clogging problems, which apparently were caused by fine fibers that escaped through the 5-micron pre-filters, although such a pre-filtration method had been satisfactory in the laboratory tests. Additional R&D is recommended to address this pre-filtration or clogging issue with systems approaches integrating pre-filtration, other separation methods, and stack design. After the pre-filtration/clogging issue is overcome, laboratory development and pilot demonstration are recommended to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the long-term process parameters. The key technical issues here include membrane lives, control and mitigation of fouling and scaling, and cleaning-in-place protocols.

Tsai, S. P.; Pfromm, P.; Henry, M. P.; Fracaro, A. T.; Swanstrom, C. P.; Moon, P.

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

160

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Vehicle Conversion Vehicle Conversion Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversion Basics on AddThis.com... Vehicle Conversion Basics Photo of a Ford Transit Connect converted to run on compressed natural gas. A Ford Transit Connect converted to run on compressed natural gas. A converted vehicle or engine is one modified to use a different fuel or

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Water Heating Basics Water Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional...

162

Natural Gas Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Natural Gas Fuel Basics Natural Gas Fuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 4:40pm Addthis Only about one-tenth of 1% of all the natural gas in the United States is currently used for...

163

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Your H2IQ Hydrogen Fuel Cell Basics Hydrogen Fuel Cell Basics Hydrogen is a versatile energy carrier that can be used to power nearly every end-use energy need. The fuel...

164

Wind Energy Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Renewable Energy Wind Wind Energy Resource Basics Wind Energy Resource Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:11pm Addthis Wind energy can be produced anywhere in the world where the wind...

165

Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use was held May 13-15, 2003 to assess the basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. This report is based on t

166

Propane Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Propane Fuel Basics Propane Fuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 4:31pm Addthis Photo of a man standing next to a propane fuel pump with a tank in the background. Propane, also known as...

167

Biodiesel Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Fuel Basics Biodiesel Fuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 2:43pm Addthis Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal...

168

Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 19, 2013 - 5:45pm Addthis Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic...

169

Use of carbonates for biological and chemical synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system of using carbonates, especially water-insoluble or sparing soluble mineral carbonates, for maintaining or increasing dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in aqueous media. In particular, the system generates concentrated dissolve inorganic carbon substrates for photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, or abiotic chemical production of carbonaceous or other compounds in solution. In some embodiments, the invention can also enhance the dissolution and retention of carbon dioxide in aqueous media, and can produce pH buffering capacity, metal ions, and heat, which can be beneficial to the preceding syntheses.

Rau, Gregory Hudson

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

170

7th International Symposium on Inorganic Phosphate Materials - Home  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ISIPM7 Home ISIPM7 Home About ISIPM7 Conference Brochure Organizers Scientific Committee Proceedings Sponsors Speakers Exhibitors Program Call for Abstracts & Posters Registration Hotels Maps Bus Schedule Contact Us isipm7 header About the Conference It is a great pleasure for the organizing committee of the 7th International Symposium on Inorganic Phosphate Materials (ISIPM7) to invite all who are interested in the design and development of inorganic phosphate materials with applications in various domains of modern technology including energy storage, biomaterials, storage of waste, catalysis, and optics. Read more » Dates to Remember July 18 - Abstracts due (new) July 18 - Registration opens July 25 - Paper and poster acceptance (new) October 17 - Final registration and payment due

171

Chemical Reactor Analysis and Optimal Digestion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J 310 Chemical Reactor Analysis and Optimal Digestion An optimal digestion theory can be readily derived from basic principles o f chemical reactor analysis and design Deborah L. Penry and Peter for formulating and solving optimization problems (Bellman 1957), the entire process is optimized only

Jumars, Pete

172

Chapter 3 - Google Hacking Basics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the basics of Google hacking and the functionality of the directory listings that can be used to locate specific files and directories. Google cache is a powerful tool in the hands of an advanced user. It can be used to locate old versions of pages that may expose information that normally would be unavailable to the casual user. The cache can be used to highlight terms in the cached version of a page, even if the terms were not used as part of the query to find that page. An advanced Google user will always pay careful attention to the details contained in the cached page's header, since there can be important information about the date the page was crawled, the terms that were found in the search, whether the cached page contains external images, links to the original page, and the text of the URL used to access the cached version of the page. Directory listings contain a great deal of information that is interesting from a security perspective. The directory listings can be used to determine specific information about the software installed on a server. Traversal techniques can be used to locate information that is often outside the piercing gaze of Google's crawlers. The chapter explores some specific techniques including directory traversal, incremental substitution, and extension walking.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Environmental impacts of petroleum production: Fate of inorganic and organic chemicals in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in USA, and forecasts indicate that by 2020 natural gas and oil consumption will increase by 40% and 29 and inactive tank batteries. Results to date show that the produced water source is a Na-Ca-Cl brine (~150 `A' site, 35 water samples were obtained from an asphaltic pit and an adjacent weathered-oil pit

174

Argonne CNM News: New inorganic semiconductor layers hold promise for solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New inorganic semiconductor layers hold promise for solar energy New inorganic semiconductor layers hold promise for solar energy Inorganic surface ligands Inorganic surface ligands enable facile electron transport between quantum dots and opened novel opportunities for using nanostructures in solar cells. Inorganic dot array Arrays of quantum dots allow fabrication of solar cells by printing and other inexpensive techniques. A team of users from the University of Chicago, working with the NanoBio Interfaces Group, has demonstrated a method that could produce cheaper semiconductor layers for solar cells. The inorganic nanocrystal arrays, created by spraying a new type of colloidal "ink," have excellent electron mobility and could be a step toward addressing fundamental problems with current solar technology.

175

Engineering the Interface Between Inorganic Materials and Cells  

SciTech Connect

To further optimize cell function in hybrid “living materials”, it would be advantageous to render mammalian cells responsive to novel “orthogonal” cues, i.e. signals they would not ordinarily respond to but that can be engineered to feed into defined intracellular signaling pathways. We recently developed an optogenetic method, based on A. thaliana Cry2, for rapid and reversible protein oligomerization in response to blue light. We also demonstrated the ability to use this method to channel the light input into several defined signaling pathways, work that will enhance communication between inorganic devices and living systems.

Schaffer, David

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

Lithium Isotope Analyses of Inorganic Constituents from the Murchison Meteorite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aqueous processes were important modifiers of solid matter during the early stages of solar system history. Lithium isotopes are sensitive indicators of such solid-liquid interactions because 7Li passes preferentially into solution and 6Li remains behind in the solid phase. Lithium isotope ratios of inorganic phases in the Murchison meteorite reveal that the value for the whole rock is simply the average of individual components with widely different isotopic compositions. 7Li content increases from chondrules to phyllosilicate-rich matrices to carbonates, as would be expected from the relative duration each component has spent during aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid.

Mark A. Sephton; Rachael H. James; Philip A. Bland

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

High-Performance Nanostructured Inorganic?Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-Performance Nanostructured Inorganic?Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells ... Although single-crystalline Si-based solar cells are successfully used to harvest solar energy, inexpensive production of photovoltaic (PV) devices at a cost comparable to the energy production cost of fossil fuels has become a critical issue to meet the global energy crisis. ... The photocurrent output of a solar cell based on exciton dissociation from sensitized solar cells depends on the quantum efficiencies of light harvesting (?lh), electron injection (?inj), and electron collection (?cc), which is determined by the competition between recombination and charge collection. ...

Jeong Ah Chang; Jae Hui Rhee; Sang Hyuk Im; Yong Hui Lee; Hi-jung Kim; Sang Il Seok; Md. K. Nazeeruddin; Michael Gratzel

2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

178

NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY Technology Transfer Basic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) Process Success Story NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov Contact Capturing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the flue or...

179

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory - Basic Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fruits of Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic induction. A more recent example is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which originated in basic research that started in the...

180

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Basics Photo of vehicle filling up at renewable hydrogen fueling station. NREL's hydrogen fueling station dispenses hydrogen produced via renewable...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

CHEMICAL MARKETING  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL MARKETING ... The reason, I believe, is that the chemical industry has been blind (until very recently) to the need for paying attention to marketing. ... Its marketing needs are now like those of a mature—no longer a growing—industry. ...

1960-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

182

ATOMISTIC MODELING OF OIL SHALE KEROGENS AND ASPHALTENES ALONG WITH THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH THE INORGANIC MINERAL MATRIX  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to obtain and validate three dimensional atomistic models for the organic matter in both oil shales and oil sands. In the case of oil shales the modeling was completed for kerogen, the insoluble portion of the organic matter; for oil sands it was for asphaltenes, a class of molecules found in crude oil. The three dimensional models discussed in this report were developed starting from existing literature two dimensional models. The models developed included one kerogen, based on experimental data on a kerogen isolated from a Green River oil shale, and a set of six representative asphaltenes. Subsequently, the interactions between these organic models and an inorganic matrix was explored in order to gain insight into the chemical nature of this interaction, which could provide vital information in developing efficient methods to remove the organic material from inorganic mineral substrate. The inorganic substrate used to model the interaction was illite, an aluminum silicate oxide clay. In order to obtain the feedback necessary to validate the models, it is necessary to be able to calculate different observable quantities and to show that these observables both reproduce the results of experimental measurements on actual samples as well as that the observables are sensitive to structural differences between models. The observables that were calculated using the models include 13C NMR spectra, the IR vibrational spectra, and the atomic pair wise distribution function; these were chosen as they are among the methods for which both experimental and calculated values can be readily obtained. Where available, comparison was made to experiment results. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations of pyrolysis were completed on the models to gain an understanding into the nature of the decomposition of these materials when heated.

Facelli, Julio; Pugmire, Ronald; Pimienta, Ian

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

Organic Molecule Functionalized Zn3P2 Nanowire Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Demonstrates self-catalytic schemes for large-scale synthesis of compound semiconductor nanowire powders for inorganic-organic hybrid thermoelectric cells

184

Mold-Templated Inorganic–Organic Hybrid Supraparticles for Codelivery of Drugs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mold-Templated Inorganic–Organic Hybrid Supraparticles for Codelivery of Drugs ... The Bionics Institute acknowledges funding from the Victorian Government's Operational Infrastructure Support Program. ...

James W. Maina; Jiwei Cui; Mattias Björnmalm; Andrew K. Wise; Robert K. Shepherd; Frank Caruso

2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

185

Optimization of material composition and processing parameters for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The widespread adoption of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells has been delayed by low performance. Improving performance requires a firm understanding of how to optimize both… (more)

Salpeter, Garrett Morgan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Apparatus and method for temperature correction and expanded count rate of inorganic scintillation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for temperature correction and count rate expansion of inorganic scintillation detectors. A temperature sensor is attached to an inorganic scintillation detector. The inorganic scintillation detector, due to interaction with incident radiation, creates light pulse signals. A photoreceiver processes the light pulse signals to current signals. Temperature correction circuitry that uses a fast light component signal, a slow light component signal, and the temperature signal from the temperature sensor to corrected an inorganic scintillation detector signal output and expanded the count rate.

Ianakiev, Kiril D. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsue, Sin Tao (Santa Fe, NM); Browne, Michael C. (Los Alamos, NM); Audia, Jeffrey M. (Abiquiu, NM)

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

187

E-Print Network 3.0 - analytical chemistry inorganic Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: analytical chemistry inorganic Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Department of Chemistry Three Year Projection...

188

Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts More Documents &...

189

Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative More Documents & Publications FTA -...

190

On helioseismic tests of basic physics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......helioseismic tests of basic physics J. Christensen-Dalsgaard...AW) 1 Institut for Fysik og Astronomi, Aarhus...information about the basic physics and parameters...of stellar evolution theory - a very particular object...Canuto-Mazzitelli convection theory (Canuto Mazzitelli 1992......

J. Christensen-Dalsgaard; M. P. Di Mauro; H. Schlattl; A. Weiss

2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

191

Matlab-based Optimization Basic Capabilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Matlab-based Optimization Basic Capabilities Gene Cliff (AOE/ICAM - ecliff@vt.edu ) 3:00pm - 4:45pm: Interdisciplinary Center for Applied Mathematics 1 / 28 #12;Matlab-based Optimization Introduction & function functions fminbnd fminsearch lsqnonneg fzero 2 / 28 #12;INTRO: Basic Matlab provides several functions

Crawford, T. Daniel

192

5-Year Plan Boosts Basic Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...goes up, we step back to more basic research,” says Chun Eui Jin, a MOST official. “Industry can take care...capability goes up, we step back to more basic research, says Chun Eui Jin, a MOST official. Industry can take care of itself. Michael...

Michael Baker

1998-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

193

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

194

St. Louis Sites Fact Sheet RADIATION BASICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Engineers, FUSRAP Project Office, 8945 Latty Avenue, Berkeley, Missouri 63134 #12;Rad Basics - 081202St. Louis Sites Fact Sheet RADIATION BASICS "Gateway to Excellence" U.S. Army Corps of Engineers St), St. Louis District, is conducting a radiological cleanup program for four Missouri sites (SLDS, SLAPS

US Army Corps of Engineers

195

Wind Turbine Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Turbine Basics Turbine Basics Wind Turbine Basics July 30, 2013 - 2:58pm Addthis Energy 101: Wind Turbines Basics This video explains the basics of how wind turbines operate to produce clean power from an abundant, renewable resource-the wind. Text Version Wind turbine assembly Although all wind turbines operate on similar principles, several varieties are in use today. These include horizontal axis turbines and vertical axis turbines. Horizontal Axis Turbines Horizontal axis turbines are the most common turbine configuration used today. They consist of a tall tower, atop which sits a fan-like rotor that faces into or away from the wind, a generator, a controller, and other components. Most horizontal axis turbines built today are two- or three-bladed. Horizontal axis turbines sit high atop towers to take advantage of the

196

Wind Turbine Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wind Turbine Basics Wind Turbine Basics Wind Turbine Basics July 30, 2013 - 2:58pm Addthis Energy 101: Wind Turbines Basics This video explains the basics of how wind turbines operate to produce clean power from an abundant, renewable resource-the wind. Text Version Wind turbine assembly Although all wind turbines operate on similar principles, several varieties are in use today. These include horizontal axis turbines and vertical axis turbines. Horizontal Axis Turbines Horizontal axis turbines are the most common turbine configuration used today. They consist of a tall tower, atop which sits a fan-like rotor that faces into or away from the wind, a generator, a controller, and other components. Most horizontal axis turbines built today are two- or three-bladed. Horizontal axis turbines sit high atop towers to take advantage of the

197

Basic Energy SciencesBasic Energy Sciences DOE/EERE Hydrogen Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basic Energy SciencesBasic Energy Sciences DOE/EERE Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting, June 19, 2003 Report on Hydrogen Storage Panel Findings inReport on Hydrogen Storage Panel Findings,Basic Research for Hydrogen Production, Storage and UseStorage and Use A follow-on workshop to BESAC

198

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Fundamental Interactions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Chemical Dynamics * Chemical Dynamics * Solar Conversion Fundamental Interactions flame photosynthesis icon Chemical Dynamics Work focuses on theoretical and experimental investigation of the thermochemistry, dynamics, and kinetics of chemcial reactions in the gas phase, with a particular emphasis on reactions that are important to understanding combusion. Solar Conversion Work focuses on developing a fundamental understanding of structure-function relationships in biological photosynthesis and establishing principles for the design of biomimetic systems for solar energy conversion. Current funding for this work comes primarily from the Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Divisions. April 2011

199

Properties of Mutants of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Lacking Inorganic Carbon Sequestration Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Properties of Mutants of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Lacking Inorganic Carbon SequestrationA is the only active inorganic carbon sequestration system showed low activity of HCO3 ­ uptake and grew under the significance of carbon sequestration in dissipating excess light energy. Keywords: CO2 and HCO3 � uptake -- CO2

Roegner, Matthias

200

Release of Inorganic Phosphate from Irradiated Yeast: Radiation Biodosimetry and Evaluation of Radioprotective Compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...irradiated with ionizing radiation, inorganic...radiation dose and on the...somewhat limited range of the yeast...irradiated with ionizing radiation, inorganic...radiation dose and on the...somewhat limited range of the yeast...represent range ofvaluesfrom...but with dose plotted on...effect of ionizing radiation (27...

Hillel S. Levinson; Esther B. Garber

1967-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Electronic properties of 2D and 3D hybrid organic/inorganic perovskites for optoelectronic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electronic properties of 2D and 3D hybrid organic/inorganic perovskites for optoelectronic, optoelectronic properties, photovoltaic, exciton 1. Introduction Over the past decade, Hybrid Organic/inorganic Perovskites (HOP) have attracted increasing interest in the field of optoelectronics (Mitzi et al. 1995

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

202

ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009 OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENT & REGISTRATION INFORMATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009ACT Basic Training 05/08/2009 OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENT & REGISTRATION INFORMATION ACT Basic Training ­ May 8, 2009 PURPOSE: The ACT Basic Training is designed to help staff who are new to Assertive Community Treatment

Zhou, Yaoqi

203

Organic/inorganic nanocomposites, methods of making, and uses as a permeable reactive barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nanocomposite materials having a composition including an inorganic constituent, a preformed organic polymer constituent, and a metal ion sequestration constituent are disclosed. The nanocomposites are characterized by being single phase, substantially homogeneous materials wherein the preformed polymer constituent and the inorganic constituent form an interpenetrating network with each other. The inorganic constituent may be an inorganic oxide, such as silicon dioxide, formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of an inorganic precursor in the presence of the solvated polymer and metal ion sequestration constituent. The polymer constituent may be any hydrophilic polymer capable of forming a type I nanocomposite such as, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyethyleneoxide (PEO), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and combinations thereof. Nanocomposite materials of the present invention may be used as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remediate contaminated groundwater. Methods for making nanocomposite materials, PRB systems, and methods of treating groundwater are also disclosed.

Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Local Delivery of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) Using Adsorbed Silyl-heparin,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Local Delivery of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) Using Adsorbed Silyl-heparin, Benzyl-heparin, a chemically modified analogue of heparin. The silyl-heparin was adsorbed onto surfaces by hydrophobic interaction via the prosthetic unit and can then be used as a solid-phase adsorbent for bFGF. All the coating

Homes, Christopher C.

206

Photovoltaic Cell Structure Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Structure Basics Structure Basics Photovoltaic Cell Structure Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:50pm Addthis The actual structural design of a photovoltaic (PV), or solar cell, depends on the limitations of the material used in the PV cell. The four basic device designs are: Homojunction Devices Crystalline silicon is the primary example of this kind of cell. A single material-crystalline silicon-is altered so that one side is p-type, dominated by positive holes, and the other side is n-type, dominated by negative electrons. The p/n junction is located so that the maximum light is absorbed near it. The free electrons and holes generated by light deep in the silicon diffuse to the p/n junction and then separate to produce a current if the silicon is of sufficiently high quality. In this homojunction design, these aspects of the cell may be varied to

207

Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 - Electricity Basics 2 - Electricity Basics Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics It's difficult to imagine life without convenient electricity. You just flip a switch or plug in an appliance, and it's there. But how did it get there? Many steps go into providing the reliable electricity we take for granted. This lesson takes a closer look at electricity. It follows the path of electricity from the fuel source to the home, including the power plant and the electric power grid. It also covers the role of electric utilities in the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity. Topcis addressed include: Basics of electricity Generating electricity Using steam, turbines, generator Similarities of power plants Distributing Electricity Generation Transmission Distribution Power grid

208

Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Basics Cooling Basics Absorption Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes. How Absorption Cooling Works An absorption cooling cycle relies on three basic principles: When a liquid is heated it boils (vaporizes) and when a gas is cooled it condenses Lowering the pressure above a liquid reduces its boiling point Heat flows from warmer to cooler surfaces.

