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1

Gravitational Radiation and Very Long Baseline Interferometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravitational waves affect the observed direction of light from distant sources. At telescopes, this change in direction appears as periodic variations in the apparent positions of these sources on the sky; that is, as proper motion. A wave of a given phase, traveling in a given direction, produces a characteristic pattern of proper motions over the sky. Comparison of observed proper motions with this pattern serves to test for the presence of gravitational waves. A stochastic background of waves induces apparent proper motions with specific statistical properties, and so, may also be sought. In this paper we consider the effects of a cosmological background of gravitational radiation on astrometric observations. We derive an equation for the time delay measured by two antennae observing the same source in an Einstein-de Sitter spacetime containing gravitational radiation. We also show how to obtain similar expressions for curved Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes.

Ted Pyne; Carl R. Gwinn; Mark Birkinshaw; T. Marshall Eubanks; Demetrios N. Matsakis

1995-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

2

Plasma Radiation by Rough Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The recent observation of a peak of scattered radiation at the plasma frequency from thin metal foils irradiated with light can be explained in terms of a small amount of surface roughness of the foils.

Edward A. Stern

1967-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

3

An amplifier-shaper-discriminator with baseline restoration for the ATLAS transition radiation tracker  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ASDBLR is a bipolar integrated circuit that provides eight channels of amplifier, shaper, discriminator and baseline restorer on a 6.17 by 4.78 mm silicon substrate. It is designed for use in the straw-based Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Competing requirements for short measurement time ({approx}8ns), good double pulse resolution ({approx}40ns), low power (<30mW/ch), and low operational threshold ({approx}1.5fC) led to the choice of a largely differential circuit which includes detector tail compensation. A capacitively-coupled baseline restorer eliminates effective threshold shifts that would otherwise occur at the high per-wire hit rates (up to 20MHz). A full-scale dynamic range of 200fC and two discriminators will separate threshold adjusts allow the ASDBLR to function both as a tracker and a TR photon detector. Selectable ion-tail compensation makes the circuit compatible with both CF4 and Xe-based gases.

Bevensee, B.; Newcomer, F.M.; Van Berg, R.; Williams, H.H. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

5

Smith-Purcell Radiation from Rough Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation of a charged particle moving parallel to a inhomogeneous surface is considered. Within a single formalism periodic and random gratings are examined. For the periodically inhomogeneous surface we derive new expressions for the dispersion relation and the spectral-angular intensity. In particular, for a given observation direction two wavelengths are emitted instead of one wavelength of the standard Smith-Purcell effect. For a rough surface we show that the main contribution to the radiation intensity is given by surface polaritons induced on the interface between two media. These polaritons are multiply scattered on the roughness of surface and convert into real photons. The spectral-angular intensity is calculated and its dependence on different parameters is revealed.

Gevorkian, Zh S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Atmospheres and radiating surfaces of neutron stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a breakthrough in the studies of thermal radiation of neutron stars. Observations with modern space telescopes have provided a wealth of valuable information. Being correctly interpreted, this information can elucidate physics of superdense matter in the interiors of these stars. The theory of formation of thermal spectra of neutron stars is based on the physics of plasmas and radiative processes in stellar photospheres. It provides the framework for interpretation of observational data and for extracting neutron-star parameters from these data. This paper presents a review of the current state of the theory of surface layers of neutron stars and radiative processes in these layers, with the main focus on the neutron stars that possess strong magnetic fields. In addition to the conventional deep (semi-infinite) atmospheres, radiative condensed surfaces of neutron stars and "thin" (finite) atmospheres are also considered.

Potekhin, A Y

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Solar radiation on variously oriented sloping surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monthly average daily irradiation on surfaces tilted towards the equator and also inclined at various azimuth angles are estimated for two locations in Lesotho and the results are presented. The isotropic model suggested by Liu and Jordan (Trans. of Ashrae, 526, 1962) along with the modified equation of Klein (Solar Energy, 19, 4, 1977) are employed for the estimation purposes. Surface orientations are selected at three inclinations for six different azimuth angles. Conclusions are reached for optimum tilt and orientation for summer, winter and annual collection. Total annual radiation values are computed for all the slopes and orientations.

Gopinathan, K.K. (National Univ. of Lesotho, Roma (South Africa))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Acoustic radiation due to surface wave breaking.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While wave breaking is continually occurring at the sea surface its transient and sporadic nature makes it difficult to measure. Experimental results are presented that show how acoustic methods can be used as a remote sensor of this fundamental process. Sea surface?generated acoustic radiation (40 to 4000 Hz) is directly related to a quantitative measure of the boundary dynamics; i.e. the Toba variable. The frequency spectrum of the radiation remains remarkably unchanged over a wide range of environmental conditions but the correlation between the sound pressure level and the Toba variable undergoes an abrupt change when spilling breakers start to occur. Results support the use of acoustics to remotely measure the rate of energy being dissipated by wave breaking and the wavelength of the dominant gravity wave component. Theoretical studies have related the field measurements to analytical and laboratory results cited in the literature indicating that remote monitoring of the rate of occurrence and size distribution of ‘‘infant’’ (freshly entrained) bubbles may be possible if splashes on the surface do not radiate significant sound. Signal processing algorithms for the remote measurements discussed above are enhanced by eigenstructure analysis of the measured cross?spectral density matrix. [Work sponsored by ONR and NUSC.

Robert M. Kennedy; Stewart A. L. Glegg

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

ARM: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

Hodges, Gary; Stoffel, Tom; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Kay, Bev; Habte, Aron; Ritsche, Michael; Morris, Victor; Anderberg, Mary

10

Physics of neutron star surface layers and their thermal radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physics of neutron star surface layers and their thermal radiation Alexander Y. Potekhin Ioffe review the physical properties of neutron star surface layers, important for the stellar thermal radiation, taking into consideration the effects of strong magnetic fields. Keywords: Neutron stars

11

WEATHER PREDICTIONS AND SURFACE RADIATION ESTIMATES  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ARLV - ARLV - 3 51 - 4 / WEATHER PREDICTIONS AND SURFACE RADIATION ESTIMATES for the RULISON EVENT Final Report Albert H . S t o u t , Ray E . White, and V i r g i l E. Quinn Environmental Science Services Administration A i r Resources Laboratory - Las Vegas PROPERW OF U. S. GOVERNMENT Prepared Under Contract SF-54-351 f o r the Nevada Operations O f f i c e U . ' S . Atomic Energy Commission January 1970 LEGAL NOTSCCE ; L *U . . . . . - . T h i s r e p o r t w a s prepared a s an account o f Government spon- s o r e d work. N e i t h e r t h e United S t a t e s , nor t h e Commission, . n o r any person a c t i n g on b e h a l f of t h e Commission: A . Makes any warranty o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , e x p r e s s e d o r implied, w i t h r e s p e c t t o the a c c u r a c y , completeness, or u s e h l n e s s o f t h e information c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s r e p o r t , o r t h a

12

Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Smith-Purcell radiation on a surface wave  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the radiation from an electron in flight over a surface wave of an arbitrary profile excited in a plane interface. For an electron bunch the conditions are specified under which the overall radiation essentially exceeds the incoherent part. It is shown that the radiation from the bunch with asymmetric density distribution of electrons in the longitudinal direction is partially coherent for waves with wavelengths much shorter than the characteristic longitudinal size of the bunch.

A. A. Saharian

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

14

Smith-Purcell radiation on a surface wave  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the radiation from an electron in flight over a surface wave of an arbitrary profile excited in a plane interface. For an electron bunch the conditions are specified under which the overall radiation essentially exceeds the incoherent part. It is shown that the radiation from the bunch with asymmetric density distribution of electrons in the longitudinal direction is partially coherent for waves with wavelengths much shorter than the characteristic longitudinal size of the bunch.

Saharian, A A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

A long baseline RICH with a 27-kiloton water target and radiator for detection of neutrino oscillations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 27 kt water volume is investigated as a target for a long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso. Charged secondaries from the neutrino interactions produce Cherenkov photons in water which are imaged as rings by a spherical mirror. The photon detector elements are 14 400 photomultipliers (PM`s) of 127 mm diameter or 3600 HPD`s of 250 mm diameter with single photon sensitivity. A coincidence signal of about 300 pixel elements in time with the SPS beam starts readout in bins of 1 ns over a period of 128 ns. Momentum, direction, and velocity of hadrons and mucons are determined from the width, center, and radius of the rings, respectively. Momentum is measured if multiple scattering dominates the ring width, as is the case for most of the particles of interest. Momentum, direction, and velocity of hadrons and muons are determined from the width, center, and radius of the rings, respectively. Momentum is measured if multiple scattering dominates the ring width, as is the case for most of the particles of interest. Momentum resolutions of 1-10%, mass resolutions of 5-50 MeV, and direction resolutions of < 1 mrad are achievable. Thresholds in water for muons, pions, kaons, and protons are 0.12, 0.16, 0.55, and 1.05 GeV/c, respectively. Electrons and gammas can be measured with energy resolution {sigma}{sub E}/E{approx}8.5%/{radical}E(GeV) and with direction resolution {approx} 1 mrad. The detector can be sited either inside a Gran Sasso tunnel or above ground because it is directional and the SPS beam is pulsed; thus the rejection of cosmic ray background is excellent.

Ypsilantis, T.; Seguinot, J.; Zichichi, A.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Heat Transfer by Radiation to Surfaces at Low Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...August 1948 research-article Heat Transfer by Radiation to Surfaces at Low...E. V. Truter A study of the transfer of heat between the walls of vacuum vessels...more efficient in diminishing the heat transfer than a highly polished surface...

1948-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment Target Material Radiation Damage Studies Using Energetic Protons of the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Production (BLIP) Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the future multi-MW accelerators is the LBNE Experiment where Fermilab aims to produce a beam of neutrinos with a 2.3 MW proton beam as part of a suite of experiments associated with Project X. Specifically, the LBNE Neutrino Beam Facility aims for a 2+ MW, 60 -120 GeV pulsed, high intensity proton beam produced in the Project X accelerator intercepted by a low Z solid target to facilitate the production of low energy neutrinos. The multi-MW level LBNE proton beam will be characterized by intensities of the order of 1.6 e+14 p/pulse, {\\sigma} radius of 1.5 -3.5 mm and a 9.8 microsecond pulse length. These parameters are expected to push many target materials to their limit thus making the target design very challenging. To address a host of critical design issues revealed by recent high intensity beam on target experience a series of experimental studies on radiation damage and thermal shock response conducted at BNL focusing on low-Z materials have been undertaken with the latest one focusing on LBNE.

Simos, N; Hurh, P; Mokhov, N; Kotsina, Z

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Thermal radiation from magnetic neutron star surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the thermal emission from magnetic neutron star surfaces in which the cohesive effects of the magnetic field have produced the condensation of the atmosphere and the external layers. This may happen for sufficiently cool atmospheres with moderately intense magnetic fields. The thermal emission from an isothermal bare surface of a neutron star shows no remarkable spectral features, but it is significantly depressed at energies below some threshold energy. However, since the thermal conductivity is very different in the normal and parallel directions to the magnetic field lines, the presence of the magnetic field is expected to produce a highly anisotropic temperature distribution, depending on the magnetic field geometry. In this case, the observed flux of such an object looks very similar to a BB spectrum, but depressed in a nearly constant factor at all energies. This results in a systematic underestimation of the area of the emitter (and therefore its size) by a factor 5-10 (2-3).

J. F. Perez--Azorin; J. A. Miralles; J. A. Pons

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

19

MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

important to life and to the use of clean renewable solar energy to improve the quality of the environment and biogeophysical mod- eling, solar energy applications, and agriculture. The Earth's surface radiation budget (SRB) is the key quantity that determines global climate and climate change from elevated greenhouse gases, air

Liang, Shunlin

20

Effect of surface treatments on radiation buildup in steam generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the effect of surface preparation on the radiation buildup of steam generator materials of construction was conducted. The tests consisted of exposing treated manway seal plates to primary reactor coolant during the second through the fifth fuel cycle of the Chinon B1 pressurized water reactor. The pretreatments included: mechanical polishing, electropolishing (either on the as received surface or on a surface which had been previously mechanically polished), and passivation via the RCT (laboratory) process or the Framatome (in situ) process. Radioactivity buildup was determined at the end of each fuel cycle. A selected number of the seal plates were removed from the steam generators after each exposure cycle for destructive examinations. The electropolished surfaces exhibited a significantly lower radioactive buildup rate; an average factor of five less buildup compared to an as-received surface. Passivation of the electropolished surface, especially via the RCT process, reduced the buildup rate still further by a factor of two over the electropolished-only surface. Examination of the surfaces by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, etc., after exposure indicated no detrimental effects on the surface characteristics attributable to the surface treatments. A program has now been instituted to electropolish the steam generator channel heads of all new reactors in France, as well as the steam generators intended for replacement in existing plants. 1 ref., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Shortwave Spectral Radiative Forcing of Cumulus Clouds from Surface Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spectral changes of the total cloud radiative forcing (CRF) and its diffuse and direct components are examined by using spectrally resolved (visible spectral range) all-sky surface irradiances measured by Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer. We demonstrate: (i) the substantial contribution of the diffuse component to the total CRF, (ii) the well-defined spectral variations of total CRF in the visible spectral region, and (iii) the strong statistical relationship between spectral (500 nm) and shortwave broadband values of total CRF. Our results suggest that the framework based on the visible narrowband fluxes can provide important radiative quantities for rigorous evaluation of radiative transfer parameterizations and can be applied for estimation of the shortwave total CRF.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Berg, Larry K.; Long, Charles N.; Flynn, Connor J.

2011-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

22

Near-field radiative heat transfer for structured surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We apply an analytical approach for determining the near-field radiative heat transfer between a metallic nanosphere and a planar semi-infinite medium with some given surface structure. This approach is based on a perturbative expansion, and evaluated to first order in the surface profile. With the help of numerical results obtained for some simple model geometries we discuss typical signatures that should be obtainable with a near-field scanning thermal microscope operated in either constant-height or constant-distance mode.

Svend-Age Biehs; Oliver Huth; Felix Rüting

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

SALTS AND RADIATION PRODUCTS ON THE SURFACE OF EUROPA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface of Europa could contain the compositional imprint of an underlying interior ocean, but competing hypotheses differ over whether spectral observations from the Galileo spacecraft show the signature of ocean evaporates or simply surface radiation products unrelated to the interior. Using adaptive optics at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of most of the disk of Europa at a spectral resolution {approx}40 times higher than seen by the Galileo spacecraft. These spectra show a previously undetected distinct signature of magnesium sulfate salts on Europa, but the magnesium sulfate is confined to the trailing hemisphere and spatially correlated with the presence of radiation products like sulfuric acid and SO{sub 2}. On the leading, less irradiated, hemisphere, our observations rule out the presence of many of the proposed sulfate salts, but do show the presence of distorted water ice bands. Based on the association of the potential MgSO{sub 4} detection on the trailing side with other radiation products, we conclude that MgSO{sub 4} is also a radiation product, rather than a constituent of a Europa ocean brine. Based on ocean chemistry models, we hypothesize that, prior to irradiation, magnesium is primarily in the form of MgCl{sub 2}, and we predict that NaCl and KCl are even more abundant, and, in fact, dominate the non-ice component of the leading hemisphere. We propose observational tests of this new hypothesis.

Brown, M. E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hand, K. P., E-mail: mbrown@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

An Update on SURFRAD—The GCOS Surface Radiation Budget Network for the Continental United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Surface Radiation budget (SURFRAD) network was developed for the United States in the middle 1990s in response to a growing need for more sophisticated in situ surface radiation measurements to support satellite system validation; numerical ...

John A. Augustine; Gary B. Hodges; Christopher R. Cornwall; Joseph J. Michalsky; Carlos I. Medina

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Ignition and combustion drive by powerful laser radiation acting on a water surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ignition and combustion effects in water vapor generated...2-laser radiation on a water surface are investigated...

G. I. Kozlov; V. A. Kuznetsov

26

Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped Emmanuel Rousseau  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped silicon the role of surface plasmons for nanoscale radiative heat transfer between doped silicon surfaces. We derive a new accurate and closed-form expression of the radiative near- field heat transfer. We also

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

Effect of surface treatments on radiation buildup in steam generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Test coupons of typical PWR materials of construction were prepared using a number of pretreatments to minimize radiation buildup. The coupons were then exposed to primary coolant at the Doel-2 PWR in Belgium. The exposure periods for the coupons ranged from one to three fuel cycles. After removal from the primary system, doserate and gamma spectroscopy measurements were made to determine the radioactivity levels on the coupons. Varying levels of success were achieved for the preconditioning techniques tested. Electropolishing alone provided some degree of resistance to radiation buildup on the treated surface and electropolishing plus passivation was shown to be even better. Radiation buildup resistance of the palladium-coated coupons was poor; radiation levels on these coupons were even higher than on the untreated reference coupons. The poor performance of the palladium-coated coupons was possibly due to the method used to apply the coating. In contrast to palladium coating, very encouraging results were achieved with chromium plating plus passivation. Preliminary results show that this technique can inhibit activity deposition by as much as a factor of ten. 4 refs., 64 figs., 26 tabs.

Asay, R.H. (Radiological and Chemical Technology, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)); Pick, M.E. (Nuclear Electric plc, Berkeley (United Kingdom). Berkeley Nuclear Labs.); Roofthooft, R. (Laboratoire Belge de l'Industrie Electrique (LABORELEC), Linkebeek (Belgium)); van Melsen, C. (Energy Invest, Beersel (Belgium))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Surface summertime radiative forcing by shallow cumuli at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although shallow cumuli are common over large areas of the globe, their impact on the surface radiative forcing has not been carefully evaluated. This study addresses this shortcoming by analyzing data from days with shallow cumuli collected over eight summers (2000-2007) at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (collectively ACRF) Southern Great Plains site. During periods with clouds, the average shortwave and longwave radiative forcings are 45.5 W m-2 and +11.6 W m-2, respectively. The forcing has been defined so that a negative (positive) forcing indicates a surface cooling (warming). On average, the shortwave forcing is negative, however, instances with positive shortwave forcing are observed approximately 20% of the time. These positive values of shortwave forcing are associated with three-dimensional radiative effects of the clouds. The three-dimensional effects are shown to be largest for intermediate cloud amounts. The magnitude of the three-dimensional effects decreased with averaging time, but it is not negligibly small even for large averaging times as long as four hours.

Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Mills Jr., David L.

2011-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

29

Baseline Rd. Colorado Ave.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Baseline Rd. Broadway Broadway Colorado Ave. Arapahoe Ave. Canyon Blvd. 28thSt. 9thSt. 6thSt. 13th Pearl St. Euclid FolsomSt. N Baseline Rd. Broadway Broadway Colorado Ave. Arapahoe Ave. Canyon Blvd. 28://www.banjobilly.com JUNE 12-13, 2009 JILA/CHEMISTRY & BIOCHEMISTRY, UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER A CELEBRATION OF 40

Lineberger, W. Carl

30

Radiative–Convective Equilibrium over a Land Surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE) describes an idealized state of the atmosphere in which the vertical temperature profile is determined by a balance between radiative and convective fluxes. While RCE has been applied extensively over oceans, ...

Nicolas Rochetin; Benjamin R. Lintner; Kirsten L. Findell; Adam H. Sobel; Pierre Gentine

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Transportation Baseline Schedule  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The “1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report” presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion “1999 Transportation ‘Barriers’ Analysis” analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The “1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule” (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the “Geologic Repository Disposal” site (GRD).

Fawcett, Ricky Lee; John, Mark Earl

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Curvature-induced radiation of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a theoretical study of the curvature-induced radiation of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends at metal-dielectric interfaces. We explain qualitatively how the curvature leads to distortion of the phase front, causing the fields to radiate energy away from the metal-dielectric interface. We then quantify, both analytically and numerically, radiation losses and energy transmission efficiencies of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends with varying radii as well as sign of curvature.

Hasegawa, Keisuke; Noeckel, Jens U.; Deutsch, Miriam [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, 1371 East 13th Aveenue, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

The Effect of Non-Lambertian Surface Reflectance on Aerosol Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface reflectance is an important factor in determining the strength of aerosol radiative forcing. Previous studies of radiative forcing assumed that the reflected surface radiance is isotropic and does not depend on incident illumination angle. This Lambertian reflection model is not a very good descriptor of reflectance from real land and ocean surfaces. In this study we present computational results for the seasonal average of short and long wave aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface. The effect of the Lambertian assumption is found through comparison with calculations using a more detailed bi-direction reflectance distribution function (BRDF).

Ricchiazzi, P.; O'Hirok, W.; Gautier, C.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

34

Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at Earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the TUV radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radi...

Thomas, Brian C; Snyder, Brock R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Coherent and tunable terahertz radiation from graphene surface plasmon polaritons excited by an electron beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) resonance in graphene can be tuned in the terahertz regime, transforming such SPPs into coherent terahertz radiation has not been achieved. Here, we propose a graphene-based coherent terahertz radiation source with greatly enhanced intensity. The radiation works at room temperature, it is tunable and can cover the whole terahertz regime. The radiation intensity generated with this method is 400 times stronger than that from SPPs at a conventional dielectric or semiconducting surface and is comparable to that from the most advanced photonics source such as a quantum cascade laser. The physical mechanism for this strong radiation is presented. The phase diagrams defining the parameters range for the occurrence of radiation is also shown.

