National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for baseline surface radiation

  1. Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers Mentor Report and Baseline Surface Radiation Network Submission Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, G.

    2005-03-18

    There are currently twenty-four Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSR) operating within Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM). Eighteen are located within the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region, there is one at each of the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites, and one is part of the instrumentation of the ARM Mobile Facility. At this time there are four sites, all extended facilities within the SGP, that are equipped for a MFRSR but do not have one due to instrument failure and a lack of spare instruments. In addition to the MFRSRs, there are three other MFRSR derived instruments that ARM operates. They are the Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR), the Normal Incidence Multi-Filter Radiometer (NIMFR) and the Narrow Field of View (NFOV) radiometer. All are essentially just the head of a MFRSR used in innovative ways. The MFR is mounted on a tower and pointed at the surface. At the SGP Central Facility there is one at ten meters and one at twenty-five meters. The NSA has a MFR at each station, both at the ten meter level. ARM operates three NIMFRs; one is at the SGP Central Facility and one at each of the NSA stations. There are two NFOVs, both at the SGP Central Facility. One is a single channel (870) and the other utilizes two channels (673 and 870).

  2. Dynamic gating window for compensation of baseline shift in respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pepin, Eric W.; Wu Huanmei; Shirato, Hiroki

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To analyze and evaluate the necessity and use of dynamic gating techniques for compensation of baseline shift during respiratory-gated radiation therapy of lung tumors. Methods: Motion tracking data from 30 lung tumors over 592 treatment fractions were analyzed for baseline shift. The finite state model (FSM) was used to identify the end-of-exhale (EOE) breathing phase throughout each treatment fraction. Using duty cycle as an evaluation metric, several methods of end-of-exhale dynamic gating were compared: An a posteriori ideal gating window, a predictive trend-line-based gating window, and a predictive weighted point-based gating window. These methods were evaluated for each of several gating window types: Superior/inferior (SI) gating, anterior/posterior beam, lateral beam, and 3D gating. Results: In the absence of dynamic gating techniques, SI gating gave a 39.6% duty cycle. The ideal SI gating window yielded a 41.5% duty cycle. The weight-based method of dynamic SI gating yielded a duty cycle of 36.2%. The trend-line-based method yielded a duty cycle of 34.0%. Conclusions: Dynamic gating was not broadly beneficial due to a breakdown of the FSM's ability to identify the EOE phase. When the EOE phase was well defined, dynamic gating showed an improvement over static-window gating.

  3. Surface wave chemical detector using optical radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2007-07-17

    A surface wave chemical detector comprising at least one surface wave substrate, each of said substrates having a surface wave and at least one measurable surface wave parameter; means for exposing said surface wave substrate to an unknown sample of at least one chemical to be analyzed, said substrate adsorbing said at least one chemical to be sensed if present in said sample; a source of radiation for radiating said surface wave substrate with different wavelengths of said radiation, said surface wave parameter being changed by said adsorbing; and means for recording signals representative of said surface wave parameter of each of said surface wave substrates responsive to said radiation of said different wavelengths, measurable changes of said parameter due to adsorbing said chemical defining a unique signature of a detected chemical.

  4. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  5. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    1981-07-15

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  6. Surface Radiation Budget from ARM Satellite Retrievals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Radiation Budget from ARM Satellite Retrievals P. Minnis, D. P. Kratz, and T. P. charlock Atmospheric Sciences National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia D. R. Doelling, M. L. Nordeen, M. M. Khaiyer, S. K. Gupta, and D. Rutan Analytical Service and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia Introduction Since the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program measurements of the surface radiation budget (SRB) are confined to the various central and

  7. Mitigation of radiation induced surface contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Stulen, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    A process for mitigating or eliminating contamination and/or degradation of surfaces having common, adventitious atmospheric contaminants adsorbed thereon and exposed to radiation. A gas or a mixture of gases is introduced into the environment of a surface(s) to be protected. The choice of the gaseous species to be introduced (typically a hydrocarbon gas, water vapor, or oxygen or mixtures thereof) is dependent upon the contaminant as well as the ability of the gaseous species to bind to the surface to be protected. When the surface and associated bound species are exposed to radiation reactive species are formed that react with surface contaminants such as carbon or oxide films to form volatile products (e.g., CO, CO.sub.2) which desorb from the surface.

  8. Management of the baseline shift using a new and simple method for respiratory-gated radiation therapy: Detectability and effectiveness of a flexible monitoring system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tachibana, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Nozomi; Ito, Yasushi; Kawai, Daisuke; Nakajima, Masaru; Tsuda, Akihisa; Shiizuka, Hisao

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In respiratory-gated radiation therapy, a baseline shift decreases the accuracy of target coverage and organs at risk (OAR) sparing. The effectiveness of audio-feedback and audio-visual feedback in correcting the baseline shift in the breathing pattern of the patient has been demonstrated previously. However, the baseline shift derived from the intrafraction motion of the patient's body cannot be corrected by these methods. In the present study, the authors designed and developed a simple and flexible system. Methods: The system consisted of a web camera and a computer running our in-house software. The in-house software was adapted to template matching and also to no preimage processing. The system was capable of monitoring the baseline shift in the intrafraction motion of the patient's body. Another marker box was used to monitor the baseline shift due to the flexible setups required of a marker box for gated signals. The system accuracy was evaluated by employing a respiratory motion phantom and was found to be within AAPM Task Group 142 tolerance (positional accuracy <2 mm and temporal accuracy <100 ms) for respiratory-gated radiation therapy. Additionally, the effectiveness of this flexible and independent system in gated treatment was investigated in healthy volunteers, in terms of the results from the differences in the baseline shift detectable between the marker positions, which the authors evaluated statistically. Results: The movement of the marker on the sternum [1.599 {+-} 0.622 mm (1 SD)] was substantially decreased as compared with the abdomen [6.547 {+-} 0.962 mm (1 SD)]. Additionally, in all of the volunteers, the baseline shifts for the sternum [-0.136 {+-} 0.868 (2 SD)] were in better agreement with the nominal baseline shifts than was the case for the abdomen [-0.722 {+-} 1.56 mm (2 SD)]. The baseline shifts could be accurately measured and detected using the monitoring system, which could acquire the movement of the marker on the sternum. The baseline shift-monitoring system with the displacement-based methods for highly accurate respiratory-gated treatments should be used to make most of the displacement-based gating methods. Conclusions: The advent of intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated radiation therapy facilitates margin reduction for the planning target volumes and the OARs, but highly accurate irradiation is needed to achieve target coverage and OAR sparing with a small margin. The baseline shifts can affect treatment not only with the respiratory gating system but also without the system. Our system can manage the baseline shift and also enables treatment irradiation to be undertaken with high accuracy.

  9. ARM: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Yan Shi; Laura Riihimaki

    1994-01-07

    Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

  10. Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-09-01

    Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

  11. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  12. Surface Plasmon Instability Leading to Emission of Radiation. (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Surface Plasmon Instability Leading to Emission of Radiation. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface Plasmon Instability Leading to Emission of Radiation. Abstract not provided. Authors: Gumbs, Godfrey ; Iurov, Andrii ; Huang, Danhong ; Pan, Wei Publication Date: 2014-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1184587 Report Number(s): SAND2014-19499J 541018 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physical Review

  13. NREL: MIDC/SRRL Baseline Measurement System (39.74 N, 105.18 W, 1829 m,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GMT-7) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Baseline Measurement System

  14. Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (SPASER)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stockman, Mark I.; Bergman, David J.

    2009-08-04

    A nanostructure is used to generate a highly localized nanoscale optical field. The field is excited using surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (SPASER). The SPASER radiation consists of surface plasmons that undergo stimulated emission, but in contrast to photons can be localized within a nanoscale region. A SPASER can incorporate an active medium formed by two-level emitters, excited by an energy source, such as an optical, electrical, or chemical energy source. The active medium may be quantum dots, which transfer excitation energy by radiationless transitions to a resonant nanosystem that can play the same role as a laser cavity in a conventional laser. The transitions are stimulated by the surface plasmons in the nanostructure, causing the buildup of a macroscopic number of surface plasmons in a single mode.

  15. Maximal Cherenkov ?-radiation on Fermi-surface of compact stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-05-15

    The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model is employed in this paper to study the extraordinary (XO) elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave dispersion in quantum plasmas with spin-1/2 magnetization and relativistic degeneracy effects, considering also the electron-exchange and quantum diffraction of electrons. From the lower and upper calculated XO-modes, it is observed that, for electrons on the surface of the Fermi-sphere, the lower XO-mode can excite the Cherenkov radiation by crossing the Fermi-line, with some proper conditions depending on the values of independent plasma parameters, such as the relativistic-degeneracy, the atomic-number of constituent ions, and the magnetic field strength. Particularly, a lower electron number-density and Cherenkov radiation frequency limits are found to exist, for instance, for given values of the plasma ions atomic-number and the magnetic field strength below which the radiation can not be excited by the electrons on the Fermi-surface. This lower density limit increases by decrease in the atomic-number but decreases with decrease in the strength of the ambient magnetic field. It is remarkable that in this research it is discovered that the maximal Cherenkov-radiation per unit-length (the energy radiated by superluminal electrons traveling through the dielectric medium) coincides with the plasma number-densities, which is present in compact stars with the maximal radiation frequency lying in the gamma-ray spectrum. Current study can provide an important plasma diagnostic tool for a wide plasma density range, be it the solid density, the warm dense matter, the inertial confined or the astrophysical compact plasmas and may reveal an important cooling mechanism for white dwarfs. Current findings may also answer the fundamental astrophysical question on the mysterious origin of intense cosmic gamma-ray emissions.

  16. Response of nickel surface to pulsed fusion plasma radiations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niranjan, Ram Rout, R. K. Srivastava, R. Gupta, Satish C.; Chakravarthy, Y.; Patel, N. N.; Alex, P.

    2014-04-24

    Nickel based alloys are being projected as suitable materials for some components of the next generation fusion reactor because of compatible thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. Pure nickel material is tested here for possibility of similar application purpose. Nickel samples (> 99.5 % purity) are exposed here to plasma radiations produced due to D-D fusion reaction inside an 11.5 kJ plasma focus device. The changes in the physical properties of the nickel surface at microscopic level which in turn change the mechanical properties are analyzed using scanning electron microscope, optical microscope, glancing incident X-ray diffractometer and Vicker's hardness gauge. The results are reported here.

  17. Validation and Spatiotemporal Analysis of CERES Surface Net Radiation Product

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jia, Aolin; Jiang, Bo; Liang, Shunlin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Ma, Han

    2016-01-23

    The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) generates one of the few global satellite radiation products. The CERES ARM Validation Experiment (CAVE) has been providing long-term in situ observations for the validation of the CERES products. However, the number of these sites is low and their distribution is globally sparse, and particularly the surface net radiation product has not been rigorously validated yet. Therefore, additional validation efforts are highly required to determine the accuracy of the CERES radiation products. In this study, global land surface measurements were comprehensively collected for use in the validation of the CERES netmore » radiation (Rn) product on a daily (340 sites) and a monthly (260 sites) basis, respectively. The validation results demonstrated that the CERES Rn product was, overall, highly accurate. The daily validations had a Mean Bias Error (MBE) of 3.43 W·m−2, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 33.56 W·m−2, and R2 of 0.79, and the monthly validations had an MBE of 3.40 W·m−2, RMSE of 25.57 W·m−2, and R2 of 0.84. The accuracy was slightly lower for the high latitudes. Following the validation, the monthly CERES Rn product, from March 2000 to July 2014, was used for a further analysis. We analysed the global spatiotemporal variation of the Rn, which occurred during the measurement period. In addition, two hot spot regions, the southern Great Plains and south-central Africa, were then selected for use in determining the driving factors or attribution of the Rn variation. We determined that Rn over the southern Great Plains decreased by −0.33 W·m−2 per year, which was mainly driven by changes in surface green vegetation and precipitation. In south-central Africa, Rn decreased at a rate of −0.63 W·m−2 per year, the major driving factor of which was surface green vegetation.« less

  18. Surface daytime net radiation estimation using artificial neural networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Shunlin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xiao, Zhiqiang

    2014-11-11

    Net all-wave surface radiation (Rn) is one of the most important fundamental parameters in various applications. However, conventional Rn measurements are difficult to collect because of the high cost and ongoing maintenance of recording instruments. Therefore, various empirical Rn estimation models have been developed. This study presents the results of two artificial neural network (ANN) models (general regression neural networks (GRNN) and Neuroet) to estimate Rn globally from multi-source data, including remotely sensed products, surface measurements, and meteorological reanalysis products. Rn estimates provided by the two ANNs were tested against in-situ radiation measurements obtained from 251 global sites between 1991–2010more » both in global mode (all data were used to fit the models) and in conditional mode (the data were divided into four subsets and the models were fitted separately). Based on the results obtained from extensive experiments, it has been proved that the two ANNs were superior to linear-based empirical models in both global and conditional modes and that the GRNN performed better and was more stable than Neuroet. The GRNN estimates had a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.92, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 34.27 W·m–2 , and a bias of –0.61 W·m–2 in global mode based on the validation dataset. In conclusion, ANN methods are a potentially powerful tool for global Rn estimation.« less

  19. Interplay of radiative and nonradiative transitions in surface hopping with radiation-molecule interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajo, Juan Jos; Granucci, Giovanni Persico, Maurizio

    2014-01-28

    We implemented a method for the treatment of field induced transitions in trajectory surface hopping simulations, in the framework of the local diabatization scheme, especially suited for on-the-fly dynamics. The method is applied to a simple one-dimensional model with an avoided crossing and compared with quantum wavepacket dynamics. The results show the importance of introducing a proper decoherence correction to surface hopping, in order to obtain meaningful results. Also the energy conservation policy of standard surface hopping must be revised: in fact, the quantum wavepacket energetics is well reproduced if energy absorption/emission is allowed for in the hops determined by radiation-molecule coupling. To our knowledge, this is the first time the issues of decoherence and energy conservation have been analyzed in depth to devise a mixed quantum-classical method for dynamics with molecule-field interactions.

  20. Surface daytime net radiation estimation using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Shunlin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xiao, Zhiqiang

    2014-11-11

    Net all-wave surface radiation (Rn) is one of the most important fundamental parameters in various applications. However, conventional Rn measurements are difficult to collect because of the high cost and ongoing maintenance of recording instruments. Therefore, various empirical Rn estimation models have been developed. This study presents the results of two artificial neural network (ANN) models (general regression neural networks (GRNN) and Neuroet) to estimate Rn globally from multi-source data, including remotely sensed products, surface measurements, and meteorological reanalysis products. Rn estimates provided by the two ANNs were tested against in-situ radiation measurements obtained from 251 global sites between 1991–2010 both in global mode (all data were used to fit the models) and in conditional mode (the data were divided into four subsets and the models were fitted separately). Based on the results obtained from extensive experiments, it has been proved that the two ANNs were superior to linear-based empirical models in both global and conditional modes and that the GRNN performed better and was more stable than Neuroet. The GRNN estimates had a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.92, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 34.27 W·m–2 , and a bias of –0.61 W·m–2 in global mode based on the validation dataset. In conclusion, ANN methods are a potentially powerful tool for global Rn estimation.

  1. NASA technical baseline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers NASA technical baseline HomeTag:NASA technical baseline Curiosity's multi-mission ...

  2. Hazard Baseline Documentation

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-12-04

    This standard establishes uniform Office of Environmental Management (EM) guidance on hazard baseline documents that identify and control radiological and non-radiological hazards for all EM facilities.

  3. Surface photoconductivity of organosilicate glass dielectrics induced by vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, H.; Nichols, M. T.; Pei, D.; Shohet, J. L.; Nishi, Y.

    2013-08-14

    The temporary increase in the electrical surface conductivity of low-k organosilicate glass (SiCOH) during exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet radiation (VUV) is investigated. To measure the photoconductivity, patterned comb structures are deposited on dielectric films and exposed to synchrotron radiation in the range of 825 eV, which is in the energy range of most plasma vacuum-ultraviolet radiation. The change in photo surface conductivity induced by VUV radiation may be beneficial in limiting charging damage of dielectrics by depleting the plasma-deposited charge.

  4. FED baseline engineering studies report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  5. Coherent and tunable terahertz radiation from graphene surface plasmon polaritons excited by an electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shenggang Hu, Min; Chen, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ping; Gong, Sen; Zhao, Tao; Zhong, Renbin; Zhang, Chao

    2014-05-19

    Although surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) resonance in graphene can be tuned in the terahertz regime, transforming such SPPs into coherent terahertz radiation has not been achieved. Here, we propose a graphene-based coherent terahertz radiation source with greatly enhanced intensity. The radiation works at room temperature, it is tunable and can cover the whole terahertz regime. The radiation intensity generated with this method is 400 times stronger than that from SPPs at a conventional dielectric or semiconducting surface and is comparable to that from the most advanced photonics source such as a quantum cascade laser. The physical mechanism for this strong radiation is presented. The phase diagrams defining the parameters range for the occurrence of radiation is also shown.

  6. Validation of the ARchived CERES Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget at SGP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Archived CERES Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget at SGP T. P. Charlock National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia F. G. Rose and D. A. Rutan Analytical Services and Materials Inc. Hampton, Virginia Introduction The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) product (Charlock et al. 2002) includes the vertical profile of broadband shortwave (SW), broadband longwave (LW), and 8-12 micron window

  7. Smart Surfaces: New Coatings & Paints with Radiation Detection Functionality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J

    2007-03-12

    Paints are being developed and tested that might ultimately be able to detect radiological agents in the environment by incorporating special pigments into an organic polymeric binder that can be applied as a paint or coatings. These paints detect radioactive sources and contaminants with inorganic or organic scintillation or thermo-luminescent pigments, which are selected based upon the radiation ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} or n) to be detected, and are shown in Figure 1.

  8. X-ray photoemission analysis of chemically modified TlBr surfaces for improved radiation detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, A. J.; Voss, L. F.; Beck, P. R.; Graff, R. T.; Conway, A. M.; Nikolic, R. J.; Payne, S. A.; Lee, J. -S.; Kim, H.; Cirignano, L.; et al

    2013-01-12

    We subjected device-grade TlBr to various chemical treatments used in room temperature radiation detector fabrication to determine the resulting surface composition and electronic structure. As-polished TlBr was treated separately with HCl, SOCl2, Br:MeOH and HF solutions. High-resolution photoemission measurements on the valence band electronic structure and Tl 4f, Br 3d, Cl 2p and S 2p core lines were used to evaluate surface chemistry and shallow heterojunction formation. Surface chemistry and valence band electronic structure were correlated with the goal of optimizing the long-term stability and radiation response.

  9. HEV America Baseline Test Sequence

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BASELINE TEST SEQUENCE Revision 1 September 1, 2006 Prepared by Electric Transportation ... All Rights Reserved HEV America Baseline Test Sequence Page 1 HEV PERFORMANCE TEST ...

  10. Improvement in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System/Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget Dust Aerosol Properties, Effects on Surface Validation of Clouds and Radiative Swath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutan, D.; Rose, F.; Charlock, T.P.

    2005-03-18

    Within the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (Wielicki et al. 1996), the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) group is tasked with calculating vertical profiles of heating rates, globally, and continuously, beneath CERES footprint observations of Top of Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes. This is accomplished using a fast radiative transfer code originally developed by Qiang Fu and Kuo-Nan Liou (Fu and Liou 1993) and subsequently highly modified by the SARB team. Details on the code and its inputs can be found in Kato et al. (2005) and Rose and Charlock (2002). Among the many required inputs is characterization of the vertical column profile of aerosols beneath each footprint. To do this SARB combines aerosol optical depth information from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument along with aerosol constituents specified by the Model for Atmosphere and Chemical Transport (MATCH) of Collins et al. (2001), and aerosol properties (e.g. single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter) from Tegen and Lacis (1996) and OPAC (Hess et al. 1998). The publicly available files that include these flux profiles, called the Clouds and Radiative Swath (CRS) data product, available from the Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/). As various versions of the code are completed, publishable results are named ''Editions.'' After CRS Edition 2A was finalized it was found that dust aerosols were too absorptive. Dust aerosols have subsequently been modified using a new set of properties developed by Andy Lacis and results have been released in CRS Edition 2B. This paper discusses the effects of changing desert dust aerosol properties, which can be significant for the radiation budget in mid ocean, a few thousand kilometers from the source regions. Resulting changes are validated via comparison of surface observed fluxes from the Saudi Solar Village surface site (Myers et al. 1999), and the E13 site at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility.

  11. Transportation Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kramer, George Leroy Jr.

    1999-12-01

    The National Transportation Program 1999 Transportation Baseline Report presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste and materials transportation. In addition, this Report provides a summary overview of DOEs projected quantities of waste and materials for transportation. Data presented in this report were gathered as a part of the IPABS Spring 1999 update of the EM Corporate Database and are current as of July 30, 1999. These data were input and compiled using the Analysis and Visualization System (AVS) which is used to update all stream-level components of the EM Corporate Database, as well as TSD System and programmatic risk (disposition barrier) information. Project (PBS) and site-level IPABS data are being collected through the Interim Data Management System (IDMS). The data are presented in appendices to this report.

  12. Document Number Q0029500 Baseline Risk Assessment Update 4.0 Baseline Risk Assessment Update

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Baseline Risk Assessment Update 4.0 Baseline Risk Assessment Update This section updates the human health and the ecological risk assessments that were originally presented in the 1998 RI (DOE 1998a). The impacts on the 1998 risk assessments are summarized in Section 2.9. 4.1 Human Health Risk Assessment Several activities completed since 1998 have contributed to changes in surface water and ground water concentrations. Activities that have impacted, or likely impacted surface water and ground

  13. Method for surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (SPASER)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stockman, Mark I. (Atlanta, GA); Bergman, David J. (Ramat Hasharon, IL)

    2011-09-13

    A nanostructure is used to generate a highly localized nanoscale optical field. The field is excited using surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (SPASER). The SPASER radiation consists of surface plasmons that undergo stimulated emission, but in contrast to photons can be localized within a nanoscale region. A SPASER can incorporate an active medium formed by two-level emitters, excited by an energy source, such as an optical, electrical, or chemical energy source. The active medium may be quantum dots, which transfer excitation energy by radiationless transitions to a resonant nanosystem that can play the same role as a laser cavity in a conventional laser. The transitions are stimulated by the surface plasmons in the nanostructure, causing the buildup of a macroscopic number of surface plasmons in a single mode.

  14. Annual Technology Baseline

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy DOE, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), that aims to document and implement an annual process designed to identify a realistic and timely set of input assumptions (e.g., technology cost and performance, fuel costs), and a diverse set of potential futures (standard scenarios), initially for electric sector analysis. This primary product of the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) project component includes detailed cost and performance data (both current and projected) for both renewable and conventional technologies. This data is presented in MS Excel.

  15. TWRS baseline system description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.K.

    1995-03-28

    This document provides a description of the baseline system conceptualized for remediating the tank waste stored within the Hanford Site. Remediation of the tank waste will be performed by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This baseline system description (BSD) document has been prepared to describe the current planning basis for the TWRS for accomplishing the tank waste remediation functions. The BSD document is not intended to prescribe firm program management strategies for implementing the TWRS. The scope of the TWRS Program includes managing existing facilities, developing technology for new systems; building, testing and operating new facilities; and maintaining the system. The TWRS Program will manage the system used for receiving, safely storing, maintaining, treating, and disposing onsite, or packaging for offsite disposal, all tank waste. The scope of the TWRS Program encompasses existing facilities such as waste storage tanks, evaporators, pipelines, and low-level radioactive waste treatment and disposal facilities. It includes support facilities that comprise the total TWRS infrastructure, including upgrades to existing facilities or equipment and the addition of new facilities.

  16. Observational determination of surface radiative forcing by CO2 from 2000 to 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Gero, P. Johnathan; Torn, Margaret S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shippert, Timothy R.

    2015-02-25

    The climatic impact of CO2 and other greenhouse gases is usually quantified in terms of radiative forcing1, calculated as the difference between estimates of the Earth’s radiation field from pre-industrial and present-day concentrations of these gases. Radiative transfer models calculate that the increase in CO2 since 1750 corresponds to a global annual-mean radiative forcing at the tropopause of 1.82 ± 0.19 W m-2 (ref. 2). However, despite widespread scientific discussion and modelling of the climate impacts of well-mixed greenhouse gases, there is little direct observational evidence of the radiative impact of increasing atmospheric CO2. Here we present observationally based evidence of clear-sky CO2 surface radiative forcing that is directly attributable to the increase, between 2000 and 2010, of 22 parts per million atmospheric CO2. The time series of this forcing at the two locations—the Southern Great Plains and the North Slope of Alaska—are derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer spectra3 together with ancillary measurements and thoroughly corroborated radiative transfer calculations4. The time series both show statistically significant trends of 0.2 W m-2 per decade (with respective uncertainties of ±0.06 W m-2 per decade and ±0.07 W m-2 per decade) and have seasonal ranges of 0.1–0.2 W m-2. This is approximately ten per cent of the trend in downwelling longwave radiation5, 6, 7. These results confirm theoretical predictions of the atmospheric greenhouse effect due to anthropogenic emissions, and provide empirical evidence of how rising CO2 levels, mediated by temporal variations due to photosynthesis and respiration, are affecting the surface energy balance.

  17. Hazard baseline documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This DOE limited technical standard establishes uniform Office of Environmental Management (EM) guidance on hazards baseline documents that identify and control radiological and nonradiological hazards for all EM facilities. It provides a road map to the safety and health hazard identification and control requirements contained in the Department`s orders and provides EM guidance on the applicability and integration of these requirements. This includes a definition of four classes of facilities (nuclear, non-nuclear, radiological, and other industrial); the thresholds for facility hazard classification; and applicable safety and health hazard identification, controls, and documentation. The standard applies to the classification, development, review, and approval of hazard identification and control documentation for EM facilities.

  18. Transformation of surface plasmon polaritons to radiation in graphene in terahertz regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Sen; Zhao, Tao; Hu, Min; Zhong, Renbin; Chen, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Shenggang; Sanderson, Matthew; Zhang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a concept that allows direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by a moving electron bunch above a single layer graphene sheet deposited on a dielectric substrate without any additional coupling requirements. We show that if the two-dimensional current in the graphene is dominated by the third order nonlinear effect when the surface electric field exceeds a moderate strength of ∼5 kV/cm, the SPP mode can cross the light line although the group velocity remains much smaller than the speed of light. This effect gives rise to direct transformation of SPPs into radiation. The underlying mechanism of the crossing of the SPP dispersion into the light line is the energy shift of charged particles in the nonlinear regime and the finite transport scattering time in graphene. Both the energy and lifetime of the SPPs increase with the field intensity. The radiation intensity and frequency can be tuned with an AC bias.

  19. Effects of sulfate aerosol on the central Pennsylvania surface shortwave radiation budget. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guimond, P.W.

    1994-12-01

    Surface radiation measurements are taken simultaneously with measurements of meteorological variables including temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and visibility to evaluate the impact of sulfate haze on the surface radiation budget. A relationship is sought between flux losses due only to aerosol and relative humidity, visibility or both, with the goal of facilitating parameterization of sulfate hazes by climate modelers. At the same time, a rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) is compared with a more costly sun photometer to determine the feasibility of substituting the former for the latter in future research. It is found that depletion of surface radiation due to aerosol is typically ten to twenty percent of initial insolation, and that the losses can be correlated with zenith angle, relative humidity and optical depth. In the case of flux loss as a function of optical depth, the two are related in a nearly linear fashion. It is also discovered that the RSR has a predictable error owing to a wider field of view than the sun photometer, and can be used as a replacement for the former by correcting for the error.

  20. Image Formation by Incoherent and Coherent Transition Radiation from Flat and Rough Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we derive equations for the image formation of transverse profile of a relativistic beam obtained by means of optical transition radiation (OTR) from flat and rough metal surfaces. The motivation behind this study lies in the desire to suppress coherent transition radiation (COTR) observed in experiments at modern free electron lasers. The physical mechanism behind the problem of COTR is that the OTR is predominantly radiated at small angles of order of 1/{gamma} where {gamma} is the relativistic factor of the beam. This means that the transverse formation size of the image is of order of {bar {lambda}}{gamma} where {bar {lambda}} = {lambda}/2{pi} with {lambda} the radiation wavelength. For relativistic beams this can be comparable or even exceed the transverse size of the beam, which would mean that the image of the beam has very little to do with its transverse profile. It is fortuitous, however, that the incoherent image is formed by adding radiation energy of electrons and results in the transverse formation size being of order of {bar {lambda}}/{theta}{sub a}, with {theta}{sub a} is the aperture angle of the optical system. The COTR image, in contrast, is formed by adding electromagnetic field of electrons, and leads to the formation size {bar {lambda}}{gamma}. In situations when the COTR intensity exceeds that of OTR the COTR imaging makes the diagnostic incapable of measuring the beam profile.

  1. Baseline Control Measures.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Individual Permit Baseline Control Measures at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Poster, Individual Permit for Storm Water, NPDES Permit No. NM0030759 Author(s): Veenis, Steven J....