209

Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior space to the relatively warm outside environment. An air conditioner uses a cold indoor coil called the evaporator. The condenser, a hot outdoor coil, releases the collected heat outside. The evaporator and condenser coils are serpentine tubing surrounded by aluminum fins. This tubing is usually made of copper.

210

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

211

Solar Energy Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Energy Resource Basics Solar Energy Resource Basics Solar Energy Resource Basics August 21, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis Solar radiation, often called the solar resource, is a general term for the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun. Solar radiation can be captured and turned into useful forms of energy, such as heat and electricity, using a variety of technologies. However, the technical feasibility and economical operation of these technologies at a specific location depends on the available solar resource. Basic Principles Every location on Earth receives sunlight at least part of the year. The amount of solar radiation that reaches any one spot on the Earth's surface varies according to: Geographic location Time of day Season Local landscape Local weather. Because the Earth is round, the sun strikes the surface at different

212

Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

System Basics System Basics Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis A photovoltaic (PV), or solar electric system, is made up of several photovoltaic solar cells. An individual PV cell is usually small, typically producing about 1 or 2 watts of power. To boost the power output of PV cells, they are connected together to form larger units called modules. Modules, in turn, can be connected to form even larger units called arrays, which can be interconnected to produce more power, and so on. In this way, PV systems can be built to meet almost any electric power need, small or large. Illustration of solar cells combined to make a module and modules combined to make an array. The basic PV or solar cell produces only a small amount of power. To produce more power, cells can be interconnected to

213

Greenhouse Gas Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Areas » Greenhouse Gases » Greenhouse Gas Basics Program Areas » Greenhouse Gases » Greenhouse Gas Basics Greenhouse Gas Basics October 7, 2013 - 10:01am Addthis Federal agencies must understand key terms and management basics to successfully manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Greenhouse gases are trace gases in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect." This process keeps the planet habitable. International research has linked human activities to a rapid increase in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere, contributing to major shifts in the global climate. Graphic of the top half of earth depicting current arctic sea ice. A red outline depicts arctic sea ice boundaries in 1979. Current arctic sea ice is shown roughly 50% smaller than the 1979 depiction.

214

Basic Instructor Training | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basic Instructor Training Basic Instructor Training Basic Instructor Training December 5, 2013 - 12:03pm Addthis The Emergency Operations Training Academy, NA 40.2, Readiness and Training, Albuquerque, NM is pleased to announce site certification by the National Training Center for conduct of the Basic Instructor Training class. This one -week, 40 hour course is offered to ensure the quality and consistency of classroom instruction provided at Department of Energy facilities nationwide. The purpose is to equip DOE federal and contractor instructors with best methods and techniques and deliver instruction and practice in classroom activitives that promote student success. The Emergency Operations Training Academy will be offering this class three (3) times per year starting in 2014.

215

Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism  

SciTech Connect

To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism

Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; David Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy We Rely on Energy Every Day Energy is essential in our daily lives. We use it to fuel our cars, grow our food, heat our homes, and run our...

217

ACS calibration pipeline testing: basic image reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hack, Colin Cox Space Telescope Science Institute 28 May 1999 ABSTRACT This report describes the basic. For a detailed description of CALACS, see ACS Instrument Science Report 99-03 by Hack. This report describes

Sirianni, Marco

218

Limitations on Diversity in Basic Science Departments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Limitations on Diversity in Basic Science Departments Phoebe S. Leboy 1,2, * and Janice F. Madden 3 It has been over 30 years since the beginning of...

219

Solar Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:37pm Addthis Solar energy technologies produce electricity from the energy of the sun. Small solar energy systems can provide electricity for...

220

POWER BASIC AND THE 9980/9981  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a single Power Basic ROM set and may be made to shareprogram is burned into ROM and preset to automatically startto generate the 9980 clock. ROM, RAM and input/ output chip

Meng, John

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

222

Active Solar Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:23pm Addthis There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid-either liquid or air-that is heated in the solar energy collectors. The collector is the device in which a fluid is heated by the sun. Liquid-based systems heat water or an antifreeze solution in a "hydronic" collector, whereas air-based systems heat air in an "air collector." Both of these systems collect and absorb solar radiation, then transfer the solar heat directly to the interior space or to a storage system, from which the heat is distributed. If the system cannot provide adequate space heating, an auxiliary or back-up system provides the additional heat. Liquid systems are more often used when storage is included, and are well

223

Physical and chemical parameters in wastewater and at the water-sediment interface in sewer network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physical and chemical parameters in wastewater and at the water- sediment interface in sewer parameters and concentrations of major ions, trace metals and sulphur species in wastewater but also, to the biogeochemical transformation of inorganic and organic compounds present in the wastewater (Ashley et al., 2004

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

JASPERSE CHEM 350 TEST 2 VERSION 2 Ch. 4 The Study of Chemical Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;9. Show an alkyl bromide and some nucleophile that you could use to make the following by SN2. (3 pointsJASPERSE CHEM 350 TEST 2 VERSION 2 Ch. 4 The Study of Chemical Reactions Ch. 5 Sterochemistry Ch. 6 that is needed in each case) for each of the following reactions. (Minor products or inorganic side products need

Jasperse, Craig P.

225

5.111 Principles of Chemical Science, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to chemistry, with emphasis on basic principles of atomic and molecular electronic structure, thermodynamics, acid-base and redox equilibria, chemical kinetics, and catalysis. Introduction to the chemistry of ...

Ceyer, Sylvia Teresse

226

Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: April-June 1998  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during th eperiod April-June 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications.

Jubin, R.T.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Chemical vapor deposition sciences  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. New CVD processes are increasingly complex, with stringent requirements that make it more difficult to commercialize them in a timely fashion. However, a clear understanding of the fundamental science underlying a CVD process, as expressed through computer models, can substantially shorten the time required for reactor and process development. Research scientists at Sandia use a wide range of experimental and theoretical techniques for investigating the science of CVD. Experimental tools include optical probes for gas-phase and surface processes, a range of surface analytic techniques, molecular beam methods for gas/surface kinetics, flow visualization techniques and state-of-the-art crystal growth reactors. The theoretical strategy uses a structured approach to describe the coupled gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer of a CVD process. The software used to describe chemical reaction mechanisms is easily adapted to codes that model a variety of reactor geometries. Carefully chosen experiments provide critical information on the chemical species, gas temperatures and flows that are necessary for model development and validation. This brochure provides basic information on Sandia`s capabilities in the physical and chemical sciences of CVD and related materials processing technologies. It contains a brief description of the major scientific and technical capabilities of the CVD staff and facilities, and a brief discussion of the approach that the staff uses to advance the scientific understanding of CVD processes.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Chemical Occurrences  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Classification of Chemical Occurrence Reports into the following four classes: Occurrences characterized by serious energy release, injury or exposure requiring medical treatment, or severe environmental damage, Occurrences characterized by minor injury or exposure, or reportable environmental release, Occurrences that were near misses including notable safety violations and Minor occurrences.

229

Chemical Sciences Division: Research: Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Programs Programs The Chemical Sciences Division (CSD) is one of Berkeley Laboratory's basic research divisions. The CSD is composed of individual research groups that conduct research in the areas of chemical physics and the dynamics of chemical reactions, the structure and reactivity of transient species, electron spectroscopy, surface chemistry and catalysis, electrochemistry, chemistry of the actinide elements and their relationship to environmental issues, and atomic physics. The division's 28 principal investigators, many of whom are on the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley, direct the individual research projects and the work of 6 staff scientists, 41 postdoctoral researchers, and 75 graduate students. Our research staff continues to achieve fundamental advances in understanding the structure and reactivity of critical reaction intermediates and transients using both state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical methods. In addition, the division supports a strong effort in heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis.

230

r XXXX American Chemical Society A dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja206029a |J. Am. Chem. Soc. XXXX, XXX, 000000 COMMUNICATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

r XXXX American Chemical Society A dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja206029a |J. Am. Chem. Soc. XXXX, XXX, 000 of photosystems I and II are crucial initial steps in the conversion of sunlight to chemical energy via struts and inorganic nodes, constitute a potentially attractive, alternative platform for achieving long

231

DOE Office of Basic Sciences: An Overview of Basic Research Activities...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Basic Energy Sciences Overview Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC ) Grid Storage and the Energy Frontier...

232

Absorption Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:11am Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption coolers available that work on the same principal, but are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. These are also called gas-fired coolers. How Absorption Heat Pumps Work Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

233

LED Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LED Lighting Basics LED Lighting Basics LED Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:07am Addthis Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are light sources that differ from more traditional sources of light in that they are semiconductor devices that produce light when an electrical current is applied. Applying electrical current causes electrons to flow from the positive side of a diode to the negative side. Then, at the positive/negative junction of the diode, the electrons slow down to orbit at a lower energy level. The electrons emit the excess energy as photons of light. LEDs are often used as small indicator lights on various electronic devices. Because of their long life, durability, and efficiency, LEDs are becoming more common in residential, commercial, and outdoor area lighting

234

Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material than other PV systems. PV cells are the most expensive components of a PV system, on a per-area basis. A concentrator makes use of relatively inexpensive materials such as plastic lenses and metal housings to capture the solar energy shining on a fairly large area and focus that energy onto a smaller area-the solar cell. One measure of the effectiveness of this approach is the concentration ratio-in other words, how much concentration the cell is receiving. Concentrator PV systems have several advantages over flat-plate systems. First, concentrator systems reduce the size or number of cells needed and

235

Geothermal Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Resource Basics Resource Basics Geothermal Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Although geothermal heat pumps can be used almost anywhere, most direct-use and electrical production facilities in the United States are located in the west, where the geothermal resource base is concentrated. Current drilling technology limits the development of geothermal resources to relatively shallow water- or steam-filled reservoirs, most of which are found in the western part of the United States. But researchers are developing new technologies for capturing the heat in deeper, "dry" rocks, which would support drilling almost anywhere. Geothermal Resources Map This map shows the distribution of geothermal resources across the United States. If you have trouble accessing this information because of a

236

Wind Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wind Energy Technology Basics Wind Energy Technology Basics Wind Energy Technology Basics August 15, 2013 - 4:10pm Addthis Photo of a hilly field, with six visible wind turbines spinning in the wind. Wind energy technologies use the energy in wind for practical purposes such as generating electricity, charging batteries, pumping water, and grinding grain. Most wind energy technologies can be used as stand-alone applications, connected to a utility power grid, or even combined with a photovoltaic system. For utility-scale sources of wind energy, a large number of turbines are usually built close together to form a wind farm that provides grid power. Several electricity providers use wind farms to supply power to their customers. Stand-alone turbines are typically used for water pumping or

237

Fluorescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fluorescent Lighting Basics Fluorescent Lighting Basics Fluorescent Lighting Basics October 17, 2013 - 5:39pm Addthis Light from a fluorescent lamp is first created by an electric current conducted through an inert gas producing ultraviolet light that is invisible to the human eye. The ultraviolet light in turn interacts with special blends of phosphors coating the interior surface of the fluorescent lamp tube that efficiently converts the invisible light into useful white light. Fluorescent lamps require a special power supply called a ballast that is needed to regulate lamp operating current and provide a compatible start-up voltage. Electronic ballasts perform the same function as a magnetic ballast but outperform the outdated magnetic products by operating at a very high frequency that eliminates flicker and noise while

238

Photovoltaic System Performance Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

System Performance Basics System Performance Basics Photovoltaic System Performance Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:17pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV) systems are usually composed of numerous solar arrays, which in turn, are composed of numerous PV cells. The performance of the system is therefore dependent on the performance of its components. Reliability The reliability of PV arrays is an important factor in the cost of PV systems and in consumer acceptance. However, the building blocks of arrays, PV cells, are considered "solid-state" devices with no moving parts and, therefore, are highly reliable and long-lived. Therefore, reliability measurements of PV systems are usually focused not on cells but on modules and whole systems. Reliability can be improved through fault-tolerant circuit design, which

239

Fuel Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics Basics Fuel Cell Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:09pm Addthis Photo of two hydrogen fuel cells. Fuel cells are an emerging technology that can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for vehicles and electronic devices. How Fuel Cells Work Fuel cells work like batteries, but they do not run down or need recharging. They produce electricity and heat as long as fuel is supplied. A fuel cell consists of two electrodes-a negative electrode (or anode) and a positive electrode (or cathode)-sandwiched around an electrolyte. A fuel, such as hydrogen, is fed to the anode, and air is fed to the cathode. Activated by a catalyst, hydrogen atoms separate into protons and electrons, which take different paths to the cathode. The electrons go through an external circuit, creating a flow of electricity. The protons

240

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:02am Addthis Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Ductless versions of air-source heat pumps. Absorption Heat Pump Uses heat as its energy source. Geothermal Heat Pumps Use the constant temperature of the earth as the exchange medium instead of the outside air temperature. Addthis Related Articles A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar.

242

Electric Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Vehicle Basics Electric Vehicle Basics Electric Vehicle Basics July 30, 2013 - 4:45pm Addthis Text Version Photo of an electric bus driving up a hill. Electricity can be used as a transportation fuel to power battery electric vehicles (EVs). EVs store electricity in an energy storage device, such as a battery. The electricity powers the vehicle's wheels via an electric motor. EVs have limited energy storage capacity, which must be replenished by plugging into an electrical source. In an electric vehicle, a battery or other energy storage device is used to store the electricity that powers the motor. EV batteries must be replenished by plugging the vehicle to a power source. Some EVs have onboard chargers; others plug into a charger located outside the vehicle. Both types use electricity that comes from the power grid. Although

243

Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:06pm Addthis Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable power. These qualities make it an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation applications. Hydrogen is an energy carrier that can be used to store, move, and deliver energy produced from other sources. The energy in hydrogen fuel is derived from the fuels and processes used to produce the hydrogen. Today, hydrogen fuel can be produced through several methods. The most common methods are thermal, electrolytic, and photolytic processes. Thermal Processes Thermal processes for hydrogen production typically involve steam

244

Heating System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating System Basics Heating System Basics Heating System Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:32pm Addthis A variety of heating technologies are available today. You can learn more about what heating systems and heat pumps are commonly used today and how they work below. To learn how to use these technologies in your own home, see the Home Heating Systems section on Energy Saver. Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Wood and Pellet Heating Provides a way to heat a building using biomass or waste sources. Electric Resistance Heating Can be supplied by centralized electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Active Solar Heating Uses the sun to heat either air or liquid and can serve as a supplemental

245

Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Furnace and Boiler Basics Furnace and Boiler Basics Furnace and Boiler Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:50pm Addthis Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Furnaces Furnaces are the most common heating systems used in homes in the United States. They can be all electric, gas-fired (including propane or natural gas), or oil-fired. Boilers Boilers consist of a vessel or tank where heat produced from the combustion of such fuels as natural gas, fuel oil, or coal is used to generate hot water or steam. Many buildings have their own boilers, while other buildings have steam or hot water piped in from a central plant. Commercial boilers are manufactured for high- or low-pressure applications.

246

Ocean Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ocean Energy Technology Basics Ocean Energy Technology Basics Ocean Energy Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:18pm Addthis Text Version Photo of low waves in the ocean. A dock is visible in the background. Oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth's surface. As the world's largest solar collectors, oceans contain thermal energy from the sun and produce mechanical energy from tides and waves. Even though the sun affects all ocean activity, the gravitational pull of the moon primarily drives tides, and wind powers ocean waves. Learn more about: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Tidal Energy Wave Energy Ocean Resources Addthis Related Articles Energy Department Releases New Energy 101 Video on Ocean Power A map generated by Georgia Tech's tidal energy resource database shows mean current speed of tidal streams. The East Coast, as shown above, has strong tides that could be tapped to produce energy. | Photo courtesy of Georgia Institute of Technology

247

Photovoltaic Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photovoltaic Technology Basics Photovoltaic Technology Basics Photovoltaic Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:47pm Addthis Text Version Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy, and PV cells are commonly known as solar cells. Photovoltaics can literally be translated as light-electricity. First used in about 1890, "photovoltaic" has two parts: photo, derived from the Greek word for light, and volt, relating to electricity pioneer Alessandro Volta. And this is what photovoltaic materials and devices do-they convert light energy into electrical energy, as French physicist Edmond Becquerel discovered as early as 1839. Becquerel discovered the process of using sunlight to produce an electric current in a solid material. But it took more than another century to truly

248

Radiant Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:33am Addthis Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via the radiation of heat, which is also called infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating. Despite the name, radiant floor heating systems also depend heavily on convection, the natural circulation of heat within a room, caused by heat rising from the floor. Radiant floor

249

Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Basics Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:11am Addthis Photo of a blue car with 'The Road to Hydrogen' written on it, filling up at a hydrogen fueling station. Fuel cell vehicles, powered by hydrogen, have the potential to revolutionize our transportation system. They are more efficient than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and produce no harmful tailpipe exhaust-their only emission is water. Fuel cell vehicles and the hydrogen infrastructure to fuel them are in an early stage of development. The U.S. Department of Energy is leading government and industry efforts to make hydrogen-powered vehicles an affordable, environmentally friendly, and safe transportation option. Visit the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center to learn more

250

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:13am Addthis Photo of hands holding a battery pack (grey rectangular box) for a hybrid electric vehicle. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of high fuel economy and low emissions with the power, range, and convenience of conventional diesel and gasoline fueling. HEV technologies also have potential to be combined with alternative fuels and fuel cells to provide additional benefits. Future offerings might also include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles typically combine the internal combustion engine of a conventional vehicle with the battery and electric motor of an electric vehicle. The combination offers low emissions and convenience-HEVs never need to be plugged in.

251

Anaerobic Digestion Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Anaerobic Digestion Basics Anaerobic Digestion Basics Anaerobic Digestion Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:07pm Addthis Anaerobic digestion is a common technology in today's agriculture, municipal waste, and brewing industries. It uses bacteria to break down waste organic materials into methane and other gases, which can be used to produce electricity or heat. Methane and Anaerobic Bacteria Methane is a gas that contains molecules of methane with one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen (CH4). It is the major component of the natural gas used in many homes for cooking and heating. It is odorless, colorless, and yields about 1,000 British thermal units (Btu) [252 kilocalories (kcal)] of heat energy per cubic foot (0.028 cubic meters) when burned. Natural gas is a fossil fuel that was created eons ago by the anaerobic

252

Concentrating Solar Power Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics Basics Concentrating Solar Power Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:38pm Addthis Text Version This solar concentrator has a fixed-focus faceted dish with a concentration of about 250 suns. This system can be used for large fields connected to the utility grid, hydrogen generation, or water pumping. Credit: Science Applications International Corporation / PIX 13464 Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. This thermal energy can then be used to produce electricity via a steam turbine or heat engine that drives a generator. Concentrating solar power offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet our nation's demand for

253

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:13am Addthis Photo of hands holding a battery pack (grey rectangular box) for a hybrid electric vehicle. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of high fuel economy and low emissions with the power, range, and convenience of conventional diesel and gasoline fueling. HEV technologies also have potential to be combined with alternative fuels and fuel cells to provide additional benefits. Future offerings might also include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles typically combine the internal combustion engine of a conventional vehicle with the battery and electric motor of an electric vehicle. The combination offers low emissions and convenience-HEVs never need to be plugged in.