Liu, Shenggang, E-mail: liusg@uestc.edu.cn; Hu, Min; Chen, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ping; Gong, Sen; Zhao, Tao; Zhong, Renbin [Terahertz Research Centre, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Cooperative Innovation Centre of Terahertz Science, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Zhang, Chao [Terahertz Research Centre, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Cooperative Innovation Centre of Terahertz Science, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); School of Physics and Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

36

SURFRAD—A National Surface Radiation Budget Network for Atmospheric Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A surface radiation budget observing network (SURFRAD) has been established for the United States to support satellite retrieval validation, modeling, and climate, hydrology, and weather research. The primary measurements are the downwelling ...

John A. Augustine; John J. DeLuisi; Charles N. Long

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Mixed-Phase Cloud Radiative Forcing:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Mixed-Phase Cloud Radiative Forcing: Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Mixed-Phase Cloud Radiative Forcing: An Example from M-PACE Title Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Mixed-Phase Cloud Radiative Forcing: An Example from M-PACE Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors de Boer, Gijs, William D. Collins, Surabi Menon, and Charles N. Long Journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Volume 11 Start Page 11937 Pagination 11937-11949 Abstract Measurements from ground-based cloud radar, high spectral resolution lidar and microwave radiometer are used in conjunction with a column version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) and radiosonde measurements to derive the surface radiative properties under mixed-phase cloud conditions. These clouds were observed during the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Experiment (M-PACE) between September and November of 2004. In total, sixteen half hour time periods are reviewed due to their coincidence with radiosonde launches. Cloud liquid (ice) water paths are found to range between 11.0-366.4 (0.5-114.1) gm-2, and cloud physical thicknesses fall between 286-2075 m. Combined with temperature and hydrometeor size estimates, this information is used to calculate surface radiative flux densities using RRTMG, which are demonstrated to generally agree with measured flux densities from surface-based radiometric instrumentation. Errors in longwave flux density estimates are found to be largest for thin clouds, while shortwave flux density errors are generally largest for thicker clouds. A sensitivity study is performed to understand the impact of retrieval assumptions and uncertainties on derived surface radiation estimates. Cloud radiative forcing is calculated for all profiles, illustrating longwave dominance during this time of year, with net cloud forcing generally between 50 and 90 Wm-2.

38

Core-level photoemission of the Si(1 1 1) surface using synchrotron radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan c Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, The Institute of Solid StateCore-level photoemission of the Si(1 1 1)± 21 p � 21 p -Ag surface using synchrotron radiation, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198, Japan b Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7

Hasegawa, Shuji

39

SURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE VARIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE/Atmospheric Sciences Division Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Cloud-induced climate change. Cloud-radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo are three key quantities

40

Interaction of soft x-ray laser pulse radiation with aluminum surface: Nano-meter size surface modification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interaction of soft x-ray laser radiation with material and caused modification of the exposed surface has both physical and practical interests. We irradiated the focusing soft x-ray laser (SXRL) pulses having a wavelength of 13.9 nm and the duration of 7 ps to aluminum (Al) surface. After the SXRL irradiation process, the irradiated Al surface was observed with a scanning electron microscope. The surface modifications caused by SXRL single pulse exposure were clearly seen. In addition, it was found that the conical structures having around 100 nm in diameters were formed in the shallow features. The nano-meter size modified structures at Al surface induced by SXRL pulse is interesting as the newly surface structure. Hence, the SXRL beam would be a candidate for a tool of micromachining. We also provide a thermomechanical modeling of SXRL interaction with Al briefly to explain the surface modification.

Ishino, Masahiko; Faenov, Anatoly; Tanaka, Momoko; Hasegawa, Noboru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Pikuz, Tatiana; Inogamov, Nail; Zhakhovsky, Vasily; Skobelev, Igor; Fortov, Vladimir; Khohlov, Viktor; Shepelev, Vadim; Ohba, Toshiyuki; Kaihori, Takeshi; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Imazono, Takashi; Kawachi, Tetsuya [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Graduate School of Humanities and Science, Nara Women's University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Institute for Computer Aided Design, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 123056 (Russian Federation)

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Transportation Baseline Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Transportation Program 1999 Transportation Baseline Report presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste and materials transportation. In addition, this Report provides a summary overview of DOE’s projected quantities of waste and materials for transportation. Data presented in this report were gathered as a part of the IPABS Spring 1999 update of the EM Corporate Database and are current as of July 30, 1999. These data were input and compiled using the Analysis and Visualization System (AVS) which is used to update all stream-level components of the EM Corporate Database, as well as TSD System and programmatic risk (disposition barrier) information. Project (PBS) and site-level IPABS data are being collected through the Interim Data Management System (IDMS). The data are presented in appendices to this report.

Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kramer, George Leroy Jr.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Treatment of metal surfaces with excimer laser radiation for radiative applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study the effects of intense excimer laser irradiation (108–109 W cm?2) on some radiative properties of copper, aluminum, magnesium, tantalum,...

Kinsman, G; Duley, W W

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Surface effects on the radiation response of nanoporous Au foams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on an experimental and simulation campaign aimed at exploring the radiation response of nanoporous Au (np-Au) foams. We find different defect accumulation behavior by varying radiation dose-rate in ion-irradiated np-Au foams. Stacking fault tetrahedra are formed when np-Au foams are irradiated at high dose-rate, but they do not seem to be formed in np-Au at low dose-rate irradiation. A model is proposed to explain the dose-rate dependent defect accumulation based on these results.

Fu, E. G.; Caro, M.; Wang, Y. Q.; Baldwin, K.; Caro, A. [Materials Science in Radiation and Dynamics Extremes, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Zepeda-Ruiz, L. A. [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bringa, E. [CONICET and Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza 5500 (Argentina); Nastasi, M. [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 (United States)

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

44

Baseline studies of surface gas exchange and soil-gas composition in preparation for CO{sub 2} sequestration research: Teapot Dome, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A baseline determination of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes and soil-gas concentrations of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} was made over the Teapot Dome oil field in the Naval Petroleum Reserve 3 in Natrona County, Wyoming, United States. This was done in anticipation of the experimentation with CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone underlying the field at a depth of 1680 m. The measurements were made in January 2004 to capture the system with minimum biological activity in the soils, resulting in a minimum CO{sub 2} flux and a maximum CH{sub 4} flux. The CO{sub 2} fluxes were measured in the field with an infrared spectroscopic method. The CH{sub 4} fluxes were determined from gas-chromatographic measurements on discrete samples from under the flux chambers. The CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were determined at 30-, 60-, and 100-cm depths in soil gas by gas chromatography. A total of 40 locations had triplicate flux measurements using 1.00-m{sup 2} chambers, and soil gas was sampled at single points at each of the 40 locations. Carbon dioxide fluxes averaged 227.1 CO{sub 2} m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, a standard deviation of 186.9 mg m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, and a range of - 281.7 to 732.9 mg m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, not including one location with subsurface infrastructure contamination. Methane fluxes averaged 0.137 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, standard deviation of 0.326 mg m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, and a range of -0.481 to 1.14 mg m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, not including the same contaminated location.

Klusman, R.W. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (US). Dept. of Chemistry & Geochemistry

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

PROJECT SUMMARY Longwave Radiation Processes and Surface Energy Budget on the Antarctic Plateau  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A-1 PROJECT SUMMARY Longwave Radiation Processes and Surface Energy Budget on the Antarctic Plateau on several projects: near-surface atmospheric temperature profiles, radiosonde performance at low images, and improvement of calibration procedures for interferometers. In the proposed work, analyses

Walden, Von P.

46

Radiation effects on the surfaces of the Galilean satellites R. E. Johnson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

20 Radiation effects on the surfaces of the Galilean satellites R. E. Johnson University and Johnson 1996). It can produce new species in the surface, it can produce and eject volatiles into the atmosphere, and it can be a source of the local plasma (Figure 20.1 and Johnson 1990, 1996, 1998

Johnson, Robert E.

47

Radiation-Pattern Improvement of Patch Antennas Using a Compact Soft/Hard Surface (SHS) Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation-Pattern Improvement of Patch Antennas Using a Compact Soft/Hard Surface (SHS) Structure is employed to surround the patch antenna for blocking the surface- wave propagation, thus alleviating-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology. It is shown that the gain of a patch antenna can be increased to near 9 d

Tentzeris, Manos

48

Impact of surface inhomogeneity on solar radiative transfer under overcast conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact of surface inhomogeneity on solar radiative transfer under overcast conditions Zhanqing Li1. Trishchenko Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Received 20 June 2001; revised 26 to a method of estimating surface spectral areal-mean albedo from downwelling solar transmittance measurements

Li, Zhanqing

49

Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A comprehensive review about the use of micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces as a tool for in situ X-ray scattering investigations of soft matter and biological materials.

Accardo, A.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

50

Regional Energy Baseline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESL-TR-11-09-02 REGIONAL ENERGY BASELINE (1960 ~ 2009) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 To tal En erg y U se pe r C ap ita (M MB tu) Year Total Energy... Use per Capita (1960-2009) US SEEC 12-States TX Hyojin Kim Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D. Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. September 2011 ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University...

Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.

51

Observed reductions of surface solar radiation at Sites in the United States and worldwide from 1961 to 1990  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and there is room for further improvement (World Climate Research Programme, 1991). 2. All Sky Solar Radiation Here I use a new quality-tested global database of monthly mean surface solar radiation time seriesObserved reductions of surface solar radiation at Sites in the United States and worldwide from

52

Re-baselining Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

008 008 DOE/NETL-2008/1308 Re-baselining APS, CS & FC GRPA R&D Goals Impact of Cost Escalation on Power System R&D Goals Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or

53

The effects of atomic oxygen on the thermal emittance of high temperature radiator surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiator surfaces on high temperature space power systems such as the SP-100 space nuclear power system must maintain a high emittance level in order to reject waste heat effectively. one of the primary materials under consideration for the radiators is carbon-carbon composite. Since carbon is susceptible to attack by atomic oxygen in the low Earth orbital environment, it is important to determine the durability of carbon composites in this environment as well as the effect atomic oxygen has on the thermal emittance of the surface if it is to be considered for use as a radiator. Results indicate that the thermal emittance of carbon-carbon composite (as low as 0.42) can be enhanced by exposure to a directed beam of atomic oxygen to levels above 0.85 at 800 K. This emittance enhancement is due to a change in the surface morphology as a result of oxidation. High aspect ratio cones are formed on the surface which allow more efficient trapping of incident radiation. Erosion of the surface due to oxidation is similar to that for carbon; so that at altitudes less than {approximately}600 km, thickness loss of the radiator could be significant (as much as 0.1 cm/year). A protective coating or oxidation barrier forming additive may be needed to prevent atomic oxygen attack after the initial high emittance surface is formed. Textured surfaces can be formed in ground based facilities or possibly in space if emittance is not sensitive to the orientation of the atomic oxygen arrival that forms the texture.

Rutledge, S.K. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hotes, D.L.; Paulsen, P.E. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Document Number Q0029500 Baseline Risk Assessment Update 4.0 Baseline Risk Assessment Update  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Baseline Risk Assessment Update Baseline Risk Assessment Update 4.0 Baseline Risk Assessment Update This section updates the human health and the ecological risk assessments that were originally presented in the 1998 RI (DOE 1998a). The impacts on the 1998 risk assessments are summarized in Section 2.9. 4.1 Human Health Risk Assessment Several activities completed since 1998 have contributed to changes in surface water and ground water concentrations. Activities that have impacted, or likely impacted surface water and ground water concentrations are Millsite Excavation (Section 2.1) Remediation of Soil and Sediment Along Montezuma Creek (Section 2.3) Millsite Dewatering and Treatment (Section 2.5) PRB Treatability Study (Section 2.6) Surface water and ground water monitoring data have been used to refine the list of COCs

55

A Climatology of Surface Cloud Radiative Effects at the ARM Tropical Western Pacific Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cloud radiative effects on surface downwelling fluxes are investigated using long-term datasets from the three Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The Nauru and Darwin sites show significant variability in sky cover, downwelling radiative fluxes, and surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) due to El Niño and the Australian monsoon, respectively, while the Manus site shows little intra-seasonal or interannual variability. Cloud radar measurement of cloud base and top heights are used to define cloud types so that the effect of cloud type on the surface CRE can be examined. Clouds with low bases contribute 71-75% of the surface shortwave (SW) CRE and 66-74% of the surface longwave (LW) CRE at the three TWP sites, while clouds with mid-level bases contribute 8-9% of the SW CRE and 12-14% of the LW CRE, and clouds with high bases contribute 16-19% of the SW CRE and 15-21% of the LW CRE.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flaherty, Julia E.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Surface-Phonon Polariton Contribution to Nanoscale Radiative Heat Transfer. Emmanuel Rousseau  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface-Phonon Polariton Contribution to Nanoscale Radiative Heat Transfer. Emmanuel Rousseau-sud Campus Polytechnique RD 128 91127 Palaiseau cedex, France Heat transfer between two plates of polar far-field value. In this article, we show that nanoscale heat transfer is dominated by the coupling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Formation of nanostructures at the glass-carbon surface exposed to laser radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental technique for obtaining nanostructures in the field of high-power laser radiation at the surface of carbon materials is developed. A specific feature of this technique is the formation of liquid carbon inside the region of laser action in the sample exposed to radiation in air at a pressure of {approx}1 atm. Several types of nanostructures (quasi-domains and nanopeaks) are detected in the laser cavern and beyond the range of laser action. Mechanisms of formation of such structures are proposed. The formation of quasi-domains is related to crystallisation of the melt. The nanopeak groups are formed outside the laser action region during the deposition of hot vapours of the material escaping from this region. The dependences of the variation in morphological properties of the nanostructures on the duration of laser action and the radii of typical cavern zones on the laser radiation power are obtained. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

Abramov, D V; Gerke, M N; Kucherik, A O; Kutrovskaya, S V; Prokoshev, V G; Arakelyan, S M [Vladimir State University, Vladimir (Russian Federation)

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

58

Terahertz radiation and second-harmonic generation from InAs: Bulk versus surface electric-field-induced contributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Terahertz radiation and second-harmonic generation from InAs: Bulk versus surface electric-harmonic generation and terahertz radiation emission indicates that the observed dominant surface electric-field-induced contributions Matthew Reid, Igor V. Cravetchi, and Robert Fedosejevs Department of Electrical and Computer

Reid, Matthew

59

Carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces under extreme ultraviolet radiation: An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces under extreme ultraviolet radiation: An x 2012) Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation-induced carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces modification during EUV exposure. XPS analysis showed that total carbon contamination (C 1s peak

Harilal, S. S.

60

JANUARY 1998 5L I Influence of Absorbing Aerosols on the Inference of Solar Surface Radiation Budget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JANUARY 1998 5L I Influence of Absorbing Aerosols on the Inference of Solar Surface Radiation Budget and Cloud Absorption ZHANQING LI Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada of absorbing aerosols on the retrieval of the solar surface radiation budget (SSRB) and on the inference

Li, Zhanqing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

PASSIVATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES FOR IMPROVED RADIATION DETECTORS: X-RAY PHOTOEMISSION ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface passivation of device-grade radiation detector materials was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in combination with transport property measurements before and after various chemical treatments. Specifically Br-MeOH (2% Br), KOH with NH{sub 4}F/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and NH{sub 4}OH solutions were used to etch, reduce and oxidize the surface of Cd{sub (1-x)}Zn{sub x}Te semiconductor crystals. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the resultant microscopic surface morphology. Angle-resolved high-resolution photoemission measurements on the valence band electronic structure and core lines were used to evaluate the surface chemistry of the chemically treated surfaces. Metal overlayers were then deposited on these chemically treated surfaces and the I-V characteristics measured. The measurements were correlated to understand the effect of interface chemistry on the electronic structure at these interfaces with the goal of optimizing the Schottky barrier height for improved radiation detector devices.

Nelson, A; Conway, A; Reinhardt, C; Ferreira, J; Nikolic, R; Payne, S

2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

62

ARM - Baseline Change Request Guidelines  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DocumentsBaseline Change Request Guidelines DocumentsBaseline Change Request Guidelines Page Contents Introduction Submit a BCR BCR Process Flowchart Baseline Change Request Guidelines Introduction Baseline Change Requests (BCR) are used by the ARM Infrastructure as a process to provide configuration control and for formally requesting and documenting changes within the ARM Infrastructure. Configuration Control: BCRs are required for changes to instruments, data systems, data processes, datastreams, measurement methods, and facilities. They help ensure that all aspects of the ARM Infrastructure are consulted prior to implementing changes. Seemingly minor changes can have significant repercussions throughout the Facility and therefore, NO change to an operational instrument, computer, facility, or other system can or will be

63

Effect of surface tension on the acoustic radiation pressure-induced motion of the water-air interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of surface tension on the acoustic radiation pressure-induced motion of the water to be a function of the surface tension. The time of mound formation measurementsin cleanwaterat low.Our objectiveisto investigatetheeffectsof surface tension on mound formation. We usea boundaryintegralmethodto

Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

64

Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surface-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. The analytical expression is then used to deduce a new approach for inferring cloud albedo from concurrent surface-based measurements of downwelling surface shortwave radiation and cloud fraction. High-resolution decade-long data on cloud albedos are obtained by use of this surface-based approach over the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiaton Measurement (ARM) Program at the Great Southern Plains (SGP) site. The surface-based cloud albedos are further compared against those derived from the coincident GOES satellite measurements. The three long-term (1997-2009) sets of hourly data on shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo collected over the SGP site are analyzed to explore the multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations. The analytical formulation is useful for diagnosing deficiencies of cloud-radiation parameterizations in climate models.

Liu, Y.; Wu, W.; Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.

2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

65

Matched Asymptotic Expansion (MAE) technique applied to acoustic radiation from vibrating surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The MAE technique has been used in the field of fluid mechanics for many years. Only recently has this technique been applied to acoustic problems where it has been found to be an excellent and powerful tool in analyzing either scattering and diffraction or radiation from moving rigid objects (propellers). In this paper it is shown how the MAE technique can be utilized to solve acoustic radiation problems from flexible surfaces. The technique is then applied to the following force driven systems: (1) circular piston in infinite rigid baffle (2) two concentric pistons in infinite modes. For each of problem analyzed the structural wavelength a is assumed to be small compared to the fluid wavelength (i.e. ka ? 1). The inner region close to the vibrating structure (acoustic boundary layer) is governed by the Laplace's equation while the outer solution is governed by the Helmholtz equation. The inner and outer solution is governed by the Helmholtz equation. The inner and outer solutions are solved independently and are then joined together by the MAE matching procedure. A composite solution is then obtained from a combination of the inner and the outer solution. Agreements with the exact theory for the radiated pressure surface resistance and reactance are shown to be excellent.

Mauro Pierucci

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Surface Radiation Survey at the Shepley’s Hill Remediation Site, Devens, Massachusettes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provided technical support for ongoing environmental remediation activities at the Shepley’s Hill remediation site, near Devens, MA. The technical support included the completion of a radiation survey of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at Shepley’s Hill, Shepley’s Hill landfill cover, and Red Cove areas. The objective of the radiation survey was to assess the ability of the INL backpack sodium iodide spectroscopy (BaSIS) system to detect elevated levels of NORM that may be associated with radon-222 emanation from near surface and subsurface fractures in the area. It is postulated that these fracture zones provide subsurface conduits for the transport of environmental contaminants. As such, location of these fracture sets will proved EPA Region 1 with the means for completing the development of an accurate site conceptual model. The results of the radiological survey show that some of the radiological anomalies correlate with currently mapped rock outcrops; however, not all of the rock outcrops in the surveyed area have been mapped. As such, it is not conclusive that all of the radiological anomalies correspond with surface rock outcrops. EPA Region 1 intends to perform a more comprehensive correlation of the radiation data collected with the BaSIS system with additional data sets such as detailed bedrock structural mapping, 2-dimensional resistivity profiling, and high-resolution topographic mapping. The results of this effort will be used in consideration of designing a potential follow-on effort for mapping of radon.

J. R. Giles; C. P. Oertel; L. G. Roybal

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

The low?frequency radiation and scattering of sound from bubbly mixtures near the sea surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microbubble plumes are produced when waves break and are convected to depth. What role these microbubble plumes have in the production of sound and the scattering of sound near the sea surface from the low? (20?Hz) to mid? (2?kHz) frequency range? Ocean ambient noise shows a dramatic increase in midfrequency levels when wave breaking occurs. Measurements of scattering from the sea surface have a different characteristic than expected by Bragg scattering from gravity waves i.e. a large zero Doppler component. If microbubbleclouds and plumes with void fractions greater than 0.0001 act as collective resonant oscillators then noise can be produced and scattering can occur with little Doppler shift but ample spread. This hypothesis was based on the theory that the mixture properties determine the radiation and scattering from such a compact region. Experimental results show that the far field radiation of sound from a compact region can be described by monopole volume pulsation beneath a pressure release surface with the natural frequency described by a modified Minneart formula. Scattering measurements from submerged bubble clouds show a significant low frequency scattering. Experimental evidence and theoretical formulations are consistent with collective phenomenon. [Work supported by ONR.