  2. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Assistance Better Plants Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance The Energy Intensity Baselining and ...

  3. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  4. Modeling tropical Pacific sea surface temperature with satellite-derived solar radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seager, R.; Blumenthal, M.B.

    1994-12-01

    Two independent datasets for the solar radiation at the surface derived from satellites are compared. The data derived from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is for the net solar radiation at the surface whereas the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data is for the downward flux only and was corrected with a space- and time-varying albedo. The ISCCP net flux is at all times higher than the ERBE flux. The difference can be divided into an offset that decreases with latitude and another component that correlates with high tropical cloud cover. With this latter exception the two datasets provide spatial patterns of solar flux that are very similar. A tropical Pacific Ocean model is forced with these two datasets and observed climatological winds. The upward heat flux is parameterized taking into account separately the longwave radiative, latent, and sensible heat fluxes. Best fit values for the uncertain parameters are found using an optimization procedure that seeks to minimize the difference between model and observed SST by varying the parameters within a reasonable range of uncertainty. The SST field the model produces with the best fit parameters is the best the model can do. If the differences between the model and data are larger than can be accounted for by remaining uncertainties in the heat flux parameterization and forcing data then the ocean model must be held to be at fault. Using this method of analysis, a fundamental model fault is identified. Inadequate treatment of mixed layer/entrainment processes in upwelling regions of the eastern tropical Pacific leads to a large and seasonally varying error in the model SST. Elsewhere the model SST is insufficiently different from observed to be able to identify model errors.

  5. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  6. The Transient Circulation Response to Radiative Forcings and Sea Surface Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staten, Paul; Reichler, Thomas; Lu, Jian

    2014-08-27

    Tropospheric circulation shifts have strong potential to impact surface climate. But the magnitude of these shifts in a changing climate, and the attending regional hydrological changes, are difficult to project. Part of this difficulty arises from our lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the circulation shifts themselves. In order to better delineate circulation shifts and their respective causes, we decompose the circulation response into (1) the "direct" response to radiative forcings themselves, and (2) the "indirect" response to changing sea surface temperatures. Using ensembles of 90-day climate model simulations with immediate switch-on forcings, including perturbed greenhouse gas concentrations, stratospheric ozone concentrations, and sea surface temperatures, we document the direct and indirect transient responses of the zonal mean general circulation, and investigate the roles of previously proposed mechanisms in shifting the midlatitude jet. We find that both the direct and indirect wind responses often begin in the lower stratosphere. Changes in midlatitude eddies are ubiquitous and synchronous with the midlatitude zonal wind response. Shifts in the critical latitude of wave absorption on either flank of the jet are not indicted as primary factors for the poleward shifting jet, although we see some evidence for increasing equatorward wave reflection over the southern hemisphere in response to sea surface warming. Mechanisms for the northern hemisphere jet shift are less clear.

  7. The effect of back scatter radiation on surface dose as measured by TLDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boguslavsky, R.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-12-01

    A group of scientists at HASYLAB in Germany are doing an Angiography project in parallel with a group of scientists at the Brookhaven National, National Synchrotron Light Source. In order to determine the X-ray dose to a patient, the German group places lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on the front (upstream) surface of their patient. The found that the TLD dose was higher than the dose calculated from an ionization chamber. An ionization chamber is a device that counts the number of photons when a beam of synchrotron radiation passes through Dr. Wolf-Rainer Dix of HASYLAB found that there is a difference of about 15% between dose data from TLDs put on a water tub and TLDs in the air. The goal of the experiment we did was to understand and maybe match the dose numbers Dix obtained.

  8. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual Technology Baseline ...

  9. Baseline Wind Energy Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Energy Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Baseline Wind Energy Facility Facility Baseline Wind Energy Facility Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind...

  10. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, W. -L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H. -H.

    2014-12-15

    We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the Western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada using CCSM4 (CAM4/CLM4) global model with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation [3-D - PP (plane-parallel)] adjustment to ensure that energy balance at the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization.more » We show that deviations of the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains, but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while decreases for higher elevations with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases in higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.« less

  11. Baseline measurements of terrestrial gamma radioactivity at the CEBAF site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Smith, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    A survey of the gamma radiation background from terrestrial sources was conducted at the CEBAF site, Newport News, Virginia, on November 12--16, 1990, to provide a gamma radiation baseline for the site prior to the startup of the accelerator. The concentrations and distributions of the natural radioelements in exposed soil were measured, and the results of the measurements were converted into gamma-ray exposure rates. Concurrently, samples were collected for laboratory gamma spectral analyses.

  12. ARM - AMF1 Baseline Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Surface Meteorology Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Laser Disdrometer (LDIS) Meteorological Instrumentation at AMF (MET) ...

  13. Baseline Control Measures.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Individual Permit Baseline Control Measures at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Poster, Individual Permit for Storm Water, NPDES Permit No. NM0030759 Author(s): Veenis, Steven J. Intended for: Public Purpose: This poster was prepared for the June 2013 Individual Permit for Storm Water (IP) public meeting. The purpose of the meeting was to update the public on implementation of the permit as required under Part 1.I (7) of the IP (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit No.

  14. Radiative cooling test facility and performance evaluation of 4-MIL aluminized polyvinyl fluoride and white-paint surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruskopf, M.S.; Berdahl, P.; Martin, M.; Sakkal, F.; Sobolewski, M.

    1980-11-01

    A test facility designed to measure the amount of radiative cooling a specific material or assembly of materials will produce when exposed to the sky is described. Emphasis is placed upon assemblies which are specifically designed to produce radiative cooling and which therefore offer promise for the reduction of temperatures and/or humidities in occupied spaces. The hardware and software used to operate the facility are documented and the results of the first comprehensive experiments are presented. A microcomputer-based control/data acquisition system was employed to study the performance of two prototype radiator surfaces: 4-mil aluminized polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and white painted surfaces set below polyethylene windscreens. The cooling rates for materials tested were determined and can be approximated by an equation (given). A computer model developed to simulate the cooling process is presented. (MCW)

  15. Study of Interfacial Interactions Using Thing Film Surface Modification: Radiation and Oxidation Effects in Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2014-01-09

    Interfaces play a key role in dictating the long-term stability of materials under the influence of radiation and high temperatures. For example, grain boundaries affect corrosion by way of providing kinetically favorable paths for elemental diffusion, but they can also act as sinks for defects and helium generated during irradiation. Likewise, the retention of high-temperature strength in nanostructured, oxide-dispersion strengthened steels depends strongly on the stoichiometric and physical stability of the (Y, Ti)-oxide particles/matrix interface under radiation and high temperatures. An understanding of these interfacial effects at a fundamental level is important for the development of materials for extreme environments of nuclear reactors. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding stability of interfaces by depositing thin films of materials on substrates followed by ion irradiation of the film-substrate system at elevated temperatures followed by post-irradiation oxidation treatments. Specifically, the research will be performed by depositing thin films of yttrium and titanium (~500 nm) on Fe-12%Cr binary alloy substrate. Y and Ti have been selected as thin-film materials because they form highly stable protective oxides layers. The Fe-12%Cr binary alloy has been selected because it is representative of ferritic steels that are widely used in nuclear systems. The absence of other alloying elements in this binary alloy would allow for a clearer examination of structures and compositions that evolve during high-temperature irradiations and oxidation treatments. The research is divided into four specific tasks: (1) sputter deposition of 500 nm thick films of Y and Ti on Fe-12%Cr alloy substrates, (2) ion irradiation of the film-substrate system with 2MeV protons to a dose of 2 dpa at temperatures of 300°C, 500°C, and 700°C, (3) oxidation of as-deposited and ion-irradiated samples in a controlled oxygen environment at 500°C and 700°C, (4) multi-scale computational modeling involving first- principle molecular dynamics (FPMD) and coarse-grained dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) approaches to develop theories underlying the evolution and stability of structures and phases. Samples from Tasks 1 to 3 (above) will be rigorously characterized and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford back scatter spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Expected outcomes of the experimental work include a quantitative understanding film-substrate interface mixing, evolution of defects and other phases at the interface, interaction of interfaces with defects, and the ability of the Y and Ti films to mitigate irradiation-assisted oxidation.The aforementioned experimental work will be closely coupled with multi-scale molecular dynamics (MD) modeling to understand the reactions at the surface, the transport of oxidant through the thin film, and the stabilities of the deposited thin films under radiation and oxidation. Simulations of materials property changes under conditions of radiation and oxidation require multiple size domains and a different simulation scheme for each of these domains. This will be achieved by coupling the FPMD and coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). This will enable the comparison of the results of each simulation approach with the experimental results.

  16. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  17. Generation of surface waves and low-frequency radiation under exposure of a conductor to a laser pulse focused by a cylindrical lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uryupin, S A; Frolov, A A

    2014-09-30

    We have developed a theory of generation of low-frequency radiation and surface waves under the pondermotive action of a femtosecond laser pulse irradiating a conductor along the normal and focused by a cylindrical lens. It is shown that for the chosen focusing method and specified values of laser pulse duration and flux density it is possible to significantly increase the total energy of both surface waves and low-frequency radiation. (terahertz radiation)

  18. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, W.-L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H.-H.

    2015-05-19

    We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, using the global CCSM4 (Community Climate System Model version 4; Community Atmosphere Model/Community Land Model – CAM4/CLM4) with a 0.23° × 0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. In a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation (3-D–PP (plane-parallel)) adjustment to ensure that the energy balance atmore » the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization. We show that deviations in the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher-elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while it decreases for higher elevations, with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases at higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.« less

  19. Baseline Test Specimen Machining Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    mark Carroll

    2009-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. Establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis is one of the major fundamental objectives of the project. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as nuclear grade, an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al, 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing on specimens drawn from carefully controlled sections of each billet. To this end, this report will discuss the machining of the first set of test specimens that will be evaluated in this program through tensile, compressive, and flexural testing. Validation that the test specimens have been produced to the tolerances required by the applicable ASTM standards, and to the quality control levels required by this program, will demonstrate the viability of sending graphite to selected suppliers that will provide valuable and certifiable data to future data sets that are integral to the NGNP program and beyond.

  20. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  1. Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based Shortwave Radiation Measurements: A Comparison of 16 Year Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Yu; Liu, Yangang; Long, Charles N.; Min, Qilong

    2014-07-27

    Ground-based radiation measurements have been widely conducted to gain information on clouds and the surface radiation budget; here several different techniques for retrieving cloud fraction (Long2006, Min2008 and XL2013) and cloud albedo (Min2008, Liu2011 and XL2013) from ground-based shortwave broadband and spectral radiation measurements are examined, and sixteen years of retrievals collected at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are compared. The comparison shows overall good agreement between the retrievals of both cloud fraction and cloud albedo, with noted differences however. The Long2006 and Min2008 cloud fractions are greater on average than the XL2013 values. Compared to Min2008 and Liu2011, the XL2013 retrieval of cloud albedo tends to be greater for thin clouds but smaller for thick clouds, with the differences decreasing with increasing cloud fraction. Further analysis reveals that the approaches that retrieve cloud fraction and cloud albedo separately may suffer from mutual contamination of errors in retrieved cloud fraction and cloud albedo. Potential influences of cloud absorption, land-surface albedo, cloud structure, and measurement instruments are explored.

  2. Baseline Graphite Characterization: First Billet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark C. Carroll; Joe Lords; David Rohrbaugh

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. To meet this goal, the program is generating the extensive amount of quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the available nuclear graphite grades. In order determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for the latest proposed designs, two main programs are underway. The first, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) program, is a set of experiments that are designed to evaluate the irradiated properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences, and compressive loads. Despite the aggressive experimental matrix that comprises the set of AGC test runs, a limited amount of data can be generated based upon the availability of space within the Advanced Test Reactor and the geometric constraints placed on the AGC specimens that will be inserted. In order to supplement the AGC data set, the Baseline Graphite Characterization program will endeavor to provide supplemental data that will characterize the inherent property variability in nuclear-grade graphite without the testing constraints of the AGC program. This variability in properties is a natural artifact of graphite due to the geologic raw materials that are utilized in its production. This variability will be quantified not only within a single billet of as-produced graphite, but also from billets within a single lot, billets from different lots of the same grade, and across different billets of the numerous grades of nuclear graphite that are presently available. The thorough understanding of this variability will provide added detail to the irradiated property data, and provide a more thorough understanding of the behavior of graphite that will be used in reactor design and licensing. This report covers the development of the Baseline Graphite Characterization program from a testing and data collection standpoint through the completion of characterization on the first billet of nuclear-grade graphite. This data set is the starting point for all future evaluations and comparisons of material properties.

  3. Surface radiation survey and soil sampling of the 300-FF-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, southeastern Washington: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teel, S.S.; Olsen, K.B.

    1990-10-01

    The methods used for conducting a radiological characterization of the soil surface for the Phase I Remedial Investigation of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site is presented via a case study. The study site is an operable unit (300-FF-1) located in and adjacent to the 300 Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operable unit contains liquid and solid waste disposal facilities associated with nuclear fuels fabrication. Continuous surface radiation surveying and soil sampling of selected locations were conducted. Contamination was found in several locations within the operable unit including areas near the liquid and solid waste disposal facilities. Instruments used during surveying included portable beta/gamma (P-11) detectors, and the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System using an NaI (Tl) detector. Laboratory analyses results indicate that above-background radiation levels were primarily due to the presence of uranium. Both types of field instruments used in the study were effective in detecting surface contamination from radionuclides; however, each had specific advantages. Guidelines are presented for the optimum use of these instruments when performing a radiological characterization of the soil surface. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  5. More Frequent Cloud-Free Sky and Less Surface Solar Radiation in China from 1955 to 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Kaiser, Dale P.; Leung, Lai R.; Xu, Ming

    2006-01-11

    Newly available data from extended weather stations and time period reveal that much of China has experienced statistically significant decreases in total cloud cover and low cloud cover over roughly the last half of the Twentieth century. This conclusion is supported by our recent analysis of the more reliably observed frequency of cloud-free sky and overcast sky. The total cloud cover and low cloud cover have decreased 0.88% and 0.33% per decade, respectively, and cloud-free days have increased 0.60% and overcast days decreased 0.78% per decade in China from 1954-2001. Meanwhile, both solar radiation and pan evaporation have decreased in most parts of China, with solar radiation decreasing 3.1 W/m2 and pan evaporation decreasing 39 mm per decade. Combined with other evidences documented in previous studies, we conjectured that increased air pollution may have produced a fog-like haze that reflected/absorbed radiation from the sun and resulted in less solar radiation reaching the surface, despite concurrent upward trends in cloud-free skies over China.

  6. NREL: Climate Neutral Research Campuses - Determine Baseline...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determine Baseline Energy Consumption To create a climate action plan for your research campus, begin by determining current energy consumption and the resulting greenhouse gas ...

  7. Tank waste remediation systems technical baseline database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, P.E.

    1996-10-16

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains Hanford generated data for the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Baseline Database as of October 09, 1996.

  8. Baselines for Greenhouse Gas Reductions: Problems, Precedents...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.p2pays.orgref2221739.pdf References:...

  9. Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility / Deep Underground Neutrino Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility Deep Underground Neutrino Project (LBNF-DUNE) Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility Deep Underground Neutrino Project (LBNF-DUNE) Long-Baseline ...

  10. TWRS technical baseline database manager definition document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acree, C.D.

    1997-08-13

    This document serves as a guide for using the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management Systems Engineering (SE) support tool in performing SE activities for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This document will provide a consistent interpretation of the relationships between the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management software and the present TWRS SE practices. The Database Manager currently utilized is the RDD-1000 System manufactured by the Ascent Logic Corporation. In other documents, the term RDD-1000 may be used interchangeably with TWRS Technical Baseline Database Manager.

  11. Final report for the project "Improving the understanding of surface-atmosphere radiative interactions by mapping surface reflectance over the ARM CART site" (award DE-FG02-02ER63351)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander P. Trishchenko; Yi Luo; Konstantin V. Khlopenkov, William M. Park; Zhanqing Li; Maureen Cribb

    2008-11-28

    Surface spectral reflectance (albedo) is a fundamental variable affecting the transfer of solar radiation and the Earths climate. It determines the proportion of solar energy absorbed by the surface and reflected back to the atmosphere. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified surface albedo among key factors influencing climate radiative forcing. Accurate knowledge of surface reflective properties is important for advancing weather forecasting and climate change impact studies. It is also important for determining radiative impact and acceptable levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which makes this work strongly linked to major scientific objectives of the Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Most significant accomplishments of eth project are listed below. I) Surface albedo/BRDF datasets from 1995 to the end of 2004 have been produced. They were made available to the ARM community and other interested users through the CCRS public ftp site ftp://ftp.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ad/CCRS_ARM/ and ARM IOP data archive under PI data Trishchenko. II) Surface albedo properties over the ARM SGP area have been described for 10-year period. Comparison with ECMWF data product showed some deficiencies in the ECMWF surface scheme, such as missing some seasonal variability and no dependence on sky-conditions which biases surface energy budget and has some influence of the diurnal cycle of upward radiation and atmospheric absorption. III) Four surface albedo Intensive Observation Period (IOP) Field Campaigns have been conducted for every season (August, 2002, May 2003, February 2004 and October 2004). Data have been prepared, documented and transferred to ARM IOP archive. Nine peer-reviewed journal papers and 26 conference papers have been published.

  12. SU-E-J-217: Accuracy Comparison Between Surface and Volumetric Registrations for Patient Setup of Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y; Li, R; Na, Y; Jenkins, C; Xing, L; Lee, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Optical surface imaging has been applied to radiation therapy patient setup. This study aims to investigate the accuracy of the surface registration of the optical surface imaging compared with that of the conventional method of volumetric registration for patient setup in head and neck radiation therapy. Methods: Clinical datasets of planning CT and treatment Cone Beam CT (CBCT) were used to compare the surface and volumetric registrations in radiation therapy patient setup. The Iterative Closest Points based on point-plane closest method was implemented for surface registration. We employed 3D Slicer for rigid volumetric registration of planning CT and treatment CBCT. 6 parameters of registration results (3 rotations and 3 translations) were obtained by the two registration methods, and the results were compared. Digital simulation tests in ideal cases were also performed to validate each registration method. Results: Digital simulation tests showed that both of the registration methods were accurate and robust enough to compare the registration results. In experiments with the actual clinical data, the results showed considerable deviation between the surface and volumetric registrations. The average root mean squared translational error was 2.7 mm and the maximum translational error was 5.2 mm. Conclusion: The deviation between the surface and volumetric registrations was considerable. Special caution should be taken in using an optical surface imaging. To ensure the accuracy of optical surface imaging in radiation therapy patient setup, additional measures are required. This research was supported in part by the KIST institutional program (2E24551), the Industrial Strategic technology development program (10035495) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE, KOREA), and the Radiation Safety Research Programs (1305033) through the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, and the NIH (R01EB016777)

  13. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Models guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Models Guide summarizes the IBS use of several computer models for predicting the results of emergency situations. These include models for predicting dispersion/doses of airborne contaminants, traffic evacuation, explosion effects, heat radiation from a fire, and siren sound transmission. The guide references additional technical documentation on the models when such documentation is available from other sources. The audience for this manual is chiefly emergency management planners and analysts, but also data managers and system managers.

  14. Hanford Site technical baseline database. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, P.E.

    1995-01-27

    This report lists the Hanford specific files (Table 1) that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. Table 2 includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 0 of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. This information is being managed and maintained on the Hanford RDD-100 System, which uses the capabilities of RDD-100, a systems engineering software system of Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC). This revision of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database uses RDD-100 version 3.0.2.2 (see Table 3). Directories reflect those controlled by the Hanford RDD-100 System Administrator. Table 4 provides information regarding the platform. A cassette tape containing the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database is available.

  15. Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

    2003-11-06

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

  16. Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project: Feasibility test of real-time radiation monitoring during removal of surface contamination from concrete floors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leino, R.; Corle, S.

    1995-10-01

    This feasibility test was conducted to determine if real-time radiation-monitoring instruments could be mounted on decontamination machines during remediation activities to provide useful and immediate feedback to equipment operators. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored this field test under the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project (GJPORAP) to identify a more efficient method to remove radiological contamination from concrete floor surfaces. This test demonstrated that project durations and costs may be reduced by combining radiation-monitoring equipment with decontamination machines. The test also demonstrated that a microprocessor-based instrument such as a radiation monitor can withstand the type of vibration that is characteristic of floor scabblers with no apparent damage. Combining radiation-monitoring equipment with a decontamination machine reduces the time and costs required to decontaminate concrete surfaces. These time and cost savings result from the reduction in the number of interim radiological surveys that must be conducted to complete remediation. Real-time radiation monitoring allows equipment operators to accurately monitor contamination during the decontamination process without support from radiological technicians, which also reduces the project duration and costs. The DOE Grand Junction Projects Office recommends more extensive and rigorous testing of this real-time radiation monitoring to include a variety of surfaces and decontamination machines. As opportunities arise, additional testing will be conducted under GJPORAP.

  17. Radiation resistance of GaAs-GaAlAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jabbour, J.; Zazoui, M.; Sun, G.C.; Bourgoin, J.C.; Gilard, O.

    2005-02-15

    The variations of the optical and electrical characteristics of a vertical cavity surface emitting laser based on GaAs quantum wells have been monitored versus irradiation with 1 MeV electrons. The results are understood by the introduction of nonradiative recombination centers in the wells whose characteristics, capture cross section for minority carriers times their introduction rate, can be determined. A similar study performed for proton irradiation shows that the results can be explained in the same way when the introduction rate of the defects is replaced by the proton energy loss into atomic collisions. These results allow us to deduce the equivalence between electron and proton irradiations: A flux of 1 proton cm{sup -2} which loses an energy E{sub nl} (eV) into atomic collisions is equivalent to a fluence of about 9x10{sup -2} E{sub nl} cm{sup -2}, 1 MeV electrons.

  18. Waste management project technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  19. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  20. Mexico-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Danish Government Baseline Workstream AgencyCompany Organization Danish Government Partner Danish...

  1. Indonesia-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-Danish Government Baseline Workstream AgencyCompany Organization Danish Government...

  2. India-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name India-Danish Government Baseline Workstream AgencyCompany Organization Danish Government Partner Danish...

  3. UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas project activities Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and...

  4. China-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Danish Government Baseline Workstream AgencyCompany Organization Danish Government Partner Danish...

  5. EVMS Training Snippet: 4.6 Baseline Control Methods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EVMS Training Snippet, sponsored by the Office of Project Management (PM) discusses baseline revisions and the different baseline control vehicles used in DOE.

  6. South Africa-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa-Danish Government Baseline Workstream AgencyCompany Organization Danish Government Partner Danish Ministry for...

  7. EA-1943: Construction and Operation of the Long Baseline Neutrino...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    43: Construction and Operation of the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility and Deep Underground ... EA-1943: Construction and Operation of the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility and Deep ...

  8. Brazil-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name Brazil-Danish Government Baseline Workstream AgencyCompany Organization Danish Government Partner Danish...

  9. Baseline Microstructural Characterization of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapp, Phillip E.; Dunn, Kerry A

    2005-07-31

    Three DOE Standard 3013 outer storage containers were examined to characterize the microstructure of the type 316L stainless steel material of construction. Two of the containers were closure-welded yielding production-quality outer 3013 containers; the third examined container was not closed. Optical metallography and Knoop microhardness measurements were performed to establish a baseline characterization that will support future destructive examinations of 3013 outer containers in the storage inventory. Metallography revealed the microstructural features typical of this austenitic stainless steel as it is formed and welded. The grains were equiaxed with evident annealing twins. Flow lines were prominent in the forming directions of the cylindrical body and flat lids and bottom caps. No adverse indications were seen. Microhardness values, although widely varying, were consistent with annealed austenitic stainless steel. The data gathered as part of this characterization will be used as a baseline for the destructive examination of 3013 containers removed from the storage inventory.

  10. Engineering task plan TWRS technical baseline completion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, T.L

    1996-03-08

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) includes many activities required to remediate the radioactive waste stored in underground waste storage tanks. These activities include routine monitoring of the waste, facilities maintenance, upgrades to existing equipment, and installation of new equipment necessary to manage, retrieve, process, and dispose of the waste. In order to ensure that these multiple activities are integrated, cost effective, and necessary, a sound technical baseline is required from which all activities can be traced and measured. The process by which this technical baseline is developed will consist of the identification of functions, requirements, architecture, and test (FRAT) methodology. This process must be completed for TWRS to a level that provides the technical basis for all facility/system/component maintenance, upgrades, or new equipment installation.

  11. Module 7 - Integrated Baseline Review and Change Control | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy 7 - Integrated Baseline Review and Change Control Module 7 - Integrated Baseline Review and Change Control This module focuses on integrated baseline reviews (IBR) and change control. This module outlines the objective and responsibility of an integrated baseline review. Additionally, this module will discuss the change control process required for implementing earned value

  12. Baseline review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Review of the U.S. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Accelerator project was conducted February 23--26, 1998, at the request of Dr. John R. O`Fallon, Director, Division of High Energy Physics, Office of Energy Research, U.S. DOE. This is the first review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project. Overall, the Committee found that the U.S. LHC Accelerator project effort is off to a good start and that the proposed scope is very conservative for the funding available. The Committee recommends that the project be initially baselined at a total cost of $110 million, with a scheduled completion data of 2005. The U.S. LHC Accelerator project will supply high technology superconducting magnets for the interaction regions (IRs) and the radio frequency (rf) straight section of the LHC intersecting storage rings. In addition, the project provides the cryogenic support interface boxes to service the magnets and radiation absorbers to protect the IR dipoles and the inner triplet quadrupoles. US scientists will provide support in analyzing some of the detailed aspects of accelerator physics in the two rings. The three laboratories participating in this project are Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Committee was very impressed by the technical capabilities of the US LHC Accelerator project team. Cost estimates for each subsystem of the US LHC Accelerator project were presented to the Review Committee, with a total cost including contingency of $110 million (then year dollars). The cost estimates were deemed to be conservative. A re-examination of the funding profile, costs, and schedules on a centralized project basis should lead to an increased list of deliverables. The Committee concluded that the proposed scope of US deliverables to CERN can be readily accomplished with the $110 million total cost baseline for the project. The current deliverables should serve as the baseline scope with the firm expectation that additional scope will be restored to the baseline as the project moves forward. The Committee supports the FY 1998 work plan and scope of deliverables but strongly recommends the reevaluation of costs and schedules with the goal of producing a plan for restoring the US deliverables to CERN. This plan should provide precise dates when scope decisions must be made.

  13. A WRF Simulation of the Impact of 3-D Radiative Transfer on Surface Hydrology over the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, K. N.; Gu, Y.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lee, W- L.; Fovell, R. G.

    2013-12-03

    We investigate 3-D mountains/snow effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, applied at a 30 km grid resolution, is used in conjunction with a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization covering a time period from 1 November 2007 to 31 May 2008, during which abundant snowfall occurred. A comparison of the 3-D WRF simulation with the observed snow water equivalent (SWE) and precipitation from Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites shows reasonable agreement in terms of spatial patterns and daily and seasonal variability, although the simulation generally has a positive precipitation bias. We show that 3-D mountain features have a profound impact on the diurnal and monthly variation of surface radiative and heat fluxes, and on the consequent elevation dependence of snowmelt and precipitation distributions. In particular, during the winter months, large deviations (3-DPP, in which PP denotes the plane-parallel approach) of the monthly mean surface solar flux are found in the morning and afternoon hours due to shading effects for elevations below 2.5 km. During spring, positive deviations shift to the earlier morning. Over mountaintops higher than 3 km, positive deviations are found throughout the day, with the largest values of 40-60Wm?2 occurring at noon during the snowmelt season of April to May. The monthly SWE deviations averaged over the entire domain show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, which leads to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, positive SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Overall, this study shows that deviations of SWE due to 3-D radiation effects range from an increase of 18%at the lowest elevation range (1.5-2 km) to a decrease of 8% at the highest elevation range (above 3 km). Since lower elevation areas occupy larger fractions of the land surface, the net effect of 3-D radiative transfer is to extend snowmelt and snowmelt-driven runoff into the warm season. Because 60-90% of water resources originate from mountains worldwide, the aforementioned differences in simulated hydrology due solely to 3-D interactions between solar radiation and mountains/snow merit further investigation in order to understand the implications of modeling mountain water resources, and these resources vulnerability to climate change and air pollution.

  14. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Radiation-Solid Interactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences > Radiation & Solid Interactions > Nanomaterials Sciences > Surface & Interface Sciences Semiconductor & Optical Sciences...

  15. Grocery 2009 TSD Miami Baseline | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Model Name Grocery 2009 TSD Miami Baseline Building Type Food Sales Model Type Baseline Model Target Type ASHRAE 90.1 2004 Model Year 2009 IDF file...

  16. Grocery 2009 TSD Chicago Baseline | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Model Name Grocery 2009 TSD Chicago Baseline Building Type Food Sales Model Type Baseline Model Target Type ASHRAE 90.1 2004 Model Year 2009 IDF file...