254

Wave Energy Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wave Energy Basics Wave Energy Basics Wave Energy Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:30pm Addthis Photo of a large wave. Wave energy technologies extract energy directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. Renewable energy analysts believe there is enough energy in ocean waves to provide up to 2 terawatts of electricity. (A terawatt is equal to a trillion watts.) However, wave energy cannot be harnessed everywhere. Wave power-rich areas of the world include the western coasts of Scotland, northern Canada, southern Africa, and Australia as well as the northeastern and northwestern coasts of the United States. In the Pacific Northwest alone, it is feasible that wave energy could produce 40-70 kilowatts (kW) per 3.3 feet (1 meter) of western coastline. Wave Energy Technologies

255

Photovoltaic Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cell Basics Cell Basics Photovoltaic Cell Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:53pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV) cells, or solar cells, take advantage of the photoelectric effect to produce electricity. PV cells are the building blocks of all PV systems because they are the devices that convert sunlight to electricity. Commonly known as solar cells, individual PV cells are electricity-producing devices made of semiconductor materials. PV cells come in many sizes and shapes, from smaller than a postage stamp to several inches across. They are often connected together to form PV modules that may be up to several feet long and a few feet wide. Modules, in turn, can be combined and connected to form PV arrays of different sizes and power output. The modules of the array make up the major part of a PV system, which can also include electrical connections,

256

Incandescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis Incandescent lamps operate simply by heating a metal filament inside a bulb filled with inert gas. Because they operate directly on variety of common power types including common household alternating current or direct current such as batteries or automobiles, they do not require a special power supply or ballast. They turn on up instantly, providing a warm light with excellent color rendition because the light is produced in much the same way as the light from the sun. They can also be easily dimmed using inexpensive controls and are available in a staggering variety of shapes and sizes. However, incandescent lamps have a low efficacy (10-17 lumens per watt) compared with other lighting options and a short average

257

Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily higher heating and cooling loads. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation occurs when outdoor air is drawn inside through open windows or doors. Natural ventilation is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. Air moves from areas of

258

Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:06pm Addthis Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable power. These qualities make it an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation applications. Hydrogen is an energy carrier that can be used to store, move, and deliver energy produced from other sources. The energy in hydrogen fuel is derived from the fuels and processes used to produce the hydrogen. Today, hydrogen fuel can be produced through several methods. The most common methods are thermal, electrolytic, and photolytic processes. Thermal Processes Thermal processes for hydrogen production typically involve steam

259

Water Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics Basics Water Efficiency Basics October 7, 2013 - 2:38pm Addthis Training Available Graphic of the eTraining logo Managing Water Assessment in Federal Facilities: Learn how to manage the Water Assessment process in Federal facilities by taking this FEMP eTraining course. Although two-thirds of the Earth's surface is water, less than one-half of one percent of that water is currently available for our use. As the U.S. population increases, so does our water use, making water resources increasingly scarce. Many regions feel the strain. The Federal Government uses an estimated 148 to 165 billion gallons of potable water annually. This is equal to the annual water use of a state the size of New Jersey or almost 8 million people1. This is, in part, because water requires significant energy input for treatment, pumping,

260

Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources include any plant-derived organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. These materials are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, aquatic crops, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated energy crops Herbaceous energy crops are perennials that are harvested annually after taking 2 to 3 years to reach full productivity. These include such grasses as switchgrass, miscanthus (also known as elephant grass or e-grass), bamboo, sweet sorghum, tall fescue, kochia, wheatgrass, and others. Short-rotation woody crops are fast-growing hardwood trees that are

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Hydropower Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydropower Technology Basics Hydropower Technology Basics Hydropower Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Text Version Photo of the reservoir in front of a hydropower dam. Hydropower, or hydroelectric power, is the most common and least expensive source of renewable electricity in the United States today. According to the Energy Information Administration, more than 6% of the country's electricity was produced from hydropower resources in 2008, and about 70% of all renewable electricity generated in the United States came from hydropower resources. Hydropower technologies have a long history of use because of their many benefits, including high availability and lack of emissions. Hydropower technologies use flowing water to create energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. Both large and small-scale power

262

Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Silicon Cell Basics Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:19pm Addthis Silicon-used to make some the earliest photovoltaic (PV) devices-is still the most popular material for solar cells. Silicon is also the second-most abundant element in the Earth's crust (after oxygen). However, to be useful as a semiconductor material in solar cells, silicon must be refined to a purity of 99.9999%. In single-crystal silicon, the molecular structure-which is the arrangement of atoms in the material-is uniform because the entire structure is grown from the same crystal. This uniformity is ideal for transferring electrons efficiently through the material. To make an effective PV cell, however, silicon has to be "doped" with other elements to make n-type and p-type layers.

263

Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Material Basics Material Basics Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis Although crystalline silicon cells are the most common type, photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells, can be made of many semiconductor materials. Each material has unique strengths and characteristics that influence its suitability for specific applications. For example, PV cell materials may differ based on their crystallinity, bandgap, absorbtion, and manufacturing complexity. Learn more about each of these characteristics below or learn about these solar cell materials: Silicon (Si)-including single-crystalline Si, multicrystalline Si, and amorphous Si Polycrystalline Thin Films-including copper indium diselenide (CIS), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and thin-film silicon Single-Crystalline Thin Films-including high-efficiency material

264

Natural Gas Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Vehicle Basics Natural Gas Vehicle Basics Natural Gas Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:15am Addthis Photo of a large truck stopped at a gas station that reads 'Natural Gas for Vehicles.' Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are either fueled exclusively with compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas (dedicated NGVs) or are capable of natural gas and gasoline fueling (bi-fuel NGVs). Dedicated NGVs are designed to run only on natural gas. Bi-fuel NGVs have two separate fueling systems that enable the vehicle to use either natural gas or a conventional fuel (gasoline or diesel). In general, dedicated natural gas vehicles demonstrate better performance and have lower emissions than bi-fuel vehicles because their engines are optimized to run on natural gas. In addition, the vehicle does not have to

265

Geothermal Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Basics Heat Pump Basics Geothermal Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:12am Addthis Text Version Geothermal heat pumps use the constant temperature of the earth as an exchange medium for heat. Although many parts of the country experience seasonal temperature extremes-from scorching heat in the summer to sub-zero cold in the winter-the ground a few feet below the earth's surface remains at a relatively constant temperature. Depending on the latitude, ground temperatures range from 45°F (7°C) to 75°F (21°C). So, like a cave's, the ground's temperature is warmer than the air above it during winter and cooler than the air above it in summer. Geothermal heat pumps take advantage of this by exchanging heat with the earth through a ground heat exchanger. Geothermal heat pumps are able to heat, cool, and, if so equipped, supply

266

Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Small space heaters, also called portable heaters, are typically used when the main heating system is inadequate or when central heating is too costly to install or operate. Space heater capacities generally range between 10,000 Btu to 40,000 Btu per hour. Common fuels used for this purpose are electricity, propane, natural gas, and kerosene. Although most space heaters rely on convection (the circulation of air in a room), some rely on radiant heating; that is, they emit infrared radiation that directly heats up objects and people that are within their line of sight. Combustion Space Heaters Space heaters are classified as vented and unvented, or "vent free." Unvented combustion units are not recommended for inside use, as they

267

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics Basics Federal agencies must understand key terms and management basics to successfully manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Graphic of the top half of earth depicting current arctic sea ice. A red outline depicts arctic sea ice boundaries in 1979. Current arctic sea ice is shown roughly 50% smaller than the 1979 depiction. Greenhouse gases correlate directly to global warming, which impacts arctic sea ice. This image shows current arctic sea ice formation. The red outline depicts arctic sea ice boundaries in 1979. Greenhouse gases are trace gases in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect." This process keeps the planet habitable. International research has linked human activities to a rapid increase in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere, contributing to major shifts in the global climate.

268

Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:10pm Addthis Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance heat can be provided by electric baseboard heaters, electric wall heaters, electric radiant heat, electric space heaters, electric furnaces, or electric thermal storage systems. Electric Furnaces With electric furnaces, heated air is delivered throughout the home through supply ducts and returned to the furnace through return ducts. Blowers (large fans) in electric furnaces move air over a group of three to seven

269

Vehicle Emission Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:07pm Addthis Vehicle emissions are the gases emitted by the tailpipes of vehicles powered by internal combustion engines, which include gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and propane vehicles. Vehicle emissions are composed of varying amounts of: water vapor carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen oxygen pollutants such as: carbon monoxide (CO) nitrogen oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) particulate matter (PM) A number of factors determine the composition of emissions, including the vehicle's fuel, the engine's technology, the vehicle's exhaust aftertreatment system, and how the vehicle operates. Emissions are also produced by fuel evaporation during fueling or even when vehicles are

270

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

271

Incandescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis Incandescent lamps operate simply by heating a metal filament inside a bulb filled with inert gas. Because they operate directly on variety of common power types including common household alternating current or direct current such as batteries or automobiles, they do not require a special power supply or ballast. They turn on up instantly, providing a warm light with excellent color rendition because the light is produced in much the same way as the light from the sun. They can also be easily dimmed using inexpensive controls and are available in a staggering variety of shapes and sizes. However, incandescent lamps have a low efficacy (10-17 lumens per watt) compared with other lighting options and a short average

272

Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources include any plant-derived organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. These materials are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, aquatic crops, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated energy crops Herbaceous energy crops are perennials that are harvested annually after taking 2 to 3 years to reach full productivity. These include such grasses as switchgrass, miscanthus (also known as elephant grass or e-grass), bamboo, sweet sorghum, tall fescue, kochia, wheatgrass, and others. Short-rotation woody crops are fast-growing hardwood trees that are

273

Photovoltaic Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Basics Technology Basics Photovoltaic Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:47pm Addthis Text Version Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy, and PV cells are commonly known as solar cells. Photovoltaics can literally be translated as light-electricity. First used in about 1890, "photovoltaic" has two parts: photo, derived from the Greek word for light, and volt, relating to electricity pioneer Alessandro Volta. And this is what photovoltaic materials and devices do-they convert light energy into electrical energy, as French physicist Edmond Becquerel discovered as early as 1839. Becquerel discovered the process of using sunlight to produce an electric current in a solid material. But it took more than another century to truly

274

Hydropower Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydropower Technology Basics Hydropower Technology Basics Hydropower Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Text Version Photo of the reservoir in front of a hydropower dam. Hydropower, or hydroelectric power, is the most common and least expensive source of renewable electricity in the United States today. According to the Energy Information Administration, more than 6% of the country's electricity was produced from hydropower resources in 2008, and about 70% of all renewable electricity generated in the United States came from hydropower resources. Hydropower technologies have a long history of use because of their many benefits, including high availability and lack of emissions. Hydropower technologies use flowing water to create energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. Both large and small-scale power

275

Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily higher heating and cooling loads. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation occurs when outdoor air is drawn inside through open windows or doors. Natural ventilation is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. Air moves from areas of

276

Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat plate collector is connected to a tank called a solar storage/backup water heater by two pipes. One of these pipes runs through a cylindrical pump into the bottom of the tank, where it becomes a coil called a double-wall heat exchanger. This coil runs up through the tank and out again to the flat plate collector. Antifreeze fluid runs only through this collector loop. Two pipes run out the top of the water heater tank; one is a cold water supply into the tank, and the other sends hot water to the house. Solar water heaters use the sun's heat to provide hot water for a home or

277

Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:10pm Addthis Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance heat can be provided by electric baseboard heaters, electric wall heaters, electric radiant heat, electric space heaters, electric furnaces, or electric thermal storage systems. Electric Furnaces With electric furnaces, heated air is delivered throughout the home through supply ducts and returned to the furnace through return ducts. Blowers (large fans) in electric furnaces move air over a group of three to seven

278

Geothermal Electricity Production Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electricity Production Basics Electricity Production Basics Geothermal Electricity Production Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:49pm Addthis A photo of steam emanating from geothermal power plants at The Geysers in California. Geothermal energy originates from deep within the Earth and produces minimal emissions. Photo credit: Pacific Gas & Electric Heat from the earth-geothermal energy-heats water that has seeped into underground reservoirs. These reservoirs can be tapped for a variety of uses, depending on the temperature of the water. The energy from high-temperature reservoirs (225°-600°F) can be used to produce electricity. In the United States, geothermal energy has been used to generate electricity on a large scale since 1960. Through research and development, geothermal power is becoming more cost-effective and competitive with

279

Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:11am Addthis Photo of a blue car with 'The Road to Hydrogen' written on it, filling up at a hydrogen fueling station. Fuel cell vehicles, powered by hydrogen, have the potential to revolutionize our transportation system. They are more efficient than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and produce no harmful tailpipe exhaust-their only emission is water. Fuel cell vehicles and the hydrogen infrastructure to fuel them are in an early stage of development. The U.S. Department of Energy is leading government and industry efforts to make hydrogen-powered vehicles an affordable, environmentally friendly, and safe transportation option. Visit the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center to learn more

280

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen August 19, 2013 - 5:45pm Addthis Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely used today as a transportation fuel, government and industry research and development are working toward the goal of clean, economical, and safe hydrogen production and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe. However, it is rarely found alone in nature. Hydrogen is locked up in enormous quantities in water (H2O), hydrocarbons (such as methane, CH4), and other organic matter. Efficiently producing hydrogen from these compounds is one of the challenges of using hydrogen as a fuel. Currently,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Tidal Energy Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tidal Energy Basics Tidal Energy Basics Tidal Energy Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:26pm Addthis Photo of the ocean rising along the beach. Some of the oldest ocean energy technologies use tidal power. All coastal areas experience two high tides and two low tides over a period of slightly more than 24 hours. For those tidal differences to be harnessed into electricity, the difference between high and low tides must be more than 16 feet (or at least 5 meters). However, there are only about 40 sites on Earth with tidal ranges of this magnitude. Currently, there are no tidal power plants in the United States, but conditions are good for tidal power generation in the Pacific Northwest and the Atlantic Northeast regions. Tidal Energy Technologies Tidal energy technologies include barrages or dams, tidal fences, and tidal

282

Radiant Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:33am Addthis Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via the radiation of heat, which is also called infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating. Despite the name, radiant floor heating systems also depend heavily on convection, the natural circulation of heat within a room, caused by heat rising from the floor. Radiant floor

283

Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous manner. One reason for limited student interest is the failure to link the discussion to topics of current interest. The author has found that presenting this material with a link to radiological dispersion devices (RDDs) or dirty bombs and their associated health effects provides added motivation for students. The events of Sept. 11 2001 and periodic media focus on RDDs heighten student interest from both a scientific curiosity as well as a personal protection perspective. This article presents a framework for a more interesting discussion of the basics of radiation science and their associated health effects. The presentation can be integrated with existing radioactivitylectures or added as a supplementary or enrichment activity.

Joseph John Bevelacqua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen August 19, 2013 - 5:45pm Addthis Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely used today as a transportation fuel, government and industry research and development are working toward the goal of clean, economical, and safe hydrogen production and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe. However, it is rarely found alone in nature. Hydrogen is locked up in enormous quantities in water (H2O), hydrocarbons (such as methane, CH4), and other organic matter. Efficiently producing hydrogen from these compounds is one of the challenges of using hydrogen as a fuel. Currently,

285

Heating System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating System Basics Heating System Basics Heating System Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:32pm Addthis A variety of heating technologies are available today. You can learn more about what heating systems and heat pumps are commonly used today and how they work below. To learn how to use these technologies in your own home, see the Home Heating Systems section on Energy Saver. Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Wood and Pellet Heating Provides a way to heat a building using biomass or waste sources. Electric Resistance Heating Can be supplied by centralized electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Active Solar Heating Uses the sun to heat either air or liquid and can serve as a supplemental

286

Biofuel Conversion Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biofuel Conversion Basics Biofuel Conversion Basics Biofuel Conversion Basics August 14, 2013 - 12:31pm Addthis The conversion of biomass solids into liquid or gaseous biofuels is a complex process. Today, the most common conversion processes are biochemical- and thermochemical-based. However, researchers are also exploring photobiological conversion processes. Biochemical Conversion Processes In biochemical conversion processes, enzymes and microorganisms are used as biocatalysts to convert biomass or biomass-derived compounds into desirable products. Cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes break down the carbohydrate fractions of biomass to five- and six-carbon sugars in a process known as hydrolysis. Yeast and bacteria then ferment the sugars into products such as ethanol. Biotechnology advances are expected to lead to dramatic

287

Chapter 3 - Building Skills with Basics: Learning to Identify Threats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The karate student builds skills in a variety of ways, but one of the fundamental ways to practice is through repetition of the basics: blocks, punches, and kicks. A student learns to respond to real attacks from any direction, through continual training on the right way to defend and to eliminate an opponent. This is the starting point where a student develops proper techniques to attack and counterattack against a variety of violent threats. Organizations must recognize harmful hazards. Hazards may be obvious, such as risks from hurricanes, or may be less evident, such as the risks from a chemical spill on a nearby roadway. Threats to your organization can come in many formats, from natural to accidental to deliberate. To successfully prepare for problems, the next step in the assessment process calls for identifying potential risks and using available sources to identify what things you really should worry about.

Eric N. Smith

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Sustainable Building Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sustainable Sustainable Building Basics Sustainable Building Basics October 4, 2013 - 4:21pm Addthis Image of the side of a sustainable building Sustainable building design results in energy savings and environment stewardship. Sustainable building design and operation strategies demonstrate a commitment to energy efficiency and environmental stewardship. These approaches result in an optimal balance of energy, cost, environmental, and societal benefits, while still meeting the mission of a Federal agency and the function of the facility or infrastructure. For buildings and facilities, responsible resource management and the assessment of operational impacts encompass the principles of sustainability. Sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising future needs.

289

Federal Energy Management Program: Sustainable Building Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics Basics Image of the side of a sustainable building Sustainable building design results in energy savings and environment stewardship. Sustainable building design and operation strategies demonstrate a commitment to energy efficiency, and environmental stewardship. These approaches result in an optimal balance of energy, cost, environmental, and societal benefits, while still meeting the mission of a Federal agency and the function of the facility or infrastructure. For buildings and facilities, responsible resource management and the assessment of operational impacts encompass the principles of sustainability. Sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising future needs. Learn more about the: Benefits of sustainable building design

290

Macdonald Polynomials and Multivariable Basic Hypergeometric Series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study Macdonald polynomials from a basic hypergeometric series point of view. In particular, we show that the Pieri formula for Macdonald polynomials and its recently discovered inverse, a recursion formula for Macdonald polynomials, both represent multivariable extensions of the terminating very-well-poised 6-phi-5 summation formula. We derive several new related identities including multivariate extensions of Jackson's very-well-poised 8-phi-7 summation. Motivated by our basic hypergeometric analysis, we propose an extension of Macdonald polynomials to Macdonald symmetric functions indexed by partitions with complex parts. These appear to possess nice properties.

Michael J. Schlosser

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

291

Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Meetings Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators" is scarcely older than for one or two dozen people grew to include nearly a hundred. Chemical accelerators is a name sug- gested-volt region. Thus chemical accelerators can provide the same type of information for elemen- tary chemical

Zare, Richard N.