William M. Carey; Ronald A. Roy

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling SoftwareCommercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software ETCommercial  Building  Energy  Baseline  Modeling  

Jump, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

A new approach for simultaneously retrieving cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based shortwave radiation measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 8 (2013) 044023 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/044023 A new approach for simultaneously retrieving cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based shortwave radiation measurements Yu Xie and Yangang Liu Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA E-mail: yxie@bnl.gov Received 27 June 2013 Accepted for publication 8 October 2013 Published 30 October 2013 Online at stacks.iop.org/ERL/8/044023 Abstract Surface-based measurements of shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes contain valuable information on cloud properties, but have not been fully used to infer those properties. Here a new analytical approach is presented that simultaneously infers cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based measurements of total and direct radiative fluxes. An inspection of the

70

Top-surface imaging resists for lithography with strongly attenuated radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strong resist photoabsorption at wavelengths below 248 nm necessitates the use of a thin layer imaging (TLI) scheme for microlithography using 193 nm, 157 nm, or 13.4 nm radiation. Previous to this work, a TLI process commonly known as silylated top surface imaging (TSI) was developed by a Sandia/AT and T team for use in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) at 13.4 nm. Using this bilayer process, 0.13 {micro}m resolution with 87{degree} sidewalls in 0.7 {micro}m of resist was achieved for EUV exposures. New imaging layer polymers, silylation reagents and crosslinkers, and process conditions were screened for improvement in this TSI process with the ultimate goal of demonstrating a resist technology capable of 0.10 {micro}m critical dimension (CD). The results of these attempted improvements to the TSI process are described in this report.

Ray-Chaudhuri, A.; Kubiak, G.; Henderson, C.; Wheeler, D.; Pollagi, T.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Environmental Baseline File: National Transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics address include: shipmnents of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions.

NONE

1999-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

72

Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect BINGQI YI,* PING YANG,* BRYAN A. BAUM,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect BINGQI YI,* PING are developed for se- verely roughened ice particles. The parameterizations are based on a general habit mixture and severely roughened ice particles. While the influence of particle roughening on the single

Baum, Bryan A.

73

Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft, and surface data during the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft overcast conditions the aircraft measurements yield an absorptance of 0.32 0.03 for the layer between the aircraft (0.5­13 km), while the GOES 8 albedo versus surface transmittance analysis gives an absorptance

Dong, Xiquan

74

Study of Interfacial Interactions Using Thing Film Surface Modification: Radiation and Oxidation Effects in Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interfaces play a key role in dictating the long-term stability of materials under the influence of radiation and high temperatures. For example, grain boundaries affect corrosion by way of providing kinetically favorable paths for elemental diffusion, but they can also act as sinks for defects and helium generated during irradiation. Likewise, the retention of high-temperature strength in nanostructured, oxide-dispersion strengthened steels depends strongly on the stoichiometric and physical stability of the (Y, Ti)-oxide particles/matrix interface under radiation and high temperatures. An understanding of these interfacial effects at a fundamental level is important for the development of materials for extreme environments of nuclear reactors. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding stability of interfaces by depositing thin films of materials on substrates followed by ion irradiation of the film-substrate system at elevated temperatures followed by post-irradiation oxidation treatments. Specifically, the research will be performed by depositing thin films of yttrium and titanium (~500 nm) on Fe-12%Cr binary alloy substrate. Y and Ti have been selected as thin-film materials because they form highly stable protective oxides layers. The Fe-12%Cr binary alloy has been selected because it is representative of ferritic steels that are widely used in nuclear systems. The absence of other alloying elements in this binary alloy would allow for a clearer examination of structures and compositions that evolve during high-temperature irradiations and oxidation treatments. The research is divided into four specific tasks: (1) sputter deposition of 500 nm thick films of Y and Ti on Fe-12%Cr alloy substrates, (2) ion irradiation of the film-substrate system with 2MeV protons to a dose of 2 dpa at temperatures of 300°C, 500°C, and 700°C, (3) oxidation of as-deposited and ion-irradiated samples in a controlled oxygen environment at 500°C and 700°C, (4) multi-scale computational modeling involving first- principle molecular dynamics (FPMD) and coarse-grained dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) approaches to develop theories underlying the evolution and stability of structures and phases. Samples from Tasks 1 to 3 (above) will be rigorously characterized and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford back scatter spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Expected outcomes of the experimental work include a quantitative understanding film-substrate interface mixing, evolution of defects and other phases at the interface, interaction of interfaces with defects, and the ability of the Y and Ti films to mitigate irradiation-assisted oxidation. The aforementioned experimental work will be closely coupled with multi-scale molecular dynamics (MD) modeling to understand the reactions at the surface, the transport of oxidant through the thin film, and the stabilities of the deposited thin films under radiation and oxidation. Simulations of materials property changes under conditions of radiation and oxidation require multiple size domains and a different simulation scheme for each of these domains. This will be achieved by coupling the FPMD and coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). This will enable the comparison of the results of each simulation approach with the experimental results.

Sridharan, Kumar; Zhang, Jinsuo

2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

75

LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility.

Blanchard, A.

1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

77

Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Learn more at betterbuildings.energy.gov Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance i Preface The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program...

78

Development of multivortex flow of a stainless-steel melt under the action of laser radiation on its surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical investigation was made of the structure of thermocapillary convection of a laser melt formed by radiation with various parameters in the specific case of SS304 stainless steel. A critical Reynolds number was found: above this number a single-vortex structure of the melt flow changed to two vortices. A comparison of the shape of the molten pool predicted by numerical calculations with experiments confirmed the existence of a two-vortex structure initiated solely by thermocapillary forces on the melt surface. A correlative dependence was proposed for relating the laser radiation parameters to those of the molten pool when a two-vortex flow structure appeared. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

Antonova, G F; Gladush, G G; Kosyrev, F K; Krasyukov, A G; Likhanskii, V V; Loboiko, A I; Sayapin, V P [State Research Center of Russian Federation 'Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research', Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

1998-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

79

Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance for the Better Buildings, Better Plants Program helps companies meet the program’s reporting requirements by describing the steps necessary to develop an energy consumption and energy intensity baseline and calculating consumption and intensity changes over time.

80

Time dependence of FEL-induced surface photovoltage on semiconductor interfaces measured with synchroton radiation photoemission spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the last year, the first surface science experiments simultaneously using a Free Electron Laser (FEL) and Synchrotron Radiation (SR) have been performed on SuperACO at LURE (Orsay, France). These {open_quotes}two color{close_quotes} experiments studied the surface photovoltage (SPV) induced on semiconductor surfaces and interfaces by the SuperACO FEL, a storage ring FEL delivering 350 nm photons which am naturally synchronized with the SR; the SPV was measured by synchrotron radiation core-level photoemission spectroscopy on the high-resolution SU3 undulator beamline. We will describe the experimental setup, which allowed us to convey the FEL light onto the samples sitting in the SU3 experimental station by means of a series of mirrors, and show the results we obtained for prototypical systems such as Ag/GaAs(110) and Si(111) 2 x 1. The dependence of the SPV was studied in function of various parameters, changing sample doping and photon flux; but our efforts were mainly devoted to studying its dependence on the time delay between the FEL pump and the SR probe. On SuperACO, such delay can be varied between 1 and 120 ns, the limits being given by the time duration of a SR pulse and by the interval between two consecutive positron bunches, respectively. The results show a clear temporal dependence of the amount of SPV on cleaved Si surfaces, where as the Ag/GaAs(110) does not show any difference on the ns time scale. We will discuss these results in terms of the role of surface recombination in the dynamics of the photoinduced electron-hole pairs. These studies follow the evolution of the density of electrostatic charge at surfaces and interfaces on a nanosecond time scale, and might pave the way for a new series of experiments: for example, one might explore what are the physical mechanisms limiting the time response of Schottky diodes.

Marsi, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Delboulbe, A.; Garzella, D. [Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Baseline Wind Energy Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Baseline Wind Energy Facility Baseline Wind Energy Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Baseline Wind Energy Facility Facility Baseline Wind Energy Facility Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status Proposed Owner First Wind Developer First Wind Location Gilliam County OR Coordinates 45.626863°, -120.162885° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.626863,"lon":-120.162885,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

82

Tanzania Roads Evaluation - Baseline | Data.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tanzania Roads Evaluation - Baseline Tanzania Roads Evaluation - Baseline Agriculture Community Menu DATA APPS EVENTS DEVELOPER STATISTICS COLLABORATE ABOUT Agriculture You are here Data.gov » Communities » Agriculture » Data Tanzania Roads Evaluation - Baseline Dataset Summary Description Baseline survey for impact evaluation of MCC's roads improvement investments in Tanzania. The evaluation will examine the project's household- and community-level effects on local standards of living along the roads. For the evaluation of major roads on the mainland, Economic Development Initiatives conducted a survey of 3,000 households in 200 communities in 2009. For the Pemba rural roads evaluation, Economic Development Initiatives conducted a survey on 570 households in the treatment group and 630 households in the comparison group.

83

Optimizing Medium Baseline Reactor Neutrino Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10 years from now medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments will attempt to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy from the observed antineutrino spectra. In this letter we present the results of more than four million detailed simulations of such experiments, studying the dependence of the probability of successfully determining the hierarchy upon the analysis method, the neutrino mass matrix parameters, reactor flux models and, in particular, combinations of baselines. We show that the strong dependence of the hierarchy determination upon mass differences and flux models found by Qian et al. results from a spurious dependence of the Fourier analysis upon the high energy tail of the reactor spectrum which can be removed by using a weighted Fourier transform. Such experiments necessarily use flux from multiple reactors at distinct baselines, smearing the oscillation signal and thus impeding the determination of the hierarchy. Using the results of our simulations, we determine the optimal baselines and corre...

Ciuffoli, Emilio; Zhang, Xinmin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

The Transient Circulation Response to Radiative Forcings and Sea Surface Warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tropospheric circulation shifts have strong potential to impact surface climate. However, the magnitude of these shifts in a changing climate and the attending regional hydrological changes are difficult to project. Part of this difficulty arises ...

Paul W. Staten; Thomas Reichler; Jian Lu

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

EA-1943: Proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) at...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

943: Proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois EA-1943: Proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois...

86

Final report for the project "Improving the understanding of surface-atmosphere radiative interactions by mapping surface reflectance over the ARM CART site" (award DE-FG02-02ER63351)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface spectral reflectance (albedo) is a fundamental variable affecting the transfer of solar radiation and the Earth’s climate. It determines the proportion of solar energy absorbed by the surface and reflected back to the atmosphere. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified surface albedo among key factors influencing climate radiative forcing. Accurate knowledge of surface reflective properties is important for advancing weather forecasting and climate change impact studies. It is also important for determining radiative impact and acceptable levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which makes this work strongly linked to major scientific objectives of the Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Most significant accomplishments of eth project are listed below. I) Surface albedo/BRDF datasets from 1995 to the end of 2004 have been produced. They were made available to the ARM community and other interested users through the CCRS public ftp site ftp://ftp.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ad/CCRS_ARM/ and ARM IOP data archive under “PI data Trishchenko”. II) Surface albedo properties over the ARM SGP area have been described for 10-year period. Comparison with ECMWF data product showed some deficiencies in the ECMWF surface scheme, such as missing some seasonal variability and no dependence on sky-conditions which biases surface energy budget and has some influence of the diurnal cycle of upward radiation and atmospheric absorption. III) Four surface albedo Intensive Observation Period (IOP) Field Campaigns have been conducted for every season (August, 2002, May 2003, February 2004 and October 2004). Data have been prepared, documented and transferred to ARM IOP archive. Nine peer-reviewed journal papers and 26 conference papers have been published.

Alexander P. Trishchenko; Yi Luo; Konstantin V. Khlopenkov, William M. Park; Zhanqing Li; Maureen Cribb

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

87

Validation of GOES-Derived Surface Radiation Using NOAA's Physical Retrieval Method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was part of a multiyear collaboration with the University of Wisconsin and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to produce high-quality, satellite-based, solar resource datasets for the United States. High-quality, solar resource assessment accelerates technology deployment by making a positive impact on decision making and reducing uncertainty in investment decisions. Satellite-based solar resource datasets are used as a primary source in solar resource assessment. This is mainly because satellites provide larger areal coverage and longer periods of record than ground-based measurements. With the advent of newer satellites with increased information content and faster computers that can process increasingly higher data volumes, methods that were considered too computationally intensive are now feasible. One class of sophisticated methods for retrieving solar resource information from satellites is a two-step, physics-based method that computes cloud properties and uses the information in a radiative transfer model to compute solar radiation. This method has the advantage of adding additional information as satellites with newer channels come on board. This report evaluates the two-step method developed at NOAA and adapted for solar resource assessment for renewable energy with the goal of identifying areas that can be improved in the future.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Methods to Develop Energy Baselines for California's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and implement land use and transportation policies designed to reduce energy consumption and its negative Program, Transportation Research Office Phone: 9163271315 Email: dgallagh@energy.state.ca.us DrMethods to Develop Energy Baselines for California's Regions Transportation Energy Research PIER

89

Waste management project technical baseline description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

Sederburg, J.P.

1997-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

90

Electrochemistry Diagnostics of Baseline and New Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

9.35 mgcm 2 for treated 8.32 mgcm 2 for pristine 7.44 mgcm 2 for ABR baseline (SAFT) Cycling 4xC12 and 50xC3 (210 mAhg) * Evaluated electrochemical behavior of carbon...

91

Radiative transfer effects on Doppler measurements as sources of surface effects in sunspot seismology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the use of Doppler shifts of Zeeman sensitive spectral lines to observe wavesn in sunspots is subject to measurement specific phase shifts arising from, (i) altered height range of spectral line formation and the propagating character of p mode waves in penumbrae, and (ii) Zeeman broadening and splitting. We also show that these phase shifts depend on wave frequencies, strengths and line of sight inclination of magnetic field, and the polarization state used for Doppler measurements. We discuss how these phase shifts could contribute to local helioseismic measurements of 'surface effects' in sunspot seismology.

S. P. Rajaguru; K. Sankarasubramanian; R. Wachter; P. H. Scherrer

2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

92

Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

2003-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

93

Pomona Loop Baseline Performance Testing.PDF  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pomona Loop Baseline Performance Testing Summary Pomona Loop Baseline Performance Testing Summary The U.S. Department of Energy's Field Operations Program sponsors the Urban and Freeway Pomona Loop range testing in Southern California. The testing is performed by one of the Program's testing partners, Southern California Edison. The vehicles are tested on local city streets (Urban Loop) and four highways (Freeway Loop). The Urban Loop is 19.3 miles long, ranging in elevation from 900 to 1500 feet, with approximately 50 stop signs and traffic lights. The Freeway Loop is 37.2 miles long, ranging in elevation from 700 to 1150 feet, and consists of four connected freeways shaped like a rectangle. When a vehicle is Pomona Loop tested, eight range tests are performed, with four tests on the Urban Loop and four on the Freeway Loop. The range tests are performed

94

Baseline Microstructural Characterization of Outer 3013 Containers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three DOE Standard 3013 outer storage containers were examined to characterize the microstructure of the type 316L stainless steel material of construction. Two of the containers were closure-welded yielding production-quality outer 3013 containers; the third examined container was not closed. Optical metallography and Knoop microhardness measurements were performed to establish a baseline characterization that will support future destructive examinations of 3013 outer containers in the storage inventory. Metallography revealed the microstructural features typical of this austenitic stainless steel as it is formed and welded. The grains were equiaxed with evident annealing twins. Flow lines were prominent in the forming directions of the cylindrical body and flat lids and bottom caps. No adverse indications were seen. Microhardness values, although widely varying, were consistent with annealed austenitic stainless steel. The data gathered as part of this characterization will be used as a baseline for the destructive examination of 3013 containers removed from the storage inventory.

Zapp, Phillip E.; Dunn, Kerry A

2005-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

The Very Long Baseline ArrayThe Very Long Baseline Array Brought to you by the National Radio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Very Long Baseline ArrayThe Very Long Baseline Array Brought to you by the National Radio Los Alamos, NM Pie Town, NM Kitt Peak, AZ Owens Valley, CA Brewster, WA Mauna Kea, HI #12;· weighs 240 gravitational lenses #12;www.www.nraonrao..eduedu #12;The Very Long Baseline ArrayThe Very Long Baseline Array

Groppi, Christopher

96

Baseline review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Review of the U.S. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Accelerator project was conducted February 23--26, 1998, at the request of Dr. John R. O`Fallon, Director, Division of High Energy Physics, Office of Energy Research, U.S. DOE. This is the first review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project. Overall, the Committee found that the U.S. LHC Accelerator project effort is off to a good start and that the proposed scope is very conservative for the funding available. The Committee recommends that the project be initially baselined at a total cost of $110 million, with a scheduled completion data of 2005. The U.S. LHC Accelerator project will supply high technology superconducting magnets for the interaction regions (IRs) and the radio frequency (rf) straight section of the LHC intersecting storage rings. In addition, the project provides the cryogenic support interface boxes to service the magnets and radiation absorbers to protect the IR dipoles and the inner triplet quadrupoles. US scientists will provide support in analyzing some of the detailed aspects of accelerator physics in the two rings. The three laboratories participating in this project are Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Committee was very impressed by the technical capabilities of the US LHC Accelerator project team. Cost estimates for each subsystem of the US LHC Accelerator project were presented to the Review Committee, with a total cost including contingency of $110 million (then year dollars). The cost estimates were deemed to be conservative. A re-examination of the funding profile, costs, and schedules on a centralized project basis should lead to an increased list of deliverables. The Committee concluded that the proposed scope of US deliverables to CERN can be readily accomplished with the $110 million total cost baseline for the project. The current deliverables should serve as the baseline scope with the firm expectation that additional scope will be restored to the baseline as the project moves forward. The Committee supports the FY 1998 work plan and scope of deliverables but strongly recommends the reevaluation of costs and schedules with the goal of producing a plan for restoring the US deliverables to CERN. This plan should provide precise dates when scope decisions must be made.

NONE

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Evaluation of cloud fraction and its radiative effect simulated by IPCC AR4 global models against ARM surface observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cloud Fraction (CF) is the dominant modulator of radiative fluxes. In this study, we evaluate CF simulations in the IPCC AR4 GCMs against ARM ground measurements, with a focus on the vertical structure, total amount of cloud and its effect on cloud shortwave transmissivity, for both inter-model deviation and model-measurement discrepancy. Our intercomparisons of three CF or sky-cover related dataset reveal that the relative differences are usually less than 10% (5%) for multi-year monthly (annual) mean values, while daily differences are quite significant. The results also show that the model-observation and the inter-model deviations have a similar magnitude for the total CF (TCF) and the normalized cloud effect, and they are twice as large as the surface downward solar radiation and cloud transmissivity. This implies that the other cloud properties, such as cloud optical depth and height, have a similar magnitude of disparity to TCF among the GCMs, and suggests that a better agreement among the GCMs in solar radiative fluxes could be the result of compensating errors in either cloud vertical structure, cloud optical depth or cloud fraction. Similar deviation pattern between inter-model and model-measurement suggests that the climate models tend to generate larger bias against observations for those variables with larger inter-model deviation. The simulated TCF from IPCC AR4 GCMs are very scattered through all seasons over three ARM sites: Southern Great Plains (SGP), Manus, Papua New Guinea and North Slope of Alaska (NSA). The GCMs perform better at SGP than at Manus and NSA in simulating the seasonal variation and probability distribution of TCF; however, the TCF in these models is remarkably underpredicted and cloud transmissivity is less susceptible to the change of TCF than the observed at SGP. Much larger inter-model deviation and model bias are found over NSA than the other sites in estimating the TCF, cloud transmissivity and cloud-radiation interaction, suggesting that the Arctic region continues to challenge cloud simulations in climate models. Most of the GCMs tend to underpredict CF and fail to capture the seasonal variation of CF at middle and low levels in the tropics. The high altitude CF is much larger in the GCMs than the observation and the inter-model variability of CF also reaches maximum at high levels in the tropics. Most of the GCMs tend to underpredict CF by 50-150% relative to the measurement average at low and middle levels over SGP. While the GCMs generally capture the maximum CF in the boundary layer and vertical variability, the inter-model deviation is largest near surface over the Arctic. The internal variability of CF simulated in ensemble runs with the same model is very minimal.

Qian, Yun; Long, Charles N.; Wang, Hailong; Comstock, Jennifer M.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Xie, Shaocheng

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

98

Real-time, automated characterization of surfaces for alpha and beta radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new data collection system, called ABACUS{trademark}, has been developed that automates and expedites the collection, conversion, and reporting of radiological survey data of surfaces. Field testing of the system by Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Environmental Technology Section is currently underway. Preliminary results are presented. The system detects, discriminates, and separately displays the results for alpha and beta contamination scans on floors and walls with a single pass. Fixed-position static counting is also possible for quantitative measuring. The system is currently configured with five 100 cm{sup 2} dual-phosphor plastic scintillation detectors mounted in a lightweight aluminum fixture that holds the detectors in a fixed array. ABACUS{trademark} can be configured with other detectors if desired. Ratemeter/scalars traditionally coupled to individual detectors have been replaced by a single unit that houses the power supply and discriminator circuit boards to support up to five detectors. The system is designed to be used by a single operator. Each detector`s position and data are transmitted once per second and recorded on a nearby laptop computer. The data are converted to appropriate units, color-coded, and mapped to display graphically the findings for each detector in real-time. Reports can be generated immediately following the survey. Survey data can be exported in a variety of formats. Benefits of ABACUS{trademark} are: (1) immediate feedback to decision makers using the observational approach to characterization or remediation, (2) thorough documentation of survey results, (3) increased statistical confidence in scans by recording counts every second, (4) reduced paperwork and elimination of transcription errors, and (5) time and cost savings for collection, conversion, mapping, evaluating, and reporting data over traditional methods.