  17. Proposed Methodology for LEED Baseline Refrigeration Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.

    2011-02-01

    This PowerPoint presentation summarizes a proposed methodology for LEED baseline refrigeration modeling. The presentation discusses why refrigeration modeling is important, the inputs of energy models, resources, reference building model cases, baseline model highlights, example savings calculations and results.

  18. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  19. Borehole temperatures and a baseline for 20th-century global warming estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.N.; Chapman, D.S.

    1997-03-14

    Lack of a 19th-century baseline temperature against which 20th-century warming can be referenced constitutes a deficiency in understanding recent climate change. Combination of borehole temperature profiles, which contain a memory of surface temperature changes in previous centuries, with the meteorologicl archive of surface air temperatures can provide a 19th-century baseline temperature tied to the current observational record. A test case in Utah, where boreholes are interspersed with meteorological stations belonging to the Historical Climatological network, Yields a noise reduction in estimates of 20th-century warming and a baseline temperature that is 0.6{degrees} {+-} 0.1{degrees}C below the 1951 to 1970 mean temperature for the region. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. In situ synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy study of the oxidation of the Ge(100)-2 1 surface by supersonic molecular oxygen beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden; Okada, Ryuta; Yamada, Yoichi; Sasaki, Masahiro

    2014-11-07

    In situ synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy was performed during the oxidation of the Ge(100)-2 1 surface induced by a molecular oxygen beam with various incident energies up to 2.2 eV from the initial to saturation coverage of surface oxides. The saturation coverage of oxygen on the clean Ge(100) surface was much lower than one monolayer and the oxidation state of Ge was +2 at most. This indicates that the Ge(100) surface is so inert toward oxidation that complete oxidation cannot be achieved with only pure oxygen (O{sub 2}) gas, which is in strong contrast to Si surfaces. Two types of dissociative adsorption, trapping-mediated and direct dissociation, were confirmed by oxygen uptake measurements depending on the incident energy of O{sub 2}. The direct adsorption process can be activated by increasing the translational energy, resulting in an increased population of Ge{sup 2+} and a higher final oxygen coverage. We demonstrated that hyperthermal O{sub 2} beams remarkably promote the room-temperature oxidation with novel atomic configurations of oxides at the Ge(100) surface. Our findings will contribute to the fundamental understanding of oxygen adsorption processes at 300 K from the initial stages to saturated oxidation.

  1. NREL: Energy Analysis - Annual Technology Baseline and Standard Scenarios

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Legacy Versions Annual Technology Baseline and Standard Scenarios - Legacy Versions This section contains earlier versions of NREL's Annual Technology Baseline and Standard Scenarios products. Looking for the latest versions of the ATB? Spring 2015 Draft Versions Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) Spreadsheet ATB Summary Presentation Standard Scenarios Annual Report

  2. Radiation damage and associated phase change effect on photodesorption rates from icesLy? studies of the surface behavior of CO{sub 2}(ice)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Yates, John T. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Photodesorption from a crystalline film of CO{sub 2}(ice) at 75 K has been studied using Ly? (10.2 eV) radiation. We combine quantitative mass spectrometric studies of gases evolved and transmission IR studies of species trapped in the ice. Direct CO desorption is observed from the primary CO{sub 2} photodissociation process, which occurs promptly for CO{sub 2} molecules located on the outermost surface of the ice (Process I). As the fluence of Ly? radiation increases to ?5.5 10{sup 17} photons cm{sup 2}, extensive damage to the crystalline ice occurs and photo-produced CO molecules from deeper regions (Process II) are found to desorb at a rapidly increasing rate, which becomes two orders of magnitude greater than Process I. It is postulated that deep radiation damage to produce an extensive amorphous phase of CO{sub 2} occurs in the 50 nm ice film and that CO (and CO{sub 2}) diffusive transport is strongly enhanced in the amorphous phase. Photodesorption in Process II is a combination of electronic and thermally activated processes. Radiation damage in crystalline CO{sub 2} ice has been monitored by its effects on the vibrational line shapes of CO{sub 2}(ice). Here the crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition has been correlated with the occurrence of efficient molecular transport over long distances through the amorphous phase of CO{sub 2}(ice). Future studies of the composition of the interstellar region, generated by photodesorption from ice layers on grains, will have to consider the significant effects of radiation damage on photodesorption rates.

  3. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Xucheng

    1996-01-01

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window.

  4. LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  5. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  6. Baseline air quality study at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dave, M.J.; Charboneau, R.

    1980-10-01

    Air quality and meteorological data collected at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The data represent baseline values for the pre-construction phase of a proposed coal-gasification test facility. Air quality data were characterized through continuous monitoring of gaseous pollutants, collection of meteorological data, data acquisition and reduction, and collection and analysis of discrete atmospheric samples. Seven air quality parameters were monitored and recorded on a continuous real-time basis: sulfur dioxide, ozone, total hydrocarbons, nonreactive hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. A 20.9-m tower was erected near Argonne's mobile air monitoring laboratory, which was located immediately downwind of the proposed facility. The tower was instrumented at three levels to collect continuous meteorological data. Wind speed was monitored at three levels; wind direction, horizontal and vertical, at the top level; ambient temperature at the top level; and differential temperature between all three levels. All continuously-monitored parameters were digitized and recorded on magnetic tape. Appropriate software was prepared to reduce the data. Statistical summaries, grphical displays, and correlation studies also are presented.

  7. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, X.

    1996-12-17

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window. 5 figs.

  8. The Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes: Results from Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Delamere, Jennifer; Shippert, Timothy R.; Cole, Jason; Fomin, Boris; Iacono, Michael J.; Jin, Zhonghai; Li, Jiangning; Manners, James; Raisanen, Petri; Rose, Fred; Zhang, Yuanchong; Wilson, Michael J.; Rossow, William B.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from Phase I of the Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC), intended as an evolving and regularly updated reference source for evaluation of radiative transfer (RT) codes used in Global Climate Models. CIRC differs from previous intercomparisons in that it relies on an observationally validated catalogue of cases. The seven CIRC Phase I baseline cases, five cloud-free, and two with overcast liquid clouds, are built around observations by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program that satisfy the goals of Phase I, namely to examine radiative transfer (RT) model performance in realistic, yet not overly complex, atmospheric conditions. In addition to the seven baseline cases, additional idealized "subcases" are also examined to facilitate intrepretation of the causes of model errors. In addition to summarizing individual model performance with respect to reference line-by-line calculations and inter-model differences, we also highlight RT model behavior for conditions of doubled CO2, aspects of utilizing a spectral specification of surface albedo, and the impact of the inclusion of scattering in the thermal infrared. Our analysis suggests that RT models should work towards improving their calculation of diffuse shortwave flux, shortwave absorption, treatment of spectral surface albedo, and shortwave CO2 forcing. On the other hand, LW calculations appear to be significantly closer to the reference results. By enhancing the range of conditions under which participating codes are tested, future CIRC phases will hopefully allow even more rigorous examination of RT code performance.

  9. ATIC as a testbed for the ACCESS baseline calorimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isbert, J.; Authement, J.; Coleman, J.; Guzik, T. G.; Granger, D.; Lockwood, R.; McMorris, A.; Mock, L.; Oubre, C.; Panasyuk, M.; Peck, J.; Wefel, J. P.; Adams, J. H. Jr.; Boberg, P. R.; Dion-Schwarz, C.; Kroeger, R.; Bashindzhagyan, G. B.; Khein, L.; Samsonov, G. A.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    1999-01-22

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon experiment is designed to measure the spectrum of individual elements from H through Fe up to a total energy >10{sup 14} eV. To accomplish this goal, ATIC incorporates a Silicon matrix detector composed of more than 4,000 pixels to measure the incident particle charge in the presence of backscatter background, three plastic scintillator hodoscopes to provide an event trigger as well as a backup measurement of the particle charge and trajectory, a 3/4 interaction length carbon target and a fully active ionization calorimeter composed of 22 radiation lengths of Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystals. This detector complement is very similar to the baseline calorimeter for the Advanced Cosmic Ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station, ACCESS. The ATIC flights can be used to evaluate such a calorimeter in the cosmic ray 'beam.' ATIC integration is currently underway with a first flight expected during 1999. This talk will discuss ATIC as it applies to ACCESS.

  10. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

  11. LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  12. ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface skin temperature, from an IR thermometer measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface in its field of view. Categories Radiometric, Surface...

  13. NREL: Energy Analysis - Annual Technology Baseline and Standard Scenarios

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Technology Baseline and Standard Scenarios Discussion Draft of NREL 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Now Available for Review NREL has posted a discussion draft of its 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) for public comment through April 15, 2016. ATB Spreadsheet ATB Presentation-an appendix summarizes significant changes from the 2015 ATB. Written public comments are welcome and must adhere to these criteria to be considered: Comments must be submitted in writing to

  14. Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility / Deep Underground Neutrino Project

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (LBNF-DUNE) | Department of Energy Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility / Deep Underground Neutrino Project (LBNF-DUNE) Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility / Deep Underground Neutrino Project (LBNF-DUNE) Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility / Deep Underground Neutrino Project (LBNF-DUNE) Chris Mossey, Deputy Lab Director (Fermi) and Project Director for LBNF-DUNE March 23, 2016 PDF icon Presentation More Documents & Publications EA-1943: Final Environmental Assessment EA-1943: Draft Environmental

  15. Mid-Atlantic Baseline Studies Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mid-Atlantic Baseline Studies Project Mid-Atlantic Baseline Studies Project Funded by the Department of Energy, along with a number of partners, the collaborative Mid-Atlantic Baseline Studies Project, led by the Biodiversity Research Institute (BRI), helps improve understanding of species composition and use of the Mid-Atlantic marine environment in order to promote more sustainable offshore wind development. This first-of-its-kind study along the Eastern Seaboard of the United States delivers

  16. Baseline Change Proposal (BCP) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Baseline Change Proposal (BCP) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template Baseline Change Proposal (BCP) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template Template for briefing Baseline Change Proposals to the ESAAB and/or PMRC July 2015 Office presentation icon Template Key Resources PMCDP EVMS PARS IIe FPD Resource Center PM Newsletter Forms and Templates More Documents & Publications DOE Project Management Risk Committee (PMRC) SOP Critical Decision 2 (CD-2) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template External

  17. Chile-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and Vietnam), to share practices on setting national greenhouse gas emissions baseline scenarios. The aim of the workstream is to...

  18. Ethiopia-National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baseline Scenarios...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baseline Scenarios: Learning from Experiences in Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Name Ethiopia-National Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

  19. EA-1943: Long Baseline Neutrino Facility/Deep Underground Neutrino...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    May 27, 2015 EA-1943: Draft Environmental Assessment Long Baseline Neutrino FacilityDeep Underground Neutrino Experiment (LBNFDUNE) at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois and the...

  20. NETL - Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from the Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity report. The tool provides an interactive summary of the full...

  1. Cost and Performance Comparison Baseline for Fossil Energy Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blocks together into a new, revolutionary concept for future coal-based power and energy production. Objective To establish baseline performance and cost estimates for today's...

  2. Updates to the International Linear Collider Damping Rings Baseline...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Updates to the International Linear Collider Damping Rings Baseline Design Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Updates to the International Linear Collider Damping Rings...

  3. South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from Buildings AgencyCompany Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis,...

  4. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from Buildings AgencyCompany Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis,...

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Performance Baseline Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-09-12

    The guide supports DOE O 413.3A and identifies key performance baseline development processes and practices. Does not cancel other directives.

  6. Sandia Energy - Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Baselining...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Accelerates Work Home Renewable Energy Energy SWIFT Facilities Partnership News Wind Energy News & Events Systems Analysis Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Baselining...

  7. Techniques and Methods Used to Determine the Best Estimate of Radiation Fluxes at SGP Central Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Techniques and Methods Used to Determine the Best Estimate of Radiation Fluxes at SGP Central Facility Y. Shi and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Algorithm and Methodology The Best Estimate Flux value-added product (VAP) processes data started on March 22, 1997, when data from the three central facility (CF) radiometer systems, Solar Infrared Station (SIRS) E13, C1, and baseline surface radiation network (BSRN) (sgpsirs1duttE13.c1, sgpsirs1duttC1.c1, and

  8. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE, SQUIRREL-I, and SQUIRREL-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation conducted during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended. Because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place, results may be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  9. Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Baseline Summary Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-04-21

    This revision notes the supersedure of the subject document by concurrent issuance of HNF-1901 ''Technical Baseline Summary Description for the Tank Farm Contractor'', Revision 2. Safe storage mission technical baseline information was absorbed by the new revision of HNF-1901.

  10. Tank waste remediation system technical baseline summary description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1998-01-08

    This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission work as depicted in the included figure. This Technical Baseline Summary Description document is the top-level tool for management of the Technical Baseline for waste storage operations.

  11. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  12. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, L.M.

    1996-04-30

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position. 17 figs.

  13. CD-2, Approve Performance Baseline | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2, Approve Performance Baseline CD-2, Approve Performance Baseline CD-2, Approve Performance Baseline << Resource Center | CD-3 >> Description Completion of preliminary design is the first major milestone in the project Execution Phase. The design must be sufficiently mature (refer to DOE O 413.3B, Appendix C, Paragraph 4) at the time of CD-2 approval to provide reasonable assurance that the design will be implementable within the approved PB. The document signed by the CE or PME

  14. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-27

    The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design. Develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model. The baseline design, the economic analysis, and the computer model will be the major research planning tools that Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center will use to plan, guide, and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal.

  15. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Radiation-Solid Interactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home About Us Departments Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences > Radiation & Solid Interactions > Nanomaterials Sciences > Surface & Interface Sciences Semiconductor &...

  16. U.S Department of Energy Performance Baseline Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-09-23

    This guide identifies key Performance Baseline (PB) elements, development processes, and practices; describes the context in which DOE PB development occurs; and suggests ways of addressing the critical elements in PB development.

  17. Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    www.netl.doe.gov This page intentionally left blank Cost and Performance Baseline for Coal-to-SNG and Ammonia (Volume 2) i Table of Contents LIST OF EXHIBITS......

  18. Biodiversity Research Institute Mid-Atlantic Baseline Study Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carried out by the Biodiversity Research Institute (BRI) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Technology Office and other partners, the goal of the Mid-Atlantic Baseline...

  19. ENERGY STAR PortfolioManager Baseline Year Instructions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using the template you created Once the report has been generated, download it as an Excel file Open downloaded "Baseline Year" report, select all and copy In report spreadsheet, ...

  20. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Renewable Energy Laboratory) (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain

  1. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  2. Multiproject baselines for evaluation of electric power projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; Lefranc, Maurice; Roy, Joyashree; Winkler, Harald; Spalding-Fecher, Randall

    2003-03-12

    Calculating greenhouse gas emissions reductions from climate change mitigation projects requires construction of a baseline that sets emissions levels that would have occurred without the project. This paper describes a standardized multiproject methodology for setting baselines, represented by the emissions rate (kg C/kWh), for electric power projects. A standardized methodology would reduce the transaction costs of projects. The most challenging aspect of setting multiproject emissions rates is determining the vintage and types of plants to include in the baseline and the stringency of the emissions rates to be considered, in order to balance the desire to encourage no- or low-carbon projects while maintaining environmental integrity. The criteria for selecting power plants to include in the baseline depend on characteristics of both the project and the electricity grid it serves. Two case studies illustrate the application of these concepts to the electric power grids in eastern India and South Africa. We use hypothetical, but realistic, climate change projects in each country to illustrate the use of the multiproject methodology, and note the further research required to fully understand the implications of the various choices in constructing and using these baselines.

  3. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  4. Precision Measurements of Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation at LBNF

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-08-06

    In a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the primary physics objectives are to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle θ23, to search for CP violation in neutrino oscillation, and to precisely measure the size of any CP-violating effect that is discovered. This presentation provides a brief introduction to these measurements and reports on efforts to optimize the design of a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the status of LBNE, and the transition to an international collaboration at LBNF.

  5. Precision Measurements of Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation at LBNF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-08-06

    In a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the primary physics objectives are to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle θ23, to search for CP violation in neutrino oscillation, and to precisely measure the size of any CP-violating effect that is discovered. This presentation provides a brief introduction to these measurements and reports on efforts to optimize the design of a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the status of LBNE, and the transition to an international collaboration at LBNF.

  6. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  7. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  8. THE FIRST VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRIC SETI EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rampadarath, H.; Morgan, J. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.

    2012-08-15

    The first Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) conducted with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is presented. By consideration of the basic principles of interferometry, we show that VLBI is efficient at discriminating between SETI signals and human generated radio frequency interference (RFI). The target for this study was the star Gliese 581, thought to have two planets within its habitable zone. On 2007 June 19, Gliese 581 was observed for 8 hr at 1230-1544 MHz with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The data set was searched for signals appearing on all interferometer baselines above five times the noise limit. A total of 222 potential SETI signals were detected and by using automated data analysis techniques were ruled out as originating from the Gliese 581 system. From our results we place an upper limit of 7 MW Hz{sup -1} on the power output of any isotropic emitter located in the Gliese 581 system within this frequency range. This study shows that VLBI is ideal for targeted SETI including follow-up observations. The techniques presented are equally applicable to next-generation interferometers, such as the long baselines of the Square Kilometre Array.

  9. Technical Baseline Summary Description for the Tank Farm Contractor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-04-21

    This document is a revision of the document titled above, summarizing the technical baseline of the Tank Farm Contractor. It is one of several documents prepared by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. to support the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at Hanford.

  10. 241-AZ Farm Annulus Extent of Condition Baseline Inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engeman, Jason K.; Girardot, Crystal L.; Vazquez, Brandon J.

    2013-05-15

    This report provides the results of the comprehensive annulus visual inspection for tanks 241- AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 performed in fiscal year 2013. The inspection established a baseline covering about 95 percent of the annulus floor for comparison with future inspections. Any changes in the condition are also included in this document.

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - Snippet 4.6 Baseline Control Methods 20140723...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to an approved performance baseline, including impacts on the project scope, schedule, design, methods, and cost baselines. The BCP represents a change to one or more of the...

  12. EVMS Training Snippet: 4.2 Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Process...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Process EVMS Training Snippet: 4.2 Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Process This EVMS Training Snippet sponsored by the Office of Project...

  13. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), in cooperation with the Commonwealth of Kentucky has contracted with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to design, build and operate a first-of-its-kind plant demonstrating the economic, environmental, socioeconomic and technical feasibility of the direct coal liquefaction process known as SRC-I. ICRC has made a massive commitment of time and expertise to design processes, plan and formulate policy, schedules, costs and technical drawings for all plant systems. These fully integrated plans comprise the Project Baseline and are the basis for all future detailed engineering, plant construction, operation, and other work set forth in the contract between ICRC and the DOE. Volumes I and II of the accompanying documents constitute the updated Project Baseline for the SRC-I two-stage liquefaction plant. International Coal Refining Company believes this versatile plant design incorporates the most advanced coal liquefaction system available in the synthetic fuels field. SRC-I two-stage liquefaction, as developed by ICRC, is the way of the future in coal liquefaction because of its product slate flexibility, high process thermal efficiency, and low consumption of hydrogen. The SRC-I Project Baseline design also has made important state-of-the-art advances in areas such as environmental control systems. Because of a lack of funding, the DOE has curtailed the total project effort without specifying a definite renewal date. This precludes the development of revised accurate and meaningful schedules and, hence, escalated project costs. ICRC has revised and updated the original Design Baseline to include in the technical documentation all of the approved but previously non-incorporated Category B and C and new Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals.

  14. Alpha Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments

  15. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  16. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  17. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

  18. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on seven HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. The HEV models tested or in testing include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEVs fuel economy (SAE J1634) and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model are driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events, and fuel use is recorded and used to compile life-cycle costs. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, the SAE J1634 tests are rerun and each HEV battery pack is tested. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, Electric Transportation Applications, and Exponent Failure Analysis Associates. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

  19. Calculation of the dose rate emanating from gamma radiation of a gas jet propagating through the surface layer of the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharov, O.V.; Kovalenko, V.V.; Kolobashkin, V.M.

    1982-09-01

    The problem of calculating the dose rate on the Earth's surface which emanates from a gas jet is examined.

  20. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  1. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  2. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

    1985-06-27

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  3. TWRS phase I privatization site environmental baseline and characterization plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shade, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    This document provides a plan to characterize and develop an environmental baseline for the TWRS Phase I Privatization Site before construction begins. A site evaluation study selected the former Grout Disposal Area of the Grout Treatment Facility in the 200 East Area as the TWRS Phase I Demonstration Site. The site is generally clean and has not been used for previous activities other than the GTF. A DQO process was used to develop a Sampling and Analysis Plan that would allow comparison of site conditions during operations and after Phase I ends to the presently existing conditions and provide data for the development of a preoperational monitoring plan.

  4. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 1.03: Utilities guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Pottier, M.C.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This Utilities Guide explains how to operate utility programs that are supplied as a part of the IBS. These utility programs are chiefly for managing and manipulating various kinds of IBS data and system administration files. Many of the utilities are for creating, editing, converting, or displaying map data and other data that are related to geographic location.

  5. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Utilities Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Williams, J.R.; Bower, J.C.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Utilities Guide explains how you can use the IBS utility programs to manage and manipulate various kinds of IBS data. These programs include utilities for creating, editing, and displaying maps and other data that are referenced to geographic location. The intended audience for this document are chiefly data managers but also system managers and some emergency management planners and analysts.

  6. Baseline Glass Development for Combined Fission Products Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Billings, Amanda Y.; Lang, Jesse B.; Marra, James C.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-06-29

    Borosilicate glass was selected as the baseline technology for immobilization of the Cs/Sr/Ba/Rb (Cs), lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) waste steams as part of a cost benefit analysis study.[1] Vitrification of the combined waste streams have several advantages, minimization of the number of waste forms, a proven technology, and similarity to waste forms currently accepted for repository disposal. A joint study was undertaken by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop acceptable glasses for the combined Cs + Ln + TM waste streams (Option 1) and Cs + Ln combined waste streams (Option 2) generated by the AFCI UREX+ set of processes. This study is aimed to develop baseline glasses for both combined waste stream options and identify key waste components and their impact on waste loading. The elemental compositions of the four-corners study were used along with the available separations data to determine the effect of burnup, decay, and separations variability on estimated waste stream compositions.[2-5] Two different components/scenarios were identified that could limit waste loading of the combined Cs + LN + TM waste streams, where as the combined Cs + LN waste stream has no single component that is perceived to limit waste loading. Combined Cs + LN waste stream in a glass waste form will most likely be limited by heat due to the high activity of Cs and Sr isotopes.

  7. Moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal-extraction systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickerton, C.R.; Westerfield, M.D.

    1981-04-15

    This document reports results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000. Systems used in this study were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservative conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam thickness. To be more beneficial to the program, the effort should be extended to other seam thicknesses. This document is one of a series which describe systems level requirements for advanced underground coal mining equipment. Five areas of performance are discussed: production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and recovery efficiency. The projections for cost and production capability comprise a so-called moving baseline which will be used to assess compliance with the systems requirement for production cost. Separate projections were prepared for room and pillar, longwall, and shortwall technology all operating under comparable sets of mining conditions. This work is part of an effort to define and develop innovative coal extraction systems suitable for the significant resources remaining in the year 2000.

  8. Baseline Risk Assessment Supporting Closure at Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleton, Kristin M.

    2015-01-07

    The Office of River Protection under the U.S. Department of Energy is pursuing closure of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) C under the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO). A baseline risk assessment (BRA) of current conditions is based on available characterization data and information collected at WMA C. The baseline risk assessment is being developed as a part of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS) at WMA C that is mandatory under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and RCRA corrective action. The RFI/CMS is needed to identify and evaluate the hazardous chemical and radiological contamination in the vadose zone from past releases of waste from WMA C. WMA C will be under Federal ownership and control for the foreseeable future, and managed as an industrial area with restricted access and various institutional controls. The exposure scenarios evaluated under these conditions include Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Method C, industrial worker, maintenance and surveillance worker, construction worker, and trespasser scenarios. The BRA evaluates several unrestricted land use scenarios (residential all-pathway, MTCA Method B, and Tribal) to provide additional information for risk management. Analytical results from 13 shallow zone (0 to 15 ft. below ground surface) sampling locations were collected to evaluate human health impacts at WMA C. In addition, soil analytical data were screened against background concentrations and ecological soil screening levels to determine if soil concentrations have the potential to adversely affect ecological receptors. Analytical data from 12 groundwater monitoring wells were evaluated between 2004 and 2013. A screening of groundwater monitoring data against background concentrations and Federal maximum concentration levels was used to determine vadose zone contamination impacts on groundwater. Waste Management Area C is the first of the Hanford tank farms to begin the closure planning process. The current baseline risk assessment will provide valuable information for making corrective actions and closure decisions for WMA C, and will also support the planning for future tank farm soil investigation and baseline risk assessments.

  9. System maintenance verification and validation plan for the TWRS controlled baseline database system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, S.G.

    1998-09-23

    TWRS Controlled Baseline Database, formally known as the Performance Measurement Control System, is used to track and monitor TWRS project management baseline information. This document contains the verification and validation approach for system documentation changes within the database system.

  10. EVMS Training Snippet: 4.1 The Over Target Baseline (OTB) and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EVMS Training Snippet: 3.1A Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) Initial Baseline Review EVMS Training Snippet: 4.6 Baseline Control Methods EVMS Training Snippet: 4.9 High-level EVM...

  11. Waste Assessment Baseline for the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, Samuel A

    2015-04-01

    Following a building-wide waste assessment in September, 2014, and subsequent presentation to Sandia leadership regarding the goal of Zero Waste by 2025, the occupants of the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing contacted the Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) team to guide them to Zero Waste in advance of the rest of the site. The occupants are from Center 3600, Public Relations and Communications , and Center 800, Independent Audit, Ethics and Business Conduct . To accomplish this, MSP2 conducted a new limited waste assessment from March 2-6, 2015 to compare the second floor, west wing to the building as a whole. The assessment also serves as a baseline with which to mark improvements in diversion in approximately 6 months.

  12. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  13. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  15. Integrated Baseline Bystem (IBS) Version 1.03: Models guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System)(IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planning and analysis. This document is the models guide for the IBS and explains how to use the emergency related computer models. This document provides information for the experienced system user, and is the primary reference for the computer modeling software supplied with the system. It is designed for emergency managers and planners, and others familiar with the concepts of computer modeling. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other IBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary.

  16. Beta Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells...

  17. Idaho National Laboratorys Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2011-06-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL's GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions; (2) Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion (facility fuels), waste disposal (including fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill and contracted disposal), mobile combustion (fleet fuels), employee commuting, and business air travel; and (3) Sources with low emissions were wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted), fugitive emissions from refrigerants, and business ground travel (in personal and rental vehicles). This report details the methods behind quantifying INL's GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  18. Idaho National Laboratorys Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-09-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at the INL. Additionally, the INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE-sponsored national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federally-sponsored agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INLs FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in Federal recommendations and an as-yet-unpublished Technical and Support Document (TSD) using operational control boundary. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INLs organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INLs activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 114,256 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during fiscal year 2008 (FY08). The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INLs baseline GHG inventory: Electricity is the largest contributor to INLs GHG inventory, with over 50% of the net anthropogenic CO2e emissions Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion, fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill, mobile combustion (fleet fuels) and the employee commute Sources with low emissions were contracted waste disposal, wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted) and fugitive emissions from refrigerants. This report details the methods behind quantifying INLs GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to stress that the methodology behind this inventory followed guidelines that have not yet been formally adopted. Thus, some modification of the conclusions may be necessary as additional guidance is received. Further, because this report differentiates between those portions of the INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  19. BASELINE RISK ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION AT THE...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... o 3 meters Iml) below the land surface, a shallow ... The natural ground water from the shallow aquifers is not ... in accordance with the requirements of the Uranium Mill ...

  20. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  1. A SURVEY OF ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH: A BASELINE FOR ASTRONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Crdenas-Avendao, A. E-mail: russo@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2013-12-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in ''astronomical development'' with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  2. Fort Irwin Integrated Resource Assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Fort Irwin, a US Army Forces Command facility near Barstow, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Irwin. This is part of a model program that PNL has designed to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Fort Irwin. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, propane gas, and vehicle fuel use for a typical operating year. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Irwin by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  3. Scientific Opportunities with the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, C.; et al.,

    2013-07-28

    In this document, we describe the wealth of science opportunities and capabilities of LBNE, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment. LBNE has been developed to provide a unique and compelling program for the exploration of key questions at the forefront of particle physics. Chief among the discovery opportunities are observation of CP symmetry violation in neutrino mixing, resolution of the neutrino mass hierarchy, determination of maximal or near-maximal mixing in neutrinos, searches for nucleon decay signatures, and detailed studies of neutrino bursts from galactic supernovae. To fulfill these and other goals as a world-class facility, LBNE is conceived around four central components: (1) a new, intense wide-band neutrino source at Fermilab, (2) a fine-grained `near' neutrino detector just downstream of the source, (3) the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota at an optimal distance (~1300 km) from the neutrino source, and (4) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) deployed there as a 'far' detector. The facilities envisioned are expected to enable many other science opportunities due to the high event rates and excellent detector resolution from beam neutrinos in the near detector and atmospheric neutrinos in the far detector. This is a mature, well developed, world class experiment whose relevance, importance, and probability of unearthing critical and exciting physics has increased with time.