292

First principles study of structure and lithium storage in inorganic nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The exact structure of layered inorganic nanotubes is difficult to determine, but this information is vital to using atomistic calculations to predict nanotube properties. A multi-walled nanotube with a circular cross ...

Tibbetts, Kevin (Kevin Joseph)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Routes to Nanostructured Inorganic Materials with Potential for Solar Energy Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Routes to Nanostructured Inorganic Materials with Potential for Solar Energy Applications ... The behavior of the transition energies with temp. is explained by a self-energy correction attributed to the interaction between electrons and nonpolar phonons. ...

Karthik Ramasamy; Mohammad Azad Malik; Neerish Revaprasadu; Paul O’Brien

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

294

Small Angle Neutron Scattering Characterization of the Porous Structure of Carbons Prepared Using Inorganic Templates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used for the characterization of the microstructure of carbons derived from organic-loaded inorganic template materials that are used as anodes in lithium ion cells. Pillared clays (PILC), layered silicates whose ...

Giselle Sandí; P. Thiyagarajan; Kathleen A. Carrado; Randall E. Winans

1999-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

295

Preparation and performance of inorganic heat insulation panel based on sepiolite nanofibers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High efficiency and low cost thermal insulation energy saving panel materials containing sepiolite nanofibers were developed by means of the synergistic action of inorganic adhesive, curing agent, and hydrogen peroxide. The water soluble sodium silicate ...

Fei Wang, Jinsheng Liang, Haifeng Liu, Xinhui Duan, Qingguo Tang, Huimin Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Assessment of exposure to inorganic arsenic, a human carcinogen, due to the consumption of seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?To assess whether regular consumption of seafood, particularly fish and shellfish, by humans...i..., inorganic form; MMA, monomethylarsonic acid; DMA, dimethylarsinic acid) was compared in groups of subjects wit...

J. P. Buchet; D. Lison; M. Ruggeri; V. Foa; G. Elia; S. Maugeri

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Removal of organic and inorganic compounds from landfill leachate using reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main objective of this work was to evaluate an effectiveness of removing organic and inorganic pollutants from landfill leachate in a long-term reverse osmosis (RO) study. Investigations were carried out...4 ...

I. A. Talalaj

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Removal of inorganic anions from drinking water supplies by membrane bio/processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is designed to provide an overview of the main membrane-assisted processes that can be used for the removal of toxic inorganic anions from drinking water supplies. The emphasis has been placed on in...

Svetlozar Velizarov; Joăo G. Crespo…

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

FRED E. WOOD University of California, Davis, Ph.D., Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry, 1984  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FRED E. WOOD EDUCATION University of California, Davis, Ph.D., Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry scholarship and $1 million for endowed reentry student scholarships. #12;FRED E. WOOD Page 2 Obtained over

Amin, S. Massoud

300

Line geometry and electromagnetism I: basic structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some key notions of line geometry are recalled, along with their application to mechanics. It is then shown that most of the basic structures that one introduces in the pre-metric formulation of electromagnetism can be interpreted directly in terms of corresponding concepts in line geometry. The results are summarized in a table.

D. H. Delphenich

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A mathematical model to predict leaching of hazardous inorganic wastes from solidified/stabilized waste forms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO PREDICT LEACHING OF HAZARDOUS INORGANIC WASTES FROM SOLIDIFIED/STABILIZED WASTE FORMS A Thesis by KRISHAN SABHARWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment...A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO PREDICT LEACHING OF HAZARDOUS INORGANIC WASTES FROM SOLIDIFIED/STABILIZED WASTE FORMS A Thesis by KRISHAN SABHARWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment...

Sabharwal, Krishan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

302

Inorganic Rings and Polymers of the p-Block Elements: From Fundamentals to Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inorganic Rings and Polymers of the p-Block Elements: From Fundamentals to Applications ... Chivers and Manners, two productive and highly respected scholars, have produced a very approachable monograph that presents the current state of knowledge of inorganic rings and polymers from both fundamental and applied perspectives. ... The chapter on electronic structure and bonding should be singled out as a particularly clear, useful, and up-to-date coverage of a topic that can be difficult to grasp. ...

Christopher W. Allen

2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

303

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Polymer materials basic research...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Polymer materials basic research needs for energy applications Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search About...

304

Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy Biomass Basics: The Facts About Bioenergy This document provides general information about bioenergy and its creation and potential uses....

305

Scuffing: From Basic Understanding to Engine Materials Testing...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Scuffing: From Basic Understanding to Engine Materials Testing Scuffing: From Basic Understanding to Engine Materials Testing Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

306

Combined Heat and Power Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technical Assistance Combined Heat & Power Deployment Combined Heat and Power Basics Combined Heat and Power Basics Combined heat and power (CHP), also known as cogeneration,...

307

OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related Matters; 29 CFR 1960 OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements...

308

Grand Challenge for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Grand Challenge for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage Grand Challenge for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage...

309

'Grand Challenge' for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

'Grand Challenge' for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage Solicitation 'Grand Challenge' for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage Solicitation DOE is issuing a...

310

Grand Challenge for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Grand Challenge for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage: Statement of Objectives Grand Challenge for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage: Statement of...

311

Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Vehicles & Fuels Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:00am Addthis Photo of a...

312

Energy Saving Performance Contracting (ESPC) Basics (Text Version...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Saving Performance Contracting (ESPC) Basics (Text Version) Energy Saving Performance Contracting (ESPC) Basics (Text Version) Chani Vines: Hello. We'll be starting in five...

313

Fouling of ceramic filters and thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes by inorganic and bacteriological constituents  

SciTech Connect

Two significant problems have been identified during the first three years of operating the Savannah River Site Effluent Treatment Facility. These problems encompass two of the facility`s major processing areas: the microfiltration and reverse osmosis steps. The microfilters (crossflow ceramic filters {minus}0.2{mu} nominal pore size) have been prone to pluggage problems. The presence of bacteria and bacteria byproducts in the microfilter feed, along with small quantities of colloidal iron, silica, and aluminum, results in a filter foulant that rapidly deteriorates filter performance and is difficult to remove by chemical cleaning. Processing rates through the filters have dropped from the design flow rate of 300 gpm after cleaning to 60 gpm within minutes. The combination of bacteria (from internal sources) and low concentrations of inorganic species resulted in substantial reductions in the reverse osmosis system performance. The salt rejection has been found to decrease from 99+% to 97%, along with a 50% loss in throughput, within a few hours of cleaning. Experimental work has led to implementation of several changes to plant operation and to planned upgrades of existing equipment. It has been shown that biological control in the influent is necessary to achieve design flowrates. Experiments have also shown that the filter performance can be optimized by the use of efficient filter backpulsing and the addition of aluminum nitrate (15 to 30 mg/L Al{sup 3+}) to the filter feed. The aluminum nitrate assists by controlling adsorption of colloidal inorganic precipitates and biological contaminants. In addition, improved cleaning procedures have been identified for the reverse osmosis units. This paper provides a summary of the plant problems and the experimental work that has been completed to understand and correct these problems.

Siler, J.L.; Poirier, M.R.; McCabe, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

Fouling of ceramic filters and thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes by inorganic and bacteriological constituents  

SciTech Connect

Two significant problems have been identified during the first three years of operating the Savannah River Site Effluent Treatment Facility. These problems encompass two of the facility's major processing areas: the microfiltration and reverse osmosis steps. The microfilters (crossflow ceramic filters {minus}0.2{mu} nominal pore size) have been prone to pluggage problems. The presence of bacteria and bacteria byproducts in the microfilter feed, along with small quantities of colloidal iron, silica, and aluminum, results in a filter foulant that rapidly deteriorates filter performance and is difficult to remove by chemical cleaning. Processing rates through the filters have dropped from the design flow rate of 300 gpm after cleaning to 60 gpm within minutes. The combination of bacteria (from internal sources) and low concentrations of inorganic species resulted in substantial reductions in the reverse osmosis system performance. The salt rejection has been found to decrease from 99+% to 97%, along with a 50% loss in throughput, within a few hours of cleaning. Experimental work has led to implementation of several changes to plant operation and to planned upgrades of existing equipment. It has been shown that biological control in the influent is necessary to achieve design flowrates. Experiments have also shown that the filter performance can be optimized by the use of efficient filter backpulsing and the addition of aluminum nitrate (15 to 30 mg/L Al{sup 3+}) to the filter feed. The aluminum nitrate assists by controlling adsorption of colloidal inorganic precipitates and biological contaminants. In addition, improved cleaning procedures have been identified for the reverse osmosis units. This paper provides a summary of the plant problems and the experimental work that has been completed to understand and correct these problems.

Siler, J.L.; Poirier, M.R.; McCabe, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - People - Nuclear and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Processes Processes Areas Heavy Element Separations Science Interfacial Processes Process Safeguards Environmental Science Radiochemistry Process Simulation and Equipment Design Pyroprocess Development Management and Support Mark A. Williamson, Chemist and Department Manager phone: 630/252-9627, fax: 630/252-5246, e-mail: williamson@anl.gov Ph.D., Physical Chemistry, University of Kansas Advanced nuclear fuel cycles Pyrochemical process research and development Actinide thermodynamics and inorganic chemistry High-temperature chemistry Monica C. Regalbuto, Senior Chemical Engineer phone:630/252-4616, e-mail: regalbuto@anl.gov George F. Vandegrift, Argonne Distinguished Fellow phone: 630/252-4513, fax: 630/972-4513, e-mail: vandegrift@anl.gov Ph.D., Inorganic Chemistry, Iowa State University

316

Chemical Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Science Chemical Science Compton double ionization of helium in the region of the cross-section maximum B. Krässig, R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, S. Hasegawa, E.P. Kanter, H. Schmidt-Böcking, W. Schmitt, S.H. Southworth, Th. Weber, and L. Young Crystal structure analysis of microporous Na16Nb12.8Ti3.2O44.8(OH)3.2l8H2O and Na/Nb/Zr/O/H2O phases A. Tripathi, J. Parise, M. Nyman, T.M. Nenoff, and W. Harrison Double K-photoionization of heavy atoms R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, E.P. Kanter, B. Krässig, and S.H. Southworth Forward-backward asymmetries of atomic photoelectrons S.H. Southworth, B. Krässig, E.P. Kanter, J.C. Bilheux, R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, S. Hasegawa, and L. Young In situreduction of various iron oxides to form high-surface-area Fe-metal catalysts as studied by high-resolution powder diffraction

317

Questions and Answers - In the chemical equation for methane gas why is  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

carbon found in all organicand inorganic matter? carbon found in all organic<br>and inorganic matter? Previous Question (Is carbon found in all organic and inorganic matter?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (How do you separate tungsten from its ore?) How do you separatetungsten from its ore? In the chemical equation CH4 for methane gas why is there more hydrogen than carbon? This is a very good question, and the answer is at the heart of modern atomic physics. The nucleus is at the center of the atom, like the sun is at the center of the solar system. Electrons move around in orbits around the nucleus, like the planets around the sun. But there is an important difference: electrons can only have very special energies, which correspond to specific orbits. The orbits in the atoms are called shells, and each shell can only hold so

318

Fusion Basics | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fusion Basics Fusion Basics What is Plasma? Plasma is a state of matter along with solids, liquids and gases. It consists of a partially-ionized gas, containing ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. So what does that mean? In a plasma, some electrons are freed from their atoms, allowing current and electricity to flow. In fact, one of the few naturally-occurring plasmas found here on Earth is lightning! Can you think of other plasmas? Fluorescent light bulbs contain mercury plasma. Stars, such as the sun are hot balls of plasma. Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis Fusion reactors, like NSTX, use plasma to fuse atoms to make energy. Plasma displays use small cells of plasma to illuminate images. What is Fusion? Light atoms like hydrogen (one proton and one neutron) can fuse together so

319

NREL: Learning - Geothermal Heat Pump Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heat Pump Basics Heat Pump Basics Photo of the West Philadelphia Enterprise Center. The West Philadelphia Enterprise Center uses a geothermal heat pump system for more than 31,000 square feet of space. Geothermal heat pumps take advantage of the nearly constant temperature of the Earth to heat and cool buildings. The shallow ground, or the upper 10 feet of the Earth, maintains a temperature between 50° and 60°F (10°-16°C). This temperature is warmer than the air above it in the winter and cooler in the summer. Geothermal heat pump systems consist of three parts: the ground heat exchanger, the heat pump unit, and the air delivery system (ductwork). The heat exchanger is a system of pipes called a loop, which is buried in the shallow ground near the building. A fluid (usually water or a mixture of

320

NREL: Learning - Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player This video provides an overview of NREL's research in solar photovoltaic technology. Text Version Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV gets its name from the process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage), which is called the PV effect. The PV effect was discovered in 1954, when scientists at Bell Telephone discovered that silicon (an element found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. Today, thousands of people power their homes and businesses with individual

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage Latest update: August 2004 Natural gas-a colorless, odorless, gaseous hydrocarbon-may be stored in a number of different ways. It is most commonly held in inventory underground under pressure in three types of facilities. These are: (1) depleted reservoirs in oil and/or gas fields, (2) aquifers, and (3) salt cavern formations. (Natural gas is also stored in liquid form in above-ground tanks. A discussion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is beyond the scope of this report. For more information about LNG, please see the EIA report, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook.) Each storage type has its own physical characteristics (porosity, permeability, retention capability) and economics (site preparation and

322

Federal Energy Management Program: Water Efficiency Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics Basics Graphic of the eTraining logo Training Available Managing Water Assessment in Federal Facilities: Learn how to manage the Water Assessment process in Federal facilities by taking this FEMP eTraining course. Although two-thirds of the Earth's surface is water, less than one-half of one percent of that water is currently available for our use. As the U.S. population increases, so does our water use, making water resources increasingly scarce. Many regions feel the strain. The Federal Government uses an estimated 148 to 165 billion gallons of potable water annually. This is equal to the annual water use of a state the size of New Jersey or almost 8 million people1. This is, in part, because water requires significant energy input for treatment, pumping, heating, and process uses. Water is integral to the cooling of power plants that provide energy to Federal facilities.

323

IndianEnergySummitBasicFactSHEET  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SUMMIT BASIC FACTS SHEET SUMMIT BASIC FACTS SHEET WHAT: DOE TRIBAL LEADERS ROUNDTABLES AND ENERGY SUMMIT WHO: Tribal Leadership and Tribal Policy Makers Secretary Chu and DOE Senior Leadership DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs WHEN: MAY 4 th and 5 th , 2011 WHERE: WASHINGTON, D.C., AREA Summit Location CRYSTAL GATEWAY MARRIOTT www.marriott.com/hotels/.../wasgw-crystal-gateway-marriott/ 1700 Jefferson Davis Highway Arlington, Virginia (703) 920-3230 REGISTRATION: There are NO registration fees to participate. Tribal Leaders will have to make their own arrangements for travel and accomodations. Summit Working Session meals/refreshments (limited) are included by the hotel. Please confirm your attendance by completing the registration form (WEB link to

324

Sustainable Building Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Areas » Sustainable Buildings & Campuses » Sustainable Program Areas » Sustainable Buildings & Campuses » Sustainable Building Basics Sustainable Building Basics October 4, 2013 - 4:21pm Addthis Image of the side of a sustainable building Sustainable building design results in energy savings and environment stewardship. Sustainable building design and operation strategies demonstrate a commitment to energy efficiency and environmental stewardship. These approaches result in an optimal balance of energy, cost, environmental, and societal benefits, while still meeting the mission of a Federal agency and the function of the facility or infrastructure. For buildings and facilities, responsible resource management and the assessment of operational impacts encompass the principles of sustainability. Sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the

325

NREL: Learning - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player This video provides an overview of the Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems and its research. Video produced for NREL by Fireside Production. Text Version We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. And we can help to reduce our nation's growing reliance on imported oil by running our vehicles on renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicles and fuels can also put the brakes on air pollution and improve our environment. At least 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States today. They include all kinds of passenger cars, trucks, vans, buses, and large

326

Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Cover: the Cover: One route to harvesting the energy of the sun involves learning to mimic natural photosynthesis. Here, sunlight falls on a porphyrin, one member of a family of molecules that includes the chlorophylls, which play a central role in capturing light and using its energy for photosynthesis in green plants. Efficient light-harvesting of the solar spectrum by porphyrins and related molecules can be used to power synthetic molecular assemblies and solid- state devices - applying the principles of photosynthesis to the produc- tion of hydrogen, methane, ethanol, and methanol from sunlight, water, and atmospheric carbon dioxide. BASIC RESEARCH NEEDS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION Report on the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization

327

NREL: Advanced Power Electronics - Technology Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Basics Technology Basics Graphic of a small hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicle. Check out the interactive graphic of the power electronic components of a hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicle. If you drive a car, use a computer, cook with a microwave oven, talk on any type of telephone, listen to a stereo, or use a cordless drill, you use power electronics. Thanks to power electronics, the electricity that runs the things we use every day is processed, filtered, and delivered with maximum efficiency and minimum size and weight. Inside a vehicle's electronic power steering system, power electronics control motors and help move the steering rack. This translates into improved steering response and lower energy consumption. In broad terms, power electronics control the flow of electric power via

328

1. BASICS 1 1 Lattices 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Contents Preface ix 1. BASICS 1 1 Lattices 1 1.1 Determinant 6 1.2 Successive minima 7 1.3 Minkowski's theorems 11 2 Computational problems 14 2.1 Complexity Theory 15 2.2 Some lattice problems 17 2.3 Hardness of approximation 19 3 Notes 21 2. APPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS 23 1 Solving SVP in dimension 2 24 1.1

Micciancio, Daniele

329

Shortening Treatment for Tuberculosis — Back to Basics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...fundamental research if we are to develop and validate correlates of durable cure. As these three trials have confirmed, our understanding of the science underlying positive clinical outcomes remains rudimentary. It's time to go back to basics. With approximately 8 million incident cases and 1.3 million deaths each year, increasing drug resistance, and exacerbating coexisting conditions such as the human immunodeficiency virus–acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and diabetes, tuberculosis ...

Warner D.F.; Mizrahi V.

2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

330

The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Analysis > The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage Analysis > The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage Latest update: August 2004 Printer-Friendly Version Natural gas-a colorless, odorless, gaseous hydrocarbon-may be stored in a number of different ways. It is most commonly held in inventory underground under pressure in three types of facilities. These are: (1) depleted reservoirs in oil and/or gas fields, (2) aquifers, and (3) salt cavern formations. (Natural gas is also stored in liquid form in above-ground tanks. A discussion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is beyond the scope of this report. For more information about LNG, please see the EIA report, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook.) Each storage type has its own physical characteristics (porosity, permeability, retention capability) and economics (site preparation and maintenance costs, deliverability rates, and cycling capability), which govern its suitability to particular applications. Two of the most important characteristics of an underground storage reservoir are its capacity to hold natural gas for future use and the rate at which gas inventory can be withdrawn-its deliverability rate (see Storage Measures, below, for key definitions).

331

Inorganic resins for clinical use of .sup.213Bi generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Applicant's invention is a radionuclide generator resin material for radiochemical separation of daughter radionuclides, particularly .sup.213Bi, from a solution of parental radionuclides, the resin material capable of providing clinical quantities of .sup.213Bi of at least 20-mCi, wherein the resin material comprises a silica-based structure having at least one bifunctional ligand covalently attached to the surface of the silica-based structure. The bifunctional ligand comprises a chemical group having desirable surface functionality to enable the covalent attachment of the bifunctional ligand thereon the surface of the structure and the bifunctional ligand further comprises a second chemical group capable of binding and holding the parental radionuclides on the resin material while allowing the daughter radionuclides to elute off the resin material. The bifunctional ligand has a carbon chain with a limited number of carbons to maintain radiation stability of the resin material.