Egidi, P.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Environmental Technology Section; Flynn, C.R.; Blair, M.S.; Selfridge, R.J. [CHEMRAD Tennessee Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Baselines for Greenhouse Gas Reductions: Problems, Precedents, Solutions |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Baselines for Greenhouse Gas Reductions: Problems, Precedents, Solutions Baselines for Greenhouse Gas Reductions: Problems, Precedents, Solutions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Baselines for Greenhouse Gas Reductions: Problems, Precedents, Solutions Agency/Company /Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.p2pays.org/ref/22/21739.pdf References: Baselines for Greenhouse Gas Reductions: Problems, Precedents, Solutions[1] Summary "Rigor in baselines It's important to establish the right degree of rigor in baselining. Overly lax baselines will threaten the system's credibility and usefulness, and shift rents from high quality providers to low quality providers of offsets. Overly stringent baselines will discourage valid projects and

100

Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.unep.org/sbci/pdfs/ Country Mexico Central America References Greenhouse Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials for Buildings[1] Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Screenshot "This report represents the first comprehensive description of the factors that determine the present and future impacts of residential and commercial

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Statistical correlation between hourly and daily values of solar radiation on horizontal surface at sea level in the Italian climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

219- Statistical correlation between hourly and daily values of solar radiation on horizontal- nalières du rayonnement solaire. Abstract. 2014 The knowledge of hourly data of solar radiation is required data measured in Italian stations and propose a method to estimate hourly solar radiation

Boyer, Edmond

102

NETL - Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NETL - Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool NETL - Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool Agency/Company /Organization: National Energy Technology Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools Website: www.netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/refshelf/results.asp?ptype=Models/Too References: Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool [1] Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool The Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool illustrates key data from the Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity report. The tool provides an

103

California Baseline Energy Demands to 2050 for Advanced Energy Pathways  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ED2, September. CEC (2005b) Energy demand forecast methodsCalifornia Baseline Energy Demands to 2050 for Advancedof a baseline scenario for energy demand in California for a

McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Examining Uncertainty in Demand Response Baseline Models and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-5096E Examining Uncertainty in Demand Response Baseline Models and Variability in Automated of California. #12;Examining Uncertainty in Demand Response Baseline Models and Variability in Automated.e. dynamic prices). Using a regression-based baseline model, we define several Demand Response (DR

105

US Biofuels Baseline and impact of extending the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

June 2011 US Biofuels Baseline and impact of extending the $0.45 ethanol blenders baseline projections for agricultural and biofuel markets.1 That baseline assumed current biofuel policy for cellulosic biofuels was assumed to expire at the end of 2012. This report compares a slightly modified

Noble, James S.

106

RADIATIVE COOLING TEST FACILITY AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF 4 MIL ALUMINIZED POLYVINYL FLUORIDE AND WHITE PAINT SURFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as temperature, heater power, wind direction, etc. , thatcondensation) RCA 1026 (wind) c:: "7 = (power to heater) w (wind and windscreen condensation (white paint radiator). VARIOUS TEMPERATURES VS POWER

Kruskopf, Mark S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

NNSA to Conduct Aerial Radiation Assessment Survey over Joint...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

of naturally occurring radiation to establish baseline levels is a normal part of security and emergency preparedness. This assessment is not in response to an incident or...

108

The estimation of radiation doses in human organs due to natural and artificial radioactivity in surface waters of the Ebro river basin (Northeast Spain)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports the estimation of the radiation doses in the human body in the Ebro river basin (Northeast Spain), following drinking water ingestion by measuring 40K, 226Ra, 90Sr and 3H. The equivalent dose in ten different organs was estimated. Dose calculations were performed by means of the GENII computer program. The lowest equivalent dose calculated through ingesting drinking water was in the small intestine whereas the highest was in the bone surface.

Feda Oner; Nazmi T. Okumusoglu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Modeling of plasma-controlled evaporation and surface condensation of Al induced by 1.06 and 0.248 {mu}m laser radiations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase transition on the surface of an aluminum target and vapor plasma induced by laser irradiation in the nanosecond regime at the wavelengths of 1.06 {mu}m in the infrared range and 0.248 {mu}m in the ultraviolet range with an intensity of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2} in vacuum are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the wavelength dependence of the observed phenomena and the non-one-dimensional effects caused by the nonuniform (Gaussian) laser intensity distribution and the lateral expansion of the plasma plume. A transient two-dimensional model is used which includes conductive heat transfer in the condensed phase, radiative gas dynamics, and laser radiation transfer in the plasma as well as surface evaporation and back condensation at the phase interface. It was shown that distinctions in phase transition dynamics for the 1.06 and 0.248 {mu}m radiations result from essentially different characteristics of the laser-induced plasmas. For the 1.06 {mu}m radiation, evaporation stops after the formation of hot optically thick plasma, can occasionally resume at a later stage of the pulse, and proceeds nonuniformly in the spot area, and the major contribution to the mass removal occurs in the outer part of the irradiated region. Plasma induced by the 0.248 {mu}m laser is colder and partially transparent since it transmits 30%-70% of the incident radiation; therefore evaporation does not stop but continues in the subsonic regime with the Mach number of about 0.1. The amount of evaporated matter that condenses back to the surface is as high as 15%-20% and less than 10% for the 1.06 and 0.248 {mu}m radiations, respectively. For a beam radius smaller than {approx}100 {mu}m, the screening and retarding effect of the plasma weakens because of the lateral expansion, thickness of the removed layer increases, and condensation after the end of the pulse is not observed. Comparison of the numerical and experimental results on the removed layer thickness has shown, in particular, the importance of accounting for the plasma effect to predict the correct trends for radiation intensity and beam radius.

Mazhukin, V. I.; Nossov, V. V.; Smurov, I. [Institute of Mathematical Modeling of RAS, 4a Miusskaya Square, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Saint-Etienne, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

111

Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

114

The LBNO long-baseline oscillation sensitivities with two conventional neutrino beams at different baselines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) initially consists of $\\sim 20$ kton liquid double phase TPC complemented by a magnetised iron calorimeter, to be installed at the Pyh\\"asalmi mine, at a distance of 2300 km from CERN. The conventional neutrino beam is produced by 400 GeV protons accelerated at the SPS accelerator delivering 700 kW of power. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the $L/E$ behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from $\\delta_{CP}$ and matter. In this paper we show how this comprehensive physics case can be further enhanced and complemented if a neutrino beam produced at the Protvino IHEP accelerator complex, at a distance of 1160 km, and with modest power of 450 kW is aimed towards the same far detectors. We show that the coupling of two independent sub-MW conventional neutrino and antineutrino beams at different baselines from CERN and Protvino will allow to measure ...

:,; Agostino, L; Aittola, M; Alekou, A; Andrieu, B; Antoniou, F; Asfandiyarov, R; Autiero, D; Bésida, O; Balik, A; Ballett, P; Bandac, I; Banerjee, D; Bartmann, W; Bay, F; Biskup, B; Blebea-Apostu, A M; Blondel, A; Bogomilov, M; Bolognesi, S; Borriello, E; Brancus, I; Bravar, A; Buizza-Avanzini, M; Caiulo, D; Calin, M; Calviani, M; Campanelli, M; Cantini, C; Cata-Danil, G; Chakraborty, S; Charitonidis, N; Chaussard, L; Chesneanu, D; Chipesiu, F; Crivelli, P; Dawson, J; De Bonis, I; Declais, Y; Sanchez, P Del Amo; Delbart, A; Di Luise, S; Duchesneau, D; Dumarchez, J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Eliseev, A; Emery, S; Enqvist, T; Enqvist, K; Epprecht, L; Erykalov, A N; Esanu, T; Franco, D; Friend, M; Galymov, V; Gavrilov, G; Gendotti, A; Giganti, C; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Gomoiu, C M; Gornushkin, Y A; Gorodetzky, P; Haesler, A; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, S; Huitu, K; Izmaylov, A; Jipa, A; Kainulainen, K; Karadzhov, Y; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kopylov, A N; Korzenev, A; Kosyanenko, S; Kryn, D; Kudenko, Y; Kuusiniemi, P; Lazanu, I; Lazaridis, C; Levy, J -M; Loo, K; Maalampi, J; Margineanu, R M; Marteau, J; Martin-Mari, C; Matveev, V; Mazzucato, E; Mefodiev, A; Mineev, O; Mirizzi, A; Mitrica, B; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Narita, S; Nesterenko, D A; Nguyen, K; Nikolics, K; Noah, E; Novikov, Yu; Oprima, A; Osborne, J; Ovsyannikova, T; Papaphilippou, Y; Pascoli, S; Patzak, T; Pectu, M; Pennacchio, E; Periale, L; Pessard, H; Popov, B; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M; Resnati, F; Ristea, O; Robert, A; Rubbia, A; Rummukainen, K; Saftoiu, A; Sakashita, K; Sanchez-Galan, F; Sarkamo, J; Saviano, N; Scantamburlo, E; Sergiampietri, F; Sgalaberna, D; Shaposhnikova, E; Slupecki, M; Smargianaki, D; Stanca, D; Steerenberg, R; Sterian, A R; Sterian, P; Stoica, S; Strabel, C; Suhonen, J; Suvorov, V; Toma, G; Tonazzo, A; Trzaska, W H; Tsenov, R; Tuominen, K; Valram, M; Vankova-Kirilova, G; Vannucci, F; Vasseur, G; Velotti, F; Velten, P; Venturi, V; Viant, T; Vihonen, S; Vincke, H; Vorobyev, A; Weber, A; Wu, S; Yershov, N; Zambelli, L; Zito, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.unep.org/sbci/pdfs/ Country South Africa UN Region Southern Africa References South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings[1] South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Screenshot "This report aims to provide: a summary quantification of the influence of buildings on climate

116

1993 baseline solid waste management system description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory has prepared this report under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The report provides an integrated description of the system planned for managing Hanford`s solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic waste, and transuranic mixed waste. The primary purpose of this document is to illustrate a collective view of the key functions planned at the Hanford Site to handle existing waste inventories, as well as solid wastes that will be generated in the future. By viewing this system as a whole rather than as individual projects, key facility interactions and requirements are identified and a better understanding of the overall system may be gained. The system is described so as to form a basis for modeling the system at various levels of detail. Model results provide insight into issues such as facility capacity requirements, alternative system operating strategies, and impacts of system changes (ie., startup dates). This description of the planned Hanford solid waste processing system: defines a baseline system configuration; identifies the entering waste streams to be managed within the system; identifies basic system functions and waste flows; and highlights system constraints. This system description will evolve and be revised as issues are resolved, planning decisions are made, additional data are collected, and assumptions are tested and changed. Out of necessity, this document will also be revised and updated so that a documented system description, which reflects current system planning, is always available for use by engineers and managers. It does not provide any results generated from the many alternatives that will be modeled in the course of analyzing solid waste disposal options; such results will be provided in separate documents.

Armacost, L.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TOOL Name: UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas project activities AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Framework Convention on...

118

U.S. Department of Energy Performance Baseline Guide  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The guide supports DOE O 413.3A and identifies key performance baseline development processes and practices. Does not cancel other directives.

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

119

South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings AgencyCompany Organization...

120

Ethiopia-National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baseline Scenarios...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Website http:www.ens.dksitesens.dk Program Start 2011 Country Ethiopia Eastern Africa References National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baseline Scenarios: Learning from...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Spent Nuclear Fuel Project technical baseline document. Fiscal year 1995: Volume 1, Baseline description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a revision to WHC-SD-SNF-SD-002, and is issued to support the individual projects that make up the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project in the lower-tier functions, requirements, interfaces, and technical baseline items. It presents results of engineering analyses since Sept. 1994. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safety, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner that stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel, although other SNF is involved also.

Womack, J.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cramond, R. [TRW (United States); Paedon, R.J. [SAIC (United States)] [and others

1995-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

122

Michigan Tech University Keweenaw Research Center Ecological Baseline Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Michigan Tech University Keweenaw Research Center Ecological Baseline Report Lac La Belle Wetland;Michigan Tech University Keweenaw Research Center Ecological Baseline Report MDEQ Permit 06-31-0002-P 1 number 06-31-0002-P) to fill in 2.3 acres of wetland to expand a vehicle test course near the Michigan

123

An Adaptive Kalman Filter for Removing Baseline Wandering in ECG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Adaptive Kalman Filter for Removing Baseline Wandering in ECG Signals MA Mneimneh, EE Yaz, MT misleads ECG anno- tators from accurate identification of the ECG features. Previous work that deals with baseline wandering re- moval requires the identification of the QRS complex or other ECG features prior

Povinelli, Richard J.

124

Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE, SQUIRREL-I, and SQUIRREL-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation conducted during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended. Because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place, results may be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas project activities Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas project activities Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Sector: Climate, Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, - Landfill Gas Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: cdm.unfccc.int/public_inputs/meth/acm0001/index.html Cost: Free Language: English References: UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas project activities[1] This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. References

126

Brazil-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Brazil-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name Brazil-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Agency/Company /Organization Danish Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program Start 2011 Country Brazil South America References Denmark[1] Overview Progress and Outcomes Capacity building needs identified are lessons learned, challenges and gaps, including those that may be common between countries, and aspects of good practice for assumptions, methodologies and other aspects of baseline setting. References ↑ "Denmark" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Brazil-Danish_Government_Baseline_Workstream&oldid=699917"

127

Guidance for Developing Baseline and Annual Water Use | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Guidance for Developing Baseline and Annual Water Use Guidance for Developing Baseline and Annual Water Use Guidance for Developing Baseline and Annual Water Use Potable water use intensity is defined as annual potable water use divided by total gross square footage of facility space (gal/ft2). The facility gross square footage is the same value used for energy use intensity reduction goals. Executive Order (E.O.) 13423 requires Federal agencies to develop a potable water use intensity baseline for fiscal year (FY) 2007. Agencies must report total potable water consumption and gross facility square footage against that baseline. To avoid additional reporting requirements, E.O. 13423 does not require agencies to report square footage of irrigated turf or landscape. Potable water used for landscape irrigation must be reported in total potable water

128

Vietnam-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vietnam-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Vietnam-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Agency/Company /Organization Danish Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program Start 2011 Country Vietnam South-Eastern Asia References Denmark[1] Overview Progress and Outcomes Capacity building needs identified are lessons learned, challenges and gaps, including those that may be common between countries, and aspects of good practice for assumptions, methodologies and other aspects of baseline setting. References ↑ "Denmark" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Vietnam-Danish_Government_Baseline_Workstream&oldid=699935"

129

Chile-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chile-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Chile-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name Chile-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Agency/Company /Organization Danish Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program Start 2011 Country Chile South America References Denmark[1] Overview Progress and Outcomes Capacity building needs identified are lessons learned, challenges and gaps, including those that may be common between countries, and aspects of good practice for assumptions, methodologies and other aspects of baseline setting. References ↑ "Denmark" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Chile-Danish_Government_Baseline_Workstream&oldid=699919"

130

Kenya-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Kenya-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Agency/Company /Organization Danish Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program Start 2011 Country Kenya Eastern Africa References Denmark[1] Overview Progress and Outcomes Capacity building needs identified are lessons learned, challenges and gaps, including those that may be common between countries, and aspects of good practice for assumptions, methodologies and other aspects of baseline setting. References ↑ "Denmark" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Kenya-Danish_Government_Baseline_Workstream&oldid=699929"

131

South Africa-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Danish Government Baseline Workstream Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Agency/Company /Organization Danish Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program Start 2011 Country South Africa Southern Africa References Denmark[1] Overview Progress and Outcomes Capacity building needs identified are lessons learned, challenges and gaps, including those that may be common between countries, and aspects of good practice for assumptions, methodologies and other aspects of baseline setting. References ↑ "Denmark" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=South_Africa-Danish_Government_Baseline_Workstream&oldid=699933"

132

Thailand-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thailand-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Thailand-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name Thailand-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Agency/Company /Organization Danish Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program Start 2011 Country Thailand South-Eastern Asia References Denmark[1] Overview Progress and Outcomes Capacity building needs identified are lessons learned, challenges and gaps, including those that may be common between countries, and aspects of good practice for assumptions, methodologies and other aspects of baseline setting. References ↑ "Denmark" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Thailand-Danish_Government_Baseline_Workstream&oldid=699937

133

Mexico-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Mexico-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Agency/Company /Organization Danish Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program Start 2011 Country Mexico Central America References Denmark[1] Overview Progress and Outcomes Capacity building needs identified are lessons learned, challenges and gaps, including those that may be common between countries, and aspects of good practice for assumptions, methodologies and other aspects of baseline setting. References ↑ "Denmark" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Mexico-Danish_Government_Baseline_Workstream&oldid=699931

134

China-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China-Danish Government Baseline Workstream China-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Agency/Company /Organization Danish Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program Start 2011 Country China Eastern Asia References Denmark[1] Overview Progress and Outcomes Capacity building needs identified are lessons learned, challenges and gaps, including those that may be common between countries, and aspects of good practice for assumptions, methodologies and other aspects of baseline setting. References ↑ "Denmark" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=China-Danish_Government_Baseline_Workstream&oldid=699921"

135

India-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

India-Danish Government Baseline Workstream India-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name India-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Agency/Company /Organization Danish Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program Start 2011 Country India Southern Asia References Denmark[1] Overview Progress and Outcomes Capacity building needs identified are lessons learned, challenges and gaps, including those that may be common between countries, and aspects of good practice for assumptions, methodologies and other aspects of baseline setting. References ↑ "Denmark" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=India-Danish_Government_Baseline_Workstream&oldid=699927"

136

Genome Sequence of Radiation-Resistant Modestobacter marinus Strain BC501, a Representative Actinobacterium That Thrives on Calcareous Stone Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...be highly resistant to desiccation and to gamma- and high-energy UV radiations (3) compared to its close relative Blastococcus...contract AP2007-2008-14. Part of the work was done in the ambit of the project BIODESERT (European Community's Seventh Framework...

Philippe Normand; Jérôme Gury; Petar Pujic; Bessem Chouaia; Elena Crotti; Lorenzo Brusetti; Daniele Daffonchio; Benoit Vacherie; Valérie Barbe; Claudine Médigue; Alexandra Calteau; Faten Ghodhbane-Gtari; Imen Essoussi; Imen Nouioui; Ines Abbassi-Ghozzi; Maher Gtari

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pentek concrete scabbling system consists of the MOOSE{reg_sign} scabbler, the SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers, and VAC-PAC. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 3/8 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

A satellite view of the radiative impact of clouds on surface downward fluxes in the Tibetan Plateau  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using thirteen years of satellite observations for the Tibetan Plateau, we investigate and quantify the sensitivities (or partial derivatives) of daytime surface downward shortwave and longwave fluxes with respect to changes in cloud cover and ...

C. M. Naud; I. Rangwala; M. Xu; J. R. Miller

139

Impact of Hillslope-Scale Organization of Topography, Soil Moisture, Soil Temperature, and Vegetation on Modeling Surface Microwave Radiation Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microwave radiometry will emerge as an important tool for global remote sensing of near-surface soil moisture in the coming decade. In this modeling study, we find that hillslope-scale topography (tens of meters) influences ...

Flores, Alejandro N.

140

Information architecture. Volume 2, Part 1: Baseline analysis summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture, Volume 2, Baseline Analysis, is a collaborative and logical next-step effort in the processes required to produce a Departmentwide information architecture. The baseline analysis serves a diverse audience of program management and technical personnel and provides an organized way to examine the Department`s existing or de facto information architecture. A companion document to Volume 1, The Foundations, it furnishes the rationale for establishing a Departmentwide information architecture. This volume, consisting of the Baseline Analysis Summary (part 1), Baseline Analysis (part 2), and Reference Data (part 3), is of interest to readers who wish to understand how the Department`s current information architecture technologies are employed. The analysis identifies how and where current technologies support business areas, programs, sites, and corporate systems.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Establish Employee Commuting Behavior Baseline for Greenhouse Gas Profile |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Establish Employee Commuting Behavior Baseline for Greenhouse Gas Establish Employee Commuting Behavior Baseline for Greenhouse Gas Profile Establish Employee Commuting Behavior Baseline for Greenhouse Gas Profile October 7, 2013 - 1:49pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 For evaluating a greenhouse gas (GHG) profile, once employee commuting survey data are collected and priority worksites have been identified, the survey responses should be analyzed for each major worksite to establish a behavior baseline. Depending on the agency's size and where it places accountability for GHG commuting emissions reduction goals, it may be to most appropriate to have individual programs or operating units assess their own employee commute data. Exceptions should be made when programs share facilities. For example, at a headquarters office building, a single program may take

142

Baseline geochemistry of soil and bedrock Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff at MDA-P  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides baseline geochemistry for soils (including fill), and for bedrock within three specific areas that are planned for use in the remediation of Material Disposal Area P (MDA-P) at Technical Area 16 (TA-16). The baseline chemistry includes leachable element concentrations for both soils and bedrock and total element concentrations for all soil samples and for two selected bedrock samples. MDA-P operated from the early 1950s to 1984 as a landfill for rubble and debris generated by the burning of high explosives (HE) at the TA-16 Burning Ground, HE-contaminated equipment and material, barium nitrate sand, building materials, and trash. The aim of this report is to establish causes for recognizable chemical differences between the background and baseline data sets. In many cases, the authors conclude that recognizable differences represent natural enrichments. In other cases, differences are best attributed to analytical problems. But most importantly, the comparison of background and baseline geochemistry demonstrates significant contamination for several elements not only at the two remedial sites near the TA-16 Burning Ground, but also within the entire region of the background study. This contamination is highly localized very near to the surface in soil and fill, and probably also in bedrock; consequently, upper tolerance limits (UTLs) calculated as upper 95% confidence limits of the 95th percentile are of little value and thus are not provided. This report instead provides basic statistical summaries and graphical comparisons for background and baseline samples to guide strategies for remediation of the three sites to be used in the restoration of MDA-P.