  4. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  5. LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal) baseline report: Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  6. Baseline biological risk assessment for aquatic populations occurring near Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dauble, D.; Brandt, C.; Lewis, R.; Smith, R.

    1995-12-31

    Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska was listed as a Superfund site in November 1989 with 64 potential source areas of contamination. As part of a sitewide remedial investigation, baseline risk assessments were conducted in 1993 and 1994 to evaluate hazards posed to biological receptors and to human health. Fish tissue, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic vegetation, sediment, and surface water data were collected from several on-site and off-site surface water bodies. An initial screening risk assessment indicated that several surface water sites along two major tributary creeks flowing through the base had unacceptable risks to both aquatic receptors and to human health because of DDTs. Other contaminants of concern (i.e., PCBs and PAHs) were below screening risk levels for aquatic organisms, but contributed to an unacceptable risk to human health. Additional samples was taken in 1994 to characterize the site-wide distribution of PAHs, DDTs, and PCBs in aquatic biota and sediments. Concentrations of PAHs were invertebrates > aquatic vegetation > fish, but concentrations were sufficiently low that they posed no significant risk to biological receptors. Pesticides were detected in all fish tissue samples. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were also detected in most fish from Garrison Slough. The pattern of PCB concentrations in Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) was related to their proximity to a sediment source in lower Garrison Slough. Ingestion of PCB-contaminated fish is the primary human-health risk driver for surface water bodies on Eielson AFB, resulting in carcinogenic risks > 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} for future recreational land-use at some sites. Principal considerations affecting uncertainty in the risk assessment process included spatial and temporal variability in media contaminant concentrations and inconsistencies between modelled and measured body burdens.

  7. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  8. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  9. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in 1958. The paper described a three stage plan for a sustainable nuclear energy program consistent with India's limited uranium but abundant thorium natural resources. In the first stage, natural uranium would be used to fuel graphite or heavy water moderated reactors. Plutonium extracted from the spent fuel of these thermal reactors would drive fast reactors in the second stage that would contain thorium blankets for breeding uranium-233 (U-233). In the final stage, this U-233 would fuel thorium burning reactors that would breed and fission U-233 in situ. This three stage blueprint still reigns as the core of India's civil nuclear power program. India's progress in the development of nuclear power, however, has been impacted by its isolation from the international nuclear community for its development of nuclear weapons and consequent refusal to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). Initially, India was engaged in numerous cooperative research programs with foreign countries; for example, under the 'Atoms for Peace' program, India acquired the Cirus reactor, a 40 MWt research reactor from Canada moderated with heavy water from the United States. India was also actively engaged in negotiations for the NPT. But, on May 18, 1974, India conducted a 'peaceful nuclear explosion' at Pokharan using plutonium produced by the Cirus reactor, abruptly ending the era of international collaboration. India then refused to sign the NPT, which it viewed as discriminatory since it would be required to join as a non-nuclear weapons state. As a result of India's actions, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was created in 1975 to establish guidelines 'to apply to nuclear transfers for peaceful purposes to help ensure that such transfers would not be diverted to unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activities. These nuclear export controls have forced India to be largely self-sufficient in all nuclear-related technologies.

  10. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energys (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOEs long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOEs cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  11. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  12. Griffiss AFB integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Electric baseline detail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, Griffiss AFB, an Air Combat Command facility located near Rome, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Electric Resource Assessment. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Griffiss AFB by building type and electric energy end use. A complete electric energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major electric energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  13. LTC 1073 vacuum blasting (concrete) human factors assessment -- Baseline (summary)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high capacity, direct pressure blasting system incorporating a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast head. A vacuum system removes dust and debris from the surfaces as it is blasted. After cleaning the surface, the abrasive, together with the rust or coating that was removed from the surface, is vacuumed into the machine through the suction hose. The dust separator contains angled steel collision pads, working with the force of gravity, to allow any reusable abrasive to fall back into the pressure vessel. The filters are manually back flushed to prevent clogging. After back flushing, dust is dumped from the dust chamber into the dust collection bag or drum by operation of the bellows valve. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on dust and noise exposure. Dust exposure was found to be minimal, but noise exposure was potentially significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may cause the results to be inapplicable to indoor settings. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  14. Baseline and Postremediation Monitoring Program Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    This report was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements to present the plan for baseline and postremediation monitoring as part of the selected remedy. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the requirements to monitor for soil and terrestrial biota in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain; sediment, surface water, and aquatic biota in LEFPC; wetland restoration in the LEFPC floodplain; and human use of shallow groundwater wells in the LEFPC floodplain for drinking water. This document describes the monitoring program that will ensure that actions taken under Phases I and II of the LEFPC remedial action are protective of human health and the environment.

  15. 2008 CHP Baseline Assessment and Action Plan for the California Market |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy California Market 2008 CHP Baseline Assessment and Action Plan for the California Market This 2008 report provides an updated baseline assessment and action plan for combined heat and power (CHP) in California and identifies hurdles that prevent the expanded use of CHP systems. This report was prepared by the Pacific Region CHP Application Center (RAC). PDF icon chp_california_2008.pdf More Documents & Publications 2008 CHP Baseline Assessment and Action Plan for the

  16. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  17. LEDSGP/Transportation Toolkit/Key Actions/Create a Baseline ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a Baseline) Jump to: navigation, search LEDSGP Logo.png Transportation Toolkit Home Tools Training Request Assistance Key Actions for Low-Emission Development in Transportation...

  18. EVMS Training Snippet: 4.2 Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Process

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EVMS Training Snippet sponsored by the Office of Project Management (PM) covers the Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) process. 

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - Snippet 3.1A IMS Initial Baseline Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and risk. This snippet is recommended whenever a schedule baseline is created or revised. 1 The Contract is the prevailing document regarding what Earned Value Management ...

  20. U.S. Department of Energy Performance Baseline Guide - DOE Directives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5A, U.S. Department of Energy Performance Baseline Guide by Brian Kong Functional areas: Program Management, Project Management, Work Processes This guide identifies key PB...

  1. System maintenance test plan for the TWRS controlled baseline database system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, S.G.

    1998-09-23

    TWRS [Tank Waste Remediation System] Controlled Baseline Database, formally known as the Performance Measurement Control System, is used to track and monitor TWRS project management baseline information. This document contains the maintenance testing approach for software testing of the TCBD system once SCR/PRs are implemented.

  2. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  3. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety Home MSDS Search MSDS Help Safety Training and Tests Contact Links LSU Campus Safety Glossary Radiation Safety Manual Radiation Safety Test NOTE: All Training and Testing Material is for LSU CAMD Users ONLY! **Please allow two weeks for your badge to be processed.** Regulations and Hierarchy The CAMD Safety Officer reports to two separate individuals regarding safety. These are the Radiation Safety Officer for the University, and the Campus Safety Officer in all other matters. Thus safety

  4. Measuring Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Measurement Activity: How Much Is Present? The size or weight of a container or shipment does not indicate how much radioactivity is in it. The amount of radioactivity in a quantity of material can be determined by noting how many curies of the material are present. This information should be found on labels and/or shipping

  5. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  6. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION OF SELF-COLLIMATING RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porth, Oliver; Fendt, Christian; Vaidya, Bhargav; Meliani, Zakaria E-mail: fendt@mpia.de

    2011-08-10

    The goal of this paper is to derive signatures of synchrotron radiation from state-of-the-art simulation models of collimating relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) jets featuring a large-scale helical magnetic field. We perform axisymmetric special relativistic MHD simulations of the jet acceleration region using the PLUTO code. The computational domain extends from the slow-magnetosonic launching surface of the disk up to 6000{sup 2} Schwarzschild radii allowing jets to reach highly relativistic Lorentz factors. The Poynting-dominated disk wind develops into a jet with Lorentz factors of {Gamma} {approx_equal} 8 and is collimated to 1{sup 0}. In addition to the disk jet, we evolve a thermally driven spine jet emanating from a hypothetical black hole corona. Solving the linearly polarized synchrotron radiation transport within the jet, we derive very long baseline interferometry radio and (sub-) millimeter diagnostics such as core shift, polarization structure, intensity maps, spectra, and Faraday rotation measure (RM) directly from the Stokes parameters. We also investigate depolarization and the detectability of a {lambda}{sup 2}-law RM depending on beam resolution and observing frequency. We find non-monotonic intrinsic RM profiles that could be detected at a resolution of 100 Schwarzschild radii. In our collimating jet geometry, the strict bimodality in the polarization direction (as predicted by Pariev et al.) can be circumvented. Due to relativistic aberration, asymmetries in the polarization vectors across the jet can hint at the spin direction of the central engine.

  7. Radiation View Factor With Shadowing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-24

    FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes.

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site began in 1995 and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results presented in this document and other evaluations will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  9. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earths surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

  10. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-27

    The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design. Develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model. The baseline design, the economic analysis, and the computer model will be the major research planning tools that Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center will use to plan, guide, and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal.

  11. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  12. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent T.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  13. WEATHER PREDICTIONS AND SURFACE RADIATION ESTIMATES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... c a s t s t o the DON0 and h i s Advisory Panel d u r i n g the e v e n t phase. 4. ... r t o keep t h e DON0 and h i s Advisory Panel advsed concerning m e t e o r o l o g i c ...

  14. Definition of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of...

  15. Multilayer radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Urbahn, John Arthur; Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon

    2009-06-16

    A power generation system including: a generator including a rotor including a superconductive rotor coil coupled to a rotatable shaft; a first prime mover drivingly coupled to the rotatable shaft; and a thermal radiation shield, partially surrounding the rotor coil, including at least a first sheet and a second sheet spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft. A thermal radiation shield for a generator including a rotor including a super-conductive rotor coil including: a first sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material; and at least one additional sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft, wherein each successive sheet is an incrementally greater circumferential arc length and wherein the centripetal force shapes the sheets into a substantially catenary shape.

  16. An evaluation of baseline conditions at lease tract C-a, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barteaux, W.L.; Biezugbe, G.

    1987-09-01

    An analysis was made of baseline groundwater quality data from oil shale lease tract C-a, managed by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company. The data are limited in several respects. All conclusions drawn from the data must be qualified with these limitations. Baseline conditions were determined by analyzing data from wells in the upper bedrock and lower bedrock aquifers and from the alluvial wells. Baseline data were considered all data collected before mining operations began. The water quality was then evaluated using the 1987 Colorado State Basic Standards for Ground Water as a basis. The maximum baseline values for several parameters in each aquifer exceed the standard values. The quality of the upper lower bedrock aquifers varies from region to region within the site. Data on the lower bedrock aquifer are insufficient for speculation on the cause of the variations. Variations in the upper bedrock aquifer are possibly caused by leakage of the lower bedrock aquifer. 16 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. TWRS privatization phase I - site characterization and environmental baseline work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reidel, S.P.; Hodges, F.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-27

    This work plan defines the steps necessary to develop a Site Characterization Plan and Environmental Baseline for the TWRS Privatization Phase I area. The Data Quality Objectives Process will be the primary tool used to develop these plans.

  18. EVMS Training Snippet: 4.1 The Over Target Baseline (OTB) and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Slides Only PDF icon Slides with Notes Key Resources PMCDP EVMS PARS IIe FPD ... 4.6 Baseline Control Methods EVMS Training Snippet: 4.9 High-level EVM Expectations

  19. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume II. Environmental baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company, Inc. (AECI) have recently formed the Breckinridge Project and are currently conducting a process and economic feasibility study of a commercial scale facility to produce synthetic liquid fuels from coal. The coal conversion process to be used is the H-COAL process, which is in the pilot plant testing stage under the auspices of the US Department of Energy at the H-COAL Pilot Plant Project near Catlettsburg, Kentucky. The preliminary plans for the commercial plant are for a 18,140 metric ton/day (24,000 ton/day) nominal coal assumption capacity utilizing the abundant high sulfur Western Kentucky coals. The Western Kentucky area offers a source of the coal along with adequate water, power, labor, transportation and other factors critical to the successful siting of a plant. Various studies by federal and state governments, as well as private industry, have reached similar conclusions regarding the suitability of such plant sites in western Kentucky. Of the many individual sites evaluated, a site in Breckinridge County, Kentucky, approximately 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) west of the town of Stephensport, has been identified as the plant location. Actions have been taken to obtain options to insure that this site will be available when needed. This report contains an overview of the regional setting and results of the baseline environmental studies. These studies include collection of data on ambient air and water quality, sound, aquatic and terrestrial biology and geology. This report contains the following chapters; introduction, review of significant findings, ambient air quality monitoring, sound, aquatic ecology, vegetation, wildlife, geology, soils, surface water, and ground water.

  20. The Science and Strategy for Phasing of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diwan, Milind V.

    2012-05-22

    This note is about the principles behind a phased plan for realizing a Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment(LBNE) in the U.S.. The most important issue that must be resolved is the direction of the first phase of the experiment. Based on both scientific and programmatic considerations, the U.S. should pursue the best option for accelerator neutrino physics, which is the longer baseline towards Homestake with an optimizedbroadband intense beam.

  1. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of this study are to: (1) Develop a baseline design and two alternative designs for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology. The baseline design uses Illinois No. 6 Eastern Coal and conventional refining. There is an alternative refining case using ZSM-5 treatment of the vapor stream from the slurry F-T reactor and an alternative coal case using Western coal from the Powder River Basin. (2) Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design and the alternatives. Individual plant costs for the alternative cases will be prorated on capacity, wherever possible, from the baseline case. (3) Develop a process flowsheet simulation model. The baseline design, the economic analysis and computer model will be major research planning tools that PETC will use to plan, guide and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal. The study has been divided into seven major tasks: Task 1: Establish the baseline design and alternatives. Task 2: Evaluate baseline and alternative economics. Task 3: Develop engineering design criteria. Task 4: Develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model. Task 5: Perform sensitivity studies using the PFS model. Task 6: Document the PFS model and develop a DOE training session on its use. Task 7: Perform project management, technical coordination and other miscellaneous support functions. During the reporting period, work progressed on Tasks 1, 4 and 7. This report covers work done during the period and consists of four sections: Introduction and Summary. Task 1--Baseline Design and Alternatives. Task 4--Process Flowsheet Simulation (PFS) Model, and Project Management and Staffing Report.

  2. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of this study are to: Develop a baseline design and two alternative designs for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology. The baseline design uses Illinois No. 6 Eastern Coal and conventional refining. There is an alternative refining case using ZSM- 5 treatment of the vapor stream from the slurry F-T reactor and an alternative coal case using Western coal from the Powder River Basin. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design and the alternatives. Individual plant costs for the alternative cases will be prorated on capacity, wherever possible, from the baseline case, and develop a process flowsheet simulation model. The baseline design, the economic analysis and computer model will be major research planning tools that Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center will use to plan, guide and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal. The study has been divided into seven major tasks: Task 1, establish the baseline design and alternatives; Task 2, evaluate baseline and alternative economics; Task 3, develop engineering design criteria; Task 4, develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model; Task 5, perform sensitivity studies using the PFS model; Task 6, document the PFS model and develop a DOE training session on its use; and Task 7, perform project management, technical coordination and other miscellaneous support functions. This report covers work done during the period and consists of four sections: Introduction and summary; Task 1, baseline design and alternatives; Task 4, process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model; and project management and staffing report.

  3. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design and two alternative designs for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology. The baseline design uses Illinois No. 6 Eastern Coal and conventional refining. There is an alternative refining case using ZSM-5 treatment of the vapor stream from the slurry F-T reactor and an alternative coal case using Western coal from the Powder River Basin. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design and the alternatives. Individual plant costs for the alternative cases will be prorated on capacity, wherever possible, from the baseline case. Develop a process flowsheet simulation model. The baseline design, the economic analysis and computer model will be major research planning tools that PETC will use to plan, guide and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal. The study has been divided into seven major tasks. Task 1: Establish the baseline design and alternatives. Task 2: Evaluate baseline and alternative economics. Task 3: Develop engineering design criteria. Task 4: Develop a process flowsheet simulation model. Task 5: Perform sensitivity studies using the PFS model. Task 6: Document the PFS model and develop a DOE training session on its use, and Task 7: Perform project management, technical coordination and other miscellaneous support functions. During the reporting period, work progressed on Tasks 1, 4 and 7. This report covers work done during the period and consists of four sections: Introduction and Summary. Task 1--Baseline Design and Alternatives. Task 4--Process Flowsheet Simulation Model. Project Management and Staffing Report.

  4. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of this study are to: Develop a baseline design and two alternative designs for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology. The baseline design uses Illinois No. 6 Eastern Coal and conventional refining. There is an alternative refining case using ZSM-5 treatment of the vapor stream from the slurry F-T reactor and an alternative coal case using Western coal from the Powder River Basin. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design and the alternatives. Individual plant costs for the alternative cases will be prorated on capacity, wherever possible, from the baseline case. Develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model. During the period of this report, a Topical Report summarizing the Baseline Case design was drafted and issued to DOE/PETC for review and release approval. Major effort was spent on the Alternate Upgrading and Refining Case. Its design specifications were finalized, and material and utility balances completed. Initial capital cost estimates were developed. A Topical Report, summarizing the Alternative (ZSM-5) Upgrading and Refining Case design, is being drafted. Under Task 4, some of the individual plant models were expanded and enhanced. An overall ASPEN/SP process simulation model was developed for the Baseline Design Case by combining the individual models of Areas 100, 200 and 300. In addition, a separate model for the simplified product refining area, Area 300, of the Alternate Upgrading and Refining case was developed. Under Task 7, cost and schedule control was the primary activity. A technical paper entitled ``Baseline Design/Economics for Advanced Fischer-Tropsch Technology`` was presented in the DOE/PETC`s Annual Contractors Review Conference, held at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on September 27-29, 1993. A contract amendment was submitted to include the Kerr McGee ROSE unit in the Baseline design case and to convert the PFS models from the ASPEN/SP to ASPEN/Plus software code.

  5. 2008 CHP Baseline Assessment and Action Plan for the Hawaii Market |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hawaii Market 2008 CHP Baseline Assessment and Action Plan for the Hawaii Market The purpose of this 2008 report is to provide an updated baseline assessment and action plan for combined heat and power (CHP) in Hawaii and to identify the hurdles that prevent the expanded use of CHP systems. This report was prepared by the Pacific Region CHP Application Center (RAC). PDF icon chp_hawaii_2008.pdf More Documents & Publications Renewable Power Options for Electricity

  6. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  7. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  8. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, April--June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to: Develop a baseline design and two alternative designs for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology. The baseline design uses Illinois No. 6 Eastern Coal and conventional refining. There is an alternative refining case using ZSM-5 treatment of the vapor steam from the flurry F-T reactor and an alternative coal case using Western coal from the Powder River Basin. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design and the alternatives. Individual plant costs for the alternative cases will be prorated on capacity, wherever possible, from the baseline case, develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model. The baseline design, the economic analysis and computer model will be major research planning tools that Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center will use to plan, guide and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal. During the reporting period, work progressed on Tasks 1, 4, 5, 6 and 7. This report covers work done during the period and consists of six sections: introduction and summary; Task 1, baseline design and alternatives; Task 4, process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model; Task 5, perform sensitivity studies using the PFS model; Task 6, document the PFS model and develop a DOE training session on its use, and project management and staffing report.

  9. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Bechtel, with Amoco as the main subcontractor, initiated a study on September 26, 1991, for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to develop a computer model and baseline design for advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. This 24-month study, with an approved budget of $2.3 million, is being performed under DOE Contract Number AC22-91PC90027. (1) Develop a baseline design and two alternative designs for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology. The baseline design uses Illinois No. 6 Eastern Coal and conventional refining. There is an alternative refining case using ZSM-5 treatment of the vapor stream from the slurry F-T reactor and an alternative coal case using Western coal from the Powder River Basin. (2) Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design and the alternatives. Individual plant costs for the alternative cases will be prorated on capacity, wherever possible, from the baseline case. (3) Develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model. The baseline design, the economic analysis and computer model will be major research planning tools that PETC will use to plan, guide and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal.

  10. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design and two alternative designs for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology. The baseline design uses Illinois No. 6 Eastern Coal and conventional refining. There is an alternative refining case using ZSM-5 treatment of the vapor stream from the slurry F-T reactor and an alternative coal case using Western, coal from the Powder River Basin. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design and the alternatives. Individual plant costs for the alternative cases will be prorated on capacity, wherever possible, from the baseline case. Develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model. During the reporting period, work progressed on Tasks 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7. This report covers work done during the period and consists of four sections: Introduction and Summary. Task 1: Baseline Design and Alternatives. Task 2: Evaluate baseline and alternative economics. Task 4: Process Flowsheet Simulation (PFS) model. Task 6: Document the PFS model and develop a DOE training session on its use and Project Management and Staffing Report.

  11. Statistical Analysis of Baseline Load Models for Non-Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie; Piette, Mary Ann; Goldman, Charles; Kiliccote, Sila

    2008-11-10

    Policymakers are encouraging the development of standardized and consistent methods to quantify the electric load impacts of demand response programs. For load impacts, an essential part of the analysis is the estimation of the baseline load profile. In this paper, we present a statistical evaluation of the performance of several different models used to calculate baselines for commercial buildings participating in a demand response program in California. In our approach, we use the model to estimate baseline loads for a large set of proxy event days for which the actual load data are also available. Measures of the accuracy and bias of different models, the importance of weather effects, and the effect of applying morning adjustment factors (which use data from the day of the event to adjust the estimated baseline) are presented. Our results suggest that (1) the accuracy of baseline load models can be improved substantially by applying a morning adjustment, (2) the characterization of building loads by variability and weather sensitivity is a useful indicator of which types of baseline models will perform well, and (3) models that incorporate temperature either improve the accuracy of the model fit or do not change it.

  12. ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 2015-2016 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to San Francisco, California, 2015 Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011

  13. RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

    1960-05-10

    A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

  14. Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbatsch, Todd James

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  15. NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photographs Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Photographs The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) houses more than 70 instruments to analyze and record solar radiation and surface meteorology data. Learn more about this equipment by exploring the photographs below. Click on a thumbnail to view the full image. Photo of researcher working on an instrument platform in front of the SRRL building. The SRRL is located on South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado, at 39.74° N, 105.18° W,

  16. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in-place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Currently, no points of exposure (e.g. a drinking water well); and no receptors of contaminated ground water have been identified at the Maybell site. Therefore, there are no current human health and ecological risks associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Furthermore, if current site conditions and land- and water-use patterns do not change, it is unlikely that contaminated ground water would reach people or the ecological communities in the future.

  18. Baseline Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Marketing Resources Reports, Publications, and Research Agricultural Commercial Consumer Products Industrial Institutional Multi-Sector Residential...

  19. Surface property detection apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S.; Ginley, David S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Sorensen, Neil R.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting, determining, and imaging surface resistance corrosion, thin film growth, and oxide formation on the surface of conductors or other electrical surface modification. The invention comprises a modified confocal resonator structure with the sample remote from the radiating mirror. Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface impurities, non-stoichiometry, and the like, in the surface of the superconductor, conductor, dielectric, or semiconductor.

  20. Surface property detection apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, J.S.; Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1995-08-08

    Apparatus and method for detecting, determining, and imaging surface resistance corrosion, thin film growth, and oxide formation on the surface of conductors or other electrical surface modification. The invention comprises a modified confocal resonator structure with the sample remote from the radiating mirror. Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface impurities, non-stoichiometry, and the like, in the surface of the superconductor, conductor, dielectric, or semiconductor. 4 figs.

  1. Baseline Evaluations to Support Control Room Modernization at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2015-02-01

    For any major control room modernization activity at a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) in the U.S., a utility should carefully follow the four phases prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in NUREG-0711, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model. These four phases include Planning and Analysis, Design, Verification and Validation, and Implementation and Operation. While NUREG-0711 is a useful guideline, it is written primarily from the perspective of regulatory review, and it therefore does not provide a nuanced account of many of the steps the utility might undertake as part of control room modernization. The guideline is largely summative—intended to catalog final products—rather than formative—intended to guide the overall modernization process. In this paper, we highlight two crucial formative sub-elements of the Planning and Analysis phase specific to control room modernization that are not covered in NUREG-0711. These two sub-elements are the usability and ergonomics baseline evaluations. A baseline evaluation entails evaluating the system as-built and currently in use. The usability baseline evaluation provides key insights into operator performance using the control system currently in place. The ergonomics baseline evaluation identifies possible deficiencies in the physical configuration of the control system. Both baseline evaluations feed into the design of the replacement system and subsequent summative benchmarking activities that help ensure that control room modernization represents a successful evolution of the control system.

  2. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Auarterly report, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    The objectives of this study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology; prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design; and develop a process flowsheet simulation model. The baseline design, the economic analysis and computer model will be major research planning tools that Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center will use to plan, guide and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialisation programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal. The study has been divided into seven major tasks: Task 1, establish the baseline design and alternatives; Task 2, evaluate baseline economics; Task 3: Develop engineering design criteria; Task 4, develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model; Task 5, perform sensitivity studies using the PFS model; Task 6, document the PFS model and develop a DOE training session on its use; Task 7, perform project management, technical coordination and other miscellaneous support functions. During the reporting period work progressed on Tasks 1, 4 and 7. This report covers work done during the period and consists of five sections: Introduction and summary; preliminary design for syngas production; Task 1, preliminary F-T reaction loop design; Task 1, development of a process simulation model; Task 4, key personnel staffing report, Task 7.

  3. Infrared Radiation Filament And Metnod Of Manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Edward A.

    1998-11-17

    An improved IR radiation source is provided by the invention. A radiation filament has a textured surface produced by seeded ion bombardment of a metal foil which is cut to a serpentine shape and mounted in a windowed housing. Specific ion bombardment texturing techniques tune the surface to maximize emissions in the desired wavelength range and to limit emissions outside that narrow range, particularly at longer wavelengths. A combination of filament surface texture, thickness, material, shape and power circuit feedback control produce wavelength controlled and efficient radiation at much lower power requirements than devices of the prior art.

  4. RADIATION INTEGRATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, F.M.; Wilson, H.N.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation detecting and measuring systems, particularly a compact, integrating, background monitor, are discussed. One of the principal features of the system is the use of an electrometer tube where the input of the tube is directly connected to an electrode of the radiation detector and a capacitor is coupled to the tube input. When a predetermined quantity of radiation has been integrated, a trigger signal is fed to a recorder and a charge is delivered to the capacitor to render the tube inoperative. The capacitor is then recharged for the next period of operation. With this arrangement there is a substantial reduction in lead lengths and the principal components may be enclosed and hermetically sealed to insure low leakage.

  5. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  6. Understanding the Effect of Baseline Modeling Implementation Choices on Analysis of Demand Response Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Addy, Nathan; Kiliccote, Sila; Mathieu, Johanna; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2012-06-13

    Accurate evaluation of the performance of buildings participating in Demand Response (DR) programs is critical to the adoption and improvement of these programs. Typically, we calculate load sheds during DR events by comparing observed electric demand against counterfactual predictions made using statistical baseline models. Many baseline models exist and these models can produce different shed calculations. Moreover, modelers implementing the same baseline model can make different modeling implementation choices, which may affect shed estimates. In this work, using real data, we analyze the effect of different modeling implementation choices on shed predictions. We focused on five issues: weather data source, resolution of data, methods for determining when buildings are occupied, methods for aligning building data with temperature data, and methods for power outage filtering. Results indicate sensitivity to the weather data source and data filtration methods as well as an immediate potential for automation of methods to choose building occupied modes.

  7. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, July--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    This report is Bechtel`s twelfth quarterly technical progress report and covers the period of July through September, 1994. All major tasks associated with the contract study have essentially been completed. Effort is under way in preparing various topical reports for publication. The objectives of this study are to: Develop a baseline design and two alternative designs for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology. The baseline design uses Illinois No. 6 Eastern Coal and conventional refining. There is an alternative refining case using ZSM-5 treatment of the vapor stream from the slurry F-T reactor and an alternative coal case using Western coal from the Powder River Basin. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design and the alternatives. Individual plant costs for the alternative cases win be prorated on capacity, wherever possible, from the baseline case. Develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model; establish the baseline design and alternatives; evaluate baseline and alternative economics; develop engineering design criteria; develop a process flowsheet simulation (PFS) model; perform sensitivity studies using the PFS model; document the PFS model and develop a DOE training session on its use; and perform project management, technical coordination and other miscellaneous support functions. Tasks 1, 2, 3 and 5 have essentially been completed. Effort is under way in preparing topical reports for publication. During the current reporting period, work progressed on Tasks 4, 6 and 7. This report covers work done during this period and consists of four sections: Introduction and Summary; Task 4 - Process Flowsheet Simulation (PFS) Model and Conversion to ASPEN PLUS; Task 6 - Document the PFS model and develop a DOE training session on its use; and Project Management and Staffing Report.