DePaoli, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Hu, Michael Z. (Knoxville, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Clavier, John W. (Elizabethton, TN)

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

332

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Codes and Standards Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Codes and Standards Basics Codes and standards ensure processes and products meet uniform safety and performance requirements. Here you will find basic information about definitions, publishing codes and standards, legal enforcement, and

333

Chapter 30 - Inorganic Arsenic in Rice and Rice Bran: Health Implications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Rice is a staple food for people in many countries in all parts of the world. Arsenic in food, including rice, is present in several forms that have different toxicities. Inorganic arsenic species (AsIII and AsV) are the most toxic forms of arsenic present in food. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified inorganic arsenic, but not organic arsenic, in Group 1, as carcinogenic to humans. There has been increasing concern about the health implications regarding exposure to inorganic arsenic through rice consumption. An extensive review of published reports has shown that no epidemiological studies have been conducted indicating the health effects associated with the ingestion of inorganic arsenic through consumption of rice. Several studies suggested that drinking water containing high levels of inorganic arsenic plays a major role in the health risk of cancers among people residing in arsenic-contaminated areas. Two leading research groups in this field have concluded that “At present, it is impossible to fully assess the health risk of arsenic in rice,” and “Even if epidemiological studies were to be initiated, it would take decades to understand how elevated arsenic in rice affects lifetime health outcomes”.

Suthep Ruangwises; Piyawat Saipan; Nongluck Ruangwises

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment  

SciTech Connect

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

NONE

1990-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

335

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Natural Gas Basics Production & Distribution Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Natural Gas Fuel Basics Photo of a natural gas fuel pump. Natural gas is an odorless, nontoxic, gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons-predominantly methane (CH4). It accounts for about a quarter

338

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Fundamental Interactions -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

tranter shock tube tranter shock tube A shock tube for high temperature studies of chemical reaction kinetics. Overview The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding of the elementary chemical reactions, non-reactive energy transfer processes, and coupled kinetics processes involved in combustion. The basic scientific approach is to combine a theoretical effort in the energetics, dynamics, and kinetics of chemical reactions with an experimental effort in thermochemistry, dynamics, and kinetics. Both the theoretical and experimental components of the program are vertically integrated to span a wide range of phenomena relevant to the study of chemical reactivity. This integrated approach produces synergy that results from the strong interaction between the theoretical and experimental efforts. Taken as a

339

Inorganic and Radiochemical Analysis of AW-101 and AN-107 Tank Waste  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the inorganic and radiochemical analytical results for AW-101 and AN-107 as received materials. The analyses were conducted in support of the BNFL Proposal No. 30406/29274 Task 5.0. The inorganic and radiochemical analysis results obtained from the as received materials are used to provide initial characterization information for subsequent process testing and to provide data to support permit application activities. Quality Assurance (QA) Plan MCS-033 provides the operational and quality control protocols for the analytical activities, and whenever possible, analyses were performed to SW-846 equivalent methods and protocols.

MW Urie; JJ Wagner; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; SK Fiskum; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist

1999-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

340

Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Transportation Fuel Basics - Propane | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Propane Propane Transportation Fuel Basics - Propane July 30, 2013 - 4:31pm Addthis Photo of a man standing next to a propane fuel pump with a tank in the background. Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or LP-gas), or autogas in Europe, is a high-energy alternative fuel. It has been used for decades to fuel light-duty and heavy-duty propane vehicles. Propane is a three-carbon alkane gas (C3H8). Stored under pressure inside a tank, propane turns into a colorless, odorless liquid. As pressure is released, the liquid propane vaporizes and turns into gas that is used for combustion. An odorant, ethyl mercaptan, is added for leak detection. Propane has a high octane rating and excellent properties for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It is nontoxic and presents no threat to soil,

342

Submittal Basics | Scientific and Technical Information Program  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Submittal Basics Print page Print page Email page Email page Reporting Requirements DOE reporting requirements for financial assistance recipients and non-major site/facility management contractors should be clearly outlined in your award document. Contact your DOE Contracting Officer with questions or concerns. STI deliverables generated by major site/facility management contractors are identified at the project level. There are instances when only the Announcement Notice should be submitted to OSTI. STI Product Types STI is found in many forms and format. Review Types of STI for a comprehensive list. For copyrighted materials, only an announcement notice may be submitted, but detailed information regarding where the materials are published is required as part of the announcement notice.

343

Chapter 1 - The Basics of Web Hacking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter covers many foundational topics that the reader must be comfortable with before jumping into the hacking tools and techniques. Topics include defining a web server from a web application, the basics of the HTTP protocol including the request/response cycle and HTTP response status codes, existing penetration testing methodologies that our Hands-On approach is derived from, the most common web vulnerabilities in today’s web, and setting up a safe environment to conduct our hacking experiments! Special attention will be paid to ensuring the beginner is well positioned to succeed with later material in the book that introduces specific tools and techniques to hack web servers, web applications, and web users—we’ll even throw in a little database hacking for good measure!

Josh Pauli

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

NONE

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

BASIC HEALTH PROGRAMS IMPLICATIONS FOR CONCORDANT FAMILY INSURANCE COVERAGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BASIC HEALTH PROGRAMS IMPLICATIONS FOR CONCORDANT FAMILY INSURANCE COVERAGE Jeremie Amoroso Anthony........................................................................................................................ 32 POLICY IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS under way, states must soon decide whether to establish a Basic Health Program (BHP). A BHP

Lewis, Robert Michael

347

Modern Data Processing for Management: a basic systems approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Modern Data Processing for Management: a basic systems approach J. O. Jenkins (London...Modern Data Processing for Management: a basic systems approach, by B. A. Hodson...Principles or Computer Science must approach the subject......

J. O. Jenkins

1974-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:00am Addthis Photo of a large blue truck with...

349

SEP Success Story: Back to the Basics of Sustainability -- Houses...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Back to the Basics of Sustainability -- Houses of Bark and Energy of Sunshine SEP Success Story: Back to the Basics of Sustainability -- Houses of Bark and Energy of Sunshine...

350

Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders  

SciTech Connect

This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

Valerie L. Putman

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

CAMD Cleanroom Chemical List  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CAMD Cleanroom Chemical List Chemicals on this list are routine use chemicals in the CAMD Cleanroom and are available to users for general use. All others (*) are approved for use...

352

Basic physical and chemical information needed for development of Monte Carlo codes  

SciTech Connect

It is important to view track structure analysis as an application of a branch of theoretical physics (i.e., statistical physics and physical kinetics in the language of the Landau school). Monte Carlo methods and transport equation methods represent two major approaches. In either approach, it is of paramount importance to use as input the cross section data that best represent the elementary microscopic processes. Transport analysis based on unrealistic input data must be viewed with caution, because results can be misleading. Work toward establishing the cross section data, which demands a wide scope of knowledge and expertise, is being carried out through extensive international collaborations. In track structure analysis for radiation biology, the need for cross sections for the interactions of electrons with DNA and neighboring protein molecules seems to be especially urgent. Finally, it is important to interpret results of Monte Carlo calculations fully and adequately. To this end, workers should document input data as thoroughly as possible and report their results in detail in many ways. Workers in analytic transport theory are then likely to contribute to the interpretation of the results.

Inokuti, M.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Glossary of terms Basic feasible solutions: A basic solution which is nonnegative.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is made). For example, suppose that a gasoline is made by blending two types of crude oil, type A and type, then the leaving variable is the basic variable chosen is the one with the smallest index. Blending constraint: For a product made from a "blend" of different items, a constraint such that the percentage of one or more

Phillips, David

354

Basic Research for Evaluating Nuclear Waste Form Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Argonne National Laboratory Specialists’ Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Nuclear Waste Management / Radioactive Waste

Don J. Bradley

355

chemical analysis | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chemical analysis chemical analysis Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

356

TRENDS in Chemical Marketing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

TRENDS in Chemical Marketing ... BEFORE any chemical sales organization, can meet or establish new trends in marketing, it must be completely aware of the problem it faces. ...

W. M. RUSSELL

1955-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

357

Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1989-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

358

Feasible utility of inorganic remains from potable water purification process in chemical looping combustion studied in TG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of the research is to prepare naturally occurring Fe-based materials for use as oxygen carriers and investigate their reactivity in terms of their applicability to energy systems. The inductively...

Ewelina Ksepko

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Dissolved Organic Matter and Inorganic Ions in a Central Himalayan Glacier—Insights into Chemical Composition and Atmospheric Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

First, the identification of biomass burning related species in snow pit samples of Himalayas indicates the need to further address the effects of biomass burning on air quality, atmospheric circulation, and snow/glacier albedo in this region. ... Hong, S. M.; Lee, K.; Hou, S. G.; Hur, S. D.; Ren, J. W.; Burn, L. J.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Barbante, C.; Boutron, C. F.An 800-Year Record of Atmospheric As, Mo, Sn, and Sb in Central Asia in High-Altitude Ice Cores from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), Himalayas Environ. ... Crop wastes common to the region, including rice straw, mustard stalk, jute stalk, soybean stalk, and animal residue burnings, were also characterized. ...

Jianzhong Xu; Qi Zhang; Xiangying Li; Xinlei Ge; Cunde Xiao; Jiawen Ren; Dahe Qin

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

360

Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

INORGANIC NANOPARTICLES AS PHASE-CHANGE MATERIALS FOR LARGE-SCALE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INORGANIC NANOPARTICLES AS PHASE-CHANGE MATERIALS FOR LARGE- SCALE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE Miroslaw storage performance. The expected immediate outcome of this effort is the demonstration of high-energy generation at high efficiency could revolutionize the development of solar energy. Nanoparticle-based phase

Pennycook, Steve

362

Polygonal model for layered inorganic nanotubes Kevin Tibbetts,* Robert Doe, and Gerbrand Ceder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the shape of the cross section. Circular and polygonal nanotubes are compared based on their strain energy of several concentric "single-walled" nanotubes.2,19,20 In this paper we develop a model for the energyPolygonal model for layered inorganic nanotubes Kevin Tibbetts,* Robert Doe, and Gerbrand Ceder

Ceder, Gerbrand

363

materials analysis of inorganic, organic, and bioma-terials. See ELECTRON MICROSCOPE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

28 Plaster materials analysis of inorganic, organic, and bioma- terials. See ELECTRON MICROSCOPE: The next chip-scale technology, Mater. Today, 9:20­27, 2006. Plaster A plastic mixture of solids and water plaster is also used in the industry to designate plaster of paris. Plaster is usually applied in one

Anderson, Peter M.

364

ADVANCED INORGANIC LABORATORY FALL 2008 CHEMISTRY 410 (CRN 11299:), CHEMISTRY 510 (CRN 11315)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ADVANCED INORGANIC LABORATORY ­ FALL 2008 CHEMISTRY 410 (CRN 11299:), CHEMISTRY 510 (CRN 11315: 373C Klamath E-Mail: cpage@uoregon.edu Phone: 346-4693 Office Hours: M 11:00 am, U 11:00 am, coordination chemistry, main group chemistry, organometallic chemistry, and bioinorganic chemistry. Because

Richmond, Geraldine L.

365

Inorganic Surface Nanostructuring by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Induced Graft Polymerization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inorganic Surface Nanostructuring by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Induced Graft Polymerization a silicon surface was accomplished by atmospheric pressure (AP) hydrogen plasma surface activation followed. The formation of initiation sites was controlled by the plasma exposure period, radio frequency (rf) power

Hicks, Robert F.

366

Inorganic nitrogen availability after severe stand-replacing fire in the Greater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Watershed Stewardship, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80526 This contribution is part) Understanding ecosystem processes as they relate to wildfire and vegetation dynamics is of growing importance of severe, stand-replacing wildfires are poorly understood. We studied inorganic nitrogen pools

Turner, Monica G.

367

Importance of spin-orbit coupling in hybrid organic/inorganic perovskites for photovoltaic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

economically more competitive. The quest for quality and performances of future solar cells has attracted recently been suggested as a novel class of materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) with improved/inorganic perovskiteshave recently been suggested as a novel class of materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC

Boyer, Edmond

368

Application of inorganic-contaminated groundwater to surface soils and compliance with toxicity characteristic (TCLP) regulations  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is currently implementing a Purged Water Management Program (PWMP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. A variety of constituents and disposal strategies are being considered. Constituents investigated in the PWMP include radionuclides, organics, and inorganics (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag). One practical disposal alternative is to discharge purged water (all constituents below regulatory levels) to the ground surface near the monitoring well that is being purged. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if long-term application of purged water that contains inorganic constituents (below regulatory levels) to surface soils will result in the accumulation of inorganics such that the soil becomes a hazardous waste according to the Toxicity Characteristic regulations (40 CFR Part 261.24). Two study soils were selected that encompass the range of soils found at the SRS: Lakeland and Orangeburg. Laboratory batch equilibrium studies indicate that the soils, although able to retain a large amount of inorganics, will not exceed Toxicity Characteristic concentrations when subjected to the TCLP. Field studies are underway to confirm this.

Bergren, C.L.; Flora, M.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jackson, J.L.; Hicks, E.M. [Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

369

Application of inorganic-contaminated groundwater to surface soils and compliance with toxicity characteristic (TCLP) regulations  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is currently implementing a Purged Water Management Program (PWMP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. A variety of constituents and disposal strategies are being considered. Constituents investigated in the PWMP include radionuclides, organics, and inorganics (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag). One practical disposal alternative is to discharge purged water (all constituents below regulatory levels) to the ground surface near the monitoring well that is being purged. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if long-term application of purged water that contains inorganic constituents (below regulatory levels) to surface soils will result in the accumulation of inorganics such that the soil becomes a hazardous waste according to the Toxicity Characteristic regulations (40 CFR Part 261.24). Two study soils were selected that encompass the range of soils found at the SRS: Lakeland and Orangeburg. Laboratory batch equilibrium studies indicate that the soils, although able to retain a large amount of inorganics, will not exceed Toxicity Characteristic concentrations when subjected to the TCLP. Field studies are underway to confirm this.

Bergren, C.L.; Flora, M.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Jackson, J.L.; Hicks, E.M. (Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Nano Res (2010) 3: 170173170 Synthesis and Characterization of WS2 Inorganic Nanotubes with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nano Res (2010) 3: 170­173170 Synthesis and Characterization of WS2 Inorganic Nanotubes]. Folding and bonding of edge atoms on the periphery of the quasi two-dimensional planar nano- structure this nanotubular structure is suitable for capillary filling using molten metal halides. Nano Res (2010) 3: 170

Davis, Ben G.

371

Chemical Safety Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Program Home Chemical Safety Topical Committee Library Program Contacts Related Links Site Map Tools 2013 Chemical Safety Workshop Archived Workshops Contact Us Health and Safety HSS Logo Chemical Safety Program logo The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Chemical Safety web pages provide a forum for the exchange of best practices, lessons learned, and guidance in the area of chemical management. This page is supported by the Chemical Safety Topical Committee which was formed to identify chemical safety-related issues of concern to the DOE and pursue solutions to issues identified. Noteworthy products are the Chemical Management Handbooks and the Chemical Lifecycle Cost Analysis Tool, found under the TOOLS menu. Chemical Management Handbook Vol (1) Chemical Management Handbook Vol (2)

372

Preparation of poly(acrylamide)/nanoclay organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles with average size of ?250 nm via inverse Pickering emulsion polymerization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the preparation of poly(acrylamide)/nanoclay organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles via surfactant-free...

Samira Abdolbaghi; Saeed Pourmahdian; Younes Saadat

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of a Metal–Organic Framework by Thermogravimetric Analysis, Powder X-ray Diffraction, and Infrared Spectroscopy: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Upper-Division Undergraduate; Inorganic Chemistry; Laboratory Instruction; Gravimetric Analysis; Hydrogen Bonding; IR Spectroscopy; Materials Science; Thermal Analysis ...

Johanna L. Crane; Kelly E. Anderson; Samantha G. Conway

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

374

Chapter 1. Basic principles of membrane contactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the basic principles of membrane contactors. The membrane contactors identify the membrane systems that are employed to keep two phases in contact. To avoid the mixing of the two phases, the operating pressures must be controlled. The pressure of the aqueous/polar phase has to be equal to or higher than the pressure of the wetting/filling phase. In membrane strippers and scrubbers, a liquid is in contact with a gas, the difference between the two systems being the direction in which the species are transferred: from the liquid to the gas and vice versa, respectively. In supported liquid membranes, the micropores of the membrane are filled by an organic phase and the membrane is located between two aqueous phases. Membrane distillation is the only example of membrane contactor where the driving force is related to a temperature gradient across the membrane. Osmotic distillation performs the same work of the membrane distillation but uses a different method for creating the partial pressure gradient. Membrane crystallizers represent a particular application of membrane and osmotic distillation. Membrane emulsifiers employ both hydrophobic and hydrophilic membranes for creating microemulsions. Membrane contactors can be also used to carry out catalytic reactions.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Chemical Management Contacts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Contacts for additional information on Chemical Management and brief description on Energy Facility Contractors Group

376

Controlled binding and assembly of peptides onto inorganic substrates is at the core of bionanotechnology and biological-materials engineering. Peptides offer several  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

inorganic surfaces that are distinguishable by shape, crystallography, mineralogy, and chemistry. Second and theoretical approaches and concepts that will help advance this emerging field. Molecular Design of Inorganic-inorganic materials is dependent upon our understanding of the molecular factors that govern sequence

Samudrala, Ram

377

About Chemical Hazards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Hazards Chemical Hazards What Is a Chemical Hazard? chemical hazards.jpg A chemical hazard is any substance that can cause harm, primarily to people. Chemicals of all kinds are stored in our homes and can result in serious injuries if not properly handled. Household items such as bleach can result in harmful chlorine gas or hydrochloric acid if carelessly used. Gasoline fumes from containers for lawnmowers or boats can result in major health hazards if inhaled. DOE Oak Ridge uses thousands of chemicals in its varied research and other operations. New chemicals are or can be created as a result of the research or other activities. DOE follows national safety requirements in storing and handling these chemicals to minimize the risk of injuries from its chemical usage. However, accidents can occur despite careful attention to proper handling and storage procedures.

378

20 - Chemical looping combustion (CLC)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO2. The technology involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier which transfers oxygen from combustion air to the fuel, and hence a direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. Two inter-connected fluidized beds, i.e. fuel reactor and air reactor, are used in the process. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists ideally of CO2 and H2O, and the latter is easily removed by condensation. This chapter presents the basic principles, gives an overview of oxygen-carrier materials and operational experiences, discusses the application to gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and the use for combustion as well as for hydrogen production.