Warren, R.G.; McDonald, E.V.; Ryti, R.T.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Understanding the Effect of Baseline Modeling Implementation Choices on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Understanding the Effect of Baseline Modeling Implementation Choices on Understanding the Effect of Baseline Modeling Implementation Choices on Analysis of Demand Response Performance Title Understanding the Effect of Baseline Modeling Implementation Choices on Analysis of Demand Response Performance Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-5560E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Addy, Nathan, Johanna L. Mathieu, Sila Kiliccote, and Duncan S. Callaway Conference Name ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition Conference Location Houston, TX Keywords market sectors, technologies Abstract Accurate evaluation of the performance of buildings participating in Demand Response (DR) programs is critical to the adoption and improvement of these programs. Typically, we calculate load sheds during DR events by comparing observed electric demand against counterfactual predictions made using statistical baseline models. Many baseline models exist and these models can produce different shed calculations. Moreover, modelers implementing the same baseline model can make different modeling implementation choices, which may affect shed estimates. In this work, using real data, we analyze the effect of different modeling implementation choices on shed predictions. We focused on five issues: weather data source, resolution of data, methods for determining when buildings are occupied, methods for aligning building data with temperature data, and methods for power outage filtering. Results indicate sensitivity to the weather data source and data filtration methods as well as an immediate potential for automation of methods to choose building occupied modes.

144

Phase Characteristics of the ALMA 3 km Baseline Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the phase characteristics study of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) long (up to 3 km) baseline, which is the longest baseline tested so far using ALMA. The data consist of long time-scale (10 - 20 minutes) measurements on a strong point source (i.e., bright quasar) at various frequency bands (bands 3, 6, and 7, which correspond to the frequencies of about 88 GHz, 232 GHz, and 336 GHz). Water vapor radiometer (WVR) phase correction works well even at long baselines, and the efficiency is better at higher PWV (>1 mm) condition, consistent with the past studies. We calculate the spatial structure function of phase fluctuation, and display that the phase fluctuation (i.e., rms phase) increases as a function of baseline length, and some data sets show turn-over around several hundred meters to 1 km and being almost constant at longer baselines. This is the first millimeter/submillimeter structure function at this long baseline length, and to show the turn-over of the structure fun...

Matsushita, Satoki; Kawabe, Ryohei; Fomalont, Ed; Barkats, Denis; Corder, Stuartt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

The CRAF/Cassini mission: Baseline plan and status  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mission spacecraft and power subsystem design considerations for the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF)/Cassini (Saturn Orbiter) Project encompass scientific/performance and environmental/safety considerations. Based on the previous experience with the Galileo and Voyager spacecraft a CRAF/Cassini baseline design has been proposed that seeks to optimize mission performance and reliability while achieving a level of environmental safety commensurate with previous RTG?powered missions. Concurrently in support of NASA’s satisfaction of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements alternative designs capable of mitigating any significant environmental impacts associated with the baseline design are being identified. A comparison of the baseline and alternative designs will be reported in a publicly available Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) scheduled for release in draft form this Spring. The baseline design supporting these impact determinations and alternative comparisons currently rely for CRAF on a Venus?Venus?Earth gravity assist trajectory to the comet Tempel 2 and for Cassini on a Venus?Earth?Jupiter gravity assist trajectory to Saturn. The spacecraft involved in this baseline make use of a common cylindrical core design comprised of virtually identical subsystems and of a host of certain mission?specific instruments. Due to the low solar intensity at the rendezvous distances associated with both missions and the past success associated with RTG use on deep space missions three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been selected as the baseline power source.

Reed E. Wilcox; Dougals S. Abraham; C. Perry Bankston; Sandra M. Dawson; John W. Klein; Philip C. Knocke; Paul D. Sutton

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Smart, passive sun facing surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position. 17 figs.

Hively, L.M.

1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

147

Smart, passive sun facing surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Radiation and Nanosciences  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home About Us Departments Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences > Radiation & Solid Interactions > Nanomaterials Sciences > Surface & Interface Sciences Semiconductor &...

149

Intensification of biodiesel production from waste goat tallow using infrared radiation: Process evaluation through response surface methodology and artificial neural network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract For the first time, an efficient simultaneous trans/esterification process for biodiesel synthesis from waste goat tallow with considerable free fatty acids (FFAs) content has been explored employing an infrared radiation assisted reactor (IRAR). The impacts of methanol to tallow molar ratio, IRAR temperature and H2SO4 concentration on goat tallow conversion were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions, 96.7% FFA conversion was achieved within 2.5 h at 59.93 wt.% H2SO4, 69.97 °C IRAR temperature and 31.88:1 methanol to tallow molar ratio. The experimental results were also modeled using artificial neural network (ANN) and marginal improvement in modeling efficiency was observed in comparison with RSM. The infrared radiation strategy could significantly accelerate the conversion process as demonstrated through a substantial reduction in reaction time compared to conventionally heated reactor while providing appreciably high biodiesel yield. Moreover, the in situ water removal using silica-gel adsorbent could also facilitate achieving higher FFA conversion to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Owing to the occurrence of simultaneous transesterification of triglycerides present in goat tallow, overall 98.5 wt.% FAME content was determined at optimal conditions in the product biodiesel which conformed to ASTM and EN biodiesel specifications.

R. Chakraborty; H. Sahu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Multi-baseline interferometric synthetic aperture radar applications and error analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, we deal primarily with the multi-baseline SAR configuration utilizing three satellites. Two applications of InSAR, multi-baseline height retrieval and multi-baseline compensation of CCD's slope biasing ...

Chua, Song Liang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Fermilab | Recovery Act | Long-baseline neutrino research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Long-baseline neutrino research Long-baseline neutrino research The proposed long-baseline neutrino project will place a particle detector at great depth underground to study neutrinos from an intense beam generated several states away. Researchers from six American laboratories and more than two dozen universities, most in the United States, have proposed plans to generate an intense beam of neutrinos at Fermilab and to place the detector in the Homestake Gold Mine near Lead, South Dakota. It would be the world's deepest underground laboratory, hosting experiments as deep as 8,000 feet underground. Neutrinos are the most abundant but perhaps least understood particles in our galaxy. Scientists hope to observe the neutrinos changing from one type to another as they travel. Studying a neutrino beam at two locations a

152

Develop baseline computational model for proactive welding stress  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Develop baseline computational model for proactive welding stress Develop baseline computational model for proactive welding stress management to suppress helium induced cracking during weld repair Develop baseline computational model for proactive welding stress management to suppress helium induced cracking during weld repair There are over 100 nuclear power plants operating in the U.S., which generate approximately 20% of the nation's electricity. These plants range from 15 to 40 years old. Extending the service lives of the current fleet of nuclear power plants beyond 60 years is imperative to allow for the environmentally-sustainable energy infrastructure being developed and matured. Welding repair of irradiated nuclear reactor materials (such as austenitic stainless steels) is especially challenging because of the

153

Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

154

Etalon-induced Baseline Drift And Correction In Atom Flux Sensors...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Etalon-induced Baseline Drift And Correction In Atom Flux Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Etalon-induced Baseline Drift And Correction In Atom Flux Sensors Based...

155

The Atacama Surface Solar Maximum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar radiation reaching the earth's surface is one of the major drivers of climate dynamics. By setting the surface energy balance, downwelling solar radiation indirectly heats the atmosphere and controls the hydrological cycle. Besides its critical ...

Roberto Rondanelli; Alejandra Molina; Mark Falvey

156

Evaluation of solar energy resources by establishing empirical models for diffuse solar radiation on tilted surface and analysis for optimum tilt angle for a prospective location in southern region of Sindh, Pakistan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Diffuse solar radiation data is very important and is required for solar energy system implementations. The main purpose of the present study is to evaluate solar energy resources by establishing diffuse solar radiation models and obtaining optimum tilt angle fora prospective location is southern region of Sindh, Pakistan. Due to the unavailability of measured diffuse solar radiation data, nine new models, based on available data from local agency and values obtain from existing models, to predict diffuse solar radiation on tilted surface has been established. The best model was chosen based on test results from statistical indicators. The optimum tilt angle for monthly, seasonally, half-yearly and yearly adjustment was determined. The optimum tilt angle varies from 0° in May, June and July to 49° in December. The yearly optimum tilt angle was found as 23°, which is close to latitude of investigated location (25°07?N). The monthly average total, beam and diffuse solar radiations were calculated for optimum and vertical tilted surfaces and were compared with those obtain for horizontal surfaces. The half-yearly adjustment of optimum tilt angle is recommended for the investigated location because very small difference in annual solar energy gains in comparison with monthly or seasonal adjustment. The total annual energy for completer year and for four seasons of the year was calculated and found that maximum total annual energy is obtained at optimum tilt angle.

Shahnawaz Farhan Khahro; Kavita Tabbassum; Shahnawaz Talpur; Mohammad Bux Alvi; Xiaozhong Liao; Lei Dong

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Technical Baseline Summary Description for the Tank Farm Contractor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a revision of the document titled above, summarizing the technical baseline of the Tank Farm Contractor. It is one of several documents prepared by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. to support the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at Hanford.

TEDESCHI, A.R.

2000-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

158

Historical forest baselines reveal potential for continued carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Historical forest baselines reveal potential for continued carbon sequestration Jeanine M-based studies suggest that land-use history is a more important driver of carbon sequestration in these systems agricultural lands are being promoted as important avenues for future carbon sequestration (8). But the degree

Mladenoff, David

159

A baseline characterization of trace elements in Texas soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A baseline survey of concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb, Ba, and Ni was performed for 100 soils from seven Land Resource Areas of Texas. Nearly 300 soil samples from the upper, middle, and lower depths of selected pedons were...

Frybarger, Mary Rita

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

160

Baseline Hydrologic Studies in the Lower Elwha River Prior to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

After the removal of two large, longstanding dams on the Elwha River, Washington, the additional loadChapter 4 4 Chapter Baseline Hydrologic Studies in the Lower Elwha River Prior to Dam Removal characteristics of the river and estuary before dam removal, several hydrologic data sets were collected

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

None

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

CALIFORNIA ENERGY Large HVAC Field and Baseline Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Large HVAC Field and Baseline Data Field Data Collection: Site Survey of the Integrated Design of Large Commercial HVAC Systems research project. The reports are a result of funding Design of Large Commercial HVAC Systems Integrated Design of Small Commercial HVAC Systems Integrated

163

Recent Results from Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We are moving into an era of precision measurements of neutrino mixing, and it is increasingly necessary to use a 3-flavor framework to describe the results. This paper will focus on recent results from long-baseline neutrino experiments, especially accelerator-based beams. Using $\

Alysia D. Marino

2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

164

Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SRC Process Area Design Baseline consists of six volumes. The first four were submitted to DOE on 9 September 1981. The fifth volume, summarizing the Category A Engineering Change Proposals (ECPs), was not submitted. The sixth volume, containing proprietary information on Kerr-McGee's Critical Solvent Deashing System, was forwarded to BRHG Synthetic Fuels, Inc. for custody, according to past instructions from DOE, and is available for perusal by authorized DOE representatives. DOE formally accepted the Design Baseline under ICRC Release ECP 4-1001, at the Project Configuration Control Board meeting in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on 5 November 1981. The documentation was then revised by Catalytic, Inc. to incorporate the Category B and C and Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals. Volumes I through V of the Revised Design Baseline, dated 22 October 1982, are nonproprietary and they were issued to the DOE via Engineering Change Notice (ECN) 4-1 on 23 February 1983. Volume VI again contains proprieary information on Kerr-McGee Critical Solvent Deashing System; it was issued to Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. Subsequently, updated process descriptions, utility summaries, and errata sheets were issued to the DOE and Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. on nonproprietary Engineering Change Notices 4-2 and 4-3 on 24 May 1983.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Seismic baseline and induction studies- Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Seismic baseline and induction studies- Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah and Raft River, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Seismic baseline and induction studies- Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah and Raft River, Idaho Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Local seismic networks were established at the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal area, utah and at Raft River geothermal area, Idaho to monitor the background seismicity prior to initiation of geothermal power production. The Raft River study area is currently seismically quiet down

166

GENERAL TECHNICAL BASELINE QUALIFICATION STANDARD SUGGESTED STUDY REFERENCES  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Baseline Qualification Standard Suggested Study References Baseline Qualification Standard Suggested Study References 2007 revision This list provides suggested study references for the technical competencies of the General Technical Base Qualification Standard (DOE STD 1146-2007). More comprehensive resources are available through the DOE Online Learning Center's training courses and the study guides available through the Federal Technical Capability Panel web site. The Uniform Resource Locaters for these sites are listed in the Standard. This list is arranged by Technical Competency, followed by the suggested reference source. Some competencies deal directly with DOE or Federal directives, and they are also the reference. In a few cases, the Study Guide is the only concise source, and appropriate sections are listed.

167

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vehicle Fleet and Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing James Francfort Idaho National Laboratory 2 Paper #2006-01-1267 Presentation Outline Background & goals Testing partners Baseline performance testing new HEVs Fleet testing (160k miles in 36 months) End-of-life testing (fuel economy & battery testing at 160k miles) WWW information location 3 Paper #2006-01-1267 Background Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) - part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Goal - provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and research and development programs Idaho National Laboratory manages these activities, and performs data analysis and reporting activities 4 Paper #2006-01-1267 Testing Partners Qualified Vehicle Testers hElectric Transportation Applications (lead)

168

Implementing wide baseline matching algorithms on a graphics processing unit.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wide baseline matching is the state of the art for object recognition and image registration problems in computer vision. Though effective, the computational expense of these algorithms limits their application to many real-world problems. The performance of wide baseline matching algorithms may be improved by using a graphical processing unit as a fast multithreaded co-processor. In this paper, we present an implementation of the difference of Gaussian feature extractor, based on the CUDA system of GPU programming developed by NVIDIA, and implemented on their hardware. For a 2000x2000 pixel image, the GPU-based method executes nearly thirteen times faster than a comparable CPU-based method, with no significant loss of accuracy.

Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Larson, Kurt W.; Gonzales, Antonio Ignacio; Myers, Daniel S.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Evaluation of very long baseline interferometry atmospheric modeling improvements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We determine the improvement in baseline length precision and accuracy using new atmospheric delay mapping functions and MTT by analyzing the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project research and development (R&D) experiments and the International Radio Interferometric Surveying (IRIS) A experiments. These mapping functions reduce baseline length scatter by about 20% below that using the CfA2.2 dry and Chao wet mapping functions. With the newer mapping functions, average station vertical scatter inferred from observed length precision (given by length repeatabilites) is 11.4 mm for the 1987-1990 monthly R&D series of experiments and 5.6 mm for the 3-week-long extended research and development experiment (ERDE) series. The inferred monthly R&D station vertical scatter is reduced by 2 mm or by 7 mm is a root-sum-square (rss) sense. Length repeatabilities are optimum when observations below a 7-8 deg elevation cutoff are removed from the geodetic solution. Analyses of IRIS-A data from 1984 through 1991 and the monthly R&D experiments both yielded a nonatmospheric unmodeled station vertical error or about 8 mm. In addition, analysis of the IRIS-A exeriments revealed systematic effects in the evolution of some baseline length measurements. The length rate of change has an apparent acceleration, and the length evolution has a quasi-annual signature. We show that the origin of these effects is unlikely to be related to atmospheric modeling errors. Rates of change of the transatlantic Westford-Wettzell and Richmond-Wettzell baseline lengths calculated from 1988 through 1991 agree with the NUVEL-1 plate motion model (Argus and Gordon, 1991) to within 1 mm/yr.

Macmillan, D.S.; Ma, C. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

RADIATION ALERT User Manual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not contaminate the Inspector by touching it to radioactive surfaces or materials. If contamination is suspected Environmental Area Monitoring 16 Checking for Surface Contamination 16 5 Maintenance 17 Calibration 17, and x-ray radiation. Its applications include: · Detecting and measuring surface contamination

Haller, Gary L.

172

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

173

Estimation of net radiation and surface heat fluxes using NOAA-7 satellite infrared data during fair-weather cloudy situations of Mesogers-84 experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Estimation of radiation during fair weather cloudy situations of the MESOGERS-84 experiment has been examined using micrometeorological observations and satellite data. Diurnal variation of cloudiness is empirica...

M. Zhong; A. Weill; O. Taconet

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Development of Baseline Monthly Utility Models for Fort Hood, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of Baseline Monthly Utility Models for Fort Hood, Texas' T.A. Reddy, N.F Saman, D.E. Claridge, J.S. Haberl , W.D. Turner Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University System College Station, TX and Alan Chalifoux Army Corps..., Texas" by N.F.Saman, T.A. Reddy, J.S.Haberl, DEClaridge and W.D.Turner prepared by Energy Systems Laboratory report ESL-TR-95110-01, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, October 1995. Fort Hood is a large...

Reddy, T. A.; Saman, N. F.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.; Chalifoux, A.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Development of Baseline Monthly Utility Models for Fort Hood, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of Baseline Monthly Utility Models for Fort Hood, Texas+ T.A. Reddy, N.F Saman, D.E. Claridge, J.S. Haberl, W.D. Tumer Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University System College Station, TX and Alan Chalifoux Army Corps... and development of metering plan and shopping types of energy modeling software- the Princeton list for Fort Hood, Texas" by N.F.Saman, TA Scorekeeping method (PRISM) and EModel- in Reddy, J.S.Haberl, D.E.Claridge and W.D.Turner prepared by Energy Systems...

Reddy, T. A.; Saman, N. F.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.; Chalifoux, A.

176

TWRS phase I privatization site environmental baseline and characterization plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a plan to characterize and develop an environmental baseline for the TWRS Phase I Privatization Site before construction begins. A site evaluation study selected the former Grout Disposal Area of the Grout Treatment Facility in the 200 East Area as the TWRS Phase I Demonstration Site. The site is generally clean and has not been used for previous activities other than the GTF. A DQO process was used to develop a Sampling and Analysis Plan that would allow comparison of site conditions during operations and after Phase I ends to the presently existing conditions and provide data for the development of a preoperational monitoring plan.

Shade, J.W.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Meter-baseline tests of sterile neutrinos at Daya Bay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore the sensitivity of an experiment at the Daya Bay site, with a point radioactive source and a few meter baseline, to neutrino oscillations involving one or more eV mass sterile neutrinos. We find that within a year, the entire 3+2 and 1+3+1 parameter space preferred by global fits can be excluded at the 3\\sigma level, and if an oscillation signal is found, the 3+1 and 3+2 scenarios can be distinguished from each other at more than the 3\\sigma level provided one of the sterile neutrinos is lighter than 0.5 eV.

Y. Gao; D. Marfatia

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

178

Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Utilities Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Utilities Guide explains how you can use the IBS utility programs to manage and manipulate various kinds of IBS data. These programs include utilities for creating, editing, and displaying maps and other data that are referenced to geographic location. The intended audience for this document are chiefly data managers but also system managers and some emergency management planners and analysts.

Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Williams, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, WA (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

PROSPECT - A Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment at Short Baselines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Current models of antineutrino production in nuclear reactors predict detection rates and spectra at odds with the existing body of direct reactor antineutrino measurements. High-resolution antineutrino detectors operated close to compact research reactor cores can produce new precision measurements useful in testing explanations for these observed discrepancies involving underlying nuclear or new physics. Absolute measurement of the 235U-produced antineutrino spectrum can provide additional constraints for evaluating the accuracy of current and future reactor models, while relative measurements of spectral distortion between differing baselines can be used to search for oscillations arising from the existence of eV-scale sterile neutrinos. Such a measurement can be performed in the United States at several highly-enriched uranium fueled research reactors using near-surface segmented liquid scintillator detectors. We describe here the conceptual design and physics potential of the PROSPECT experiment, a U.S.-based, multi-phase experiment with reactor-detector baselines of 7-20 meters capable of addressing these and other physics and detector development goals. Current R&D status and future plans for PROSPECT detector deployment and data-taking at the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be discussed.