  8. 2010-06 "Budget Priorities for FY'12 and Baseline Change Proposal with

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Future Budgets at LANL" | Department of Energy 6 "Budget Priorities for FY'12 and Baseline Change Proposal with Future Budgets at LANL" 2010-06 "Budget Priorities for FY'12 and Baseline Change Proposal with Future Budgets at LANL" The intent of this recommendation is to provide LASO with the priorities, which the NNMCAB believes are important to the citizens of Northern New Mexico in the large program to clean up the legacy waste at LANL. PDF icon Rec 2010-06

  9. DOE Announces Webinars on the Mid-Atlantic Baseline Study, EPA's Clean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Plan and More | Department of Energy the Mid-Atlantic Baseline Study, EPA's Clean Power Plan and More DOE Announces Webinars on the Mid-Atlantic Baseline Study, EPA's Clean Power Plan and More November 13, 2015 - 8:30am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required. You can

  10. 2008 CHP Baseline Assessment and Action Plan for the Nevada Market |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 08 CHP Baseline Assessment and Action Plan for the Nevada Market 2008 CHP Baseline Assessment and Action Plan for the Nevada Market The purpose of this report is to assess the current status of combined heat and power (CHP) in Nevada and to identify the hurdles that prevent the expanded use of CHP systems. The report summarizes the CHP "landscape" in Nevada, including the current installed base of CHP systems, the potential future CHP market, and the status of

  11. Baselines For Land-Use Change In The Tropics: Application ToAvoided Deforestation Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Sandra; Hall, Myrna; Andrasko, Ken; Ruiz, Fernando; Marzoli, Walter; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar; Dushku, Aaron; Dejong,Ben; Cornell, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Although forest conservation activities particularly in thetropics offer significant potential for mitigating carbon emissions,these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena causedby the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle,particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has twomain components: the projected land-use change and the correspondingcarbon stocks in the applicable pools such as vegetation, detritus,products and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult toaddress analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparingthree models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of pasttrends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth tomore complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicitmodels of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomicfactors. The three models of the latter category used in the analysis atregional scale are The Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use andCarbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD)model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropicalregions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions,population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) SantaCruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana State in Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico;(5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoacan, Mexico. A comparison of all modeloutputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quitedifferent deforestation baseline. In general, the simplest FAC model,applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highestamount of forest loss (four out of six) and the LUCS model the leastamount of loss (four out of five). Based on simulations of GEOMOD, wefound that readily observable physical and biological factors as well asdistance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as importantas either sociological/demographic or economic/infrastructure factors(less observable) in explaining empirical land-use patterns. We proposefrom the lessons learned, a methodology comprised of three main steps andsix tasks can be used to begin developing credible baselines. We alsopropose that the baselines be projected over a 10-year period because,although projections beyond 10 years are feasible, they are likely to beunrealistic for policy purposes. In the first step, an historic land-usechange and deforestation estimate is made by determining the analyticdomain (size of the region relative to the size of proposed project),obtaining historic data, analyzing candidate historic baseline drivers,and identifying three to four major drivers. In the second step, abaseline of where deforestation is likely to occur --a potential land-usechange (PLUC) map is produced using a spatial model such as GEOMOD thatuses the key drivers from step one. Then rates of deforestation areprojected over a 10-year baseline period using any of the three models.Using the PLUC maps, projected rates of deforestation, and carbon stockestimates, baselineprojections are developed that can be used for projectGHG accounting and crediting purposes: The final step proposes that, atagreed interval (eg, +10 years), the baseline assumptions about baselinedrivers be re-assessed. This step reviews the viability of the 10-yearbaseline in light of changes in one or more key baseline drivers (e.g.,new roads, new communities, new protected area, etc.). The potentialland-use change map and estimates of rates of deforestation could beredone at the agreed interval, allowing the rates and changes in spatialdrivers to be incorporated into a defense of the existing baseline, orderivation of a new baseline projection.

  12. How to Detect Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How to Detect Radiation Radiation cannot be detected by human senses. A variety of instruments are available for detecting and measuring radiation. Examples of radiation survey meters: photos of survey meters alphacounter1.JPG (28857 bytes) This probe is used for the detection of alpha radiation. The most common type of

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water.

  14. Radiation hardness of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of columnar electrodes perpendicular to the surface of a solidstate radiation sensor. ... ; European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto ...

  15. Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    irradiance; Liquid water content; Liquid water path; Ozone Concentration; Precipitation; Radar reflectivity; Radiative heating rate; Surface albedo Dataset File size NAView ...

  16. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... surface broadband radiometers (sky and ground radiation), * a microwave radiometer (preferably a three-channel system), * a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, * a laser ...

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Surface Meteorological Sounding Campaign Links ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) 2010.06.02, Zaveri, AAF...

  18. Types of Radiation Exposure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Types of radiation exposure Regardless of where or how an accident involving radiation ... Hospital Emergency Care of the Radiation Accident Patient.) Contamination The second type ...

  19. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) Upwelling shortwave (reflected) Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 2. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    This document is the Baseline Inventory Report for the transuranic (alpha-bearing) wastes stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Waste stream profiles including origin, applicable EPA codes, typical isotopic composition, typical waste densities, and typical rates of waste generation for each facility are presented for wastes stored at the WIPP.

  1. Notice of Intent to Revise DOE G 413.3-5A, Performance Baseline Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2016-02-03

    The proposed revision to this Department of Energy Guide focuses on updating the current guide with the latest terminology and references, regarding Performance Baseline Development process. This update also incorporates the latest Secretarial memoranda on project management issued since the last update to DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Baseline update--Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    This report provides a baseline update to provide the background information necessary for personnel to prepare clear and consise NEPA documentation. The environment of the Sandia National Laboratories is described in this document, including the ecology, meteorology, climatology, seismology, emissions, cultural resources and land use, visual resources, noise pollution, transportation, and socioeconomics.

  3. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    2013-05-15

    The Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) Exploration Methodology Project is developing an exploration approach for EGS through the integration of geoscientific data. The Project chose the Dixie Valley Geothermal System in Nevada as a field laboratory site for methodlogy calibration purposes because, in the public domain, it is a highly characterized geothermal systems in the Basin and Range with a considerable amount of geoscience and most importantly, well data. This Baseline Conceptual Model report summarizes the results of the first three project tasks (1) collect and assess the existing public domain geoscience data, (2) design and populate a GIS database, and (3) develop a baseline (existing data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate geostatistical relationships, and generate baseline, coupled EGS favorability/trust maps from +1km above sea level (asl) to -4km asl for the Calibration Area (Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield) to identify EGS drilling targets at a scale of 5km x 5km. It presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  4. Baseline and Target Values for PV Forecasts: Toward Improved Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat

    2015-08-05

    Accurate solar power forecasting allows utilities to get the most out of the solar resources on their systems. To truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods can provide, it is important to first develop (or determine) baseline and target solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims to develop baseline and target values for solar forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output. forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output.

  5. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    The Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) Exploration Methodology Project is developing an exploration approach for EGS through the integration of geoscientific data. The Project chose the Dixie Valley Geothermal System in Nevada as a field laboratory site for methodlogy calibration purposes because, in the public domain, it is a highly characterized geothermal systems in the Basin and Range with a considerable amount of geoscience and most importantly, well data. This Baseline Conceptual Model report summarizes the results of the first three project tasks (1) collect and assess the existing public domain geoscience data, (2) design and populate a GIS database, and (3) develop a baseline (existing data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate geostatistical relationships, and generate baseline, coupled EGS favorability/trust maps from +1km above sea level (asl) to -4km asl for the Calibration Area (Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield) to identify EGS drilling targets at a scale of 5km x 5km. It presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  6. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Effective September 26, 1991, Bechtel, with Amoco as the main subcontractor, initiated a study to develop a computer model and baseline design for advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology; prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design; and develop a process flow sheet simulation (PI-S) model. The baseline design, the economic analysis, and the computer model win be the major research planning tools that PETC will use to plan, guide, and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction. for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal. This report is Bechtel`s third quarterly technical progress report covering the period from March 16, 1992 through June 21, 1992. This report consists of seven sections: Section 1 - introduction; Section 2 - summary; Section 3 - carbon dioxide removal tradeoff study; Section 4 - preliminary plant designs for coal preparation; Section 5 - preliminary design for syngas production; Section 6 - Task 3 - engineering design criteria; and Section 7 - project management.

  7. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design. Develop a process flow sheet simulation (PFS) model. This report summarizes the activities completed during the period December 23, 1992 through March 15, 1992. In Task 1, Baseline Design and Alternates, the following activities related to the tradeoff studies were completed: approach and basis; oxygen purity; F-T reactor pressure; wax yield; autothermal reformer; hydrocarbons (C{sub 3}/C{sub 4}s) recovery; and hydrogenrecovery. In Task 3, Engineering Design Criteria, activities were initiated to support the process tradeoff studies in Task I and to develop the environmental strategy for the Illinois site. The work completed to date consists of the development of the F-T reactor yield correlation from the Mobil dam and a brief review of the environmental strategy prepared for the same site in the direct liquefaction baseline study.Some work has also been done in establishing site-related criteria, in establishing the maximum vessel diameter for train sizing and in coping with the low H{sub 2}/CO ratio from the Shell gasifier. In Task 7, Project Management and Administration, the following activities were completed: the subcontract agreement between Amoco and Bechtel was negotiated; a first technical progress meeting was held at the Bechtel office in February; and the final Project Management Plan was approved by PETC and issued in March 1992.

  8. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, E.

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  9. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.

    1997-10-21

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means. 2 figs.

  10. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with the Baseline Risk Assessment for the 716-A Motor Shops Seepage Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, E.

    1997-08-25

    This document describes the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment of the 716-A Motor Shops Seepage Basin.

  11. EVMS Training Snippet: 4.1 The Over Target Baseline (OTB) and The Over Target Schedule (OTS) Implementations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EVMS Training Snippet, sponsored by the Office of Project Management (PM) covers Over Target Baseline and Over Target Schedule implementations.

  12. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)Conceptual Design ReportThe LBNE Water Cherenkov DetectorApril 13 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kettell S. H.; Bishai, M.; Brown, R.; Chen, H.; Diwan, M.; Dolph, J., Geronimo, G.; Gill, R.; Hackenburg, R.; Hahn, R.; Hans, S.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D.; Junnarkar, S.; Kettell, S.H.; Lanni,F.; Li, Y.; Ling, J.; Littenberg, L.; Makowiecki, D.; Marciano, W.; Morse, W.; Parsa, Z.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Samios, N.; Sharma, R.; Simos, N.; Sondericker, J.; Stewart, J.; Tanaka, H.; Themann, H.; Thorn, C.; Viren, B., White, S.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Yu, B.; Zhang, C.

    2012-04-13

    Conceptual Design Report (CDR) developed for the Water Cherekov Detector (WCD) option for the far detector of the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)

  13. Special Issue On Estimation Of Baselines And Leakage In CarbonMitigation Forestry Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2006-06-01

    There is a growing acceptance that the environmentalbenefits of forests extend beyond traditional ecological benefits andinclude the mitigation of climate change. Interest in forestry mitigationactivities has led to the inclusion of forestry practices at the projectlevel in international agreements. Climate change activities place newdemands on participating institutions to set baselines, establishadditionality, determine leakage, ensure permanence, and monitor andverify a project's greenhouse gas benefits. These issues are common toboth forestry and other types of mitigation projects. They demandempirical evidence to establish conditions under which such projects canprovide sustained long term global benefits. This Special Issue reportson papers that experiment with a range of approaches based on empiricalevidence for the setting of baselines and estimation of leakage inprojects in developing Asia and Latin America.

  14. Free-piston Stirling engine experimental program: Part 1. Baseline test summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, R.; Moynihan, T.

    1983-06-01

    Free-Piston Stirling Engine experimental data are presented from a series of tests that establish the operating characteristics of the engine and determine performance repeatability. The operating envelope of the engine was to determine maximum parameter range and repeatability. Tests were then carried out in which individual operating parameters were varied while others were maintained constant. These data establish the baseline operation of the engine as a preliminary to a series of tests in which several suspected sources of energy loss are investigated by changing the engine geometry to isolate and magnify each suspected loss mechanism. Performance with the geometry change is compared against baseline operation to quantify the magnitude of the loss mechanism under investigation. The results of the loss mechanism investigation are presented in Part 2 of this report.

  15. High-Level software requirements specification for the TWRS controlled baseline database system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, S.G.

    1998-09-23

    This Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is an as-built document that presents the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Controlled Baseline Database (TCBD) in its current state. It was originally known as the Performance Measurement Control System (PMCS). Conversion to the new system name has not occurred within the current production system. Therefore, for simplicity, all references to TCBD are equivalent to PMCS references. This SRS will reference the PMCS designator from this point forward to capture the as-built SRS. This SRS is written at a high-level and is intended to provide the design basis for the PMCS. The PMCS was first released as the electronic data repository for cost, schedule, and technical administrative baseline information for the TAAS Program. During its initial development, the PMCS was accepted by the customer, TARS Business Management, with no formal documentation to capture the initial requirements.

  16. Baseline point source load inventory, 1985. 1991 reevaluation report No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-04

    The report finalizes and documents the Chesapeake Bay Agreement states' 1985 point source nutrient load estimates initially presented in the Baywide Nutrient Reduction Strategy (BNRS). The Bay Agreement states include Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and the District of Columbia. Each of the states final, annual, discharged, 1985 point source total phosphorus and total nitrogen nutrient load estimates are presented. These estimates are to serve as the point source baseline for the year 2000 40% nutrient reduction goal. Facility by facility flows, nutrient concentrations and nutrient loads for 1985 from above the fall line (AFL) and from below the fall line (BFL) are presented. The report presents the percent change in the 1985 baseline loads for each of the Bay agreement states relative to 1991. Estimates of 1991 nutrient loads are not available for non-agreement states at this time.

  17. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D&D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report.

  18. Early Cognitive Outcomes Following Proton Radiation in Pediatric Patients With Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulsifer, Margaret B.; Sethi, Roshan V.; Kuhlthau, Karen A.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To report, from a longitudinal study, cognitive outcome in pediatric patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT) for central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients receiving PRT for medulloblastoma (38.3%), gliomas (18.3%), craniopharyngioma (15.0%), ependymoma (11.7%), and other CNS tumors (16.7%) were administered age-appropriate measures of cognitive abilities at or near PRT initiation (baseline) and afterward (follow-up). Patients were aged ≥6 years at baseline to ensure consistency in neurocognitive measures. Results: Mean age was 12.3 years at baseline; mean follow-up interval was 2.5 years. Treatment included prior surgical resection (76.7%) and chemotherapy (61.7%). Proton radiation therapy included craniospinal irradiation (46.7%) and partial brain radiation (53.3%). At baseline, mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ was 104.6; means of all 4 Index scores were also in the average range. At follow-up, no significant change was observed in mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization, or Working Memory. However, Processing Speed scores declined significantly (mean 5.2 points), with a significantly greater decline for subjects aged <12 years at baseline and those with the highest baseline scores. Cognitive outcome was not significantly related to gender, extent of radiation, radiation dose, tumor location, histology, socioeconomic status, chemotherapy, or history of surgical resection. Conclusions: Early cognitive outcomes after PRT for pediatric CNS tumors are encouraging, compared with published outcomes from photon radiation therapy.

  19. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-16

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers` Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided.

  20. Results from baseline tests of the SPRE I and comparison with code model predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairelli, J.E.; Geng, S.M.; Skupinski, R.C.

    1994-09-01

    The Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), a free-piston Stirling engine with linear alternator, is being tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) as a candidate for high capacity space power. This paper presents results of base-line engine tests at design and off-design operating conditions. The test results are compared with code model predictions.

  1. Baseline and Target Values for PV Forecasts: Toward Improved Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Baseline and Target Values for PV Forecasts: Toward Improved Solar Power Forecasting Preprint Jie Zhang 1 , Bri-Mathias Hodge 1 , Siyuan Lu 2 , Hendrik F. Hamann 2 , Brad Lehman 3 , Joseph Simmons 4 , Edwin Campos 5 , and Venkat Banunarayanan 6 1 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2 IBM TJ Watson Research Center 3 Northeastern University 4 University of Arizona 5 Argonne National Laboratory 6 U.S. Department of Energy Presented at the IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting Denver,

  2. River Corridor Baseline Risk Assessment (RCBRA) Human Health Risk Assessment (Volume 2)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sands Jim Hansen U.S. Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office October 12, 2011 River Corridor Baseline Risk Assessment (RCBRA) Human Health Risk Assessment (Volume 2) * RCBRA Human Health Risk Assessment is final - Response provided to HAB advice #246 * RCBRA Ecological Risk Assessment (Draft C) was transmitted to regulators September 27 * Columbia River Component - Draft Ecological Screening Level Risk Assessment ready for regulator review - Draft Human health risk assessment will be

  3. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-09

    This document provides a summary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost), developed to demonstrate Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) in support of the TWRS Phase 1B mission. This Updated Baseline is the proposed TWRS plan to execute and measure the mission work scope. This document and other supporting data demonstrate that the TWRS Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team is prepared to fully support Phase 1B by executing the following scope, schedule, and cost baseline activities: Deliver the specified initial low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) feed batches in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner to support private contractors` operations starting in June 2002; Deliver specified subsequent LAW and HLW feed batches during Phase 1B in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner; Provide for the interim storage of immobilized HLW (IHLW) products and the disposal of immobilized LAW (ILAW) products generated by the private contractors; Provide for disposal of byproduct wastes generated by the private contractors; and Provide the infrastructure to support construction and operations of the private contractors` facilities.

  4. Some Beam Dynamics and Related Studies of Possible Changes to the ILC Baseline Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paterson, Ewan; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    Since the completion of the ILC Reference Design Report (RDR) in 2007, global R and D has continued on all ILC systems in a coordinated program titled Technical Design Phase 1. This program, which is planned and coordinated by the Program Managers and the Technical Area Group Leaders, will transition to a Phase 2 in 2010 which has the goal of producing a more complete Technical Design Report in 2012. In this transition there will be a re-baseline process which will update and or modify the RDR baseline design taking into account progress with systems design and progress with various technologies coming from the continuing R and D programs. The RDR design was considered by some to be a conservative one and many of the topics being studied for inclusion in a new baseline are directed towards more optimum cost versus risk designs. Some of these are engineering systems design modifications, both technical and civil, while others are accelerator parameters, technical system designs and beam dynamics optimizations. A few of the latter are described here.

  5. The impact of sterile neutrinos on CP measurements at long baselines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gandhi, Raj; Kayser, Boris; Masud, Mehedi; Prakash, Suprabh

    2015-09-01

    With the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) as an example, we show that the presence of even one sterile neutrino of mass ~1 eV can significantly impact the measurements of CP violation in long baseline experiments. Using a probability level analysis and neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry calculations, we discuss the large magnitude of these effects, and show how they translate into significant event rate deviations at DUNE. These results demonstrate that measurements which, when interpreted in the context of the standard three family paradigm, indicate CP conservation at long baselines, may, in fact hide large CP violation if there is a sterilemore » state. Similarly, any data indicating the violation of CP cannot be properly interpreted within the standard paradigm unless the presence of sterile states of mass O(1 eV) can be conclusively ruled out. Our work underscores the need for a parallel and linked short baseline oscillation program and a highly capable near detector for DUNE, but in order that its highly anticipated results on CP violation in the lepton sector may be correctly interpreted.« less

  6. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (ERP), Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-20

    This document was prepared to take the place of a Safety Evaluation Report since the Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)and associated Baseline Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) File do not meet the requirements of a complete safety analysis documentation. Its purpose is to present in summary form the background of how the BSAF and Baseline TSR originated and a description of the process by which it was produced and approved for use in the Environmental Restoration Program.The BSAF is a facility safety reference document for INEL environmental restoration activities including environmental remediation of inactive waste sites and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of surplus facilities. The BSAF contains safety bases common to environmental restoration activities and guidelines for performing and documenting safety analysis. The common safety bases can be incorporated by reference into the safety analysis documentation prepared for individual environmental restoration activities with justification and any necessary revisions. The safety analysis guidelines in BSAF provide an accepted method for hazard analysis; analysis of normal, abnormal, and accident conditions; human factors analysis; and derivation of TSRS. The BSAF safety bases and guidelines are graded for environmental restoration activities.

  7. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  8. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W.; Hegland, Joel E.; Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  9. RADIATION COUNTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

  10. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  11. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sung Hun

    2007-07-03

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  12. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  13. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  14. Radiation hardness of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Radiation hardness of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiation hardness of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors The three-dimensional concept in particle detection is based on the fabrication of columnar electrodes perpendicular to the surface of a solid state radiation sensor. It permits to improve the radiation resistance characteristics of a material by lowering the necessary

  15. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Radiation and Nanosciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home About Us Departments Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences > Radiation & Solid Interactions > Nanomaterials Sciences > Surface & Interface Sciences Semiconductor & Optical Sciences Energy Sciences Small Science Cluster Business Office News Partnering Research McCormick Frederick "Rick" B. McCormick Sr. Manager Kara Inman Kara Inman Departments Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences The Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface

  16. Surface passivation process of compound semiconductor material using UV photosulfidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method for passivating compound semiconductor surfaces by photolytically disrupting molecular sulfur vapor with ultraviolet radiation to form reactive sulfur which then reacts with and passivates the surface of compound semiconductors.

  17. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.; Fox, R.J.

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semi-conductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  18. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.; Fox, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semiconductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  19. Improved polymeric surface for adhesion through electron stimulated chemical modification of polymeric surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelber, J.A.

    1987-04-08

    Treating polymer surfaces, e.g., Teflon, particularly very thin surfaces, e.g., 50-10,000 A, with low energy electron radiation, e.g., 100-1000 eV, in a high vacuum environment, e.g., less than 10 /sup /minus/6/ Torr, to enhance the ability of the surface to be adhered to a variety of substrates.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  1. The mixed waste management facility. Project baseline revision 1.2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streit, R.D.; Throop, A.L.

    1995-04-01

    Revision 1.2 to the Project Baseline (PB) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is in response to DOE directives and verbal guidance to (1) Collocate the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) and MWMF into a single complex, integrate certain and overlapping functions as a cost-saving measure; (2) Meet certain fiscal year (FY) new-BA funding objectives ($15.3M in FY95) with lower and roughly balanced funding for out years; (3) Reduce Total Project Cost (TPC) for the MWMF Project; (4) Include costs for all appropriate permitting activities in the project TPC. This baseline revision also incorporates revisions in the technical baseline design for Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO). Changes in the WBS dictionary that are necessary as a result of this rebaseline, as well as minor title changes, at WBS Level 3 or above (DOE control level) are approved as a separate document. For completeness, the WBS dictionary that reflects these changes is contained in Appendix B. The PB, with revisions as described in this document, were also the basis for the FY97 Validation Process, presented to DOE and their reviewers on March 21-22, 1995. Appendix C lists information related to prior revisions to the PB. Several key changes relate to the integration of functions and sharing of facilities between the portion of the DWTF that will house the MWMF and those portions that are used by the Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) Division at LLNL. This collocation has been directed by DOE as a cost-saving measure and has been implemented in a manner that maintains separate operational elements from a safety and permitting viewpoint. Appendix D provides background information on the decision and implications of collocating the two facilities.

  2. Estimating baseline risks from biouptake and food ingestion at a contaminated site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonell, M.; Woytowich, K.; Blunt, D.; Picel, M.

    1993-11-01

    Biouptake of contaminants and subsequent human exposure via food ingestion represents a public concern at many contaminated sites. Site-specific measurements from plant and animal studies are usually quite limited, so this exposure pathway is often modeled to assess the potential for adverse health effects. A modeling tool was applied to evaluate baseline risks at a contaminated site in Missouri, and the results were used to confirm that ingestion of fish and game animals from the site area do not pose a human health threat. Results were also used to support the development of cleanup criteria for site soil.

  3. A comparison of baseline aerodynamic performance of optimally-twisted versus non-twisted HAWT blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simms, D.A.; Robinson, M.C.; Hand, M.M.; Fingersh, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    NREL has completed the initial twisted blade field tests of the ``Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment.`` This test series continues systematic measurements of unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent in stall-controlled horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). The blade twist distribution optimizes power production at a single angle of attack along the span. Abrupt transitions into and out of stall are created due to rapid changes in inflow. Data from earlier experiments have been analyzed extensively to characterize the steady and unsteady response of untwisted blades. In this report, a characterization and comparison of the baseline aerodynamic performance of the twisted versus non-twisted blade sets will be presented for steady flow conditions.

  4. Formation and Sustainment of ITPs in ITER with the Baseline Heating Mix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesca M. Poli and Charles Kessel

    2012-12-03

    Plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs) are a potential and attractive route to steady-state operation in ITER. These plasmas exhibit radially localized regions of improved con nement with steep pressure gradients in the plasma core, which drive large bootstrap current and generate hollow current pro les and negative shear. This work examines the formation and sustainment of ITBs in ITER with electron cyclotron heating and current drive. It is shown that, with a trade-o of the power delivered to the equatorial and to the upper launcher, the sustainment of steady-state ITBs can be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating con guration.

  5. Final Report. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing, VSL-03R3460-1, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, Isabelle S.; Pegg, Ian L.; Gan, Hao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Bazemore, Gina; Cecil, Richard; Hight, Kenneth; Mooers, Cavin; Lai, Shan-Tao T.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-18

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  6. Data Management Guide: Integrated Baseline System (IBS). Version 2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, Washington (United States)] Bower Software Services, Kennewick, Washington (United States); Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Moise, M.C.; Williams, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that is being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency (USANCA). The IBS Data Management Guide provides the background, as well as the operations and procedures needed to generate and maintain a site-specific map database. Data and system managers use this guide to manage the data files and database that support the administrative, user-environment, database management, and operational capabilities of the IBS. This document provides a description of the data files and structures necessary for running the IBS software and using the site map database.

  7. Energy baseline and energy efficiency resource opportunities for the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzucchi, R.P.; Richman, E.E.; Parker, G.B.

    1993-08-01

    This report provides recommendations to improve the energy use efficiency at the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin. The assessment focuses upon the four largest buildings and central heating plant at the facility comprising a total of approximately 287,000 square feet. The analysis is comprehensive in nature, intended primarily to determine what if any energy efficiency improvements are warranted based upon the potential for cost-effective energy savings. Because of this breadth, not all opportunities are developed in detail; however, baseline energy consumption data and energy savings concepts are described to provide a foundation for detailed investigation and project design where warranted.

  8. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  9. Radiation.cdr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation is a natural part of our everyday environment. Cosmic rays showering the Earth through the atmosphere and radon gas seeping up from the soil are only two examples of natural radiation. Radiation Basics The study of radiation begins with the atom. Tremendous amounts of energy are stored in an atom's nucleus. When atoms are split, heat and radiation are produced. The heat can be used to turn water into steam and produce electricity. The radiation produced from splitting an atom's

  10. Radiation pneumonitis in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingos, T.I.; Recht, A.; Vicini, F.; Abner, A.; Silver, B.; Harris, J.R. )

    1991-07-01

    The likelihood of radiation pneumonitis and factors associated with its development in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy have not been well established. To assess these, the authors retrospectively reviewed 1624 patients treated between 1968 and 1985. Median follow-up for patients without local or distant failure was 77 months. Patients were treated with either tangential fields alone (n = 508) or tangents with a third field to the supraclavicular (SC) or SC-axillary (AX) region (n = 1116). Lung volume treated in the tangential fields was generally limited by keeping the perpendicular distance (demagnified) at the isocenter from the deep field edges to the posterior chest wall (CLD) to 3 cm or less. Seventeen patients with radiation pneumonitis were identified (1.0%). Radiation pneumonitis was diagnosed when patients presented with cough (15/17, 88%), fever (9/17, 53%), and/or dyspnea (6/17, 35%) and radiographic changes (17/17) following completion of RT. Radiographic infiltrates corresponded to treatment portals in all patients, and in 12 of the 17 patients, returned to baseline within 1-12 months. Five patients had permanent scarring on chest X ray. No patient had late or persistent pulmonary symptoms. The incidence of radiation pneumonitis was correlated with the combined use of chemotherapy (CT) and a third field. Three percent (11/328) of patients treated with a 3-field technique who received chemotherapy developed radiation pneumonitis compared to 0.5% (6 of 1296) for all other patients (p = 0.0001). When patients treated with a 3-field technique received chemotherapy concurrently with radiation therapy, the incidence of radiation pneumonitis was 8.8% (8/92) compared with 1.3% (3/236) for those who received sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy (p = 0.002).

  11. Tools for Closure Project and Contract Management: Development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, C. M.; Sheppard, F. R.

    2002-02-26

    This paper details the development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline - an innovative project management effort undertaken to ensure proactive management of the Rocky Flats Closure Contract in support of the Department's goal for achieving the safe closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in December 2006. The accelerated closure of RFETS is one of the most prominent projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management program. As the first major former weapons plant to be remediated and closed, it is a first-of-kind effort requiring the resolution of multiple complex technical and institutional challenges. Most significantly, the closure of RFETS is dependent upon the shipment of all special nuclear material and wastes to other DOE sites. The Department is actively working to strengthen project management across programs, and there is increasing external interest in this progress. The development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline represents a groundbreaking and cooperative effort to formalize the management of such a complex project across multiple sites and organizations. It is original in both scope and process, however it provides a useful precedent for the other ongoing project management efforts within the Environmental Management program.