A. Lyngfelt

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Silicon-based sleeve devices for chemical reactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The reaction chamber combines a critical ratio of silicon and silicon nitride to the volume of material to be heated (e.g., a liquid) in order to provide uniform heating, yet low power requirements. The reaction chamber will also allow the introduction of a secondary tube (e.g., plastic) into the reaction sleeve that contains the reaction mixture thereby alleviating any potential materials incompatibility issues. The reaction chamber may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The reaction chamber may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Mariella, Jr., Raymond P. (Danville, CA); Carrano, Anthony V. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Microfabricated sleeve devices for chemical reactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The reaction chamber combines a critical ratio of silicon and non-silicon based materials to provide the thermal properties desired. For example, the chamber may combine a critical ratio of silicon and silicon nitride to the volume of material to be heated (e.g., a liquid) in order to provide uniform heating, yet low power requirements. The reaction chamber will also allow the introduction of a secondary tube (e.g., plastic) into the reaction sleeve that contains the reaction mixture thereby alleviating any potential materials incompatibility issues. The reaction chamber may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The reaction chamber may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Basics of pump-and-treat ground-water remediation technology. Special report  

SciTech Connect

The pump-and-treat process, whereby contaminated ground water is pumped to the surface for treatment, is one of the most common ground-water remediation technologies used at hazardous waste sites. However, recent research has identified complex chemical and physical interactions between contaminants and the subsurface media which may impose limitations on the extraction part of the process. The report was developed to summarize the basic considerations necessary to determine when, where, and how pump-and-treat technology can be used effectively to remediate ground-water contamination.

Mercer, J.W.; Skipp, D.C.; Giffin, D.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Mn–Fe Oxides with Support of MgAl2O4, CeO2, ZrO2 and Y2O3–ZrO2 for Chemical-Looping Combustion and Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† Department of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden ... Shen, L.; Wu, J.; Gao, Z.; Xiao, J.Reactivity deterioration of NiO/Al2O3 oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion of coal in a 10 kWth reactor Combust. ...

Golnar Azimi; Henrik Leion; Tobias Mattisson; Magnus Rydén; Frans Snijkers; Anders Lyngfelt

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

383

Technical Assistance Project (TAP) Revolving Loan Funds: Basics...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Best Practices Technical Assistance Project (TAP) Revolving Loan Funds: Basics and Best Practices Presentation by Texas LoanSTAR Manager Theresa Sifuentes from the Texas...

384

Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Lesson 2 - Electricity Basics Electricity Transmission, A Primer 2012 Smart Grid Peer Review Presentations - Day 1 Morning Session...

385

Electricity Grid Basics Webinar Presentation Slides and Text Version  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Download presentation slides and a text version of the audio from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on electricity grid basics.

386

Chapter 5: Basic Concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured Lending...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Funds revfinalv3ch05basicconceptsdec9.pdf More Documents & Publications Path to Self-Sustainability Chapter 5. Basic Concepts for Clean Energy Unsecured Lending and Loan Loss...

387

Elemental and isotopic analysis of inorganic salts by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry is applied for the analysis of elements as well as their isotopic composition in different inorganic salts. At very low laser energies the inorganic ions are desorbed and ionized from the thin layer of the sample surface. The naturally occurring isotopes of alkali and silver ions are resolved using time of flight mass spectrometer. Further increase in laser energy shows the appearance of Al, Cr, and Fe ions in the mass spectra. This indicates the penetration laser beam beyond the sample surface leading to the ablation of sample target at higher energies. The simultaneous appearance of atomic ions from the sample target at relatively higher laser energies hampers the unambiguous identification of amino acid residues from the biomolecular ions in MALDI-MS.

Jayasekharan, T.; Sahoo, N. K. [Applied Spectroscopy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

388

2007 Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms Gordon Research Conference-February 18-23  

SciTech Connect

This conference focuses on kinetic, mechanistic, and thermodynamic studies of reactions that play a role in fields as diverse as catalysis, energy, bioinorganic chemistry, green chemistry, organometallics, and activation of small molecules (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, alkanes). Participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories present results and engage in discussions of pathways, intermediates, and outcome of various reactions of inorganic, organic, coordination, organometallic, and biological species. This knowledge is essential for rational development and design of novel reactions, compounds, and catalysts.

Andreja Bakac

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Carbons for lithium ion cells prepared using sepiolite as an inorganic template.  

SciTech Connect

Carbon anodes for Li ion cells have been prepared by the in situ polymerization of olefins such as propylene and ethylene in the channels of sepiolite clay mineral. Upon dissolution of the inorganic framework, a disordered carbon was obtained. The carbon was tested as anode in coin cells, yielding a reversible capacity of 633 mAh/g, 1.70 times higher than the capacity delivered by graphitic carbon, assuming 100% efficiency. The coulombic efficiency was higher than 90%.

Sandi, G.

1998-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

390

Inorganic-Organic Molecules and Solids with Nanometer-Sized Pores  

SciTech Connect

We are constructing porous inorganic-organic hybrid molecules and solids, many of which contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centers. In this work, we use multifunctional ���²-diketone ligands as �¢����building blocks�¢��� to prepare extended-solid and molecular porous materials that are capable of reacting with a variety of guest molecules.

Maverick, Andrew W.

2011-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

391

Mercury's thermo-chemical evolution from numerical models constrained  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury's thermo-chemical evolution from numerical models constrained by MESSENGER observations Globe de Paris, France #12;Basics facts about Mercury · Semi-major axis: 0.39 AU · 3:2 spin Earth!) · Black body temperature: 440 K #12;Exploration of Mercury Mariner10 ·First spacecraft to use

Cerveny, Vlastislav

392

Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly.

Wichner, R.P.; Jolley, R.L.; Gat, U.; Rodgers, B.R.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Enhanced biodegradation of diesel fuel through the addition of particulate organic carbon and inorganic nutrients in coastal marine waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diesel fuel pollution in coastal waters, resulting from recreational ... operations, is common and can adversely affect marine biota. The purpose of this study was...Spartina alterniflora...), inorganic nutrients...

Michael F. Piehler; Hans W. Paerl

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Inorganic Nanomaterials for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to synthesize nanomaterials by mixing molten salt (alkali nitrate salt eutectics) with inorganic nanoparticles. The thermo-physical properties of the synthesized nanomaterials were characterized experimentally...

Jung, Seunghwan

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

395

Capacitive chemical sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

396

Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology 4 units Prof. Richard Brutchey, Fall 2014 (Lecture = 12:00�12:50 pm MWF) CHEM 455 is an upper-division undergraduate course in Chemical Nanotechnology. The intent

Rohs, Remo

397

Chemicals and health  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemicals and health ... I must add here that some chemicals are indeed dangerous in the environment, largely because they persist, they don't break down, and they can therefore build up in the food chain. ...

1980-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

398

Biobased Chemicals Without Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Unlike most other companies using biology to make chemicals, LanzaTech does not rely on biomass feedstocks. ...

MELODY BOMGARDNER

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

399

Estimation of aboveground biomass and inorganic nutrient content of a 25-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ESTIMATION OF ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS AND INORGANIC NUTRIENT CONTENT OF A 25-YEAR-OLD LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L. ) PLANTATION A Thesis by JAMES NELSON MOUSER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August lqBO Major Si bject: Forestry ESTIMATION OF ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS AND INORGANIC NUTRIENT CONTENT OF A 25-YEAR-OLD LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L. ) PLANTATION A Thesis by JAMES NELSON HOUSER Approved...

Houser, James Nelson

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chemical Processes ICEHT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes (ICEHT) Place: Hellas, Greece Zip:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

HARVARD UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL BIOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HARVARD UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL BIOLOGY PHD PROGRAM 2013-2014 Student Handbook #12;Program Contacts at the beginning of each semester. Laboratory Rotations Students in the Chemical Biology Program are expected an interest in having Chemical Biology Program Students in their labs. Students may rotate in the labs

Church, George M.

402

Computational Chemical Materials Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Thermal barrier coatings, wear resistance coatings, radiation resistant materials · Materials for opticalHome Computational Chemical and Materials Engineering Tahir Cagin Chemical Engineering Department to understand behavior and properties of materials as a function of ­ Chemical constitution ­ Composition

403

Bisymmetric functions, Macdonald polynomials and sl3 basic hypergeometric series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bisymmetric functions, Macdonald polynomials and sl3 basic hypergeometric series S. Ole Warnaar Abstract A new type of sl3 basic hypergeometric series based on Macdonald polynomials is intro- duced. Besides a pair of Macdonald polynomials attached to two different sets of variables, a key

Warnaar, Ole

404

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

Dai, Pengcheng

405

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;#12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers

Dai, Pengcheng

406

Energy and Development: Is Energy a Basic Human Right?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy and Development: Is Energy a Basic Human Right? Skype/Video presentation for senior pupils national Laboratory/DTU Denmark #12;Is energy a basic human right? · What is energy? ­ the ability to make something happen · Different kinds of energy ­ or energy carriers - fuels · What do we use energy for

407

Ecology-basics and applications Planned activities 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ecology- basics and applications Planned activities 2013 Last update 2013-04-23 Anna-Sara Liman Activities Approximate dates Contact persons Advances in Basic Ecology Nov ­February 2013 Pär Forslund of Ecological Ideas January 2013 Jan.Bengtsson@slu.se Statistical programming in R 22-26th April 2013 Matt

408

Physiological responses of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) to organic and inorganic amended heavy-metal contaminated chat tailings  

SciTech Connect

Study plots established at the Galena subsite of the Cherokee County Superfund Site in Southeastern Kansas by the US Bureau of Mines in 1990 were examined during the summer of 1996 to determine whether physiological criteria could be used to determine suitability of switchgrass for remediation of heavy-metal contaminated substrates. Switchgrass was chosen because it was the most frequently encountered species on these plots. Treatment plots included a treatment control, an organic residue treatment of 89.6 Mg Ha{sup {minus}1} composted cattle manure, and two inorganic fertilizer treatments recommended for either native grass or grass/legume mixtures. Plant response variables were photosynthetic rate, leaf conductance to water vapor, internal concentration of carbon dioxide in leaves, foliar transpiration rate, leaf water-use-efficiency, predawn leaf xylem water potential, and midday leaf xylem water potential. Predawn and midday xylem water potentials were higher for grass/legume inorganic treatment than for the other inorganic treatments. Leaf conductances were lower for organically treated plots than those plots not organically amended and both photosynthesis and transpiration were lower for organically treated plots. Leaf conductances and transpiration were higher for grass/legume treated plots than for plots lacking inorganic treatment. Water-use-efficiency was higher for native grass inorganically treated plots than for other inorganic treatments.

Youngman, A.L. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

New Energy Basics Site: Check It Out! | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Energy Basics Site: Check It Out! New Energy Basics Site: Check It Out! New Energy Basics Site: Check It Out! August 23, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy but a little confused by all the terms? Wondering how the technologies actually work? Maybe you're doing some research or working on a paper and just need a little background info. EERE's new Energy Basics site is the place for you. There you can learn things like how a wind turbine works and all about the different types of fuel cells. If you just need a quick definition of a term you've heard, check out the glossary. Energy Basics is not meant to replace Energy Savers or any of the program sites throughout the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

410

Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report  

SciTech Connect

Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the US maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Vehicle Technology and Alternative Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Technology and Alternative Fuel Basics Vehicle Technology and Alternative Fuel Basics Vehicle Technology and Alternative Fuel Basics Photo of an electric car plugged in and charging. Learn more about exciting technologies and ongoing research in alternative and advanced vehicles-or vehicles that run on fuels other than traditional petroleum. Alternative Vehicles There are a variety of alternative vehicle fuels available. Learn more about: Electric Vehicles Flexible Fuel Vehicles Fuel Cell Vehicles Hybrid Electric Vehicles Natural Gas Vehicles Propane Vehicles Also learn about: Vehicle Battery Basics Vehicle Emissions Basics Alternative Fuels There are a number of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles. Learn more about the following types of vehicles: Biodiesel Electricity Ethanol Hydrogen Natural Gas

412

Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division, April--June 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical and Energy Research Section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within six major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and thermodynamics, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Solution Thermodynamics, biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information.

Jubin, R.T.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Influence of the acid–basic character of oxide surfaces in dispersants effectiveness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Physical–chemical surface character has been described as a determinant factor in adsorbing polyelectrolytes onto oxide surfaces. Since basically composed by hydroxyl groups, the acidity or basicity induced by the bulk lattice in such groups seems to be of great relevance in the adsorption process. The influence of such properties in the adsorption of polyacrylic acid derivated polymers onto SnO2 and Al2O3 surfaces is, therefore, studied in this paper. Polyacrylate acid molecules are observed to hardly adsorb onto the SnO2 surface but strongly adsorb, as reported previously, onto the alumina surface. This behavior is explained based on the pronounced difference in relation to the acidity of both surfaces and, in this sphere of thought, a basic polymer (Chitosan; CS) is discussed as a functional dispersant for powders with acid surface character, such as SnO2. Zeta potential measurements showed that this polymer raises the SnO2 potential to +30 mV without pH variations.

Ricardo H.R. Castro; Bruno B.S. Murad; Douglas Gouvęa

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

3 Basic AIPS Utilities This chapter reviews some basic AIPS utilities with which you should be familiar before you start  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 Basic AIPS Utilities This chapter reviews some basic AIPS utilities with which you should be familiar before you start calibrating data or processing images in AIPS . Many of these utilities, these utilities will be explained only briefly. 3.1 Talking to AIPS 3.1.1 POPS and AIPS utilities When using

Groppi, Christopher

415

American Chemical Society-Chinese Chemical Society Alliance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

American Chemical Society-Chinese Chemical Society Alliance ... The American Chemical Society and the Chinese Chemical Society (CCS) formed a three-year collaborative alliance in 2010 to address shared global concerns. ...

MARINDA LI WU; YAO JIANNIAN

2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

416

Chemical exchange program analysis.  

SciTech Connect

As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This will not only reduce the quantity of unneeded chemicals and the amount spent on new purchases, but will also avoid disposal costs. If SNL/NM were to realize a 5 percent reduction in chemical inventory and a 10 percent reduction in disposal of unused chemicals the total savings would be $189, 200 per year.

Waffelaert, Pascale

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Chemical Energy Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oldest and most commonly practiced method to store solar energy is sensible heat storage. The underlying technology is well developed and the basic storage materials, water and rocks, are available ... curren...

H. P. Garg; S. C. Mullick; A. K. Bhargava

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Connection coefficients for basic Harish-Chandra series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basic Harish-Chandra series are asymptotically free meromorphic solutions of the system of basic hypergeometric difference equations associated to root systems. The associated connection coefficients are explicitly computed in terms of Jacobi theta functions. We interpret the connection coefficients as the transition functions for asymptotically free meromorphic solutions of Cherednik's root system analogs of the quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations. They thus give rise to explicit elliptic solutions of root system analogs of dynamical Yang-Baxter and reflection equations. Applications to quantum c-functions, basic hypergeometric functions, reflectionless difference operators and multivariable Baker-Akhiezer functions are discussed.

Jasper V. Stokman

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

419

Inorganic nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...was studied using scanning tunnelling micro- scopy (Remskar et al. 2003). The...In the first study, the photocatalytic oxidation of I- into I- 3 was investigated and...reduced numbers of layers synthesized by arc discharge. Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 47374740...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

The Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network (CMCSN) | U.S.  

Office of Science (SC) Website

The Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network (CMCSN) The Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network (CMCSN) Materials Sciences and Engineering (MSE) Division MSE Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation Hubs BES Funding Opportunities The Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network (CMCSN) Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Scientific Highlights Reports and Activities Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Research Areas The Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network (CMCSN) Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, provides support for Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network (CMCSN) projects through the Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics & Theoretical

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Chemical Structure and Dynamics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2154-3 2154-3 UC-400 Annual Report 2000 Chemical Structure and Dynamics Steven D. Colson, Associate Director Robin S. McDowell, Program Manager and the Staff of the Chemical Structure and Dynamics Program April 2001 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 Chemical Structure and Dynamics 2000 Annual Report Contents Chemical Structure and Dynamics 2000 Annual Report Chemical Structure and Dynamics 2000 Annual Report 1. Introduction Chemical Structure and Dynamics Program......................................................... 1-3 2. Reaction Mechanisms at Liquid Interfaces Structure and Reactivity of Ice Surfaces and Interfaces G. A. Kimmel, Z. Dohnálek, K. P. Stevenson, R. S. Smith,

422

CHEMICAL UNIONS FORM ALLIANCE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL UNIONS FORM ALLIANCE ... The Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical & Energy "Workers International Union (PACE) and the United Steelworkers of America (USWA) are industrial unions that have similar histories and many chemical and petroleum industry members, say union officials. ... PACE has created strategic alliances with several companies, said PACE President Boydlfoung in a statement, adding that it made sense to try the same thing with other unions. ...

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.

Nguyen, H. S.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J., E-mail: jacqueline.bloch@lpn.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, LPN/CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Han, Z. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, LPN/CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, CNRS, Université Paris Sud, bat. 505, campus d'Orsay, 91405 Orsay (France); Abdel-Baki, K.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, CNRS, Université Paris Sud, bat. 505, campus d'Orsay, 91405 Orsay (France)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

424

Inorganic Hollow Nanotube Aerogels by Atomic Layer Deposition onto Native Nanocellulose Templates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

First we show a preparation method for titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, and aluminum oxide nanotube aerogels based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) on biological nanofibrillar aerogel templates, that is, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), also called microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) or nanocellulose. ... Inorganic layer thickness data (S1), larger SEM micrographs of single nanocellulose fibrils (S2), several samples demonstrating differences in preparation methods (S3, S4) and different coatings (S5?S7), XRD data for a TiO2 nanotube film (S8). ... Fabrication of Transparent-Conducting-Oxide-Coated Inverse Opals as Mesostructured Architectures for Electrocatalysis Applications: A Case Study with NiO ...

Juuso T. Korhonen; Panu Hiekkataipale; Jari Malm; Maarit Karppinen; Olli Ikkala; Robin H. A. Ras

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Cryogenic Properties of Inorganic Insulation Materials for ITER Magnets: A Review  

SciTech Connect

Results of a literature search on the cryogenic properties of candidate inorganic insulators for the ITER TF magnets are reported. The materials investigated include: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlN, MgO, porcelain, SiO{sub 2}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, ZrO{sub 2}, and mica. A graphical presentation is given of mechanical, elastic, electrical, and thermal properties between 4 and 300 K. A companion report reviews the low temperature irradiation resistance of these materials.

Simon, N.J.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program July 2009 A Basic Overview of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program This pamphlet is developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as an outreach and awareness tool to assist former and current DOE Federal, contractor, and subcontractor employees to become familiar with and utilize the services and benefits authorized under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOIPCA). There are several Federal entities that support implementation of EEOICPA. Each of these entities serves a critical and unique role in this process. Briefly, the Department of Labor's (DOL) Office of Workers'

427

BIT101 - EOTA Basic Instructor Training | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BIT101 - EOTA Basic Instructor Training BIT101 - EOTA Basic Instructor Training BIT101 - EOTA Basic Instructor Training April 4, 2014 7:30AM MDT to April 18, 2014 5:00PM MDT Registration link: EOTA Registration Course Type: Classroom Training (Instructor-Led) Course Location: Phillips Technlogoy Institute (PTi) Kirtland Air Force Base, Building 1900 (Maxwell) Course Description: This course is offered to instructors who provide training to site personnel. The mission is to assure the quality and consistency of training provided to the Department of Energy facilities nationwide. The purpose is to train DOE and DOE contractor instructors in the basic teaching tools needed to provide effecitve and current training techniques, as well as make classroom activities a valuable learning experience.