J. Ashenfelter; A. B. Balantekin; H. R. Band; G. Barclay; C. Bass; N. S. Bowden; C. D. Bryan; J. J. Cherwinka; R. Chu; T. Classen; D. Davee; D. Dean; G. Deichert; M. Diwan; M. J. Dolinski; J. Dolph; D. A. Dwyer; Y. Efremenko; S. Fan; A. Galindo-Uribarri; K. Gilje; A. Glenn; M. Green; K. Han; S. Hans; K. M. Heeger; B. Heffron; L. Hu; P. Huber; D. E. Jaffe; Y. Kamyshkov; S. Kettell; C. Lane; T. J. Langford; B. R. Littlejohn; D. Martinez; R. D. McKeown; M. P. Mendenhall; S. Morrell; P. Mueller; H. P. Mumm; J. Napolitano; J. S. Nico; D. Norcini; D. Pushin; X. Qian; E. Romero; R. Rosero; B. S. Seilhan; R. Sharma; P. T. Surukuchi; S. J. Thompson; R. L. Varner; B. Viren; W. Wang; B. White; C. White; J. Wilhelmi; C. Williams; R. E. Williams; T. Wise; H. Yao; M. Yeh; N. Zaitseva; C. Zhang; X. Zhang

2015-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

180

Quotas for CFE Treaty declared site inspections for baseline validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CFE Treaty will provide for limits on NATO and WTO forces, particularly tanks, armored personnel carriers, artillery, and helicopters. In addition to the overall limits on TLEs in the ATTU zone, there are expected to be secondary limits on single country forces, limits on forces based in foreign nations, and geographic sublimits. To help validate WTO declarations of baseline forces, the treaty may provide for on-site inspections by NATO of declared WTO basing facilities. One important unresolved issue concerning baseline declared-site OSIs is the quota of such inspections allowed each country. This report presents a decision analysis and evaluation in support of recommendations for resolving this and related issues. It also indentifies key policy decisions that impact the determination of the number of declared-site OSIs. These decisions are: Desired probabilities of detecting a violation and of falsely accusing WTO; Trade-off between improved verification and the intrusiveness of additional OSIs; Force strength constituting a militarily significant violation; and Degree of coordination with and reliance on inspections by NATO allies. 10 figs.

Strait, R.S.; Sicherman, A.

1990-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

7 - Estimation of Radiation Doses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Radiation doses to the Japanese population from inhalation of contaminated air, external irradiation, terrestrial and marine food contamination are estimated and compared with other sources of anthropogenic (global fallout, Chernobyl accident), natural (radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation) and medical applications (X-ray tests, CT-tests, etc.) of ionizing radiation. The estimated doses from inhalation, ingestion of terrestrial and marine food, and radiation exposure from radioactive clouds and deposited radionuclides were generally below the levels which could cause health damage of the Japanese population, as well as of the world population. The estimated total radiation doses to fish and shellfish in coastal waters during the largest radionuclide releases were by a factor of 10 lower than the baseline safe level postulated for the marine organisms, therefore no harmful effects are expected for the marine ecosystem as well.

Pavel P. Povinec; Katsumi Hirose; Michio Aoyama

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Estimating baselines for CDM: case of eastern regional power grid in India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper estimates a multiproject baseline for the electricity generation sector in the eastern regional grid in India. Baselines have been estimated from units in power plants that were built in the recent ...

Joyashree Roy; Sarmistha Das; Jayant Sathaye…

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

4 ESS switch electromagnetic pulse assessment. Volume 1. Test-bed design installation, and baselining. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The content of this report is defined by paragraph 3/1 of the Statement of Work for contract DCA100-88-C-0027. This report documents Task 1 and 2, Test-Bed Design, Installation, and Baselining of the 4 ESS Switch Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Assessment Program. ATT has engineered an operational digital 4 ESS switch for the purpose of testing the susceptibility of 4 ESS switch systems to high-altitude EMP. The switch is installed in two specially designed trailers that are transparent to electro-magnetic radiation and is located in Colorado Springs, Colorado, where current-injection testing and further performance baselining is presently underway. Batteries, air conditioning, and spare parts are housed in two additional trailers. ATT Bell Laboratories has developed and implemented a test system for generating current pulses, monitoring the pulses, generating calls, and measuring switch performance. Digital traffic has been successfully generated and switched for three signaling systems: Multifrequency (MF); Common Channel Signaling System 7 (CCS7); and Q.931 (used on direct Integrated Services Digital Network connections). Due to problems in acquiring properly engineered signaling-translation software, however, the CCS7 and Q.931 signaling systems have not yet been implemented with a full complement of trunk assignments. Subsequent tasks will entail further baselining, provisioning of backup methods for the operating software, and current-injection testing of the switch.

Not Available

1989-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

184

ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of external surfaces by naturally occurring atomic oxygen. CCD detectors are particularly vulnerable to damage damage. A comprehensive discussion of the types of radiation damage known to occur in CCDs is beyond1 ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment Michael R. Jones Space Telescope Science

Sirianni, Marco

185

Techniques and Methods Used to Determine the Best Estimate of Radiation Fluxes at SGP Central Facility  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Techniques and Methods Used to Determine the Techniques and Methods Used to Determine the Best Estimate of Radiation Fluxes at SGP Central Facility Y. Shi and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Algorithm and Methodology The Best Estimate Flux value-added product (VAP) processes data started on March 22, 1997, when data from the three central facility (CF) radiometer systems, Solar Infrared Station (SIRS) E13, C1, and baseline surface radiation network (BSRN) (sgpsirs1duttE13.c1, sgpsirs1duttC1.c1, and sgpbsrn1duttC1.c1), were all available. In 2001, the diffuse shortwave (SW) instruments were switched to shaded black and white instruments, and the name BSRN was switched to broadband radiometer station (BRS). Before that time, this VAP uses corrected diffuse SW from the DiffCorr1Dutt VAP as

186

Laser-Ranging Long Baseline Differential Atom Interferometers for Space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High sensitivity differential atom interferometers are promising for precision measurements in science frontiers in space, including gravity field mapping for Earth science studies and gravitational wave detection. We propose a new configuration of twin atom interferometers connected by a laser ranging interferometer (LRI-AI) to provide precise information of the displacements between the two AI reference mirrors and a means to phase-lock the two independent interferometer lasers over long distances, thereby further enhancing the feasibility of long baseline differential atom interferometers. We show that a properly implemented LRI-AI can achieve equivalent functionality to the conventional differential atom interferometer measurement system. LRI-AI isolates the laser requirements for atom interferometers and for optical phase readout between distant locations, thus enabling optimized allocation of available laser power within a limited physical size and resource budget. A unique aspect of LRI-AI also enables...

Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Integrated Baseline Bystem (IBS) Version 1.03: Models guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Integrated Baseline System)(IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planning and analysis. This document is the models guide for the IBS and explains how to use the emergency related computer models. This document provides information for the experienced system user, and is the primary reference for the computer modeling software supplied with the system. It is designed for emergency managers and planners, and others familiar with the concepts of computer modeling. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other IBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Probing light sterile neutrinos in medium baseline reactor experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Medium-baseline reactor experiments (Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO) provide a unique opportunity to test the presence of light sterile neutrinos. We analyze the data of these experiments in the search of sterile neutrinos and also test the robustness of ?13 determination in the presence of sterile neutrinos. We show that existence of a light sterile neutrino state improves the fit to these data moderately. We also show that the measured value of ?13 by these experiments is reliable even in the presence of sterile neutrinos, and the reliability owes significantly to the Daya Bay and RENO data. From the combined analysis of the data of these experiments, we constrain the mixing of a sterile neutrino with ?m412?(10-3–10-1)??eV2 to sin?22?14?0.1 at 95% C.L.

Arman Esmaili; Ernesto Kemp; O. L. G. Peres; Zahra Tabrizi

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

190

Energy reconstruction in the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment aims at measuring fundamental physical parameters to high precision and exploring physics beyond the standard model. Nuclear targets introduce complications towards that aim. We investigate the uncertainties in the energy reconstruction, based on quasielastic scattering relations, due to nuclear effects. The reconstructed event distributions as a function of energy tend to be smeared out and shifted by several 100 MeV in their oscillatory structure if standard event selection is used. We show that a more restrictive experimental event selection offers the possibility to reach the accuracy needed for a determination of the mass ordering and the $CP$-violating phase. Quasielastic-based energy reconstruction could thus be a viable alternative to the calorimetric reconstruction also at higher energies.

Ulrich Mosel; Olga Lalakulich; Kai Gallmeister

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

191

Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

Catechis, Christopher Spyros

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago Low Plug Load Baseline | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago Low Plug Load Baseline General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago Low Plug Load Baseline Jump to: navigation, search Model Name General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago Low Plug Load Baseline Building Type Mercantile (Retail Other Than Mall) Model Type Baseline Model Target Type ASHRAE 90.1 2004 Model Year 2009 IDF file http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/models/Miami/2009_TSD_GeneralMerch_LPL_Baseline.idf XML file http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/models/Miami/2009_TSD_GeneralMerch_LPL_Baseline.xml City, State Chicago, IL Climate Zone Climate Zone 5A Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=General_Merchandise_2009_TSD_Chicago_Low_Plug_Load_Baseline&oldid=270182" Category: Building Models What links here Related changes Special pages

194

Alpha Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

195

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

196

Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL's GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions; (2) Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion (facility fuels), waste disposal (including fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill and contracted disposal), mobile combustion (fleet fuels), employee commuting, and business air travel; and (3) Sources with low emissions were wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted), fugitive emissions from refrigerants, and business ground travel (in personal and rental vehicles). This report details the methods behind quantifying INL's GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

Jennifer D. Morton

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Baseline risk assessment of the perched water system at the INEL test reactor area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A baseline health risk assessment (HRA) was prepared to evaluate potential risks to human health and the environment posed by the Perched Water System (PWS) at the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The PWS has been designated Operable Unit 2-12, one of the 13 operable units identified at TRA. During the period from 1962 to 1990, a total of 6770 million gal of water were discharged from the TRA to unlined surface ponds. Wastewater discharged to the surface ponds at TRA percolates downward through the surficial alluvium and the underlying basalt bedrock. A resulting shallow perched water zone has formed at the interface between the surficial sediments and the underlying basalt. Further downward movement of groundwater is again impeded by a low-permeability layer of silt, clay, and sand encountered at a depth of [approximately]150 ft. The deep perched water zone occurs on top of this low-permeability interbed. An evaluation was made as to whether potential risks for the PWS could justify implementing a remedial action. The risk evaluation consisted of two parts, the human health evaluation and the ecological evaluation.

Gordon, J.W.; Sinton, P.O. (Dames Moore, Denver, CO (United States)); Jensen, N. (DOE, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); McCormick, S. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Transuranic waste baseline inventory report. Revision No. 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (TWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties from across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system into a series of {open_quotes}waste profiles{close_quotes} that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The purpose of Revisions 0 and 1 of this report was to provide data to be included in the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) performance assessment (PA) processes for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revision 2 of the document expanded the original purpose and was also intended to support the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) requirement for providing the total DOE TRU waste inventory. The document included a chapter and an appendix that discussed the total DOE TRU waste inventory, including nondefense, commercial, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-contaminated, and buried (predominately pre-1970) TRU wastes that are not planned to be disposed of at WIPP.

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

A SURVEY OF ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH: A BASELINE FOR ASTRONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in ''astronomical development'' with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

Ribeiro, V. A. R. M. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Russo, P. [EU Universe Awareness, Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO 9513 Leiden, 2300 RA (Netherlands); Cárdenas-Avendaño, A., E-mail: vribeiro@ast.uct.ac.za, E-mail: russo@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 45 No 26-85, Edificio Gutierréz, Bogotá, DC (Colombia)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Baseline for beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Baseline measurements were made of the amount and weight of beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, June 2008–July 2010. On 23 surveys, 32,696 total debris objects (identifiable items and pieces) were collected; total weight was 740.4 kg. Seventy-two percent of the total was pieces; 91% of the pieces were made of plastic materials. Pieces were composed primarily of polyethylene and polypropylene. Identifiable items were 28% of the total; 88% of the identifiable items were in the fishing/aquaculture/shipping-related and beverage/household products-related categories. Identifiable items were lowest during April–August, while pieces were at their lowest during June–August. Sites facing the North Pacific Gyre received the most debris and proportionately more pieces. More debris tended to be found on Sand Island when the Subtropical Convergence Zone was closer to the Atoll. This information can be used for potential mitigation and to understand the impacts of large-scale events such as the 2011 Japanese tsunami.

Christine A. Ribic; Seba B. Sheavly; John Klavitter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal) baseline report: Greenbook (chapter)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Scientific Opportunities with the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this document, we describe the wealth of science opportunities and capabilities of LBNE, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment. LBNE has been developed to provide a unique and compelling program for the exploration of key questions at the forefront of particle physics. Chief among the discovery opportunities are observation of CP symmetry violation in neutrino mixing, resolution of the neutrino mass hierarchy, determination of maximal or near-maximal mixing in neutrinos, searches for nucleon decay signatures, and detailed studies of neutrino bursts from galactic supernovae. To fulfill these and other goals as a world-class facility, LBNE is conceived around four central components: (1) a new, intense wide-band neutrino source at Fermilab, (2) a fine-grained `near' neutrino detector just downstream of the source, (3) the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota at an optimal distance (~1300 km) from the neutrino source, and (4) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) deployed there as a 'far' detector. The facilities envisioned are expected to enable many other science opportunities due to the high event rates and excellent detector resolution from beam neutrinos in the near detector and atmospheric neutrinos in the far detector. This is a mature, well developed, world class experiment whose relevance, importance, and probability of unearthing critical and exciting physics has increased with time.

Adams, C.; et al.,

2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

204

Report of the US long baseline neutrino experiment study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report provides the results of an extensive and important study of the potential for a U.S. scientific program that will extend our knowledge of neutrino oscillations well beyond what can be anticipated from ongoing and planned experiments worldwide. The program examined here has the potential to provide the U.S. particle physics community with world leading experimental capability in this intensely interesting and active field of fundamental research. Furthermore, this capability could be unique compared to anywhere else in the world because of the available beam intensity and baseline distances. The present study was initially commissioned in April 2006 by top research officers of Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and, as the study evolved, it also provided responses to questions formulated and addressed to the study group by the Neutrino Scientific Advisory Committee (NuSAG) of the U.S. DOE and NSF. The participants in the study, its Charge and history, plus the study results and conclusions are provided in this report and its appendices. A summary of the conclusions is provided in the Executive Summary.

V. Barger; M. Bishai; D. Bogert; C. Bromberg; A. Curioni; M. Dierckxsens; M. Diwan; F. Dufour; D. Finley; B. T. Fleming; J. Gallardo; J. Heim; P. Huber; C. K. Jung; S. Kahn; E. Kearns; H. Kirk; T. Kirk; K. Lande; C. Laughton; W. Y. Lee; K. Lesko; C. Lewis; P. Litchfield; A. K. Mann; A. Marchionni; W. Marciano; D. Marfatia; A. D. Marino; M. Marshak; S. Menary; K. McDonald; M. Messier; W. Pariseau; Z. Parsa; S. Pordes; R. Potenza; R. Rameika; N. Saoulidou; N. Simos; R. Van Berg; B. Viren; K. Whisnant; R. Wilson; W. Winter; C. Yanagisawa; F. Yumiceva; E. D. Zimmerman; R. Zwaska

2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

205

Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

XXXXX Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software:2013 Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software:evaluating the building-level baseline modeling capabilities

Price, Phillip N

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Three-dimensional radiative properties of hot accretion flows on to the Galactic Centre black hole  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......discs|black hole physics|MHD|plasmas|radiative transfer...inefficient accretion flows modelled by MHD simulations. The synthetic images...baseline-correlated flux density diagram of the recent very-long-baseline...the first time that our 3-D MHD model with differing density......

Y. Kato; M. Umemura; K. Ohsuga

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

207

Removing Solar Radiative Effect from the VIIRS M12 Band at 3.7 ?m for Daytime Sea Surface Temperature Retrievals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Operational sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithms are stratified into nighttime and daytime. The nighttime algorithm uses two split-window Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) bands—M15 and M16, centered at ~11 and ~12 m, ...

Quanhua Liu; Alexander Ignatov; Fuzhong Weng; XingMing Liang

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Baseline Report for the Fort Hood Army Base: Sept. 1, 2001 To Aug. 31, 2002  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPORT, P. 1 December 2002 Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University PREFACE This report is the 2001/2002 baseline report for a multi-year Research Project performed for the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory... baseline analysis can be performed. 1 These data are from a separate contract to perform Continuous Commissioning for the Darnall Hospital. FT. HOOD BASELINE REPORT, P. 2 December 2002...

Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar, J. C.; Sung, Y. H.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.

209

Bounds on long-baseline ?¯e??¯e and ?(-)???(-)e transition probabilities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss long-baseline neutrino oscillations in the framework of the two 4-neutrino schemes which can accommodate all existing neutrino oscillation data. Negative results of short-baseline reactor and accelerator experiments allow us to obtain rather strong bounds on the long-baseline ?¯e??¯e and ?(-)???(-)e transition probabilities. We consider in detail matter effects and show that the vacuum bounds are not substantially modified. We also comment on corresponding bounds in 3-neutrino scenarios.

S. M. Bilenky; C. Giunti; W. Grimus

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in 1958. The paper described a three stage plan for a sustainable nuclear energy program consistent with India's limited uranium but abundant thorium natural resources. In the first stage, natural uranium would be used to fuel graphite or heavy water moderated reactors. Plutonium extracted from the spent fuel of these thermal reactors would drive fast reactors in the second stage that would contain thorium blankets for breeding uranium-233 (U-233). In the final stage, this U-233 would fuel thorium burning reactors that would breed and fission U-233 in situ. This three stage blueprint still reigns as the core of India's civil nuclear power program. India's progress in the development of nuclear power, however, has been impacted by its isolation from the international nuclear community for its development of nuclear weapons and consequent refusal to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). Initially, India was engaged in numerous cooperative research programs with foreign countries; for example, under the 'Atoms for Peace' program, India acquired the Cirus reactor, a 40 MWt research reactor from Canada moderated with heavy water from the United States. India was also actively engaged in negotiations for the NPT. But, on May 18, 1974, India conducted a 'peaceful nuclear explosion' at Pokharan using plutonium produced by the Cirus reactor, abruptly ending the era of international collaboration. India then refused to sign the NPT, which it viewed as discriminatory since it would be required to join as a non-nuclear weapons state. As a result of India's actions, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was created in 1975 to establish guidelines 'to apply to nuclear transfers for peaceful purposes to help ensure that such transfers would not be diverted to unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activities. These nuclear export controls have forced India to be largely self-sufficient in all nuclear-related technologies.

Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Griffiss AFB integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Electric baseline detail  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Air Force Air Combat Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, Griffiss AFB, an Air Combat Command facility located near Rome, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Electric Resource Assessment. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Griffiss AFB by building type and electric energy end use. A complete electric energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major electric energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Keller, J.M.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Special Issue On Estimation Of Baselines And Leakage In Carbon Mitigation Forestry Projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

change and forestry climate project regional baselines: Afarm forestry climate mitigation projects: Case studies fromat the project level in international agreements. Climate

Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

U.S. Baseline Briefing Book Projections for Agricultural and Biofuel Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. Baseline Briefing Book Projections for Agricultural and Biofuel, biofuel, government cost and farm income projections in this report were prepared by the team at FAPRIMU

Noble, James S.

214

Improving baseline forecasts in a 500-industry dynamic CGE model of the USA.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??MONASH-style CGE models have been used to generate baseline forecasts illustrating how an economy is likely to evolve through time. One application of such forecasts… (more)

Mavromatis, Peter George

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

LTC 1073 vacuum blasting (concrete) human factors assessment -- Baseline (summary)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high capacity, direct pressure blasting system incorporating a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast head. A vacuum system removes dust and debris from the surfaces as it is blasted. After cleaning the surface, the abrasive, together with the rust or coating that was removed from the surface, is vacuumed into the machine through the suction hose. The dust separator contains angled steel collision pads, working with the force of gravity, to allow any reusable abrasive to fall back into the pressure vessel. The filters are manually back flushed to prevent clogging. After back flushing, dust is dumped from the dust chamber into the dust collection bag or drum by operation of the bellows valve. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on dust and noise exposure. Dust exposure was found to be minimal, but noise exposure was potentially significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may cause the results to be inapplicable to indoor settings. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Spectrally selective surface coatings for energy efficiency and solar applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radiative properties of surfaces emittance transmittance reflectance and absorptance are considered as they relate to photothermal conversion of solar radiation. (AIP)

C. G. Granqvist

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

acute radiation rectal: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude. The net...

218

Si(001) vicinal surface oxidation in O2: Angle-resolved Si 2p core-level study using synchroton radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this work is to determine if, after oxidation in pure O2, a vicinal surface Si(001) miscut 5° towards the [110] direction, exhibits a preferential SiO2 formation on the [110] ledges. In a first stage, combining XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and LEED (low-energy electron diffraction) available in an auxiliary chamber, we examine the cleaning conditions leading to a non-faceted stepped Si surface with dominant (2 × 1) single domains. This surface preparation is reproduced in the synchroton facility chamber where ARPR-single-resolved photoemission spectroscopy) is performed: after cleaning the Si surface and studying the starting situation (san- states, initial contamination), an ultra-thin oxide film (? 1.5 × 1015 oxidised Si atoms/cm2) is grown at 785–800°C, under Torr of oxygen. The absence of anisotropy in the ARPES emission of the Si 2p core levels taken at the minimum electron escape depth (hv=130eV), points to no extra-growth of the oxide on the ledges. The in-depth distribution of the oxide states seems to be homogeneous, within the sensitivity of the probe. On the other hand, after partial thermal desorption of the ultra-thin oxide film in vacuum, a strong anisotropy in the emission of electrons from SiO2 is seen in areas where oxide patches coexist with bare silicon. It is shown that this ensues from a significant step bunching and (111) faceting of the surface. A correlation is made with SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images of the surface. The problem of step bunching, inasmuch as it can alter the interpretation of shadowing effects, is emphasized.