  12. Baseline Fracture Toughness and CGR testing of alloys X-750 and XM-19 (EPRI Phase I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. H. Jackson; S. P. Teysseyre

    2012-02-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) formed an agreement to test representative alloys used as reactor structural materials as a pilot program toward establishing guidelines for future ATR NSUF research programs. This report contains results from the portion of this program established as Phase I (of three phases) that entails baseline fracture toughness, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and tensile testing of selected materials for comparison to similar tests conducted at GE Global Research. The intent of this Phase I research program is to determine baseline properties for the materials of interest prior to irradiation, and to ensure comparability between laboratories using similar testing techniques, prior to applying these techniques to the same materials after having been irradiated at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The materials chosen for this research are the nickel based super alloy X-750, and nitrogen strengthened austenitic stainless steel XM-19. A spare core shroud upper support bracket of alloy X-750 was purchased by EPRI from Southern Co. and a section of XM-19 plate was purchased by EPRI from GE-Hitachi. These materials were sectioned at GE Global Research and provided to INL.

  13. Baseline Fracture Toughness and CGR testing of alloys X-750 and XM-19 (EPRI Phase I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. H. Jackson; S. P. Teysseyre

    2012-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) formed an agreement to test representative alloys used as reactor structural materials as a pilot program toward establishing guidelines for future ATR NSUF research programs. This report contains results from the portion of this program established as Phase I (of three phases) that entails baseline fracture toughness, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and tensile testing of selected materials for comparison to similar tests conducted at GE Global Research. The intent of this Phase I research program is to determine baseline properties for the materials of interest prior to irradiation, and to ensure comparability between laboratories using similar testing techniques, prior to applying these techniques to the same materials after having been irradiated at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The materials chosen for this research are the nickel based super alloy X-750, and nitrogen strengthened austenitic stainless steel XM-19. A spare core shroud upper support bracket of alloy X-750 was purchased by EPRI from Southern Co. and a section of XM-19 plate was purchased by EPRI from GE-Hitachi. These materials were sectioned at GE Global Research and provided to INL.

  14. COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS TO PROJECT FUTURE BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS IN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST, CURINANCO, CHILE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor

    2005-07-14

    Deforestation of temperate rainforests in Chile has decreased the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation can restore those ecosystem services. Greenhouse gas policies that offer financing for the carbon emissions avoided by preventing deforestation require a projection of future baseline carbon emissions for an area if no forest conservation occurs. For a proposed 570 km{sup 2} conservation area in temperate rainforest around the rural community of Curinanco, Chile, we compared three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions: extrapolation from Landsat observations, Geomod, and Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis (FRCA). Analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data show 1986-1999 net deforestation of 1900 ha in the analysis area, proceeding at a rate of 0.0003 y{sup -1}. The gross rate of loss of closed natural forest was 0.042 y{sup -1}. In the period 1986-1999, closed natural forest decreased from 20,000 ha to 11,000 ha, with timber companies clearing natural forest to establish plantations of non-native species. Analyses of previous field measurements of species-specific forest biomass, tree allometry, and the carbon content of vegetation show that the dominant native forest type, broadleaf evergreen (bosque siempreverde), contains 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon, compared to the carbon density of non-native Pinus radiata plantations of 240 {+-} 60 t ha{sup -1}. The 1986-1999 conversion of closed broadleaf evergreen forest to open broadleaf evergreen forest, Pinus radiata plantations, shrublands, grasslands, urban areas, and bare ground decreased the carbon density from 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon to an average of 100 t ha{sup -1} (maximum 160 t ha{sup -1}, minimum 50 t ha{sup -1}). Consequently, the conversion released 1.1 million t carbon. These analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data provided the data to evaluate the three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions. Extrapolation from Landsat change detection uses the observed rate of change to estimate change in the near future. Geomod is a software program that models the geographic distribution of change using a defined rate of change. FRCA is an integrated spatial analysis of forest inventory, biodiversity, and remote sensing that produces estimates of forest biodiversity and forest carbon density, spatial data layers of future probabilities of reforestation and deforestation, and a projection of future baseline forest carbon sequestration and emissions for an ecologically-defined area of analysis. For the period 1999-2012, extrapolation from Landsat change detection estimated a loss of 5000 ha and 520,000 t carbon from closed natural forest; Geomod modeled a loss of 2500 ha and 250 000 t; FRCA projected a loss of 4700 {+-} 100 ha and 480,000 t (maximum 760,000 t, minimum 220,000 t). Concerning labor time, extrapolation for Landsat required 90 actual days or 120 days normalized to Bachelor degree level wages; Geomod required 240 actual days or 310 normalized days; FRCA required 110 actual days or 170 normalized days. Users experienced difficulties with an MS-DOS version of Geomod before turning to the Idrisi version. For organizations with limited time and financing, extrapolation from Landsat change provides a cost-effective method. Organizations with more time and financing could use FRCA, the only method where that calculates the deforestation rate as a dependent variable rather than assuming a deforestation rate as an independent variable. This research indicates that best practices for the projection of baseline carbon emissions include integration of forest inventory and remote sensing tasks from the beginning of the analysis, definition of an analysis area using ecological characteristics, use of standard and widely used geographic information systems (GIS) software applications, and the use of species-specific allometric equations and wood densities developed for local species.

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the UMTRA Project site near Lakeview, Oregon, was completed in 1989. The mill operated from February 1958 to November 1960. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  17. EEG operational radiation surveillance of the WIPP Project during 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Donald H.; Ballard, Sally C.; Channell, James K.

    2002-12-31

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has measured the levels of 241Am, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 137Cs, and 90Sr in samples of air and water collected at and in the vicinity of the U. S. Department of Energys (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 2001. The WIPP received the first shipment of waste in March 1999 and became operational at that time. The EEG has compared these levels to those measured in the preoperational phase, prior to receipt of waste, as well as to the results of other monitoring organizations and to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose standards established for the WIPP at 40 CFR 191, Subpart A, and, by an agreement between the DOE and the EPA, at 40 CFR 61, Subpart H. Based on these analyses and applying a t test for significant differences for normally-distributed data (Taylor 1987), or analysis of variance (ANOVA) for non-normal data, the EEG concludes that: 1. Three measurements of radionuclides in the environment around WIPP during 2001 were different from the preoperational baseline levels. Only two of these 241Am in both the Loving and WIPP3 low volume air sampler (LVAS) samples, first quarter and second quarter, respectively exceeded the minimum detectable activity (MDA). These measurements were carefully investigated, but no clearly assignable cause was discovered. No measurements of 241Am in effluent air from the WIPP underground exceeded the action level, and converting the highest LVAS measured concentration to radiation dose yielded a committed dose of much less than 1% of the limit allowable under the EPA standard. 2. Comparison of the EEGs 2001 results with those of other monitoring organizations revealed two sets of measurements which did not agree. One set 241Am in surface water was found to be in agreement with the corresponding EEG baseline. The other 90Sr in groundwater was probably a result of 226

  18. Method for making mirrored surfaces comprising superconducting material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, J.T.; Hargrove, R.S.

    1989-12-12

    Superconducting mirror surfaces are provided by forming a mirror surface from a material which is superconductive at a temperature above about 40 K and adjusting the temperature of the surface to that temperature at which the material is superconducting. The mirror surfaces are essentially perfect reflectors for electromagnetic radiation with photon energy less than the superconducting band gap.

  19. Apparatus and method for measuring and imaging surface resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S. (Albuquerque, NM); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Hohenwarter, Gert K. G. (Madison, WI)

    1993-08-24

    Apparatus and method for determining and imaging superconductor surface resistance. The apparatus comprises modified Gaussian confocal resonator structure with the sample remote from the radiating mirror. Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface impurities, non-stoichiometry, and the like, in the surface of the superconductor.

  20. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal Laboratory operations. April 12, 2012 Farm soil sampling Two LANL environmental field team members take soil samples from a farm. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Measurements are compared to samples from the regional sites and

  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Requirement Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This revision of the LLNL Fire Protection Baseline Needs Assessment (BNA) was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by Martin Gresho, Sandia/CA Fire Marshal. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only address emergency response. The original LLNL BNA was created on April 23, 1997 as a means of collecting all requirements concerning emergency response capabilities at LLNL (including response to emergencies at Sandia/CA) into one BNA document. The original BNA documented the basis for emergency response, emergency personnel staffing, and emergency response equipment over the years. The BNA has been updated and reissued five times since in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004. A significant format change was performed in the 2004 update of the BNA in that it was 'zero based.' Starting with the requirement documents, the 2004 BNA evaluated the requirements, and determined minimum needs without regard to previous evaluations. This 2010 update maintains the same basic format and requirements as the 2004 BNA. In this 2010 BNA, as in the previous BNA, the document has been intentionally divided into two separate documents - the needs assessment (1) and the compliance assessment (2). The needs assessment will be referred to as the BNA and the compliance assessment will be referred to as the BNA Compliance Assessment. The primary driver for separation is that the needs assessment identifies the detailed applicable regulations (primarily NFPA Standards) for emergency response capabilities based on the hazards present at LLNL and Sandia/CA and the geographical location of the facilities. The needs assessment also identifies areas where the modification of the requirements in the applicable NFPA standards is appropriate, due to the improved fire protection provided, the remote location and low population density of some the facilities. As such, the needs assessment contains equivalencies to the applicable requirements. The compliance assessment contains no such equivalencies and simply assesses the existing emergency response resources to the requirements of the BNA and can be updated as compliance changes independent of the BNA update schedule. There are numerous NFPA codes and standards and other requirements and guidance documents that address the subject of emergency response. These requirements documents are not always well coordinated and may contain duplicative or conflicting requirements or even coverage gaps. Left unaddressed, this regulatory situation results in frequent interpretation of requirements documents. Different interpretations can then lead to inconsistent implementation. This BNA addresses this situation by compiling applicable requirements from all identified sources (see Section 5) and analyzing them collectively to address conflict and overlap as applicable to the hazards presented by the LLNL and Sandia/CA sites (see Section 7). The BNA also generates requirements when needed to fill any identified gaps in regulatory coverage. Finally, the BNA produces a customized simple set of requirements, appropriate for the DOE protection goals, such as those defined in DOE O 420.1B, the hazard level, the population density, the topography, and the site layout at LLNL and Sandia/CA that will be used as the baseline requirements set - the 'baseline needs' - for emergency response at LLNL and Sandia/CA. A template approach is utilized to accomplish this evaluation for each of the nine topical areas that comprise the baseline needs for emergency response. The basis for conclusions reached in determining the baseline needs for each of the topical areas is presented in Sections 7.1 through 7.9. This BNA identifies only mandatory requirements and establishes the minimum performance criteria. The minimum performance criteria may not be the level of performance desired Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory or Sandia/CA. Performance at levels greater than those established by this document will provide a higher level of fire safety, fire protection, or loss control and is encouraged. In Section 7, Determination of Baseline Needs, a standard template was used to describe the process used that involves separating basic emergency response needs into nine separate services. Each service being evaluated contains a determination of minimum requirements, an analysis of the requirements, a statement of minimum performance, and finally a summary of the minimum performance. The requirement documents, listed in Section 5, are those laws, regulations, DOE Directives, contractual obligations, or LLNL policies that establish service levels. The determination of minimum requirements section explains the rationale or method used to determine the minimum requirements.

  2. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umetani, K.; Kondoh, T.

    2014-07-15

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures.

  3. Reactor surface contamination stabilization. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-01

    Contaminated surfaces, such as the face of a nuclear reactor, need to be stabilized (fixed) to avoid airborne contamination during decontamination and decommissioning activities, and to prepare for interim safe storage. The traditional (baseline) method of fixing the contamination has been to spray a coating on the surfaces, but ensuring complete coverage over complex shapes, such as nozzles and hoses, is difficult. The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated innovative technologies to assess stabilization properties of various coatings and to achieve complete coverage of complex surfaces on the reactor face. This demonstration was conducted in two phases: the first phase consisted of a series of laboratory assessments of various stabilization coatings on metal coupons. For the second phase, coatings that passed the laboratory tests were applied to the front face of the C Reactor and evaluated. The baseline coating (Rust-Oleum No. 769) and one of the innovative technologies did not completely cover nozzle assemblies on the reactor face, the most critical of the second-phase evaluation criteria. However, one of the innovative coating systems, consisting of a base layer of foam covered by an outer layer of a polymeric film, was successful. The baseline technology would cost approximately 33% as much as the innovative technology cost of $64,000 to stabilize an entire reactor face (196 m{sup 2} or 2116 ft{sup 2}) with 2,004 nozzle assemblies, but the baseline system failed to provide complete surface coverage.

  4. Etalon-induced baseline drift and correction in atom flux sensors based on atomic absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yingge; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-10-20

    Atom flux sensors based on atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy are of significant interest in thin film growth as they can provide unobtrusive, element specific real-time flux sensing and control. The ultimate sensitivity and performance of these sensors are strongly affected by baseline drift. Here we demonstrate that an etalon effect resulting from temperature changes in optical viewport housings is a major source of signal instability, which has not been previously considered, and cannot be corrected using existing methods. We show that small temperature variations in the fused silica viewports can introduce intensity modulations of up to 1.5% which in turn significantly deteriorate AA sensor performance. This undesirable effect can be at least partially eliminated by reducing the size of the beam and tilting the incident light beam off the viewport normal.

  5. Etalon-induced Baseline Drift And Correction In Atom Flux Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yingge; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-10-20

    Atom flux sensors based on atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy are of significant interest in thin film growth as they can provide unobtrusive, element specific, real-time flux sensing and control. The ultimate sensitivity and performance of the sensors are strongly affected by the long-term and short term baseline drift. Here we demonstrate that an etalon effect resulting from temperature changes in optical viewport housings is a major source of signal instability which has not been previously considered or corrected by existing methods. We show that small temperature variations in the fused silica viewports can introduce intensity modulations of up to 1.5%, which in turn significantly deteriorate AA sensor performance. This undesirable effect can be at least partially eliminated by reducing the size of the beam and tilting the incident light beam off the viewport normal.

  6. Quality Assurance Baseline Assessment Report to Los Alamos National Laboratory Analytical Chemistry Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, R. A.

    1998-09-01

    This report summarizes observations that were made during a Quality Assurance (QA) Baseline Assessment of the Nuclear Materials Technology Analytical Chemistry Group (NMT-1). The Quality and Planning personnel, for NMT-1, are spending a significant amount of time transitioning out of their roles of environmental oversight into production oversight. A team from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Defense Program Environmental Surety Program performed an assessment of the current status of the QA Program. Several Los Alamos National Laboratory Analytical Chemistry procedures were reviewed, as well as Transuranic Waste Characterization Program (TWCP) QA documents. Checklists were developed and the assessment was performed according to an Implementation Work Plan, INEEL/EXT-98-00740.

  7. Dual baseline search for muon antineutrino disappearance at 0.1 eV²

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, G.; Huelsnitz, W.; Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J. L.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Catala-Perez, J.; Church, E. D.; Conrad, J. M.; et al

    2012-09-25

    The MiniBooNE and SciBooNE collaborations report the results of a joint search for short baseline disappearance of ν¯μ at Fermilab’s Booster Neutrino Beamline. The MiniBooNE Cherenkov detector and the SciBooNE tracking detector observe antineutrinos from the same beam, therefore the combined analysis of their data sets serves to partially constrain some of the flux and cross section uncertainties. Uncertainties in the νμ background were constrained by neutrino flux and cross section measurements performed in both detectors. A likelihood ratio method was used to set a 90% confidence level upper limit on ν¯μ disappearance that dramatically improves upon prior limits inmore »the Δm²=0.1–100 eV² region.« less

  8. Baseline scheme for polarization preservation and control in the MEIC ion complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong; Kondratenko, Anatoliy; Kondratenko, M A; Filatov, Yury

    2015-09-01

    The scheme for preservation and control of the ion polarization in the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) has been under active development in recent years. The figure-8 configuration of the ion rings provides a unique capability to control the polarization of any ion species including deuterons by means of "weak" solenoids rotating the particle spins by small angles. Insertion of "weak" solenoids into the magnetic lattices of the booster and collider rings solves the problem of polarization preservation during acceleration of the ion beam. Universal 3D spin rotators designed on the basis of "weak" solenoids allow one to obtain any polarization orientation at an interaction point of MEIC. This paper presents the baseline scheme for polarization preservation and control in the MEIC ion complex.

  9. Baseline data for the residential sector and development of a residential forecasting database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanford, J.W.; Koomey, J.G.; Stewart, L.E.; Lecar, M.E.; Brown, R.E.; Johnson, F.X.; Hwang, R.J.; Price, L.K.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) residential forecasting database. It provides a description of the methodology used to develop the database and describes the data used for heating and cooling end-uses as well as for typical household appliances. This report provides information on end-use unit energy consumption (UEC) values of appliances and equipment historical and current appliance and equipment market shares, appliance and equipment efficiency and sales trends, cost vs efficiency data for appliances and equipment, product lifetime estimates, thermal shell characteristics of buildings, heating and cooling loads, shell measure cost data for new and retrofit buildings, baseline housing stocks, forecasts of housing starts, and forecasts of energy prices and other economic drivers. Model inputs and outputs, as well as all other information in the database, are fully documented with the source and an explanation of how they were derived.

  10. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    2014-01-02

    FSR Part I presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region. FSR Part II presents (1) 278 new gravity stations; (2) enhanced gravity-magnetic modeling; (3) 42 new ambient seismic noise survey stations; (4) an integration of the new seismic noise data with a regional seismic network; (5) a new methodology and approach to interpret this data; (5) a novel method to predict rock type and temperature based on the newly interpreted data; (6) 70 new magnetotelluric (MT) stations; (7) an integrated interpretation of the enhanced MT data set; (8) the results of a 308 station soil CO2 gas survey; (9) new conductive thermal modeling in the project area; (10) new convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (11) pseudo-convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (12) enhanced data implications and qualitative geoscience correlations at three scales (a) Regional, (b) Project, and (c) Calibration Area; (13) quantitative geostatistical exploratory data analysis; and (14) responses to nine questions posed in the proposal for this investigation. Enhanced favorability/trust maps were not generated because there was not a sufficient amount of new, fully-vetted (see below) rock type, temperature, and stress data. The enhanced seismic data did generate a new method to infer rock type and temperature. However, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator for this project, this new methodology needs to be tested and evaluated at other sites in the Basin and Range before it is used to generate the referenced maps. As in the baseline conceptual model, the enhanced findings can be applied to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  11. Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ``baseline`` risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site.

  12. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF) is a facility safety reference document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) environmental restoration activities. The BSAF contains information and guidance for safety analysis documentation required by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for environmental restoration (ER) activities, including: Characterization of potentially contaminated sites. Remedial investigations to identify and remedial actions to clean up existing and potential releases from inactive waste sites Decontamination and dismantlement of surplus facilities. The information is INEL-specific and is in the format required by DOE-EM-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports. An author of safety analysis documentation need only write information concerning that activity and refer to BSAF for further information or copy applicable chapters and sections. The information and guidance provided are suitable for: {sm_bullet} Nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) with hazards that meet the Category 3 threshold (DOE-STD-1027-92, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) {sm_bullet} Radiological facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, Hazard Baseline Documentation) Nonnuclear facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94) that are classified as {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} hazard facilities (DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System). Additionally, the BSAF could be used as an information source for Health and Safety Plans and for Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for nuclear facilities with hazards equal to or greater than the Category 2 thresholds, or for nonnuclear facilities with {open_quotes}moderate{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} hazard classifications.

  13. Baseline for Climate Change: Modeling Watershed Aquatic Biodiversity Relative to Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurakis, Eugene G

    2010-10-01

    Objectives of the two-year study were to (1) establish baselines for fish and macroinvertebrate community structures in two mid-Atlantic lower Piedmont watersheds (Quantico Creek, a pristine forest watershed; and Cameron Run, an urban watershed, Virginia) that can be used to monitor changes relative to the impacts related to climate change in the future; (2) create mathematical expressions to model fish species richness and diversity, and macroinvertebrate taxa and macroinvertebrate functional feeding group taxa richness and diversity that can serve as a baseline for future comparisons in these and other watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region; and (3) heighten peoples awareness, knowledge and understanding of climate change and impacts on watersheds in a laboratory experience and interactive exhibits, through internship opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, a week-long teacher workshop, and a website about climate change and watersheds. Mathematical expressions modeled fish and macroinvertebrate richness and diversity accurately well during most of the six thermal seasons where sample sizes were robust. Additionally, hydrologic models provide the basis for estimating flows under varying meteorological conditions and landscape changes. Continuations of long-term studies are requisite for accurately teasing local human influences (e.g. urbanization and watershed alteration) from global anthropogenic impacts (e.g. climate change) on watersheds. Effective and skillful translations (e.g. annual potential exposure of 750,000 people to our inquiry-based laboratory activities and interactive exhibits in Virginia) of results of scientific investigations are valuable ways of communicating information to the general public to enhance their understanding of climate change and its effects in watersheds.

  14. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    FSR Part I presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region. FSR Part II presents (1) 278 new gravity stations; (2) enhanced gravity-magnetic modeling; (3) 42 new ambient seismic noise survey stations; (4) an integration of the new seismic noise data with a regional seismic network; (5) a new methodology and approach to interpret this data; (5) a novel method to predict rock type and temperature based on the newly interpreted data; (6) 70 new magnetotelluric (MT) stations; (7) an integrated interpretation of the enhanced MT data set; (8) the results of a 308 station soil CO2 gas survey; (9) new conductive thermal modeling in the project area; (10) new convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (11) pseudo-convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (12) enhanced data implications and qualitative geoscience correlations at three scales (a) Regional, (b) Project, and (c) Calibration Area; (13) quantitative geostatistical exploratory data analysis; and (14) responses to nine questions posed in the proposal for this investigation. Enhanced favorability/trust maps were not generated because there was not a sufficient amount of new, fully-vetted (see below) rock type, temperature, and stress data. The enhanced seismic data did generate a new method to infer rock type and temperature. However, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator for this project, this new methodology needs to be tested and evaluated at other sites in the Basin and Range before it is used to generate the referenced maps. As in the baseline conceptual model, the enhanced findings can be applied to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  15. Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection Curriculum Radiation Protection and Safety Training (3 hrs) Instructors: John Seaman and Neil Miller Course Description: The objective of this course is to provide students with an introduction to the fundamentals of ionizing radiation protection and safety. The course curriculum combines radiation safety and protection topics derived from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Standard Syllabus, and radiological protection and control programs as administered by the NRC

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  18. Radiation Safety Poster | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Poster Radiation Safety Poster Radiation Safety Poster

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting A description of the four ARM sites (BillingsBRS, E13, Manus and Nauru) currently included in the Baseline Surface Radiation...

  20. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Michael I.

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  1. Surface profiling interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takacs, Peter Z.; Qian, Shi-Nan

    1989-01-01

    The design of a long-trace surface profiler for the non-contact measurement of surface profile, slope error and curvature on cylindrical synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The optical system is based upon the concept of a pencil-beam interferometer with an inherent large depth-of-field. The key feature of the optical system is the zero-path-difference beam splitter, which separates the laser beam into two colinear, variable-separation probe beams. A linear array detector is used to record the interference fringe in the image, and analysis of the fringe location as a function of scan position allows one to reconstruct the surface profile. The optical head is mounted on an air bearing slide with the capability to measure long aspheric optics, typical of those encountered in SR applications. A novel feature of the optical system is the use of a transverse "outrigger" beam which provides information on the relative alignment of the scan axis to the cylinder optic symmetry axis.

  2. CASL - Radiation Transport Methods Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Transport Methods Update The Radiation Transport Methods (RTM) focus area is responsible for the development of methods, algorithms, and implementations of radiation...

  3. The 1993 baseline biological studies and proposed monitoring plan for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report contains baseline data and recommendations for future monitoring of plants and animals near the new Device Assembly Facility (DAF) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The facility is a large structure designed for safely assembling nuclear weapons. Baseline data was collected in 1993, prior to the scheduled beginning of DAF operations in early 1995. Studies were not performed prior to construction and part of the task of monitoring operational effects will be to distinguish those effects from the extensive disturbance effects resulting from construction. Baseline information on species abundances and distributions was collected on ephemeral and perennial plants, mammals, reptiles, and birds in the desert ecosystems within three kilometers (km) of the DAF. Particular attention was paid to effects of selected disturbances, such as the paved road, sewage pond, and the flood-control dike, associated with the facility. Radiological monitoring of areas surrounding the DAF is not included in this report.

  4. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Cloud Radiative...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    comparison is 0.86 with a normal deviation of 20% about this line. In addition to a case study where we examine the radiative feedback to the TOA, surface and atmosphere by a...

  5. Toroidally resolved radiation dynamics during a gas jet mitigated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiative energy loss local to the gas jet is shown to preheat nearby surfaces making them more susceptible to melting when the bulk of the thermal energy is lost. Authors: Reinke, ...

  6. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan -

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability 2009 Baseline Needs Assessment Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and Division Leader for Fire Protection and was reviewed by Sandia/CA Fire Marshal, Martin Gresho. This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2009 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2004 BNA, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures. On October 1, 2007, LLNL contracted with the Alameda County Fire Department to provide emergency response services. The level of service called for in that contract is the same level of service as was provided by the LLNL Fire Department prior to that date. This Compliance Assessment will evaluate fire department services beginning October 1, 2008 as provided by the Alameda County Fire Department.

  9. Tank Waste Remediation System retrieval and disposal mission technical baseline summary description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, T.J.

    1998-01-06

    This document is prepared in order to support the US Department of Energy`s evaluation of readiness-to-proceed for the Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at the Hanford Site. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission is one of three primary missions under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The other two include programs to characterize tank waste and to provide for safe storage of the waste while it awaits treatment and disposal. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval, wastefeed, delivery, storage and disposal of immobilized waste, and closure of tank farms. This mission will enable the tank farms to be closed and turned over for final remediation. The Technical Baseline is defined as the set of science and engineering, equipment, facilities, materials, qualified staff, and enabling documentation needed to start up and complete the mission objectives. The primary purposes of this document are (1) to identify the important technical information and factors that should be used by contributors to the mission and (2) to serve as a basis for configuration management of the technical information and factors.

  10. LTC America`s, Inc. PTC-6 vacuum system (metal): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  11. Integrated Baseline System (IBS). Version 1.03, System Management Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.R.; Bailey, S.; Bower, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This IBS System Management Guide explains how to install or upgrade the Integrated Baseline System (IBS) software package. The IBS is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This guide includes detailed instructions for installing the IBS software package on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX computer from the IBS distribution tapes. The installation instructions include procedures for both first-time installations and upgrades to existing IBS installations. To ensure that the system manager has the background necessary for successful installation of the IBS package, this guide also includes information on IBS computer requirements, software organization, and the generation of IBS distribution tapes. When special utility programs are used during IBS installation and setups, this guide refers you to the IBS Utilities Guide for specific instructions. This guide also refers you to the IBS Data Management Guide for detailed descriptions of some IBS data files and structures. Any special requirements for installation are not documented here but should be included in a set of installation notes that come with the distribution tapes.

  12. Development of baseline water quality stormwater detention pond model for Chesapeake Bay catchments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musico, W.J.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    An environmental impact assessment is required for every proposed development in the Commonwealth of Virginia to help identify areas of potential concerns. The purpose of the Chesapeake Bay Local Assistance Department (CBLAD), Guidance Calculation Procedures is to ensure that development of previously constructed areas do not further exacerbate current problems of stormwater-induced eutrophication and downstream flooding. The methodology is based on the post development conditions that will not generate greater peak flows and will result in a 10% overall reduction of total phosphorus. Currently, several well-known models can develop hydrographs and pollutographs that accurately model the real response of a given watershed to any given rainfall event. However, conventional method of achieving the desired peak flow reduction and pollutant removal is not a deterministic procedure, and is inherently a trail and error process. A method of quickly and accurately determining the required size of stormwater easements was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative stormwater collection and treatment systems. In this method, predevelopment conditions were modeled first to estimate the peak flows and subsequent pollutants generation that can be used as a baseline for post development plan. Resulting stormwater easement estimates facilitate decision-making processes during the planning and development phase of a project. The design can be optimized for the minimum cost or the smallest-possible pond size required for peak flow reduction and detention time given the most basic data such as: inflow hydrograph and maximum allowable pond depth.

  13. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH...

  14. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH ...

  15. Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based Shortwave

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurements: A Comparison of 16 Year Measurements (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based Shortwave Radiation Measurements: A Comparison of 16 Year Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based Shortwave Radiation Measurements: A Comparison of 16 Year Measurements Ground-based radiation measurements have been widely conducted to gain information

  16. Surface mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This paper reports on a GAO study of attorney and expert witness fees awarded as a result of litigation brought under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. As of March 24, 1989, a total of about $1.4 million had been awarded in attorney fees and expenses - about $1.3 subject to the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, a comparison of its features with provisions of ERISA showed that the plan differed from ERISA provisions in areas such as eligibility, funding, and contribution limits.