428

Tribal Renewable Energy Foundational Course: Electricity Grid Basics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Watch the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy foundational course webinar on electricity grid basics by clicking on the .swf link below. You can also download the PowerPoint slides...

429

Attributive And Referential Uses Of Basic Syntactic Constituents 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Donnellan's distinction between attributive and referential uses of definite descriptions is extended to include Lewis' basic categories. The distinction as applied to sentences is brought out by investigating the consequences ...

Godden, Kurt

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Book Review: Basic Concepts of Probability and Statistics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Basic Concepts of Probability and Statistics, by J.L. Hodges, Jr. and E.L. Lehmann. 2nd Ed. Philadelphia PA, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2005. ISBN: 0-89871-575-X

Janez Grum

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Design of Experiment Methods in Manufacturing: Basics and Practical Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter discuses fundamentals and important practical aspects of design of experiments (DOE) in manufacturing. Starting with the basic terminology involved in DOE, it walks a potential reader through major t...

Viktor P. Astakhov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Chemicals (2010 MECS)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Chemicals Sector (NAICS 325) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014

433

Biomass pyrolysis for chemicals.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass Pyrolysis for Chemicals The problems associated with the use of fossil fuels demand a transition to renewable sources (sun, wind, water, geothermal, biomass) for… (more)

Wild, Paul de

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES ... Compiled from weekly current price listings in the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter , with permission of the publisher under its copyright. ...

1941-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

435

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES ... Compiled from weakly current price listings in the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter, with permission of the publisher under its copyright. ...

1941-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

436

Chemical Market Prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical Market Prices ... Compiled from weekly current price listings in the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter with permission of the publisher under its copyright. ...

1945-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

437

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES ... Compiled from weekly current price listings in the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter, with permission of the publisher under its copyright. ...

1941-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

438

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES ... Compiled from weekly current price listings in the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter , with permission of the publisher under its copyright. ...

1941-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

439

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES ... Compiled from weekly current price listings in the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter , with permission of the publisher under its copyright. ...

1941-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

440

Correlation among electronegativity, cation polarizability, optical basicity and single bond strength of simple oxides  

SciTech Connect

A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements in different valence states and with the most common coordination numbers has been searched on the basis of the similarity in physical nature of both quantities. In general, the cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. A systematic periodic change in the polarizability against the electronegativity has been observed in the isoelectronic series. It has been found that generally the optical basicity increases and the single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. The observed trends have been discussed on the basis of electron donation ability of the oxide ions and type of chemical bonding in simple oxides. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the single bond strength of simple oxides as a function of element electronegativity. A remarkable correlation exists between these independently obtained quantities. High values of electronegativity correspond to high values of single bond strength and vice versa. It is obvious that the observed trend in this figure is closely related to the type of chemical bonding in corresponding oxide. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements was searched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed trends were discussed on the basis of type of chemical bonding in simple oxides.

Dimitrov, Vesselin, E-mail: vesselin@uctm.edu [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria)] [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: komatsu@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)] [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

CHEMICAL ABBREVIATION KEY ABBREVIATION CHEMICAL NAME HAZARDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Irritant destain Methanol,acetic acid,H2O Flammable, Corrosive - acid DI H2O Deionized water DCM Nitric acid Corrosive - acid KAc Potassium acetate Irritant KCl Potassium chloride Irritant K2H PO4 Corrosive - base LiCl Lithium chloride Harmful MeOH Methanol Flammable #12;CHEMICAL ABBREVIATION KEY

Pawlowski, Wojtek

442

THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Reed, of the Illinois Geological Survey...Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation, Richmond...Board of Health, Madison, Wis. Division...Pennsylvania. Division of Chemical Education: Chairman...the University of Illinois; on execu-tive...from 10 or more plants were macerated...

1939-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

443

Chemical Signals Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Signals · Types · Production · Transmission · Reception · Reading: Ch 10 except boxes 10.1 and 10.2 #12;What is chemical communication? · Movement of molecules from sender to receiver · Methods compounds are volatile. - 5-20 carbon compounds - carbon (MW=12) + hydrogen is less dense than oxygen (MW

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

444

Chemical Engineering Andrew Zydney  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;ChE Employment (2003 at PSU) Merck Dow ExxonMob Air Products Amgen PPG Sunoco Kraft Foods NRC Procter, microelectronics, consumer products, biotechnology, fuels / energy, environmental engineering, etc. ·Chemical Engineers focus on the processes involved in making new products, including chemical reactions

Maranas, Costas

445

CHEMICAL SAFETY Emergency Numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- 1 - CHEMICAL SAFETY MANUAL 2010 #12;- 2 - Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Security Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 5530 Biological Safety 5530 Risk and Safety Manager 5535 Security 7058 #12;- 3 - FOREWORD This reference manual outlines the safe

Bolch, Tobias

446

Grand Challenge for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen Storage  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

hydrides - Ray Anderson - anderp@inel.gov - Oak Ridge: chemical hydrides - Tim Armstrong - armstrongt@ornl.gov - Lawrence Berkeley: Lut DeJonghe - dejonghe@lbl.gov -...

447

Influence of inorganic compounds on char formation and quality of fast pyrolysis oils  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic compounds, especially potassium, calcium, sodium, silicon, phosphorus, and chlorine, are the main constituents of ash in biomass feedstocks. The concentrations of ash in biomass feedstocks range from less than 1% in softwoods to 15% in herbaceous biomass and agricultural residues. During biomass pyrolysis, these inorganics, especially potassium and calcium, catalyze both decomposition and char formation reactions. Decomposition reactions may either result in levoglucosan-rich or hydroxyacetaldehyde-rich pyrolysis products depending on the concentration of the ash in the feedstocks. The catalytic effect of the ash levels off at high organic ion concentrations. Chars formed during these reactions invariably end up in the pyrolysis oils (biofuel oils). A high proportion of the alkali metals in the ash are sequestered in the chars. The presence of high concentrations of alkali metals in the biofuel oils make them unsuitable for combustion in boilers, diesel engines, and in turbine operations. The highest concentration of alkali metals are found in herbaceous feedstocks and agricultural residue biofuel oils. Leaching studies conducted on the chars suspended in the oils showed no leaching of the alkali metals from the chars into the oils. Our data suggest that hot gas filtration of the oils can effectively reduce the alkali metals contents of the biofuel oils to acceptable levels to be used as turbine, diesel engine, and boiler fuels.

Agbleyor, F.A.; Besler, S.; Montane, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Storage of dissolved inorganic nutrients in seawater: poisoning with mercuric chloride  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Seawater samples were poisoned with mercuric chloride to assess its suitability for the long-term storage measurement of inorganic nutrients. Two series of seawater samples from the open ocean were taken, and nitrate, silicate, phosphate, nitrite and ammonium measured immediately on board. The same samples were poisoned by adding 105 ?g of mercuric chloride per milliliter of sample (total sample volume 50 ml) and measured again after about 1 and 2 years storage. The results show that the poisoning with mercuric chloride is a suitable method for the storage of inorganic nutrients. For nitrate, silicate and phosphate a good accordance was found between the direct measurements and those after 1 and 2 years storage. The results of the determinations coincided with, or were very close to the optimal 1:1 relationship. The variations for nitrite were higher, but due to the generally low concentrations in the oceans these differences will cause no serious problems for the nitrate determination. In contrast, ammonium data, obtained after long storage periods, should be taken with care.

Gerhard Kattner

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Enhanced Chemical Cleaning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chemical Cleaning Chemical Cleaning Renee H. Spires Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Project Manager July 29, 2009 Tank Waste Corporate Board 2 Objective Provide an overview of the ECC process and plan 3 Chemical Cleaning * Oxalic Acid can get tanks clean - Tank 16 set a standard in 1982 - Tanks 5-6 Bulk OA cleaning results under evaluation * However, the downstream flowsheet and financial impacts of handling the spent acid were unacceptable Before After Tank 16 Tank 16 4 Oxalic Acid Flowsheet Impacts Evap Sludge Washing Evap Feed/Drop Tank 8 Wt% Oxalic Acid Neutralization Tank Solids Liquid High oxalate concentration Negligible oxalate concentration * Oxalates from chemical cleaning impact salt processing * A process change was needed Evaporator Saltstone Vaults DWPF Filled Canisters 5 Vision * Eliminate the impacts to the Tank Farm

450

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Organic and Inorganic Solid Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries - Nader Hagh, NEI Corporation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Organic and Inorganic Solid Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Organic and Inorganic Solid Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Background & Objectives * Lithium ion batteries widely used in consumer applications Solvent leakage and flammability of conventional liquid electrolytes * Current solid state electrolytes suffer from low ionic conductivity, inferior rate capability, and interfacial instability * Objective of the program is to develop solid state organic and inorganic electrolyte that has enhanced ionic conductivity * PEO based polymer electrolyte has poor room ionic conductivity due to crystallinity * The current program develops a PEO based hybrid copolymer that disrupts crystallization and at the same time provides mechanical integrity Abstract: The use of a solid polymer electrolyte instead of the conventional liquid or gel electrolyte can drastically improve the safety

451

American Institute of Chemical Engineers Honors DOE Researcher | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

American Institute of Chemical Engineers Honors DOE Researcher American Institute of Chemical Engineers Honors DOE Researcher American Institute of Chemical Engineers Honors DOE Researcher August 6, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - For his efforts in modeling and simulating fluid-particle flows, a researcher at the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has been selected to receive the American Institute of Chemical Engineers' (AIChE) Fluidized Processing Recognition Award. AIChE presents the award every two years to an AIChE member "who has made significant contribution to the science and technology of fluidization or fluidized processes and who has shown leadership in the engineering community." This year the award goes to Dr. Madhava Syamlal, Focus Area Leader for Computational and Basic Sciences at NETL. Dr. Syamlal will

452

American Institute of Chemical Engineers Honors DOE Researcher | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

American Institute of Chemical Engineers Honors DOE Researcher American Institute of Chemical Engineers Honors DOE Researcher American Institute of Chemical Engineers Honors DOE Researcher August 6, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - For his efforts in modeling and simulating fluid-particle flows, a researcher at the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has been selected to receive the American Institute of Chemical Engineers' (AIChE) Fluidized Processing Recognition Award. AIChE presents the award every two years to an AIChE member "who has made significant contribution to the science and technology of fluidization or fluidized processes and who has shown leadership in the engineering community." This year the award goes to Dr. Madhava Syamlal, Focus Area Leader for Computational and Basic Sciences at NETL. Dr. Syamlal will

453

Specimen Curriculum for Chemical Engineering Focus Area: Chemical Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemistry Chem 220B 3 hours Physical Chemistry Chem 230 3 hours Chemical Reactor Engineering ChBE 225 3Specimen Curriculum for Chemical Engineering Focus Area: Chemical Engineering Semester hours SOPHOMORE YEAR FALL SPRING Chem 219A

Bordenstein, Seth

454

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

455

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O.sub.3, PO, PO.sub.2, etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Microhydropower Conveyance and Filter Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conveyance and Filter Basics Conveyance and Filter Basics Microhydropower Conveyance and Filter Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:53pm Addthis Before water enters the turbine or waterwheel of a microhydropower system, it is funneled through a series of components that control its flow and filter out debris. These components include the headrace, forebay, and water conveyance (or channel, pipeline, or penstock). The headrace is a waterway that runs parallel to the water source. A headrace is sometimes necessary for hydropower systems when insufficient head, or vertical drop, is provided and is usually constructed of cement or masonry. The headrace leads to the forebay, which also is made of concrete or masonry. It functions as a settling pond for large debris that would otherwise flow into the system and damage the turbine.

457

Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:00pm Addthis To separate electrical charges, crystalline silicon cells must have a built-in electric field. Light shining on crystalline silicon may free electrons within the crystal lattice, but for these electrons to do useful work-such as provide electricity to a light bulb-they must be separated and directed into an electrical circuit. PV Semiconductors To create an electric field within a crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell, two silicon semiconductor layers are sandwiched together. P-type (or positive) semiconductors have an abundance of positively charged holes, and n-type (or negative) semiconductors have an abundance of negatively charged electrons. When n- and p-type silicon layers contact, excess electrons move

458

Photovoltaic Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics Photovoltaic Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:36pm Addthis Polycrystalline thin-film cells are made of many tiny crystalline grains of semiconductor materials. The materials used in these cells have properties that are different from those of silicon. Thin-film cells have many advantages over their thick-film counterparts. For example, they use much less material. The cell's active area is usually only 1 to 10 micrometers thick, whereas thick films typically are 100 to 300 micrometers thick. Also, thin-film cells can usually be manufactured in a large-area process, which can be an automated, continuous production process. Finally, they can be deposited on flexible substrate materials. The term thin film comes from the method used to deposit the film, not from

459

Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:28pm Addthis Thermostats and ducts provide opportunities for saving energy. Dehumidifying heat pipes provide a way to help central air conditioners and heat pumps dehumidify air. Electric and gas meters allow users to track energy use. Thermostats Programmable thermostats can store and repeat multiple daily settings. Users can adjust the times heating or air-conditioning is activated according to a pre-set schedule. Visit the Energy Saver website for more information about thermostats and control systems in homes. Ducts Efficient and well-designed duct systems distribute air properly throughout a building, without leaking, to keep all rooms at a comfortable

460

Propane-Fueled Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Propane-Fueled Vehicle Basics Propane-Fueled Vehicle Basics Propane-Fueled Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:16am Addthis There are more than 270,000 on-road propane vehicles in the United States and more than 10 million worldwide. Many are used in fleets, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, taxicabs, police cars, and rental and delivery vehicles. Compared with vehicles fueled with conventional diesel and gasoline, propane vehicles can produce significantly fewer harmful emissions. The availability of new light-duty original equipment manufacturer propane vehicles has declined in recent years. However, certified installers can economically and reliably retrofit many light-duty vehicles for propane operation. Propane engines and fueling systems are also available for heavy-duty vehicles such as school buses and street sweepers.

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Combined Heat and Power Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combined Heat and Power Basics Combined Heat and Power Basics Combined Heat and Power Basics November 1, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis Combined heat and power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is: A process flow diagram showing efficiency benefits of CHP CHP Process Flow Diagram The concurrent production of electricity or mechanical power and useful thermal energy (heating and/or cooling) from a single source of energy. A type of distributed generation, which, unlike central station generation, is located at or near the point of consumption. A suite of technologies that can use a variety of fuels to generate electricity or power at the point of use, allowing the heat that would normally be lost in the power generation process to be recovered to provide needed heating and/or cooling. CHP technology can be deployed quickly, cost-effectively, and with few

462

Passive Solar Building Design Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Passive Solar Building Design Basics Passive Solar Building Design Basics Passive Solar Building Design Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:20pm Addthis The difference between a passive solar home and a conventional home is design. Passive solar homes and other buildings are designed to take advantage of the local climate. Passive solar design-also known as climatic design-involves using a building's windows, walls, and floors to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. Learn how passive solar design techniques work. Direct Gain Direct gain is the process by which sunlight directly enters a building through the windows and is absorbed and temporarily stored in massive floors or walls. Indirect Gain Indirect gain is the process by which the sun warms a heat storage

463

Flexible-Fuel Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Flexible-Fuel Vehicle Basics Flexible-Fuel Vehicle Basics Flexible-Fuel Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:05am Addthis Photo of a gray van with 'E85 Ethanol' written on the side. Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) are capable of operating on gasoline, E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline), or a mixture of both. There are almost 8 million flexible fuel vehicles on U.S. roads today, but many FFV owners don't know their vehicle is one. Unlike natural gas vehicles and propane bi-fuel vehicles, flexible fuel vehicles contain one fueling system, which is made up of ethanol-compatible components and is set to accommodate the higher oxygen content of E85. E85 should only be used in ethanol-capable FFVs. For more information, read Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Powered by a Renewable American Fuel. Download Adobe Reader.

464

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity. OTEC works best when the temperature difference between the warmer, top layer of the ocean and the colder, deep ocean water is about 36°F (20°C). These conditions exist in tropical coastal areas, roughly between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer. To bring the cold water to the surface, ocean thermal energy conversion plants require an expensive, large-diameter intake pipe, which is submerged a mile or more into the ocean's depths. Some energy experts believe that if ocean thermal energy conversion can become cost-competitive with conventional power technologies, it could be

465

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:03pm Addthis The most common photovoltaic (PV) array design uses flat-plate PV modules or panels. These panels can be fixed in place or allowed to track the movement of the Illustration of a cutaway of a typical flat-plate module. The layers, in order from top to bottom, are: cover film, solar cell, encapsulant, substrate, cover film, seal, gasket, and frame. One typical flat-plate module design uses a substrate of metal, glass, or plastic to provide structural support in the back; an encapsulant material to protect the cells; and a transparent cover of plastic or glass. sun. They respond to sunlight that is direct or diffuse. Even in clear skies, the diffuse component of sunlight accounts for between 10% and 20%

466

Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones. Researchers have discovered that the process for making biofuels also can be used to make antifreeze, plastics, glues, artificial sweeteners, and gel for toothpaste. Other important building blocks for bio-based products are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. When biomass is heated with a small amount of oxygen, these two gases are produced in abundance. Scientists call this mixture biosynthesis gas. Biosynthesis gas can be used to make plastics and acids,

467

High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting provides the highest efficacy and longest service life of any lighting type. It can save 75%-90% of lighting energy when it replaces incandescent lighting. Illustration of a high-intensity discharge (HID) lIllustration amp. The lamp is a tall cylindrical shape, and a cutout of the outer tube shows the materials inside. A long, thin cylinder called the arc tube runs through the lamp between two electrodes. The space around the arc tube is labeled as a vacuum. In a high-intensity discharge lamp, electricity arcs between two electrodes, creating an intensely bright light. Mercury, sodium, or metal halide gas

468

Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage System Basics | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thermal Storage System Basics Thermal Storage System Basics Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage System Basics August 21, 2013 - 10:33am Addthis One challenge facing the widespread use of solar energy is reduced or curtailed energy production when the sun sets or is blocked by clouds. Thermal energy storage provides a workable solution to this challenge. In a concentrating solar power (CSP) system, the sun's rays are reflected onto a receiver, which creates heat that is used to generate electricity. If the receiver contains oil or molten salt as the heat-transfer medium, then the thermal energy can be stored for later use. This enables CSP systems to be cost-competitive options for providing clean, renewable energy. Several thermal energy storage technologies have been tested and

469

REPORT OF THE BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES ADVISORY COMMITTEE PANEL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES ADVISORY COMMITTEE PANEL ON D.O.E. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES AND SCIENCE NOVEMBER 1997 EPRI Electric Power Research Institute Powering Progress through Innovative Solutions January 14th, 1998 Dr. Martha A. Krebs, Director Office of Energy Research United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Dear Martha, The purpose of this letter is to summarize the discussions of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee at its meeting on October 8 - 9, 1997 at the Holiday Inn in Gaithersburg as they related to the report from our Panel on Synchrotron Radiation Sources and Science. This Panel was assembled in response to the Charge presented to BESAC in your letter of October 9th, 1996 to reassess the need for and the opportunities presented by each of the four synchrotron

470

Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air-Source Heat Pump Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:03am Addthis Air-source heat pumps transfer heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. How Air-Source Heat Pumps Work This diagram of a split-system heat pump heating cycle shows refrigerant circulating through a closed loop that passes through the wall of a house. Inside the house the refrigerant winds through indoor coils, with a fan blowing across them, and outside the house is another fan and another set of coils, the outdoor coils. A compressor is between the coils on one half of the loop, and an expansion valve is between the coils on the other half. The diagram is explained in the caption. In heating mode, an air-source heat pump evaporates a refrigerant in the outdoor coil; as the liquid evaporates it pulls

471

Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances The following is a brief overview of the different types of wood and pellet fuel appliances available. High-Efficiency Fireplaces and Fireplace Inserts Designed more for show, traditional open masonry fireplaces should not be considered heating devices. Traditional fireplaces draw in as much as 300 cubic feet per minute of heated room air for combustion, then send it straight up the chimney. Fireplaces also produce significant air pollution. Although some fireplace designs seek to address these issues with dedicated air supplies, glass doors, and heat recovery systems, fireplaces are still

472

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:17am Addthis Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color rendition. Typical applications include highway and security lighting, where color is not important. Low-pressure sodium lamps work somewhat like fluorescent lamps. Like high-intensity discharge lighting, low-pressure sodium lamps require up to 10 minutes to start and have to cool before they can restart. Therefore, they are most suitable for applications in which they stay on for hours at a time. They are not suitable for use with motion detectors. The chart below compares low-pressure sodium lamps and high-intensity

473

Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis The outermost layers of photovoltaic (PV) cell, or solar cell, are the electrical contacts and anti-reflective coating. These layers provide essential functions to the cell's operation. Electrical Contacts Electrical contacts are essential to PV cells because they bridge the connection between the semiconductor material and the external electrical load, such as a light bulb. The back contact of a cell-the side away from the incoming sunlight-is relatively simple. It usually consists of a layer of aluminum or molybdenum metal. Illustration of a cutaway of a typical solar cell. The layers, from top to bottom, include a cover glass, transparent adhesive, antireflection coating, front contact, n-type semiconductor, p-type seminconductor, and back contact.