F. Rochet; H. Roulet; G. Dufour; S. Carniato; C. Guillot; N. Barrett; M. Froment

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Comparison of spaced-antenna baseline wind estimators: Theoretical and simulated results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of spaced-antenna baseline wind estimators: Theoretical and simulated results Richard J), Comparison of spaced-antenna baseline wind estimators: Theoretical and simulated results, Radio Sci., 39, RS November 2003; published 22 January 2004. [1] Formulas for the theoretical precision of cross-beam winds

Zhang, Guifu

220

FAPRI-MU Biofuel Baseline FAPRI-MU Report #02-13  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FAPRI-MU Biofuel Baseline March 2013 FAPRI-MU Report #02-13 Providing objective analysis for more of Education, Office of Civil Rights. #12;1 Executive Summary This report takes a closer look at the biofuels portion of the U.S. Agricultural and Biofuels Baseline released by the Food and Agricultural Policy

Noble, James S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

U.S. Biofuels Baseline and Impact of E-15 Expansion on Biofuel Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 2012 U.S. Biofuels Baseline and Impact of E-15 Expansion on Biofuel Markets FAPRI-MU Report #02 for agricultural and biofuel markets.1 That baseline assumes current biofuel policy, including provisions credit expired, as scheduled, at the end of 2011. The additional tax credit for cellulosic biofuel

Noble, James S.

222

NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE M. Gloeckler, A. Consequently specific baseline parameters for CIGS and CdTe are proposed. The modeling results important complications that are often found in experimental CIGS and CdTe solar cells. 1. INTRODUCTION

Sites, James R.

223

Reranking with Baseline System Scores and Ranks as Features Kristy Hollingshead and Brian Roark  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to repair these problems. Additional methods for deriv- ing score features from the output of baseline), the technique of "self-training" was used within the Charniak and Johnson (2005) parsing pipeline, whereby performance of the baseline Char- niak and Johnson (2005) parsing pipeline, a very im- pressive result

Roark, Brian

224

About Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, radon, and certain forms of potassium and carbon. The air we breathe contains radon, the food we eat contains uranium and thorium from the soil, and our bodies contain radioactive forms of potassium and carbon. Cosmic radiation from the sun also contributes to our natural radiation dose. We also receive radiation doses from man-made sources such as X-rays, nuclear medical procedures, power plants, smoke detectors and older television sets. Some people, such as nuclear plant operators, flight crews, and nuclear medicine staff may also receive an occupational radiation dose.

225

Radiation Incident on Tilted Collectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For solar energy system design purposes, observations of solar radiation on a horizontal surface must be converted to values on a tilted energy collector. An empirical conversion relationship, introduced by Liu and Jordan (1960) and based on ...

P. J. Robinson

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Validation of Surface Retrieved Cloud Optical Properties with in situ Measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) South Great Plains Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface inferred cloud optical properties from a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer have been validated against the in situ measurements during the second ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE II) field campaign at the ARM South Great Plains (SGP) site. On the basis of eight effective radius profiles measured by the in situ Forward Spectra Scattering Probe (FSSP), our retrieved cloud effective radii for single-layer warm water clouds agree well with in situ measurements, within 5.5%. The sensitivity study also illustrates that for this case a 13% uncertainty in observed liquid water path (LWP, 20 g/m2) results in 1.5% difference in retrieved cloud optical depth and 12.7% difference in referred cloud effective radius, on average. The uncertainty of the LWP measured by the microwave radiometer (MWR) is the major contributor to the uncertainty of retrieved cloud effective radius. Further, we conclude that the uncertainty of our inferred cloud optical properties is better than 5% for warm water clouds based on a surface closure study, in which cloud optical properties inferred from narrowband irradiances are applied to a shortwave model and the modeled broadband fluxes are compared to a surface pyranometer.

Min, Qilong; Duan, M.; Marchand, Roger T.

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

227

LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report; Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LTC coating removal system consists of several hand tools such as a Roto Peen scaler and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The PTC-6 is a vacuum system designed to be used with surface decontamination equipment. Dust and debris are captured by a high efficiency particulate filter (HEPA) vacuum system that deposits the waste directly into an on-board 23-gallon waste drum. The PTC-6 utilizes compressed air delivered from a source via an air hose connected to the air inlet to drive the hand held power tools. The control panel regulated the air pressure delivered to the tool. A separate compressed air flow powers the vacuum generator. The vacuum hoses connect the power tools to the dust chamber, returning paint chips and dust from the surface. A third compressed air flow is used to clean filters by pulsing air through a pipe with slots. The blasts of air shake dust and debris from the filter fabric.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Concrete Cleaning, Inc. centrifugal shot blaster: Baseline report; Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The centrifugal shot blaster is an electronically operated shot-blast machine that removes layer of concrete of varying depths. Hardened steel shot propelled at a high rate of speed abrades the surface of the concrete. The depth of material removed is determined by the rate of speed the machine is traveling and the volume of shot being fired into the blast chamber. The steel shot is reused until it is pulverized to dust, which is deposited in the waste container with the concrete being removed. Debris is continually vacuumed by a large dust collection system attached to the shot blaster. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

229

Radiation effects on humans  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on radiation. I need the effects on humans, the damage it causes to the environment, and any extra information you might have on the subject. Thank you for your time. Replies: Your library should be a good place to start, but first you need to narrow your question a bit. "Radiation" means radio waves, heat, light (including the ultraviolet light that causes suntan and sunburn), and what's called "ionizing radiation." By far the major source of the first three is the Sun, while the last I believe comes principally from cosmic rays and various naturally radioactive elements like uranium and radon. The most significant manmade sources of exposure would --- I think --- be household wiring and appliances (radio), engines and heating devices (heat), lamps (light), and X-ray machines, flying at high altitude in airplanes, and living in well-insulated homes built over radon sources (ionizing radiation). Heat, light and ionizing radiation play vital roles in the ecology of the Earth. Radio, light (in particular "tanning" ultraviolet), and ionizing radiation have all been widely assumed at different times to be particularly good or particularly bad for human health. Some recent issues of public concern have been the effect of radio waves from electric transmission lines, the effect on skin cancer incidence from tanning and sunburns, the depletion of the ultraviolet-light-produced ozone in the upper atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), "global warming" from the increased absorption of heat radiation from the surface by atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, and the effect of a long exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation as for example the people of Eastern Europe are experiencing from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

230

Baselines for Greenhouse Gas Reductions: Problems, Precedents, Solutions.” Paper prepared for the Carbon Offsets Unit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acknowledgements: Much of section 7 on lessons from demand-side-management is based on a background paper by Daniel Violette and Shannon Ragland of Hagler-Bailly Consulting. The discussion of the US emissions reductions credits draws on a background paper by Byron Swift of the Environmental Law Institute. The menu-choice method for baseline revelation was proposed in background material by Tracy Lewis. I am grateful to Johannes Heister and Charles Feinstein for helpful discussions and comments. However, all interpretations, conclusions, and errors are mine. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the author. They do not necessarily represent the view of the World Bank, its Executive Directors, or the countries they represent. SUMMARY Rigor in baselines It's important to establish the right degree of rigor in baselining. Overly lax baselines will threaten the system's credibility and usefulness, and shift rents from high quality providers to low quality providers of offsets. Overly stringent baselines will discourage valid projects and drive up project costs. The only 'magic bullet ' for baselining is to set up a national or sectoral baseline, and define offsets

Kenneth M. Chomitz

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Danger radiations  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

None

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

232

SRC-1: coal liquefaction demonstration plant. Project Baseline assessment report supplement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ICRC issued a Revised Baseline for the SRC-I Demonstration Project in order to incorporate the results of these research activities and the changes in the design that had occurred since FY82. The Revised Baseline, prepared by ICRC, provides the necessary information for any future government or commercial decisions relating to the design, construction and operation of an SRC-I-type coal liquefaction facility. No further activities to complete the design of the demonstration plant, or to proceed with construction are planned by DOE. The Project Baseline is an ICRC-documented reference for controlling any future project work and cost. The original Baseline was issued in March 1982; this summary document is available from National Technical Information Service (NTIS) as document number DOE/ORO/030540-T13. The Revised Baseline (dated April 1984) is available as document numbers DOE/OR/03054-T14 and T16. Supporting documentation, in the main concerned with research activities undertaken in support of the design, is also available from NTIS as DOE/OR/03054-T1 through T10 and DOE/OR/03054-1 through 125. The Baseline itself is made up of a documented design configuration, a documented estimate, in First Quarter Fiscal Year 1982 Dollars (1QFY82$), and a detailed schedule of the activities required to complete the project as of 3QFY82. The Baseline design is embodied in the 26 process design packages and other support documentation identified in the Baseline, as well as preliminary engineering flow diagrams prepared for all of the major process areas of the plant. All elements of the Project Baseline were developed within the constraints of the project criteria.

Not Available

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

ABB SCADA/EMS System INEEL Baseline Summary Test Report (November 2004) |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SCADA/EMS System INEEL Baseline Summary Test Report (November SCADA/EMS System INEEL Baseline Summary Test Report (November 2004) ABB SCADA/EMS System INEEL Baseline Summary Test Report (November 2004) This document covers the security evaluation of the "baseline" or "as delivered" system performed in the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) SCADA test bed as part of the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Development Program, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy; Office of Energy Assurance (DOE/OEA). This report is a nonproprietary version of the report sent to ABB that identified specific issues related to the security vulnerabilities in the ABB SCADA/EMS system. Work was performed by specialists in the fields of control system development, networking, software engineering, and cybersecurity. This

234

Report to Estates and Buildings, University of Edinburgh Biodiversity Baseline Review and Preliminary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Report to Estates and Buildings, University of Edinburgh Biodiversity Baseline Review Pollock Halls Biodiversity Audit 2 Acknowledgements John Turpin, Landscape Maintenance Officer, University Biodiversity Audit 3 Summary Rationale The information in this report is the first stage in the development

235

2008 CHP Baseline Assessment and Action Plan for the California Market  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Report providing an updated baseline assessment and action plan for combined heat and power (CHP) in California and to identify the hurdles that prevent the expanded use of CHP system

236

Stiffness-Mass Ratios Method for a baseline determination and damage assessment of a benchmark structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Superior de Ingenieria y Arquitectura Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Luciana Barroso A new method based on ratios between stiffness and mass values from the eigenvalue problem is introduced and applied to the benchmark suucture to obtain baseline modal...

Rocha, Ramses Rodriguez

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Baseline and Projected Future Carbon Storage and Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes in Ecosystems of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- covered foothills in the background. (Photograph by Benjamin M. Sleeter.) #12;Baseline and Projected LaPoint, Patrick Miles, Ronald Piva, Jeffery Turner, and Brad Smith of the USDA Forest Service

Fleskes, Joe

238

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 1. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides baseline inventories of transuranic wastes for the WIPP facility. Information on waste forms, forecasting of future inventories, and waste stream originators is also provided. A diskette is provided which contains the inventory database.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Baseline conditions for orifice meter calibration, Topical report, February 1990-July 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study analyzes nominal 102 mm (4') baseline orifice discharge coefficient, data for Beta ratios between 0.2 and 0.75 from several independent laboratories in the United States and Europe. Graphs of Cd vs. Reynolds number are presented for each data set, and each data set was analyzed to determine the statistical mean deviation and standard deviation from the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) Report No. 3 orifice coefficient equation. Baseline orifice Cd data taken in the Gas Research Institute Metering Research Facility (MRF) flowing nitrogen agree well with comparable high accuracy baseline data from the other laboratories. For Beta ratio values between 0.2 and 0.67, the mean deviation of MRF baseline data from the A.G.A. Report No. 3 orifice equation ranges from 0.05% to 0.20%. Vertical and horizontal profiles of mean axial velocity and axial turbulence intensity were measured in the MRF under typical baseline flow conditions for meter run lengths of 45 D and 100 D. The baseline profiles of mean axial velocity satisfy the International Standards Organization (ISO) 5167 requirement of less than + or - 5% variation from a fully developed, turbulent flow velocity profile.

Morrow, T.B.; Park, J.T.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Baseline correction of high resolution spectral profile data based on exponential smoothing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Extraction of qualitative and quantitative information from large amounts of analytical signals is difficult with drifted baselines, especially in multivariate analysis. Baseline drift obscures, “fuzzy” signals, and even deteriorates analytical results. In order to obtain accurate and clear results, some effective methods should be proposed and implemented to perform baseline correction before further data analysis. However, most of the classic methods require user's intervention or are prone to variability, especially with low signal-to-noise signals in large data. In this study, a novel baseline correction algorithm based on two-side exponential smoothing algorithm and iterative fitting strategy is proposed. In addition, the iteratively smoothing strategies were creatively implemented in progressively smoothing the residuals between fitted baseline and original signals. This method, named Automatic Two-side Exponential Baseline correction algorithm (ATEB), does hardly require user intervention and prior information, such as peak detection. It's worth noting that the innovative ATEB algorithm has some obvious advantages, especially, when it comes to the processing speed and corrected accuracy of high resolution spectral data with large scale dataset. After a series of benchmarks with high resolution spectral datasets and comparisons with several other popular methods, using various kinds of analytical signals (including hepatocellular carcinoma, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, coronary heart disease serum, NMR spectrum and GC–TOF-MS data), the proposed method is found to be accurate, fast, flexible and easy to use on real datasets.

Xinbo Liu; Zhimin Zhang; Yizeng Liang; Pedro F.M. Sousa; Yonghuan Yun; Ling Yu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Statistical Analysis of Baseline Load Models for Non-Residential Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Policymakers are encouraging the development of standardized and consistent methods to quantify the electric load impacts of demand response programs. For load impacts, an essential part of the analysis is the estimation of the baseline load profile. In this paper, we present a statistical evaluation of the performance of several different models used to calculate baselines for commercial buildings participating in a demand response program in California. In our approach, we use the model to estimate baseline loads for a large set of proxy event days for which the actual load data are also available. Measures of the accuracy and bias of different models, the importance of weather effects, and the effect of applying morning adjustment factors (which use data from the day of the event to adjust the estimated baseline) are presented. Our results suggest that (1) the accuracy of baseline load models can be improved substantially by applying a morning adjustment, (2) the characterization of building loads by variability and weather sensitivity is a useful indicator of which types of baseline models will perform well, and (3) models that incorporate temperature either improve the accuracy of the model fit or do not change it.

Coughlin, Katie; Piette, Mary Ann; Goldman, Charles; Kiliccote, Sila

2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

242

BWR radiation control: plant demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first year's progress is presented for a four-year program intended to implement and evaluate BRAC radiation reduction operational guidelines at the Vermont Yankee BWR and to document the results in sufficient detail to provide guidance to other BWR owners. Past operational, chemistry and radiation level data have been reviewed to provide a historical base of reference. Extensive sampling and chemistry monitoring systems have been installed to evaluate plant chemistry status and the effects of program implemented changes. Radiation surveys and piping gamma scans are being performed at targeted locations to quantify radiation level trends and to identify and quantify piping isotopics. Contact radiation levels on the recirculation line at Vermont Yankee have been increasing at a rate of 175 mR/h-EFPY since 1978. A materials survey of feedwater and reactor components in contact with the process liquid has been performed to identify sources of corrosion product release, particularly cobalt and nickel. A feedwater oxygen injection system has been installed to evaluate the effects of oxygen control on feedwater materials corrosion product releases. A baseline performance evaluation of the condensate treatment and reactor water cleanup systems has been completed. Data on organics and ionics at Vermont Yankee have been obtained. A methodology of BWR feedwater system layup during extended outages was developed, and an evaluation performed of layup and startup practices utilized at Vermont Yankee during the fall 1980 and 1981 refueling outages.

Palino, G.F.; Hobart, R.L.; Wall, P.S.; Sawochka, S.G.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Plasma Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... JUST over ten years ago the first book on plasma physics as a subject in its own right appeared; in a gradually swelling stream ... been surprisingly few monographs. One topic which has had scant coverage in any form is plasma radiation (except for spectral-line radiation which has been dealt with very fully in ...

T. J. M. BOYD

1967-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

National Nuclear Security Administration Service Center Environmental Programs Long-Term Environmental Stewardship Baseline Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As environmental restoration (ER) projects move toward completion, the planning, integration, and documentation of long-term environmental stewardship (LTES) activities is increasingly important for ensuring smooth transition to LTES. The Long-Term Environmental Stewardship Baseline Handbook (Handbook) prepared by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Service Center Environmental Programs Department (EPD) outlines approaches for integrating site-specific LTES planning and implementation into site ER baseline documentation. Since LTES will vary greatly from site to site, the Handbook also provides for flexibility in addressing LTES in ER Project life-cycle baselines, while clearly identifying Environmental Management (EM) requirements. It provides suggestions for enacting LTES principles and objectives through operational activities described in site-specific LTES plans and life cycle ER Project baseline scope, cost, and schedule documentation and tools for more thorough planning, better quantification, broader understanding of risk and risk management factors, and more comprehensive documentation. LTES planning applied to baselines in a phased approach will facilitate seamlessly integrating LTES into site operational activities, thereby minimizing the use of resources.

Griswold, D. D.; Rohde, K.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

246

Tumor Tracking Method Based on a Deformable 4D CT Breathing Motion Model Driven by an External Surface Surrogate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To develop a tumor tracking method based on a surrogate-driven motion model, which provides noninvasive dynamic localization of extracranial targets for the compensation of respiration-induced intrafraction motion in high-precision radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The proposed approach is based on a patient-specific breathing motion model, derived a priori from 4-dimensional planning computed tomography (CT) images. Model parameters (respiratory baseline, amplitude, and phase) are retrieved and updated at each treatment fraction according to in-room radiography acquisition and optical surface imaging. The baseline parameter is adapted to the interfraction variations obtained from the daily cone beam (CB) CT scan. The respiratory amplitude and phase are extracted from an external breathing surrogate, estimated from the displacement of the patient thoracoabdominal surface, acquired with a noninvasive surface imaging device. The developed method was tested on a database of 7 lung cancer patients, including the synchronized information on internal and external respiratory motion during a CBCT scan. Results: About 30 seconds of simultaneous acquisition of CBCT and optical surface images were analyzed for each patient. The tumor trajectories identified in CBCT projections were used as reference and compared with the target trajectories estimated from surface displacement with the a priori motion model. The resulting absolute differences between the reference and estimated tumor motion along the 2 image dimensions ranged between 0.7 and 2.4 mm; the measured phase shifts did not exceed 7% of the breathing cycle length. Conclusions: We investigated a tumor tracking method that integrates breathing motion information provided by the 4-dimensional planning CT with surface imaging at the time of treatment, representing an alternative approach to point-based external–internal correlation models. Although an in-room radiograph-based assessment of the reliability of the motion model is envisaged, the developed technique does not involve the estimation and continuous update of correlation parameters, thus requiring a less intense use of invasive imaging.

Fassi, Aurora, E-mail: aurora.fassi@mail.polimi.it [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Schaerer, Joël; Fernandes, Mathieu [CREATIS, CNRS UMR 5220, INSERM U1044, Université Lyon 1, INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); Riboldi, Marco [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit, CNAO Foundation, Pavia (Italy); Sarrut, David [CREATIS, CNRS UMR 5220, INSERM U1044, Université Lyon 1, INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); Baroni, Guido [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit, CNAO Foundation, Pavia (Italy)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Geothermal Analysis Project Description In pursuit of the goal of reducing EGS costs, this project will facilitate the following: - A clear understanding of the current cost structure - Its dependence on markets - The benefits of innovation - The impact of synergistic process configurations, and - Widespread dissemination of the findings for use by the geothermal community

248

The DOE Hydrogen Baseline Survey: Assessing Knowledge and Opinions about Hydrogen Technology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Baseline Survey: Hydrogen Baseline Survey: Assessing Knowledge and Opinions about Hydrogen Technology Christy Cooper U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program Overview Purpose: To learn what people know and don't know about the hydrogen economy and hydrogen technologies. The data will - Guide education program development and activities Provide a quantifiable baseline from which to measure changes in knowledge of and opinions about hydrogen technologies over time Target Audiences: General Public Students State and Local Government Officials Potential Large-Scale End Users *Target audience categories were selected based on input from the Hydrogen Education kick-off workshop held December 2002 and the National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Overview Project Team ORNL → Tykey Truett, PI

249

Measuring CP violation and mass ordering in joint long baseline experiments with superbeams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose to measure the CP phase ?CP, the magnitude of the neutrino mixing matrix element |Ue3| and the sign of the atmospheric scale mass-squared difference ?m312 with a superbeam by the joint analysis of two different long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. One is a long baseline experiment (LBL) at 300 km and the other is a very long baseline (VLBL) experiment at 2100 km. We take the neutrino source to be the approved high intensity proton synchrotron, HIPA. The neutrino beam for the LBL is the 2-degree off-axis superbeam, and for the VLBL a narrowband superbeam. Taking into account all possible errors, we evaluate the event rates required and the sensitivities that can be attained for the determination of ?CP and the sign of ?m312. We arrive at a representative scenario for a reasonably precise probe of this part of neutrino physics.

K. Whisnant; Jin Min Yang; Bing-Lin Young

2003-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

250

The Fundamental Multi-Baseline Mode-Mixing Foreground in 21 cm EoR Observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary challenge for experiments measuring the neutral hydrogen power spectrum from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) are mode-mixing effects where foregrounds from very bright astrophysical sources interact with the instrument to contaminate the EoR signal. In this paper we identify a new type of mode-mixing that occurs when measurements from non-identical baselines are combined for increased power spectrum sensitivity. This multi-baseline effect dominates the mode-mixing power and can contaminate the EoR window, an area in Fourier space previously identified to be relatively free of foreground power. Multi-baseline mode-mixing introduces characteristic shapes into the three dimensional Fourier space that are determined by the instrumental configuration and we develop an iterative approach to identifying and removing mode-mixed power based on these instrumental shapes.