  17. PERSONAL RADIATION MONITOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilworth, R.H.; Borkowski, C.J.

    1961-12-26

    A transistorized, fountain pen type radiation monitor to be worn on the person is described. Radiation produces both light flashes in a small bulb and an audible warning tone, the frequency of both the tone and light flashes being proportional to radiation intensity. The device is powered by a battery and a blocking oscillator step-up power supply The oscillator frequency- is regulated to be proportional to the radiation intensity, to provide adequate power in high radiation fields, yet minimize battery drain at low operating intensities. (AEC)

  18. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  19. RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E

    2008-05-30

    Carbon fiber-reinforced bisphenol-A epoxy matrix composite was evaluated for gamma radiation resistance. The composite was exposed to total gamma doses of 50, 100, and 200 Mrad. Irradiated and baseline samples were tested for tensile strength, hardness and evaluated using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) for structural changes. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate microstructural behavior. Mechanical testing of the composite bars revealed no apparent change in modulus, strain to failure, or fracture strength after exposures. However, testing of only the epoxy matrix revealed changes in hardness, thermal properties, and FTIR results with increasing gamma irradiation. The results suggest the epoxy within the composite can be affected by exposure to gamma irradiation.

  20. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  1. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco

  2. Evaluation of final waste forms and recommendations for baseline alternatives to group and glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleier, A.

    1997-09-01

    An assessment of final waste forms was made as part of the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement/Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (FFCA/DDT&E) Program because supplemental waste-form technologies are needed for the hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes of concern to the Department of Energy and the problematic wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal objective was to identify a primary waste-form candidate as an alternative to grout (cement) and glass. The effort principally comprised a literature search, the goal of which was to establish a knowledge base regarding four areas: (1) the waste-form technologies based on grout and glass, (2) candidate alternatives, (3) the wastes that need to be immobilized, and (4) the technical and regulatory constraints on the waste-from technologies. This report serves, in part, to meet this goal. Six families of materials emerged as relevant; inorganic, organic, vitrified, devitrified, ceramic, and metallic matrices. Multiple members of each family were assessed, emphasizing the materials-oriented factors and accounting for the fact that the two most prevalent types of wastes for the FFCA/DDT&E Program are aqueous liquids and inorganic sludges and solids. Presently, no individual matrix is sufficiently developed to permit its immediate implementation as a baseline alternative. Three thermoplastic materials, sulfur-polymer cement (inorganic), bitumen (organic), and polyethylene (organic), are the most technologically developed candidates. Each warrants further study, emphasizing the engineering and economic factors, but each also has limitations that regulate it to a status of short-term alternative. The crystallinity and flexible processing of sulfur provide sulfur-polymer cement with the highest potential for short-term success via encapsulation. Long-term immobilization demands chemical stabilization, which the thermoplastic matrices do not offer. Among the properties of the remaining candidates, those of glass-ceramics (devitrified matrices) represent the best compromise for meeting the probable stricter disposal requirements in the future.

  3. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  4. Baseline risk assessment for exposure to contaminants at the St. Louis Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The St. Louis Site comprises three noncontiguous areas in and near St. Louis, Missouri: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLAPS), and the Latty Avenue Properties. The main site of the Latty Avenue Properties includes the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and the Futura Coatings property, which are located at 9200 Latty Avenue. Contamination at the St. Louis Site is the result of uranium processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1970s. Uranium processing took place at the SLDS from 1942 through 1957. From the 1940s through the 1960s, SLAPS was used as a storage area for residues from the manufacturing operations at SLDS. The materials stored at SLAPS were bought by Continental Mining and Milling Company of Chicago, Illinois, in 1966, and moved to the HISS/Futura Coatings property at 9200 Latty Avenue. Vicinity properties became contaminated as a result of transport and movement of the contaminated material among SLDS, SLAPS, and the 9200 Latty Avenue property. This contamination led to the SLAPS, HISS, and Futura Coatings properties being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the St. Louis Site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The primary goal of FUSRAP is the elimination of potential hazards to human health and the environment at former Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites so that, to the extent possible, these properties can be released for use without restrictions. To determine and establish cleanup goals for the St. Louis Site, DOE is currently preparing a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS). This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is a component of the process; it addresses potential risk to human health and the environment associated wi

  5. Statistical Comparison of the Baseline Mechanical Properties of NBG-18 and PCEA Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark C. Carroll; David T. Rohrbaugh

    2013-08-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled design that is capable of producing process heat for power generation and for industrial process that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a comprehensive comparison between these values in different nuclear grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons and variations between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between the two grades of graphite that were initially favored in the two main VHTR designs. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration, while PCEA, a smaller grain, petroleum coke, extruded graphite from GrafTech was favored for the prismatic configuration. An analysis of the comparison between these two grades will include not only the differences in fundamental and statistically-significant individual strength levels, but also the differences in variability in properties within each of the grades that will ultimately provide the basis for the prediction of in-service performance. The comparative performance of the different types of nuclear grade graphites will continue to evolve as thousands more specimens are fully characterized from the numerous grades of graphite being evaluated.

  6. M & V Shootout: Setting the Stage For Testing the Performance of New Energy Baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Touzani, Samir; Custodio, Claudine; Sohn, Michael; Fernandes, Samuel; Granderson, Jessica; Jump, David; Taylor, Cody

    2015-07-01

    Trustworthy savings calculations are critical to convincing investors in energy efficiency projects of the benefit and cost-effectiveness of such investments and their ability to replace or defer supply-side capital investments. However, today’s methods for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings constitute a significant portion of the total costs of efficiency projects. They also require time-consuming data acquisition and often do not deliver results until years after the program period has ended. A spectrum of savings calculation approaches are used, with some relying more heavily on measured data and others relying more heavily on estimated or modeled data, or stipulated information. The rising availability of “smart” meters, combined with new analytical approaches to quantifying savings, has opened the door to conducting M&V more quickly and at lower cost, with comparable or improved accuracy. Energy management and information systems (EMIS) technologies, not only enable significant site energy savings, but are also beginning to offer M&V capabilities. This paper expands recent analyses of public-domain, whole-building M&V methods, focusing on more novel baseline modeling approaches that leverage interval meter data. We detail a testing procedure and metrics to assess the performance of these new approaches using a large test dataset. We also provide conclusions regarding the accuracy, cost, and time trade-offs between more traditional M&V and these emerging streamlined methods. Finally, we discuss the potential evolution of M&V to better support the energy efficiency industry through low-cost approaches, and the long-term agenda for validation of building energy analytics.

  7. Baseline Utilization of Breast Radiotherapy Before Institution of the Medicare Practice Quality Reporting Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Benjamin D. Smith, Grace L.; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: In 2007, Medicare implemented the Physician Quality Reporting Initiative (PQRI), which provides financial incentives to physicians who report their performance on certain quality measures. PQRI measure no. 74 recommends radiotherapy for patients treated with conservative surgery (CS) for invasive breast cancer. As a first step in evaluating the potential impact of this measure, we assessed baseline use of radiotherapy among women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer before implementation of PQRI. Methods and Materials: Using the SEER-Medicare data set, we identified women aged 66-70 diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and treated with CS between 2000 and 2002. Treatment with radiotherapy was determined using SEER and claims data. Multivariate logistic regression tested whether receipt of radiotherapy varied significantly across clinical, pathologic, and treatment covariates. Results: Of 3,674 patients, 94% (3,445) received radiotherapy. In adjusted analysis, the presence of comorbid illness (odds ratio [OR] 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.42) and unmarried marital status were associated with omission of radiotherapy (OR 1.65; 95% CI, 1.22-2.20). In contrast, receipt of chemotherapy was protective against omission of radiotherapy (OR 0.25; 95% CI, 0.16-0.38). Race and geographic region did not correlate with radiotherapy utilization. Conclusions: Utilization of radiotherapy following CS was high for patients treated before institution of PQRI, suggesting that at most 6% of patients could benefit from measure no. 74. Further research is needed to determine whether institution of PQRI will affect radiotherapy utilization.

  8. Level III baseline risk evaluation for Building 3505 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mostella, W.B. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    The Level III Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) for Building 3505, the ORNL Metal Recovery Facility, provides an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects, current or future, associated with the presence of hazardous substances in the building. The Metal Recovery Facility was used from 1952 through 1960 to process large quantities of radioactive material using the PUREX process for the recovery of uranium-238, plutonium-239, neptunium-237, and americium-241. The facility consists of seven process cells (A through G), a canal, a dissolver room, a dissolver pit, an office, locker room, storage area, control room, electrical gallery, shop, and makeup area. The cells were used to house the nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment, and the canal was constructed to be used as a water-shielded transfer canal. Currently, there are no known releases of radioactive contaminants from Building 3505. To perform the BRE, historical radiological survey data were used to estimate the concentration of alpha- and beta/gamma emitting radionuclides in the various cells, rooms, and other areas in Building 3505. Data from smear surveys were used to estimate the amount of transferable contamination (to which receptors can be exposed via inhalation and ingestion), and data from probe surveys were used to estimate the amount of both fixed and transferable contamination (from which receptors can receive external exposure). Two land use scenarios, current and future, and their subsequent exposure scenarios were explored in the BRE. Under the current land use scenario, two exposure scenarios were evaluated. The first was a worst-case industrial exposure scenario in which the receptor is a maintenance worker who works 8 hours/day, 350 days/year in the building for 25 years. In the second, more realistic exposure scenario, the receptor is a surveillance and maintenance (S&M) worker who spends two 8-hour days/year in the building for 25 years.

  9. EA-2020: Energy Efficiency Standards for New Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings’ Baseline Standards Update (RIN 1904-AD56)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the potential environmental impacts of implementing the provisions in the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) that require DOE to update the baseline Federal energy efficiency performance standards for the construction of new Federal buildings, including low-rise residential buildings.

  10. Comparison between the Strength Levels of Baseline Nuclear-Grade Graphite and Graphite Irradiated in AGC-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Mark Christopher

    2015-07-01

    This report details the initial comparison of mechanical strength properties between the cylindrical nuclear-grade graphite specimens irradiated in the second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC-2) experiment with the established baseline, or unirradiated, mechanical properties compiled in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. The overall comparative analysis will describe the development of an appropriate test protocol for irradiated specimens, the execution of the mechanical tests on the AGC-2 sample population, and will further discuss the data in terms of developing an accurate irradiated property distribution in the limited amount of irradiated data by leveraging the considerably larger property datasets being captured in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. Integrating information on the inherent variability in nuclear-grade graphite with more complete datasets is one of the goals of the VHTR Graphite Materials program. Between “sister” specimens, or specimens with the same geometry machined from the same sub-block of graphite from which the irradiated AGC specimens were extracted, and the Baseline datasets, a comprehensive body of data will exist that can provide both a direct and indirect indication of the full irradiated property distributions that can be expected of irradiated nuclear-grade graphite while in service in a VHTR system. While the most critical data will remain the actual irradiated property measurements, expansion of this data into accurate distributions based on the inherent variability in graphite properties will be a crucial step in qualifying graphite for nuclear use as a structural material in a VHTR environment.

  11. Apparatus for generating partially coherent radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2004-09-28

    The effective coherence of an undulator beamline can be tailored to projection lithography requirements by using a simple single moving element and a simple stationary low-cost spherical mirror. The invention is particularly suited for use in an illuminator device for an optical image processing system requiring partially coherent illumination. The illuminator includes: (i) source of coherent or partially coherent radiation which has an intrinsic coherence that is higher than the desired coherence; (ii) a reflective surface that receives incident radiation from said source; (iii) means for moving the reflective surface through a desired range of angles in two dimensions wherein the rate of the motion is fast relative to integration time of said image processing system; and (iv) a condenser optic that re-images the moving reflective surface to the entrance plane of said image processing system, thereby, making the illumination spot in said entrance plane essentially stationary.

  12. Radiation-tolerant imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, N.J.; Kimbrough, J.R.

    1996-11-19

    A barrier at a uniform depth for an entire wafer is used to produce imaging devices less susceptible to noise pulses produced by the passage of ionizing radiation. The barrier prevents charge created in the bulk silicon of a CCD detector or a semiconductor logic or memory device from entering the collection volume of each pixel in the imaging device. The charge barrier is a physical barrier, a potential barrier, or a combination of both. The physical barrier is formed by an SiO{sub 2} insulator. The potential barrier is formed by increasing the concentration of majority carriers (holes) to combine with the electron`s generated by the ionizing radiation. A manufacturer of CCD imaging devices can produce radiation-tolerant devices by merely changing the wafer type fed into his process stream from a standard wafer to one possessing a barrier beneath its surface, thus introducing a very small added cost to his production cost. An effective barrier type is an SiO{sub 2} layer. 7 figs.

  13. Radiation-tolerant imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Kimbrough, Joseph R. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A barrier at a uniform depth for an entire wafer is used to produce imaging devices less susceptible to noise pulses produced by the passage of ionizing radiation. The barrier prevents charge created in the bulk silicon of a CCD detector or a semiconductor logic or memory device from entering the collection volume of each pixel in the imaging device. The charge barrier is a physical barrier, a potential barrier, or a combination of both. The physical barrier is formed by an SiO.sub.2 insulator. The potential barrier is formed by increasing the concentration of majority carriers (holes) to combine with the electron's generated by the ionizing radiation. A manufacturer of CCD imaging devices can produce radiation-tolerant devices by merely changing the wafer type fed into his process stream from a standard wafer to one possessing a barrier beneath its surface, thus introducing a very small added cost to his production cost. An effective barrier type is an SiO.sub.2 layer.

  14. Sampling designs for geochemical baseline studies in the Colorado oil shale region: a manual for practical application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klusman, R. W.; Ringrose, C. D.; Candito, R. J.; Zuccaro, B.; Rutherford, D. W.; Dean, W. E.

    1980-06-01

    This manual presents a rationale for sampling designs, and results of geochemical baseline studies in the Colorado portion of the oil-shale region. The program consists of a systematic trace element study of soils, stream sediments, and plants carried out in a way to be conservative of human and financial resources and yield maximum information. Extension of this approach to other parameters, other locations, and to environmental baseline studies in general is a primary objective. A baseline for any geochemical parameter can be defined as the concentration of that parameter in a given medium such as soil, the range of its concentration, and the geographic scale of variability. In air quality studies, and to a lesser extent for plants, the temporal scale of variability must also be considered. In studies of soil, the temporal variablility does not become a factor until such time that a study is deemed necessary to evaluate whether or not there have been changes in baseline levels as a result of development. The manual is divided into five major parts. The first is a suggested sampling protocol which is presented in an outline form for guiding baseline studies in this area. The second section is background information on the physical features of the area of study, trace elements of significance occurring in oil shale, and the sample media used in these studies. The third section is concerned primarily with sampling design and its application to the geochemical studies of the oil shale region. The last sections, in the form of appendices, provide actual data and illustrate in a systematic manner, the calculations performed to obtain the various summary data. The last segment of the appendices is a more academic discussion of the geochemistry of trace elements and the parameters of importance influencing their behavior in natural systems.

  15. Selective emission multilayer coatings for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cockeram, Brian Vern

    2004-01-27

    Multilayer coating designs have been developed to provide selective emission for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic (TPV) radiator surface. These coatings increase the surface emissivity of a molybdenum TPV radiator substrate in the wavelength range that matches the bandgap of the TPV cells to increase the power density of the TPV system. Radiator emission at wavelengths greater than the bandgap energy of the TPV cells is greatly reduced through the use of these coatings, which significantly increases the efficiency of the TPV system. The use of this coating greatly improves the performance of a TPV system, and the coating can be tailored to match the bandgap of any practical TPV system.

  16. Surface Passivation of Germanium Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Hemant; Sun, Shiyu; Pianetta, Piero; Chidsey, Chirstopher E.D.; McIntyre, Paul C.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-05-13

    The surface of single crystal, cold-wall CVD-grown germanium nanowires was studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SR-PES) and also by conventional XPS. The as-grown germanium nanowires seem to be hydrogen terminated. Exposure to laboratory atmosphere leads to germanium oxide growth with oxidation states of Ge{sup 1+}, Ge{sup 2+}, Ge{sup 3+}, while exposure to UV light leads to a predominance of the Ge{sup 4+} oxidation state. Most of the surface oxide could be removed readily by aqueous HF treatment which putatively leaves the nanowire surface hydrogen terminated with limited stability in air. Alternatively, chlorine termination could be achieved by aq. HCl treatment of the native oxide-coated nanowires. Chlorine termination was found to be relatively more stable than the HF-last hydrogen termination.

  17. Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based Shortwave Radiation Measurements: A Comparison of 16 Year Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  18. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2015-06-16

    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  19. Short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance, tritium beta decay, and neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica G. Galilei, Universita di Padova, and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2010-09-01

    We consider the interpretation of the MiniBooNE low-energy anomaly and the gallium radioactive source experiments anomaly in terms of short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance in the framework of 3+1 four-neutrino mixing schemes. The separate fits of MiniBooNE and gallium data are highly compatible, with close best-fit values of the effective oscillation parameters {Delta}m{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta}. The combined fit gives {Delta}m{sup 2}(greater-or-similar sign)0.1 eV{sup 2} and 0.11(less-or-similar sign)sin{sup 2}2{theta}(less-or-similar sign)0.48 at 2{sigma}. We consider also the data of the Bugey and Chooz reactor antineutrino oscillation experiments and the limits on the effective electron antineutrino mass in {beta} decay obtained in the Mainz and Troitsk tritium experiments. The fit of the data of these experiments limits the value of sin{sup 2}2{theta} below 0.10 at 2{sigma}. Considering the tension between the neutrino MiniBooNE and gallium data and the antineutrino reactor and tritium data as a statistical fluctuation, we perform a combined fit which gives {Delta}m{sup 2}{approx_equal}2 eV and 0.01(less-or-similar sign)sin{sup 2}2{theta}(less-or-similar sign)0.13 at 2{sigma}. Assuming a hierarchy of masses m{sub 1}, m{sub 2}, m{sub 3}<

  20. INITIAL COMPARISON OF BASELINE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR THE VHTR CANDIDATE GRAPHITE GRADES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Mark C

    2014-09-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled configuration that is capable of producing thermal energy for power generation as well as process heat for industrial applications that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties in nuclear-grade graphites by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a thorough comparison between these values in different graphite grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons both in specific properties and in the associated variability between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between each of the grades of graphite that are considered candidate grades from four major international graphite producers. These particular grades (NBG-18, NBG-17, PCEA, IG-110, and 2114) are the major focus of the evaluations presently underway on irradiated graphite properties through the series of Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL from which billets are formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration. NBG-17 graphite from SGL is essentially NBG-18 with the grain size reduced by a factor of two. PCEA, petroleum coke graphite from GrafTech with a similar grain size to NBG-17, is formed via an extrusion process and was initially considered the favored grade for the prismatic layout. IG-110 and 2114, from Toyo Tanso and Mersen (formerly Carbone Lorraine), respectively, are fine-grain grades produced via an isomolding process. An analysis of the comparison between each of these grades will include not only the differences in fundamental and statistically-significant individual strength levels, but also the differences in variability in properties within each of the grades that will ultimately provide the basis for the prediction of in-service performance. The comparative performance of the different types of nuclear-grade graphites will continue to evolve as thousands more specimens are fully characterized from the numerous grades of graphite being evaluated.

  1. ORISE Video: What is the difference between radiation exposure and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation contamination?

  2. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)Water Cherenkov Detector Basis of Estimate Forms and Backup Documentation LBNE Far Site Internal Review (December 6-9, 2011)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart J.; Diwan, M.; Dolph, J.; Novakova, P.; Sharma, R.; Stewart, J.; Viren, B.; Russo, T.; Kaducak, M.; Mantsch, P.; Paulos, B.; Feyzi, F.; Sullivan, G.; Bionta, R.; Fowler, J.; Warner, D.; Bahowick, S.; Van Berg, R.; Kearns, E.; Hazen, E.; Sinnis, G.; Sanchez, M.

    2011-12-09

    Basis of Estimate (BOE) forms and backup documentation developed for the Water Cherenkov Detector (WCD) option for the far detector of the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)

  3. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) Water Cherenkov Detector Schedule and Cost Books LBNE Far Site Internal Review(December 6-9,2011)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart J.; Diwan, M.; Dolph, J.; Novakova, P.; Sharma, R.; Stewart, J.; Viren, B.; Russo, T.; Kaducak, M.; Mantsch, P.; Paulos, B.; Feyzi, F.; Sullivan, G.; Bionta, R.; Fowler, J.; Warner, D.; Bahowick, S.; Van Berg, R.; Kearns, E.; Hazen, E.; Sinnis, G.; Sanchez, M.

    2011-12-09

    Schedule and Cost Books developed for the Water Cherenkov Detector (WCD) option for the far detector of the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)

  4. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  5. radiation.p65

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small

  6. Opportunities in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation Tuesday 10/8/02 Chair: Lars Pettersson 1:30-1:40 Anders Nilsson Welcome 1:40-2:30 Gabor Somorjai University of California, Berkeley and LBLN Need for New Directions of Research at the Frontiers of Catalysis Science 2:30-3:00 Geoff Thornton University of Manchester Influence of defects on the reactivity of ZnO 3:00-3:30 Anders Nilsson Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of Surfaces and Reactions 3:30-3:45 Break Chair:

  7. Low Dose Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation? That's what a consortium of scientists conducting an experiment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant aim to find out. Despite being an underground repository for...

  8. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  9. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  10. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Surface and Interface Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home About Us Departments Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences > Radiation & Solid Interactions > Nanomaterials Sciences > Surface & Interface Sciences Semiconductor & Optical Sciences Energy Sciences Small Science Cluster Business Office News Partnering Research Carlos Gutierrez Carlos Gutierrez Manager Resources Department Folder 01114 Sharepoint Visit Our Labs Grest Group Nanorheology Research (514 KB PDF) Interfacial Force Microscopy Group (701 KB PDF)

  11. Microscreen radiation shield for thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Thomas K.; Novak, Robert F.; McBride, James R.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention provides a microscreen radiation shield which reduces radiative heat losses in thermoelectric generators such as sodium heat engines without reducing the efficiency of operation of such devices. The radiation shield is adapted to be interposed between a reaction zone and a means for condensing an alkali metal vapor in a thermoelectric generator for converting heat energy directly to electrical energy. The radiation shield acts to reflect infrared radiation emanating from the reaction zone back toward the reaction zone while permitting the passage of the alkali metal vapor to the condensing means. The radiation shield includes a woven wire mesh screen or a metal foil having a plurality of orifices formed therein. The orifices in the foil and the spacing between the wires in the mesh is such that radiant heat is reflected back toward the reaction zone in the interior of the generator, while the much smaller diameter alkali metal atoms such as sodium pass directly through the orifices or along the metal surfaces of the shield and through the orifices with little or no impedance.

  12. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-095 The Microbase Value-Added Product: A Baseline Retrieval of Cloud

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 The Microbase Value-Added Product: A Baseline Retrieval of Cloud Microphysical Properties M Dunn K Johnson M Jensen May 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

  13. Electromagnetic analysis of forces and torques on the baseline and enhanced ITER shield modules due to plasma disruption.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Pasik, Michael Francis; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

    2009-08-01

    An electromagnetic analysis is performed on the ITER shield modules under different plasma-disruption scenarios using the OPERA-3d software. The models considered include the baseline design as provided by the International Organization and an enhanced design that includes the more realistic geometrical features of a shield module. The modeling procedure is explained, electromagnetic torques are presented, and results of the modeling are discussed.

  14. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2010-06-15

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  15. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2007-01-09

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  16. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A.; Lutz, Stephen S.; Lyons, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

  17. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  18. Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipids: An Integrated Baseline for Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential from a Harmonized Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Fishman, D.; Frank, E. D.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Aden, A.; Coleman, A. M.; Pienkos, P. T.; Skaggs, R. J.; Venteris, E. R.; Wang, M. Q.

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Program has begun an initiative to obtain consistent quantitative metrics for algal biofuel production to establish an 'integrated baseline' by harmonizing and combining the Program's national resource assessment (RA), techno-economic analysis (TEA), and life-cycle analysis (LCA) models. The baseline attempts to represent a plausible near-term production scenario with freshwater microalgae growth, extraction of lipids, and conversion via hydroprocessing to produce a renewable diesel (RD) blendstock. Differences in the prior TEA and LCA models were reconciled (harmonized) and the RA model was used to prioritize and select the most favorable consortium of sites that supports production of 5 billion gallons per year of RD. Aligning the TEA and LCA models produced slightly higher costs and emissions compared to the pre-harmonized results. However, after then applying the productivities predicted by the RA model (13 g/m2/d on annual average vs. 25 g/m2/d in the original models), the integrated baseline resulted in markedly higher costs and emissions. The relationship between performance (cost and emissions) and either productivity or lipid fraction was found to be non-linear, and important implications on the TEA and LCA results were observed after introducing seasonal variability from the RA model. Increasing productivity and lipid fraction alone was insufficient to achieve cost and emission targets; however, combined with lower energy, less expensive alternative technology scenarios, emissions and costs were substantially reduced.

  19. Preliminary Analysis of Surface Radiation Measurement Data Quality...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Zenith Angle 0 Cos(SZA) if SZA 90 ; Else 0 0.0 S 0 solar constant at mean Earth-Sun distance AU Earth - Sun distance in Astronomical Units S a S 0 AU 2 ...

  20. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  1. Underwater radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W.; McKnight, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

  2. Radiation calculations for the ILC cryomodule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakao, N.; Mokhov, N.V.; Klebaner, A.; /Fermilab

    2007-04-01

    The MARS15 radiation simulations were performed for the ILC cryomodule. The model assumes a uniform beam loss intensity of 1 W/m of 750-MeV and 250-GeV electron along the inner surface of the beam pipe and the cavity iris of the 12-m cryomodule. Two-dimensional distributions of radiation dose in the module were obtained. Absorbed dose rate and energy spectra of electrons, photons, neutrons and protons were also obtained at the three cryogenic thermometers locations by filling with silicon material in the appropriate locations, and radiation hardness of the thermometers was discussed. From the obtained results, maximum absorbed dose of thermometers at the cooling pipe is 0.85mGy/sec (85 mRad/sec), that is 0.31 MGy (31 MRad) for 20 years.

  3. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in sheep: Physiological changes and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillman, B.F.; Loyd, J.E.; Malcolm, A.W.; Holm, B.A.; Brigham, K.L. )

    1989-03-01

    Radiation pneumonitis is a life-threatening result of therapeutic thoracic irradiation, yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effects of unilateral lung irradiation (3,000 rad) in sheep from the immediate response to the later development of radiation pneumonitis. We defined radiation pneumonitis by its diagnostic clinical feature, radiographic infiltration of the irradiated zone with a straight margin corresponding to the radiation port. The immediate response in the few hours after irradiation was characterized by cough, labored respiration, hypoxemia (arterial PO{sub 2} decreased 19 Torr), mild pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressure increased 20%), and lymphopenia. Hemodynamics and gas exchange returned to normal by day 2 but became abnormal again before or during radiation pneumonitis at 32 +/- 2 days. Respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and pulmonary hypertension recurred during radiation pneumonitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage during radiation pneumonitis contained increased neutrophils (19 +/- 4%, control = 7%), increased protein (0.27 +/- 0.1 g/dl, control = 0.12 +/- 0.03), and severely impaired ability to lower surface tension. Alveolar macrophages from both lungs during unilateral radiation pneumonitis exhibited impaired generation of superoxide after phorbol myristate (only a 30% increase). Normal control alveolar macrophages increased superoxide production after stimulation greater than 400%. We conclude that unilateral lung irradiation in sheep causes a mild immediate response followed by radiation pneumonitis at 1 mo. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in this model is associated with ipsilateral neutrophilic alveolitis, increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein, and impaired surfactant function, as well as bilateral functional abnormalities of alveolar macrophages.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  5. Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection: Annual Occupational Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Dosimetry Report. If you would like general information about radiation exposure, please refer to www.radiationanswers.org. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulation...

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  7. Environmental settings for selected US Department of Energy installations - support information for the programmatic environmental impact statement and the baseline environmental management report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdren, G.R.; Glantz, C.S.; Berg, L.K.; Delinger, K.; Fosmire, C.J.; Goodwin, S.M.; Rustad, J.R.; Schalla, R.; Schramke, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report contains the environmental setting information developed for 25 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) installations in support of the DOE`s Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS) and the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). The common objective of the PEIS and the BEMR is to provide the public with information about the environmental contamination problems associated with major DOE facilities across the country, and to assess the relative risks that radiological and hazardous contaminants pose to the public, onsite workers, and the environment. Environmental setting information consists of the site-specific data required to model (using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) the atmospheric, groundwater, and surface water transport of contaminants within and near the boundaries of the installations. The environmental settings data describes the climate, atmospheric dispersion, hydrogeology, and surface water characteristics of the installations. The number of discrete environmental settings established for each installation was governed by two competing requirements: (1) the risks posed by contaminants released from numerous waste sites were to be modeled as accurately as possible, and (2) the modeling required for numerous release sites and a large number of contaminants had to be completed within the limits imposed by the PEIS and BEMR schedule. The final product is the result of attempts to balance these competing concerns in a way that minimizes the number of settings per installation in order to meet the project schedule while at the same, time providing adequate, if sometimes highly simplified, representations of the different areas within an installation. Environmental settings were developed in conjunction with installation experts in the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry.