474

Large-Scale Hydropower Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Large-Scale Hydropower Basics Large-Scale Hydropower Basics Large-Scale Hydropower Basics August 14, 2013 - 3:11pm Addthis Large-scale hydropower plants are generally developed to produce electricity for government or electric utility projects. These plants are more than 30 megawatts (MW) in size, and there is more than 80,000 MW of installed generation capacity in the United States today. Most large-scale hydropower projects use a dam and a reservoir to retain water from a river. When the stored water is released, it passes through and rotates turbines, which spin generators to produce electricity. Water stored in a reservoir can be accessed quickly for use during times when the demand for electricity is high. Dammed hydropower projects can also be built as power storage facilities.

475

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:01pm Addthis Photo of a woman scientist using a machine that is purifying biological catalysts for hydrogen production. Hydrogen is the simplest element on Earth. A hydrogen atom consists of only one proton and one electron. It is also the most plentiful element in the universe. Despite its simplicity and abundance, hydrogen doesn't occur naturally as a gas on Earth. It is always combined with other elements. Water, for example, is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is also found in many organic compounds, notably the "hydrocarbons" that make up fuels such as gasoline, natural gas, methanol, and propane. To generate electricity using hydrogen, pure hydrogen must first be

476

Microhydropower Turbine, Pump, and Waterwheel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Microhydropower Turbine, Pump, and Waterwheel Basics Microhydropower Turbine, Pump, and Waterwheel Basics Microhydropower Turbine, Pump, and Waterwheel Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:58pm Addthis A microhydropower system needs a turbine, pump, or waterwheel to transform the energy of flowing water into rotational energy, which is then converted into electricity. Turbines Turbines are commonly used to power microhydropower systems. The moving water strikes the turbine blades, much like a waterwheel, to spin a shaft. But turbines are more compact in relation to their energy output than waterwheels. They also have fewer gears and require less material for construction. There are two general types of turbines: impulse and reaction. Impulse Turbines Impulse turbines, which have the least complex design, are most commonly

477

Large-Scale Hydropower Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Large-Scale Hydropower Basics Large-Scale Hydropower Basics Large-Scale Hydropower Basics August 14, 2013 - 3:11pm Addthis Large-scale hydropower plants are generally developed to produce electricity for government or electric utility projects. These plants are more than 30 megawatts (MW) in size, and there is more than 80,000 MW of installed generation capacity in the United States today. Most large-scale hydropower projects use a dam and a reservoir to retain water from a river. When the stored water is released, it passes through and rotates turbines, which spin generators to produce electricity. Water stored in a reservoir can be accessed quickly for use during times when the demand for electricity is high. Dammed hydropower projects can also be built as power storage facilities.

478

Bio-Based Product Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics Bio-Based Product Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:19pm Addthis Almost all of the products we currently make from fossil fuels can also be made from biomass. These bioproducts, or bio-based products, are not only made from renewable sources, but they also often require less energy to produce than petroleum-based ones. Researchers have discovered that the process for making biofuels also can be used to make antifreeze, plastics, glues, artificial sweeteners, and gel for toothpaste. Other important building blocks for bio-based products are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. When biomass is heated with a small amount of oxygen, these two gases are produced in abundance. Scientists call this mixture biosynthesis gas. Biosynthesis gas can be used to make plastics and acids,

479

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Illustration of a tankless coil water heater. The heater is box-shaped, and has two pipes sticking out one end: one a cold water inlet, and one a hot water outlet. These pipes lead into the heater to a cylindrical coil called a heat exchanger. Long tubes surrounding the heat exchanger are labeled the heated water jacket. At the bottom of the box is a row of small flames, called the boiler heat source. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home or building's space heating system to heat water as part of an integrated or combination water and space heating system. How Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Work A tankless coil water heater uses a heating coil or heat exchanger

480

Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pump Basics Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pump Basics Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:04am Addthis Ductless, mini-split-system heat pumps (mini splits), as their name implies, do not have ducts. Therefore, they make good retrofit add-ons to houses or buildings with "non-ducted" heating systems, such as hydronic (hot water heat), radiant panels, and space heaters (wood, kerosene, propane). They can also be a good choice for room additions, where extending or installing distribution ductwork is not feasible. How Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pumps Work Like standard air-source heat pumps, mini splits have two main components: an outdoor compressor/condenser, and an indoor air-handling unit. A conduit, which houses the power cable, refrigerant tubing, suction tubing,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "basic inorganic chemicals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Life Technologies Corporation and LANL have released the Attune® Acoustic Focusing Cytometer, featuring a reduced footprint, reduced consumables, and an affordable price. April 3, 2012 Attune® Acoustic Focusing Cytometer The Attune® Acoustic Focusing Cytometer achieves sample throughput at rates over 10 times faster than other cytometers-up to 1,000 μL per minute. In December 2009, Life Technologies Corporation announced the release of the Attune® Acoustic Focusing Cytometer, a first-of-its-kind cytometer system based on technology developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Examining cells has never been clearer with LANL's use of acoustic waves

482

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity. OTEC works best when the temperature difference between the warmer, top layer of the ocean and the colder, deep ocean water is about 36°F (20°C). These conditions exist in tropical coastal areas, roughly between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer. To bring the cold water to the surface, ocean thermal energy conversion plants require an expensive, large-diameter intake pipe, which is submerged a mile or more into the ocean's depths. Some energy experts believe that if ocean thermal energy conversion can become cost-competitive with conventional power technologies, it could be

483

Photovoltaic Cell Conversion Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conversion Efficiency Basics Conversion Efficiency Basics Photovoltaic Cell Conversion Efficiency Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:58pm Addthis The conversion efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) cell, or solar cell, is the percentage of the solar energy shining on a PV device that is converted into electrical energy, or electricity. Improving this conversion efficiency is a key goal of research and helps make PV technologies cost-competitive with more traditional sources of energy. Factors Affecting Conversion Efficiency Much of the energy from sunlight reaching a PV cell is lost before it can be converted into electricity. But certain characteristics of solar cell materials also limit a cell's efficiency to convert the sunlight it receives. Wavelength of Light Light is composed of photons-or packets of energy-that range in

484

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Demand Water Heater Basics Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the top of the image, the heating unit is shown. Cold water flows in one end of a pipe, flows through and around several curved pipes over the heating elements, and out the other end as hot water. Beneath the heating unit, a typical sink setup is shown. The sink has two pipes coming out the bottom, one for the hot water line and one for the cold water line. Both pipes lead to the heating unit, which is installed in close proximity to the area of hot water use, and is connected to a power source (110 or 220 volts). Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as

485

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Module Basics Module Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:25pm Addthis Flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules are made of several components, including the front surface materials, encapsulant, rear surface, and frame. Front Surface Materials The front surface of a flat-plate PV module must have a high transmission in the wavelengths that can be used by the solar cells in the module. For example, for silicon solar cells, the top surface must have high transmission of light with wavelengths from 350 to 1200 nm. Also, reflection from the front surface should be minimal. An antireflection coating added to the top surface can greatly reduce the reflection of sunlight, and texturing of the surface can cause light that strikes the surface to stay within the cells. Unfortunately, these textured

486

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the top of the image, the heating unit is shown. Cold water flows in one end of a pipe, flows through and around several curved pipes over the heating elements, and out the other end as hot water. Beneath the heating unit, a typical sink setup is shown. The sink has two pipes coming out the bottom, one for the hot water line and one for the cold water line. Both pipes lead to the heating unit, which is installed in close proximity to the area of hot water use, and is connected to a power source (110 or 220 volts). Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as

487

Photovoltaic Cell Quantum Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cell Quantum Efficiency Basics Cell Quantum Efficiency Basics Photovoltaic Cell Quantum Efficiency Basics August 20, 2013 - 3:05pm Addthis Quantum efficiency (QE) is the ratio of the number of charge carriers collected by a photovoltaic (PV) cell to the number of photons-or packets of light-of a given energy shining on the solar cell. Quantum efficiency therefore relates to the response of a solar cell to the various wavelengths in the spectrum of light shining on the cell. The QE is given as a function of either wavelength or energy. If all the photons of a certain wavelength are absorbed and the resulting minority carriers (for example, electrons in a p-type material) are collected, then the QE at that particular wavelength has a value of one. The QE for photons with energy below the bandgap is zero.

488

Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics Photovoltaic Electrical Contact and Cell Coating Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis The outermost layers of photovoltaic (PV) cell, or solar cell, are the electrical contacts and anti-reflective coating. These layers provide essential functions to the cell's operation. Electrical Contacts Electrical contacts are essential to PV cells because they bridge the connection between the semiconductor material and the external electrical load, such as a light bulb. The back contact of a cell-the side away from the incoming sunlight-is relatively simple. It usually consists of a layer of aluminum or molybdenum metal. Illustration of a cutaway of a typical solar cell. The layers, from top to bottom, include a cover glass, transparent adhesive, antireflection coating, front contact, n-type semiconductor, p-type seminconductor, and back contact.

489

Microhydropower Turbine, Pump, and Waterwheel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Microhydropower Turbine, Pump, and Waterwheel Basics Microhydropower Turbine, Pump, and Waterwheel Basics Microhydropower Turbine, Pump, and Waterwheel Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:58pm Addthis A microhydropower system needs a turbine, pump, or waterwheel to transform the energy of flowing water into rotational energy, which is then converted into electricity. Turbines Turbines are commonly used to power microhydropower systems. The moving water strikes the turbine blades, much like a waterwheel, to spin a shaft. But turbines are more compact in relation to their energy output than waterwheels. They also have fewer gears and require less material for construction. There are two general types of turbines: impulse and reaction. Impulse Turbines Impulse turbines, which have the least complex design, are most commonly

490

Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power August 20, 2013 - 4:45pm Addthis Photo of numerous parallel rows of parabolic trough collectors tracking the sun. Cooling towers and other generator equipment are in the midst of the troughs, and two water tanks are in the background. The Solar Electric Generating Station IV power plant in California consists of many parallel rows of parabolic trough collectors that track the sun. The cooling towers can be seen with the water plume rising into the air, and white water tanks are in the background. Credit: Sandia National Laboratory / PIX 14955 Linear concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and focus the sunlight onto a linear

491

Assessment of the basic energy sciences program. Volume II. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

A list of experts reviewing the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program and their organizations are given. The assessment plan is explained; the program examined the following: quality of science being conducted in the program, quality of performers supported by the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program, and the impact of the research on mission oriented needs. The intent of the assessment is to provide an indication of general status relative to these questions for the BES divisions. The approach to the assessment is described. The sampling plan which was used as a guide in determining the sample size and selecting the sample to evaluate the research program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are discussed. Special analyses were conducted on the dispersion of reviewers' ratings, the ratings of the lower funded projects, and the amount of time the principal investigator devoted to the project. These are presented in the final appendix together with histograms for individual rating variables for each program area. (MCW)

Not Available

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Transportation Fuel Basics - Natural Gas | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transportation Fuel Basics - Natural Gas Transportation Fuel Basics - Natural Gas Transportation Fuel Basics - Natural Gas July 30, 2013 - 4:40pm Addthis Only about one tenth of one percent of all of the natural gas in the United States is currently used for transportation fuel. About one third of the natural gas used in the United States goes to residential and commercial uses, one third to industrial uses, and one third to electric power production. Natural gas has a high octane rating and excellent properties for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It is nontoxic, non-corrosive, and non-carcinogenic. It presents no threat to soil, surface water, or groundwater. Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons, predominantly methane (CH4). As delivered through the nation's pipeline system, it also contains

493

Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:58pm Addthis Crystalline silicon cells are made of silicon atoms connected to one another to form a crystal lattice. This lattice comprises the solid material that forms the photovoltaic (PV) cell's semiconductors. This section describes the atomic structure and bandgap energy of these cells. Atomic Structure Illustration of a silicon crystal with its 14 electrons orbiting a nucleus of protons and neutrons. As depicted in this simplified diagram, silicon has 14 electrons. The four electrons that orbit the nucleus in the outermost "valence" energy level are given to, accepted from, or shared with other atoms. All matter is composed of atoms, which are made up of positively charged

494

Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Source Heat Pump Basics Source Heat Pump Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:03am Addthis Air-source heat pumps transfer heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. How Air-Source Heat Pumps Work This diagram of a split-system heat pump heating cycle shows refrigerant circulating through a closed loop that passes through the wall of a house. Inside the house the refrigerant winds through indoor coils, with a fan blowing across them, and outside the house is another fan and another set of coils, the outdoor coils. A compressor is between the coils on one half of the loop, and an expansion valve is between the coils on the other half. The diagram is explained in the caption. In heating mode, an air-source heat pump evaporates a refrigerant in the outdoor coil; as the liquid evaporates it pulls

495

Weakly-Basic Anion Exchange Resin Scavenges Impurities in Ionic Liquid Synthesized from Trialkyloxonium Salt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Lewis acidic parts of these impurities, that is, H+ and BF3, were demonstrated to be able to transfer to dimethylamino groups of the weakly basic anion exchange resin (DOWEX MARATHON WBA) in aqueous solutions, releasing 1-methylimidazole (mim). ... Although intense reddish brown color was given to the residual oil of [emim]BF4, further purification and decolorization have been achieved by using silica-gel column chromatography (eluent: acetone) and treatment with activated carbon in water. ... The detection and determination of [emim]+, mim, [Hmim]+, [BF3(mim)], and BF4– in the recovered oils and collected volatiles from each batch were performed by using chemical shifts and peak integrals in the 1H and 19F NMR spectra. ...

Koichiro Takao; Taro Tsubomura

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

496

The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to identify new basic science that will be the foundation for advances in nuclear fuel-cycle technology in the near term, and for changing the nature of fuel cycles and of the nuclear energy industry in the long term. The goals are to enhance the development of nuclear energy, to maximize energy production in nuclear reactor parks, and to minimize radioactive wastes, other environmental impacts, and proliferation risks. The limitations of the once-through fuel cycle can be overcome by adopting a closed fuel cycle, in which the irradiated fuel is reprocessed and its components are separated into streams that are recycled into a reactor or disposed of in appropriate waste forms. The recycled fuel is irradiated in a reactor, where certain constituents are partially transmuted into heavier isotopes via neutron capture or into lighter isotopes via fission. Fast reactors are required to complete the transmutation of long-lived isotopes. Closed fuel cycles are encompassed by the Department of Energy?s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), to which basic scientific research can contribute. Two nuclear reactor system architectures can meet the AFCI objectives: a ?single-tier? system or a ?dual-tier? system. Both begin with light water reactors and incorporate fast reactors. The ?dual-tier? systems transmute some plutonium and neptunium in light water reactors and all remaining transuranic elements (TRUs) in a closed-cycle fast reactor. Basic science initiatives are needed in two broad areas: ? Near-term impacts that can enhance the development of either ?single-tier? or ?dual-tier? AFCI systems, primarily within the next 20 years, through basic research. Examples: Dissolution of spent fuel, separations of elements for TRU recycling and transmutation Design, synthesis, and testing of inert matrix nuclear fuels and non-oxide fuels Invention and development of accurate on-line monitoring systems for chemical and nuclear species in the nuclear fuel cycle Development of advanced tools for designing reactors with reduced margins and lower costs ? Long-term nuclear reactor development requires basic science breakthroughs: Understanding of materials behavior under extreme environmental conditions Creation of new, efficient, environmentally benign chemical separations methods Modeling and simulation to improve nuclear reaction cross-section data, design new materials and separation system, and propagate uncertainties within the fuel cycle Improvement of proliferation resistance by strengthening safeguards technologies and decreasing the attractiveness of nuclear materials A series of translational tools is proposed to advance the AFCI objectives and to bring the basic science concepts and processes promptly into the technological sphere. These tools have the potential to revolutionize the approach to nuclear engineering R&D by replacing lengthy experimental campaigns with a rigorous approach based on modeling, key fundamental experiments, and advanced simulations.

Finck, P.; Edelstein, N.; Allen, T.; Burns, C.; Chadwick, M.; Corradini, M.; Dixon, D.; Goff, M.; Laidler, J.; McCarthy, K.; Moyer, B.; Nash, K.; Navrotsky, A.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Peterson, P.; Sackett, J.; Sickafus, K. E.; Tulenko, J.; Weber, W.; Morss, L.; Henry, G.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July--September 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July--September 1997. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within nine major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Biotechnology, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information.

Jubin, R.T.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Fluidizable zinc titanate materials with high chemical reactivity and attrition resistance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Highly durable and chemically reactive zinc titanate materials are prepared in a particle size range of 50 to 400 .mu.m suitable for a fluidized-bed reactor for removing reduced sulfur species in a gaseous form by granulating a mixture of fine zinc oxide and titanium oxide with inorganic and organic binders and by optional additions of small amounts of activators such as CoO and MoO.sub.3 ; and then indurating it at 800.degree. to 900.degree. C. for a time sufficient to produce attrition-resistant granules.

Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC); Gangwal, Santosh K. (Durham, NC); Jain, Suresh C. (Morgantown, WV)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Chemical Evolution and Chemical State of the Long Valley Magma...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Magma Chamber Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Chemical Evolution and Chemical State of the Long Valley Magma Chamber Abstract...

500

Photo: D. Stevenson and C. Conway/Beckman Institute/University of Illinois An inorganic LED display printed on a flexible substrate bends without breaking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photo: D. Stevenson and C. Conway/Beckman Institute/University of Illinois An inorganic LED display LED Displays Printed compound semiconductors could challenge OLEDs, say researchers BY WILLIE JONES cameras. Conventional inorganic LEDs, which are poised to put incandescent and fluorescent lightbulbs out

Rogers, John A.