  8. Three-dimensional architecture for solid state radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, Sherwood

    1999-01-01

    A radiation-damage resistant radiation detector is formed on a substrate formed of a material doped with a first conductivity type dopant. The detector includes at least one first electrode formed of first conductivity type dopant, and at least one second electrode that is spaced-apart from the first electrode and formed of a second conductivity type dopant. Each first and second electrode penetrates into the substrate from a substrate surface, and one or more electrodes may penetrate entirely through the substrate, that is traversing from one surface to the other surface. Particulate and/or electromagnetic radiation penetrating at least a surface of the substrate releases electrons and holes in substrate regions. Because the electrodes may be formed entirely through the substrate thickness, the released charges will be a relatively small distance from at least a portion of such an electrode, e.g., a distance less than the substrate thickness. The electrons and/or holes traverse the small distance and are collected by said electrodes, thus promoting rapid detection of the radiation. By providing one or more electrodes with a dopant profile radially graded in a direction parallel to a substrate surface, an electric field results that promotes rapid collection of released electrons and said holes. Monolithic combinations of such detectors may be fabricated including CMOS electronics to process radiation signals.

  9. Three-dimensional architecture for solid state radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, S.

    1999-03-30

    A radiation-damage resistant radiation detector is formed on a substrate formed of a material doped with a first conductivity type dopant. The detector includes at least one first electrode formed of first conductivity type dopant, and at least one second electrode that is spaced-apart from the first electrode and formed of a second conductivity type dopant. Each first and second electrode penetrates into the substrate from a substrate surface, and one or more electrodes may penetrate entirely through the substrate, that is traversing from one surface to the other surface. Particulate and/or electromagnetic radiation penetrating at least a surface of the substrate releases electrons and holes in substrate regions. Because the electrodes may be formed entirely through the substrate thickness, the released charges will be a relatively small distance from at least a portion of such an electrode, e.g., a distance less than the substrate thickness. The electrons and/or holes traverse the small distance and are collected by said electrodes, thus promoting rapid detection of the radiation. By providing one or more electrodes with a dopant profile radially graded in a direction parallel to a substrate surface, an electric field results that promotes rapid collection of released electrons and said holes. Monolithic combinations of such detectors may be fabricated including CMOS electronics to process radiation signals. 45 figs.

  10. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

  11. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John; Wolf, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  12. Radiation Safety System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vylet, Vaclav; Liu, James C.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

    2012-04-04

    The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

  13. A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S.; Raleigh, David R.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.; Golden, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon ranksum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ? P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ? P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results support further development of structured didactic curricula for the radiation oncology clerkship.

  14. Radiation Protection | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation governing the use of radioactive materials at Ames Laboratory is 10 CFR 835. To implement this...

  15. Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofstetter, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminiscent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminscent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO.sub.4) or cerussite (PbCO.sub.3) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes.

  16. Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1994-08-09

    A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminescent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminescent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO[sub 4]) or cerussite (PbCO[sub 3]) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes. 3 figs.

  17. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mc Fee, Matthew C.; Kirkham, Tim J.; Johnson, Tippi H.

    1994-01-01

    A device for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a "shield plate" or shell, and an opposing "source plate" containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects.

  18. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFee, M.C.; Kirkham, T.J.; Johnson, T.H.

    1994-12-27

    A device is disclosed for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a ''shield plate'' or shell, and an opposing ''source plate'' containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects. 3 figures.

  19. ARM - Measurement - Backscattered radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane ...

  20. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  1. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  2. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  3. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  4. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, L.W.

    1982-03-23

    A portal radiation monitor combines .1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  5. radiation.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Everyone who has ever walked on this planet has been exposed to radiation. For the most part, nature is the largest source of exposure. It's in the air we breathe, the ground we ...

  6. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  7. ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The "other" Washington ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Credits to Credits to * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace *

  8. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  9. Development and Application of a Statistical Methodology to Evaluate the Predictive Accuracy of Building Energy Baseline Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granderson, Jessica; Price, Phillip N

    2014-02-21

    This  paper  documents  the  development  and  application  of  a  general  statistical  methodology to assess the accuracy of baseline energy models, focusing on its application  to  Measurement  and  Verification  (M&V)  of  whole-­building  energy  savings.  The methodology complements the principles addressed in resources such as ASHRAE Guideline  14  and  the  International  Performance  Measurement  and  Verification  Protocol. It requires fitting a baseline model to data from a ``training period’’ and using the  model  to  predict  total  electricity  consumption  during  a  subsequent  ``prediction  period.’’ We  illustrate  the  methodology  by  evaluating  five  baseline  models  using  data  from  29  buildings. The training period and prediction period were varied, and model predictions of  daily,  weekly,  and  monthly  energy  consumption  were  compared  to  meter  data  to  determine model accuracy. Several metrics were used to characterize the accuracy of the predictions, and in some cases the best-­performing model as judged by one metric was not the best performer when judged by another metric.

  10. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, James E.

    1989-01-01

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

  11. Annual Report on Environmental Monitoring Activities for FY 1995 (Baseline Year) at Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    This report describes baseline contaminant release conditions for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sampling approach and data analysis methods used to establish baseline conditions were presented in ``Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (EMP).`` As outlined in the EMP, the purpose of the baseline monitoring year at WAG 6 was to determine the annual contaminant releases from the site during fiscal year 1995 (FY95) against which any potential changes in releases over time could be compared. The baseline year data set provides a comprehensive understanding of release conditions from all major waste units in the WAG through each major contaminant transport pathway. Due to a mandate to reduce all monitoring work, WAG 6 monitoring was scaled back and reporting efforts on the baseline year results are being minimized. This report presents the quantified baseline year contaminant flux conditions for the site and briefly summarizes other findings. All baseline data cited in this report will reside in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information system (OREIS) database, and will be available for use in future years as the need arises to identify potential release changes.

  12. Description of Model Data for SNL100-00: The Sandia 100-meter All-glass Baseline Wind Turbine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    00-00: The Sandia 100-meter All-glass Baseline Wind Turbine Blade D. Todd Griffith, Brian R. Resor Sandia National Laboratories Wind and Water Power Technologies Department Introduction This document provides a brief description of model files that are available for the SNL100-00 blade [1]. For each file, codes used to create/read the model files are detailed (e.g. code version and date, description, etc). A summary of the blade model data is also provided from the design report [1]. A Design

  13. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  14. Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation The quality of x-ray spectra and images obtained from plasmas with spherically bent crystals depends in part on the crystal's x-ray diffraction across the entire crystal surface. We employ the energy selectivity and high intensity of synchrotron

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REPORT FOR WEST BLACK OAK RIDGE, EAST BLACK OAK RIDGE, MCKINNEY RIDGE, WEST PINE RIDGE, AND PARCEL 21D IN THE VICINITY OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. King

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. The goal is to obtain all media no-further-investigation (NFI) determinations for the subject parcels considering existing soils. To augment the existing soils-only NFI determinations, samples of groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment were collected to support all media NFI decisions. The only updates presented here are those that were made after the original issuance of the NFI documents. In the subject parcel where the soils NFI determination was not completed for approval (Parcel 21d), the full process has been performed to address the soils as well. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only NFI reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision.

  16. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  17. Principles of the radiative ablation modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saillard, Yves; Arnault, Philippe; Silvert, Virginie

    2010-12-15

    Indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) rests on the setting up of a radiation temperature within a laser cavity and on the optimization of the capsule implosion ablated by this radiation. In both circumstances, the ablation of an optically thick medium is at work. The nonlinear radiation conduction equations that describe this phenomenon admit different kinds of solutions called generically Marshak waves. In this paper, a completely analytic model is proposed to describe the ablation in the subsonic regime relevant to ICF experiments. This model approximates the flow by a deflagrationlike structure where Hugoniot relations are used in the stationary part from the ablation front up to the isothermal sonic Chapman-Jouguet point and where the unstationary expansion from the sonic point up to the external boundary is assumed quasi-isothermal. It uses power law matter properties. It can also accommodate arbitrary boundary conditions provided the ablation wave stays very subsonic and the surface temperature does not vary too quickly. These requirements are often met in realistic situations. Interestingly, the ablated mass rate, the ablation pressure, and the absorbed radiative energy depend on the time history of the surface temperature, not only on the instantaneous temperature values. The results compare very well with self-similar solutions and with numerical simulations obtained by hydrodynamic code. This analytic model gives insight into the physical processes involved in the ablation and is helpful for optimization and sensitivity studies in many situations of interest: radiation temperature within a laser cavity, acceleration of finite size medium, and ICF capsule implosion, for instance.

  18. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  19. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  20. Assessing health impacts in complex eco-epidemiological settings in the humid tropics: Modular baseline health surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, Mirko S.; Divall, Mark J.; Krieger, Gary R.; Schmidlin, Sandro; Magassouba, Mohamed L.; Knoblauch, Astrid M.; Singer, Burton H.; Utzinger, Juerg

    2012-02-15

    The quantitative assessment of health impacts has been identified as a crucial feature for realising the full potential of health impact assessment (HIA). In settings where demographic and health data are notoriously scarce, but there is a broad range of ascertainable ecological, environmental, epidemiological and socioeconomic information, a diverse toolkit of data collection strategies becomes relevant for the mainly small-area impacts of interest. We present a modular, cross-sectional baseline health survey study design, which has been developed for HIA of industrial development projects in the humid tropics. The modular nature of our toolkit allows our methodology to be readily adapted to the prevailing eco-epidemiological characteristics of a given project setting. Central to our design is a broad set of key performance indicators, covering a multiplicity of health outcomes and determinants at different levels and scales. We present experience and key findings from our modular baseline health survey methodology employed in 14 selected sentinel sites within an iron ore mining project in the Republic of Guinea. We argue that our methodology is a generic example of rapid evidence assembly in difficult-to-reach localities, where improvement of the predictive validity of the assessment and establishment of a benchmark for longitudinal monitoring of project impacts and mitigation efforts is needed.

  1. Low No{sub x}/SO{sub x} burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Baseline test report: Issue A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC`s) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC`s Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner`s SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  2. Environmental baseline survey report for West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge and parcel 21D in the vicinity of the East Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David A.

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE?s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site operations, specifically as associated with lead in surface soil at the abandoned water tank and nickel in surface soils over the northern portion of the parcel from former Bldg. K-1037 smelting operations. Low level detections of organics are also reported in some surface soils including Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) near Blair Road and common laboratory contaminants at randomly distributed locations. However, human health risk from site-related contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are acceptable?though maximum concentrations of lead and nickel and the screening-level ecological risk assessment (SLERA) demonstrate no further ecological evaluation is warranted. The weight of evidence leads to the conclusion Parcel 21d does not require any actions per the FFA.

  3. Safety Around Sources of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Keeping Exposure Low Working Safely Around Radioactive Contamination Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Is it safe to be around sources? Too much radiation exposure is harmful. The degree of radiation injury depends on the amount of radiation received and the time involved. In general, the higher the amount, the greater the severity of early effects (occurring within a few weeks) and the greater the possibility of late effects such as cancer. The

  4. Radiation delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sorensen, Scott A.; Robison, Thomas W.; Taylor, Craig M. V.

    2002-01-01

    A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

  5. Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling, Hao; Hamilton, Mark F.; Bhalla, Rajan; Brown, Walter E.; Hay, Todd A.; Whitelonis, Nicholas J.; Yang, Shang-Te; Naqvi, Aale R.

    2013-09-30

    Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

  6. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang; Hegland, Joel E.; Jones, Scott C.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

  7. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  8. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  9. AREA RADIATION MONITOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manning, F.W.; Groothuis, S.E.; Lykins, J.H.; Papke, D.M.

    1962-06-12

    S>An improved area radiation dose monitor is designed which is adapted to compensate continuously for background radiation below a threshold dose rate and to give warning when the dose integral of the dose rate of an above-threshold radiation excursion exceeds a selected value. This is accomplished by providing means for continuously charging an ionization chamber. The chamber provides a first current proportional to the incident radiation dose rate. Means are provided for generating a second current including means for nulling out the first current with the second current at all values of the first current corresponding to dose rates below a selected threshold dose rate value. The second current has a maximum value corresponding to that of the first current at the threshold dose rate. The excess of the first current over the second current, which occurs above the threshold, is integrated and an alarm is given at a selected integrated value of the excess corresponding to a selected radiation dose. (AEC)

  10. Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) is a physical optics computer code for calculation of detailed characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation (SR) generated by relativistic electrons in magnetic fields of arbitrary configuration and for simulation of the radiation wavefront propagation through optical systems of beamlines. Frequency-domain near-field methods are used for the SR calculation, and the Fourier-optics based approach is generally used for the wavefront propagation simulation. The code enables both fully- and partially-coherent radiation propagation simulations inmore » steady-state and in frequency-/time-dependent regimes. With these features, the code has already proven its utility for a large number of applications in infrared, UV, soft and hard X-ray spectral range, in such important areas as analysis of spectral performances of new synchrotron radiation sources, optimization of user beamlines, development of new optical elements, source and beamline diagnostics, and even complete simulation of SR based experiments. Besides the SR applications, the code can be efficiently used for various simulations involving conventional lasers and other sources. SRW versions interfaced to Python and to IGOR Pro (WaveMetrics), as well as cross-platform library with C API, are available.« less

  11. EA-2001: Energy Efficiency Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings' Baseline Standards Update (RIN 1904-AD39)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is publishing this final rule to implement provisions in the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) that require DOE to update the baseline Federal energy efficiency performance standards for the construction of new Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings. This rule updates the baseline Federal commercial standard to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2013.

  12. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  13. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-08-02

    A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

  14. Audible radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, Daniel M. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  15. New ARM Data Stream: Surface Images at NSA/AAO Sites in Barrow and Atqasuk

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ARM Data Stream: Surface Images at NSA/AAO Sites in Barrow and Atqasuk K. B. Widener Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Abstract Web-enabled video cameras have been placed at both the Barrow and Atqasuk Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program sites to provide images of the surface surrounding the upwelling radiation instruments. These cameras give the researcher a visual indication of the surface cover. Hourly jpeg images from these cameras are now part of the

  16. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  17. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E.; Bolton, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  18. Tunable terahertz radiation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

    2014-01-21

    Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

  19. Sweet Surface Area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Sustainable Transportation Day 2015 at the Energy Department Sustainable Transportation Day 2015 at the Energy Department Addthis Sustainable Trucking 1 of 13 Sustainable Trucking The Freightliner SuperTruck stopped by Energy Department headquarters as part of Sustainable Transportation Day on Monday, June 22, 2015. The Energy Department-supported truck has achieved a fuel efficiency of 12.2 miles per gallon, more than double that of the baseline vehicle. Image: Matt Dozier, Energy

  20. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Navigating Fermi Arcs SSRL Science Summary - November 2012 Figure In solids, Fermi surfaces are the boundaries between occupied and unoccupied electron levels, as defined in...

  1. Ionizing Radiation Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.; Burger, Arnold; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2003-11-18

    A CdZnTe (CZT) crystal provided with a native CdO dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals is disclosed. A two step process is provided for forming the dielectric coating which includes etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water after attaching electrical contacts to the crystal surface.

  2. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the design principles of natural functional sites. The team targeted a surface on the influenza hemagglutinin protein that enables flu viruses to attach to and invade cells lining...

  3. Accretion disk radiation dynamics and the cosmic battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koutsantoniou, Leela E.; Contopoulos, Ioannis E-mail: icontop@academyofathens.gr

    2014-10-10

    We investigate the dynamics of radiation in the surface layers of an optically thick astrophysical accretion disk around a Kerr black hole. The source of the radiation is the surface of the accretion disk itself, and not a central object as in previous studies of the Poynting-Robertson effect. We generate numerical sky maps from photon trajectories that originate on the surface of the disk as seen from the inner edge of the disk at the position of the innermost stable circular orbit. We investigate several accretion disk morphologies with a Shakura-Sunyaev surface temperature distribution. Finally, we calculate the electromotive source of the Cosmic Battery mechanism around the inner edge of the accretion disk and obtain characteristic timescales for the generation of astrophysical magnetic fields.

  4. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona. Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  6. Development And Implementation Of A Strategic Technical Baseline Approach For Nuclear Decommissioning And Clean Up Programmes In The UK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownridge, M.; Ensor, B.

    2008-07-01

    The NDA mission as set out within the Energy Act 2004 and stated in the NDA strategy is clear: - 'to deliver a world class programme of safe, cost-effective, accelerated and environmentally responsible decommissioning of the UK's civil nuclear legacy in an open and transparent manner and with due regard to the socio-economic impacts on our communities. Critical to achieving the NDA main objective and overall mission is to accelerate and deliver clean-up programmes through the application of appropriate and innovative technology. The NDA remit also requires us to secure good practice by contractors and carry out and promote research into matters relating to the decommissioning and clean up of nuclear installations and sites. NDA have defined a strategic approach for the underpinning of operational and decommissioning activities where each nuclear site is required to write within the Life Time Plans (LTP) the proposed technical baseline for those activities. This enables the robustness of the activities to be assessed, the gaps and opportunities and accompanying Research and Developments (R and D) requirements to be highlighted and investment to be targeted at key technical issues. NDA also supports the development of a commercial framework where innovation is encouraged and improvements can be demonstrated against the technical baseline. In this paper we will present NDA's overall strategic approach, the benefits already realised and highlight the areas for continued development. In conclusion: The development and implementation of a strategic approach to robustly underpin the technical components of the lifetime plans for operational and decommissioning activities on NDA sites has been extremely successful. As well as showing how mature technology assumptions are and where the key gaps and risks are it has also provided a method for highlighting opportunities to improve on that baseline. The use of a common template across all NDA LTPs has enabled direct comparison of issues, identification of inter-site dependencies and scheduling hold points and a platform for sharing success and good practice. This deployment of TRLs and TBURDs across all 20 UK NDA sites is unique. The strategic approach is linked into wider areas in NDA's mission including NDA skills strategy and NDA's Direct Research Portfolio. NDA plan to ensure the strategic approach continues to evolve by the following activities: - Benchmarking the success of the TBURD and consistency of TRL evaluation to develop to a world class model; - Development of quantitative as well as qualitative methods of measuring the benefits realised; - Further support the development of technical interest groups where good practice is rewarded, shared, deployed and the benefit realised is measured; - Seek to reward innovation through the technical baselines and continue to develop the commercial framework. The progress described to date has summarised the work to develop the approach and indicated how it has been embedded and applied within three LTP cycles. NDA will further develop the TBURD through international benchmarking to create a process that is world class and clearly linked to delivery and innovation in order to reduce cost and schedule. (authors)

  7. DETECTION OF FAST RADIO TRANSIENTS WITH MULTIPLE STATIONS: A CASE STUDY USING THE VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David R.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Majid, Walid A.; Brisken, Walter F.; Deller, Adam T.; Tingay, Steven J.; Wayth, Randall B.

    2011-07-10

    Recent investigations reveal an important new class of transient radio phenomena that occur on submillisecond timescales. Often, transient surveys' data volumes are too large to archive exhaustively. Instead, an online automatic system must excise impulsive interference and detect candidate events in real time. This work presents a case study using data from multiple geographically distributed stations to perform simultaneous interference excision and transient detection. We present several algorithms that incorporate dedispersed data from multiple sites, and report experiments with a commensal real-time transient detection system on the Very Long Baseline Array. We test the system using observations of pulsar B0329+54. The multiple-station algorithms enhanced sensitivity for detection of individual pulses. These strategies could improve detection performance for a future generation of geographically distributed arrays such as the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder and the Square Kilometre Array.

  8. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate modelmore » projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m⁻² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m⁻², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.« less

  9. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate model projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m⁻² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m⁻², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.

  10. Integrated Dry NO sub x /SO sub 2 Emissions Control System baseline test report, November 11--December 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiomoto, G.H.; Smith, R.A.

    1992-03-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology Ill demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and S0{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) urea injection for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high sulfur coal will also be tested. This report documents the first baseline test results conducted during the program. The baseline tests were conducted with the original burners and auxiliary equipment and represent the unmodified boiler emissions. The burner design of Arapahoe Unit 4 results in relatively high NO{sub x} levels ranging from 740 to 850 ppM (corrected to 3% O{sub 2}, dry) over the load range. Excess air level was the primary factor influencing NO{sub x} emissions. During normal boiler operations, there was a wide range in NO{sub x} emissions, due to the variations of excess air, boiler load and other, secondary parameters. SO{sub 2} emissions ranged from 350 to 600 ppM (corrected to 3% O{sub 2}, dry) and reflected variations in the coal sulfur content.

  11. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, Michael A.; Crowell, John M.

    1987-01-01

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  12. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  13. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  14. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  15. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  16. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  17. Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson Three showed that unstable isotopes emit energy as they become more stable. This energy is known as radiation. This lesson explores forms of radiation, where radiation is found, how we detect and measure radiation, what sources of radiation people are exposed to, whether radiation is harmful, and how we can limit our exposure. Specific topics covered in this lesson include: Types of radiation Non-ionizing Ionizing Forms of ionizing

  18. Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulations of Massive Star Formation with Protostellar Outflows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, A J; Klein, R I; Krumholz, M R; McKee, C F

    2011-03-02

    We report the results of a series of AMR radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of massive star forming clouds using the ORION code. These simulations are the first to include the feedback effects protostellar outflows, as well as protostellar radiative heating and radiation pressure exerted on the infalling, dusty gas. We find that that outflows evacuate polar cavities of reduced optical depth through the ambient core. These enhance the radiative flux in the poleward direction so that it is 1.7 to 15 times larger than that in the midplane. As a result the radiative heating and outward radiation force exerted on the protostellar disk and infalling cloud gas in the equatorial direction are greatly diminished. The simultaneously reduces the Eddington radiation pressure barrier to high-mass star formation and increases the minimum threshold surface density for radiative heating to suppress fragmentation compared to models that do not include outflows. The strength of both these effects depends on the initial core surface density. Lower surface density cores have longer free-fall times and thus massive stars formed within them undergo more Kelvin contraction as the core collapses, leading to more powerful outflows. Furthermore, in lower surface density clouds the ratio of the time required for the outflow to break out of the core to the core free-fall time is smaller, so that these clouds are consequently influenced by outflows at earlier stages of collapse. As a result, outflow effects are strongest in low surface density cores and weakest in high surface density one. We also find that radiation focusing in the direction of outflow cavities is sufficient to prevent the formation of radiation pressure-supported circumstellar gas bubbles, in contrast to models which neglect protostellar outflow feedback.

  19. Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course PDF icon Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course More Documents...

  20. Radiation Effects Facility - Facilities - Cyclotron Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Effects Facility Typical DUT(device under test) set-up at the end of the Radiation Effects beamline. The Radiation Effects Facility is available for commercial,...

  1. "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki Ono The invention utilizes liquid lithium as a radiative material. The radiative process greatly reduces the ...

  2. Apparatus for generating partially coherent radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2005-02-22

    Techniques for generating partially coherent radiation and particularly for converting effectively coherent radiation from a synchrotron to partially coherent EUV radiation suitable for projection lithography.

  3. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports November 17, 2015 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2014 Report The...

  4. Reduction of surface leakage current by surface passivation of CdZn Te and other materials using hyperthermal oxygen atoms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffbauer, Mark A.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Reduction of surface leakage current by surface passivation of Cd.sub.1-x Zn.sub.x Te and other materials using hyperthermal oxygen atoms. Surface effects are important in the performance of CdZnTe room-temperature radiation detectors used as spectrometers since the dark current is often dominated by surface leakage. A process using high-kinetic-energy, neutral oxygen atoms (.about.3 eV) to treat the surface of CdZnTe detectors at or near ambient temperatures is described. Improvements in detector performance include significantly reduced leakage current which results in lower detector noise and greater energy resolution for radiation measurements of gamma- and X-rays, thereby increasing the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements of radionuclides having complex gamma-ray spectra, including special nuclear materials.

  5. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  6. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  7. radiation | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    radiation NNSA to conduct Aerial Radiation Assessment Survey over Boston area BOSTON - On April 12 through April 15, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) will conduct low-altitude helicopter flights around Boston to measure naturally occurring background radiation. Officials from NNSA announced that the... NNSA to Participate in Aerial Radiation Training Exercise in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (WASHINGTON, D.C.) - On March 21 through March 24, the

  8. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  9. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  10. Radiation Levels in Real Time?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Levels in Real Time? There's an App for That! Gamma radiation levels in the southern Nevada area will soon be accessible around the world at the touch of a finger. Makers of the cell phone application EcoData: Radiation are expanding their global network of radiation monitoring stations to include up-to-date readings from the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) based out of southern Nevada. The CEMP was established in 1981 to monitor manmade and natural radiation levels surrounding

  11. Radiator Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification December 17, 2015 Monitoring records are required to be reported to the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiation Records Repository by March 31 under DOE Order 231.1B and in accordance with the REMS Reporting Guide. These records form the basis for the analysis presented in the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure annual report. In July of 2007,

  12. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    West Antarctic Radiation Experiment of the most advanced atmospheric research instrumentation for cloud, radiative, and aerosol observations. From the fall of 2015 to early 2017, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) will gather data from McMurdo Station at the southern tip of Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf. Using a portable observatory ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), researchers will be measuring clouds, aerosols, and energy coming from the sun and

  13. Short Baseline Neutrino

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    decay region is followed by an absorber and 450 m of dirt, beyond which only the neutrino component of the beam survives. e ? The MiniBooNE Neutrino Beam March 10, 2003...

  14. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, Patrick W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; DeNeale, Scott T.; Chalise, Dol Raj; Centurion, Emma E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  15. Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CARLSBAD, N.M., May 18, 2011 – New Mexico State University‟s Low Background Radiation Experiment (LBRE), which takes place 2,150 feet below the earth‟s surface at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, recently released some results about the project‟s first two years of experimentation.

  16. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01

    Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index would provide Registry participants with a means for demonstrating improvements in their energy and GHG emissions per unit of production without divulging specific values. For the second research area, Berkeley Lab evaluated various methods used to calculate baselines for documentation of energy consumption or GHG emissions reductions, noting those that use industry-specific metrics. Accounting for actions to reduce GHGs can be done on a project-by-project basis or on an entity basis. Establishing project-related baselines for mitigation efforts has been widely discussed in the context of two of the so-called ''flexible mechanisms'' of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto Protocol) Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

  17. Modification of polymeric surface for improved adhesion via electron beam exposure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelber, Jeffry A.

    1989-01-01

    Treating polymer surfaces, e.g., Teflon, particularly very thin surfaces, e.g., 50-10,000 .ANG. with low energy electron radiation, e.g., 100-1000 eV, in a high vacuum environment, e.g., less than 10.sup.-6 Torr, to enhance the ability of the surface to be adhered to a variety of substrates.

  18. Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Michael Leonidovich; Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich; Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich; Smimova, Olga Alekseevna; Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich; Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan

    2008-08-26

    Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

  19. Asymmetrically cut crystals for synchrotron radiation monochromators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. ); Cerrina, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetrically cut crystals are interesting for use in synchrotron radiation monochromators because of their good energy resolution characteristics and their focusing properties. Ray tracing codes, such as SHADOW, are very efficient in the design and development of new optical devices. In order to determine the convenience of using asymmetrically cut crystals for x-ray monochromators, SHADOW has been extended to include these kinds of crystals. The physical approach to ray tracing asymmetrically cut crystals is based on the coexistence of two periodic structures. One of these is the bulk periodic structure of the Bragg planes. Such a structure determines the existence of a rocking curve near the Bragg condition, and is implemented in SHADOW following the Darwin--Prins formalism of the dynamical theory of diffraction. The second periodic structure is a one-dimensional grating on the crystal surface, formed by the truncation of the lattice planes with the surface. This grating is responsible for the focusing properties of these crystals and plays an essential role in determining the trajectory of the rays. The combination of an asymmetric crystal and a nonplanar surface can be easily achieved by bending (Johann case) to provide improved properties. More complex cases such as the ground-bent crystals (i.e., Johansson geometry) can be considered as a particular case of asymmetrical crystals in which the angle between the Bragg planes and the surface change along the crystal surface. All these cases have been implemented in SHADOW.

  20. Fluorinated silica microchannel surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy Jon

    2005-03-15

    A method for surface modification of microchannels and capillaries. The method produces a chemically inert surface having a lowered surface free energy and improved frictional properties by attaching a fluorinated alkane group to the surface. The coating is produced by hydrolysis of a silane agent that is functionalized with either alkoxy or chloro ligands and an uncharged C.sub.3 -C.sub.10 fluorinated alkane chain. It has been found that the extent of surface coverage can be controlled by controlling the contact time from a minimum of about 2 minutes to a maximum of 120 minutes for complete surface coverage.