Hazelton, Bryna J; Sullivan, Ian S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Solid state radiative heat pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

Berdahl, P.H.

1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

252

Development and Use of Baseline Monthly Utility Models for Eight Army Installations Around the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.14. Percentage change in annual energy use per conditioned area with respect to baseline year (FY86) for Fort Hood. Negative change indicates decrease in energy use and vice versa. 95% confidence intervals for the percentage change are also shown 89 Figure 7.15....14. Percentage change in annual energy use per conditioned area with respect to baseline year (FY86) for Fort Hood. Negative change indicates decrease in energy use and vice versa. 95% confidence intervals for the percentage change are also shown 89 Figure 7.15...

Reddy, T. A.; Saman, N. F.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Baselines For Land-Use Change In The Tropics: Application ToAvoided Deforestation Projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although forest conservation activities particularly in thetropics offer significant potential for mitigating carbon emissions,these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena causedby the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle,particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has twomain components: the projected land-use change and the correspondingcarbon stocks in the applicable pools such as vegetation, detritus,products and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult toaddress analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparingthree models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of pasttrends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth tomore complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicitmodels of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomicfactors. The three models of the latter category used in the analysis atregional scale are The Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use andCarbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD)model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropicalregions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions,population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) SantaCruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana State in Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico;(5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoacan, Mexico. A comparison of all modeloutputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quitedifferent deforestation baseline. In general, the simplest FAC model,applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highestamount of forest loss (four out of six) and the LUCS model the leastamount of loss (four out of five). Based on simulations of GEOMOD, wefound that readily observable physical and biological factors as well asdistance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as importantas either sociological/demographic or economic/infrastructure factors(less observable) in explaining empirical land-use patterns. We proposefrom the lessons learned, a methodology comprised of three main steps andsix tasks can be used to begin developing credible baselines. We alsopropose that the baselines be projected over a 10-year period because,although projections beyond 10 years are feasible, they are likely to beunrealistic for policy purposes. In the first step, an historic land-usechange and deforestation estimate is made by determining the analyticdomain (size of the region relative to the size of proposed project),obtaining historic data, analyzing candidate historic baseline drivers,and identifying three to four major drivers. In the second step, abaseline of where deforestation is likely to occur --a potential land-usechange (PLUC) map is produced using a spatial model such as GEOMOD thatuses the key drivers from step one. Then rates of deforestation areprojected over a 10-year baseline period using any of the three models.Using the PLUC maps, projected rates of deforestation, and carbon stockestimates, baselineprojections are developed that can be used for projectGHG accounting and crediting purposes: The final step proposes that, atagreed interval (eg, +10 years), the baseline assumptions about baselinedrivers be re-assessed. This step reviews the viability of the 10-yearbaseline in light of changes in one or more key baseline drivers (e.g.,new roads, new communities, new protected area, etc.). The potentialland-use change map and estimates of rates of deforestation could beredone at the agreed interval, allowing the rates and changes in spatialdrivers to be incorporated into a defense of the existing baseline, orderivation of a new baseline projection.

Brown, Sandra; Hall, Myrna; Andrasko, Ken; Ruiz, Fernando; Marzoli, Walter; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar; Dushku, Aaron; Dejong,Ben; Cornell, Joseph

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation of radiation and its effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and humanAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about

Pennycook, Steve

257

Infrared Radiation Filament And Metnod Of Manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved IR radiation source is provided by the invention. A radiation filament has a textured surface produced by seeded ion bombardment of a metal foil which is cut to a serpentine shape and mounted in a windowed housing. Specific ion bombardment texturing techniques tune the surface to maximize emissions in the desired wavelength range and to limit emissions outside that narrow range, particularly at longer wavelengths. A combination of filament surface texture, thickness, material, shape and power circuit feedback control produce wavelength controlled and efficient radiation at much lower power requirements than devices of the prior art.

Johnson, Edward A. (Bedford, MA)

1998-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

258

Report to Estates and Buildings, University of Edinburgh Biodiversity Baseline Review of the King's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Report to Estates and Buildings, University of Edinburgh Biodiversity Baseline Review of the KingSciences, University of Edinburgh April 2009 #12;Harvie April 2009 KB Biodiversity Audit 2 Acknowledgements John Turpin 2009 KB Biodiversity Audit 3 Summary Rationale The information in this report is the first stage

259

Optimization of the baseline and the parent muon energy for a low energy neutrino factory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the optimal setup for a low energy neutrino factory in order to achieve a 5? discovery of a nonzero mixing angle ?13, a nonzero CP phase ?CP, and the mass hierarchy. We explore parent muon energies in the range 5–16 GeV, and baselines in the range 500–5000 km. We present the results in terms of the reach in sin?2?13, emphasizing the dependence of the optimal baseline on the true value of ?CP. We show that the sensitivity of a given setup typically increases with parent muon energy, reaching saturation for higher energies. The saturation energy is larger for longer baselines; we present an estimate of this dependence. In the light of the recent indications of a large ?13, we also determine how these preferences would change if indeed a large ?13 is confirmed. In such a case, the baselines ?2500??km (?1500??km) may be expected to lead to hierarchy determination (?CP discovery) with the minimum exposure.

Amol Dighe, Srubabati Goswami, and Shamayita Ray

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

260

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 2. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the Baseline Inventory Report for the transuranic (alpha-bearing) wastes stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Waste stream profiles including origin, applicable EPA codes, typical isotopic composition, typical waste densities, and typical rates of waste generation for each facility are presented for wastes stored at the WIPP.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and CP violation in the lepton sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss possibilities to investigate the effects of CP (and T) violation in the lepton sector in neutrino oscillation experiments. We consider the effects of CP violation in the framework of two schemes of mixing of four massive neutrinos that can accommodate the results of all neutrino oscillation experiments. Using the constraints on the mixing parameters that follow from the results of short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, we derive rather strong upper bounds on the effects of CP violation in ?(-)???(-)e transitions in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that the effects of CP violation in ?(-)???(-)? transitions in long-baseline oscillation experiments can be as large as is allowed by the unitarity of the mixing matrix. The matter effects, which complicate the problem of searching for CP violation in long-baseline experiments, are discussed in detail. We consider the T-odd asymmetries whose measurement could allow to reveal T and CP violation in the lepton sector independently from matter effects.

S. M. Bilenky; C. Giunti; W. Grimus

1998-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

262

ORIGINAL PAPER Arctic fisheries catches in Russia, USA, and Canada: baselines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL PAPER Arctic fisheries catches in Russia, USA, and Canada: baselines for neglected northern Siberia (Russia), Arctic Alaska (USA), and the Canadian Arctic, extends over seven coastal Large.e., 770,000, 89,000, and 94,000 t by Russia, USA, and Canada, respectively for the same time period

Pauly, Daniel

263

CP-Invariance Violation at Short-Baseline Experiments in 3+1 Scenarios  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New neutrino degrees of freedom allow for more sources of CP-invariance violation (CPV). We explore the requirements for accessing CP-odd mixing parameters in the so-called 3+1 scenario, where one assumes the existence of one extra, mostly sterile neutrino degree of freedom, heavier than the other three mass eigenstates. As a first step, we concentrate on the nu_e to nu_mu appearance channel in a hypothetical, upgraded version of the nuSTORM proposal. We establish that the optimal baseline for CPV studies depends strongly on the value of Delta m^2_14 -- the new mass-squared difference -- and that the ability to observe CPV depends significantly on whether the experiment is performed at the optimal baseline. Even at the optimal baseline, it is very challenging to see CPV in 3+1 scenarios if one considers only one appearance channel. Significantly better results are expected if one includes more information, including the CP-conjugate and T-conjugate appearance channels, and nu_mu and nu_e disappearance. Full exploration of CPV in short-baseline experiments will require precision measurements of tau-appearance, a challenge significantly beyond what is currently being explored by the experimental neutrino community.

André de Gouvêa; Kevin J. Kelly; Andrew Kobach

2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

264

DRAFT VERSION September 6, 2009 1 1990 GHG Baseline for Building Energy Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DRAFT VERSION ­ September 6, 2009 1 1990 GHG Baseline for Building Energy Use in the Oregon of 1990 building energy use and the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for Oregon University System's seven institutions. This GHG calculation or "carbon footprint" is accompanied by a sensitivity analysis

Escher, Christine

265

LBNE Project Scientist The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) Project seeks an experienced experimental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNE Project Scientist The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) Project seeks an experienced experimental physicist to serve as Project Scientist. The LBNE Project will build an experimental facility, and a very large detector more than 1000 km away. Fermilab has management responsibility for the project

Quigg, Chris

266

Inferring dispersal and migrations from incomplete geochemical baselines: analysis of population structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 2008). Trace element tags as well as stable iso- topes contained within inert structures, such as fish baseline or reference atlas. Individuals of unknown origin are then assigned to one of the sources in this reference atlas based on their geochemical signature. The identifiability of potential sources is

Shima, Jeff

267

Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) Exploration Methodology Project is developing an exploration approach for EGS through the integration of geoscientific data. The Project chose the Dixie Valley Geothermal System in Nevada as a field laboratory site for methodlogy calibration purposes because, in the public domain, it is a highly characterized geothermal systems in the Basin and Range with a considerable amount of geoscience and most importantly, well data. This Baseline Conceptual Model report summarizes the results of the first three project tasks (1) collect and assess the existing public domain geoscience data, (2) design and populate a GIS database, and (3) develop a baseline (existing data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate geostatistical relationships, and generate baseline, coupled EGS favorability/trust maps from +1km above sea level (asl) to -4km asl for the Calibration Area (Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield) to identify EGS drilling targets at a scale of 5km x 5km. It presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

Iovenitti, Joe

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Mixed Waste Focus Area integrated technical baseline report, Phase 1: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet the Department`s commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste. These treatment systems include all necessary steps such as characterization, pretreatment, and disposal. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline is being established that forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The technical baseline is the prioritized list of deficiencies, and the resulting technology development activities needed to overcome these deficiencies. This document presents Phase I of the technical baseline development process, which resulted in the prioritized list of deficiencies that the MWFA will address. A summary of the data and the assumptions upon which this work was based is included, as well as information concerning the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) mixed waste technology development needs. The next phase in the technical baseline development process, Phase II, will result in the identification of technology development activities that will be conducted through the MWFA to resolve the identified deficiencies.

NONE

1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

269

Shifting baselines and the decline of pelagic sharks in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and coastal ecosystems are highly evident (MacPhee 1999; Jackson et al. 2001), the open ocean has been fisheries collapses are, however, clear demonstrations that these ecosystems have also been significantly a baseline for these shark populations is necessary to fully understand how industrial fisheries have

Myers, Ransom A.

270

Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) Exploration Methodology Project is developing an exploration approach for EGS through the integration of geoscientific data. The Project chose the Dixie Valley Geothermal System in Nevada as a field laboratory site for methodlogy calibration purposes because, in the public domain, it is a highly characterized geothermal systems in the Basin and Range with a considerable amount of geoscience and most importantly, well data. This Baseline Conceptual Model report summarizes the results of the first three project tasks (1) collect and assess the existing public domain geoscience data, (2) design and populate a GIS database, and (3) develop a baseline (existing data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate geostatistical relationships, and generate baseline, coupled EGS favorability/trust maps from +1km above sea level (asl) to -4km asl for the Calibration Area (Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield) to identify EGS drilling targets at a scale of 5km x 5km. It presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

Joe Iovenitti

271

Feed the Future Bangladesh: Baseline Integrated Household Survey | Data.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Feed the Future Bangladesh: Baseline Integrated Household Survey Feed the Future Bangladesh: Baseline Integrated Household Survey Agriculture Community Menu DATA APPS EVENTS DEVELOPER STATISTICS COLLABORATE ABOUT Agriculture You are here Data.gov » Communities » Agriculture » Data Feed the Future Bangladesh: Baseline Integrated Household Survey Dataset Summary Description The Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey dataset is a thorough assessment of current standard of food security in Bangladesh taken from 2011-2012. The dataset includes all baseline household surveys made under the USAID-led Feed the Future initiative, a collaborative effort that supports country-owned processes and plans for improving food security and promoting transparency, and within the Zones of Influence as outlined by the Feed the Future Bangladesh plan .The BIHS sample is statistically representative at the following levels: (a) nationally representative of rural Bangladesh; (b) representative of rural areas of each of the seven administrative divisions of the country; and, (c) representative of the Feed the Future (FTF) zone of influence.

272

Surface property detection apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method for detecting, determining, and imaging surface resistance corrosion, thin film growth, and oxide formation on the surface of conductors or other electrical surface modification. The invention comprises a modified confocal resonator structure with the sample remote from the radiating mirror. Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface impurities, non-stoichiometry, and the like, in the surface of the superconductor, conductor, dielectric, or semiconductor. 4 figs.

Martens, J.S.; Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Sorensen, N.R.

1995-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

273

E-Print Network 3.0 - ancient rapid radiation Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energy near the surface that would... greenhouse gases augments the natural greenhouse effect; it increases the radiative energy available to Earth... 's surface and to the...

274

RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with the Baseline Risk Assessment for the 716-A Motor Shops Seepage Basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment of the 716-A Motor Shops Seepage Basin.

Palmer, E.

1997-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

275

PPPL--2702 Power Radiated from ITER  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

702 702 " Power Radiated from ITER and CIT by Impurities D E ~ O 014715 J. Cummings, S. A. Cohen, R Hulse, D. E. Post, M. H. Redi and J. Perkinst Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton University, Rinceton, NJ 08543 Abstract The MIST code has been used to model impurity radiation from the edge and core plasmas in ITER and CIT. A broad range of parameters have been varied, including Zeff, impurity species, impurity transport coefficients, and plasma temperature and density profiles, especially at the edge. For a set of these parameters representative of the baseline ITER ignition scenario, it is seen that impurity radiation, which is produced in roughly equal amounts by the edge and core regions, can make a major improvement in divertor operation without compromising core

276

Surface temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface temperature Surface temperature Dataset Summary Description This dataset, made available by the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), shows the difference between the yearly central England temperature for years 1772 through 2009 and the 1961 - 1990 baseline (1961 - 1990 Central England average after smoothing). It also shows the difference between average global temperature and 1961 - 1990 average after smoothing. The original source of the data is the Met Office. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released March 12th, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords climate change Surface temperature UK weather Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 1 Excel file: Surface Temps, 1772 - 1990 (xls, 1.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

277

Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

Stoffel, T

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Solar Radiation Research Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Photographs Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Photographs The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) houses more than 70 instruments to analyze and record solar radiation and surface meteorology data. Learn more about this equipment by exploring the photographs below. Click on a thumbnail to view the full image. Photo of researcher working on an instrument platform in front of the SRRL building. The SRRL is located on South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado, at 39.74° N, 105.18° W, and 1,829 m AMSL. Photo of four researchers working on equipment atop the SRRL instrument deck. The SRRL's instrument deck is 96 ft long and 16 feet wide. Photo of two pyrheliometers mounted to an automatic sun-tracking base. These two SRRL pyrheliometers are mounted to automatically track the sun

279

Serum Amyloid A as a Predictive Marker for Radiation Pneumonitis in Lung Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate serum markers associated with radiation pneumonitis (RP) grade ?3 in patients with lung cancer who were treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment serum samples from patients with stage Ib-IV lung cancer who developed RP within 1 year after radiation therapy were analyzed to identify a proteome marker able to stratify patients prone to develop severe RP by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Dosimetric parameters and 3 biological factors were compared. Results: Serum samples from 16 patients (28%) with severe RP (grade 3-4) and 42 patients (72%) with no or mild RP (grade 0-2) were collected for analysis. All patients received a median of 54 Gy (range, 42-70 Gy) of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with a mean lung dose (MLD) of 1502 cGy (range, 700-2794 cGy). An m/z peak of 11,480 Da was identified by SELDI-TOF-MS, and serum amyloid A (SAA) was the primary splitter serum marker. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of SAA (0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.00) was higher than those of C-reactive protein (0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.94), interleukin-6 (0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.94), and MLD (0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.77). The best sensitivity and specificity of combined SAA and MLD for predicting RP were 88.9% and 96.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Baseline SAA could be used as an auxiliary marker for predicting severe RP. Extreme care should be taken to limit the lung irradiation dose in patients with high SAA.

Wang, Yu-Shan [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Animal Science, National Ilan University, Ilan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Heng-Jui [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yue-Cune [Department of Mathematics, Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Mathematics, Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Su-Chen; Ko, Hui-Ling; Chang, Chih-Chia [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Yu-Wung; Jiang, Jiunn-Song [Department of Chest Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Chest Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Cheng-Yen; Chi, Mau-Shin [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chi, Kwan-Hwa, E-mail: M006565@ms.skh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Radiation Science and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

7, 72357275, 2007 Adaptive radiative  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discussions Two adaptive radiative transfer schemes for numerical weather prediction models V. Venema 1 , A numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models. The atmosphere and the land surface are complex-stream approximation. In most weather prediction models these parameterisation schemes are therefore called infre

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

LEDSGP/Transportation Toolkit/Key Actions/Create a Baseline | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LEDSGP/Transportation Toolkit/Key Actions/Create a Baseline LEDSGP/Transportation Toolkit/Key Actions/Create a Baseline < LEDSGP‎ | Transportation Toolkit‎ | Key Actions Jump to: navigation, search LEDSGP Logo.png Transportation Toolkit Home Tools Training Contacts Key Actions for Low-Emission Development in Transportation Although no single approach or fixed process exists for low-emission development strategies (LEDS), the following key actions are necessary steps for implementing LEDS in the transportation sector. Undertaking these actions requires flexibility to adapt to dynamic societal conditions in a way that complements existing climate and development goals in other sectors. Planners, researchers, and decision-makers should customize this LEDS implementation framework for the specific conditions of their transport

282

PARS II Process Document OVERTARGET BASELINE (OTB) REPORTING IN PARS II  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Process Document Process Document OVERTARGET BASELINE (OTB) REPORTING IN PARS II PURPOSE The purpose of this document is to describe the process by which contractors should conduct OTB reporting after OTB on the project was approved and implemented in the contractor system. SCOPE This process applies to projects on which OVERTARGET BASELINE (OTB) was approved and implemented and identifies data elements, information, and processes by which contractor should report changes related to OTB in PARS II. PROCESS Upon implementation of OTB, the following data elements must be provided by the contractor into PARS II. Contractor should validate accuracy of the data in each identified field by reviewing EV_CPR_HEADER table of the PARS II Upload Template file. * OTB/OTS Date: Date when OTB/OTS was implemented in contractor system. If this data element does

283

LEDSGP/Transportation Toolkit/Key Actions/Create a Baseline | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » LEDSGP/Transportation Toolkit/Key Actions/Create a Baseline < LEDSGP‎ | Transportation Toolkit‎ | Key Actions(Redirected from Transportation Toolkit/Key Actions/Create a Baseline) Jump to: navigation, search LEDSGP Logo.png Transportation Toolkit Home Tools Training Contacts Key Actions for Low-Emission Development in Transportation Although no single approach or fixed process exists for low emission development strategies (LEDS), the following key actions are necessary steps for implementing LEDS in the transportation sector. Undertaking these actions requires flexibility to adapt to dynamic societal conditions in a

284

Experimental Parameters for a Cerium 144 Based Intense Electron Antineutrino Generator Experiment at Very Short Baselines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The standard three-neutrino oscillation paradigm, associated with small squared mass splittings > 0.01 eV^2, and being insensitive to standard weak interactions. Precision measurements at very short baselines (5 to 15 m) with intense MeV electronic antineutrino emitters can be used to probe these anomalies. In this article, the expected antineutrino signal and backgrounds of a generic experiment which consists of deploying an intense beta minus radioactive source inside or in the vicinity of a large liquid scintillator detector are studied. The technical challenges to perform such an experiment are identified, along with quantifying the possible source and detector induced systematics, and their impact on the sensitivity to the observation of neutrino oscillations at short baselines.

Gaffiot, J; Mention, G; Vivier, M; Cribier, M; Durero, M; Fischer, V; Letourneau, A; Dumonteil, E; Saldikov, I S; Tikhomirov, G V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Safety evaluation of the ESP sludge washing baselines runs. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose is to provide the technical basis for evaluation of unreviewed safety question for the Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) Sludge Washing Baseline Runs, which are necessary to resolve technical questions associated with process control (sludge suspension, sludge settling, heat transfer, temperature control). The sludge is currently stored in below-ground tanks and will be prepared for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility as part of the Integrated Waste Removal Program for Savannah River Site.

Gupta, M.K.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

287

Application Of The Climafor Baseline To Determine Leakage: TheCase Of Scolel Te.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The acceptance of forestry-based project activities tomitigate greenhouse gases emissions has been subjected to a number ofmethodological questions to be answered, of which the most challengingare baseline establishment and identification of and measuring leakage.Here we pose hypotheses for and quantify leakage of the Scolel Te projectin Chiapas, Mexico. In this project small-scale farmers are implementingforestry, agroforestry, and forest conservation activities, with carbonsequestration as one of the goals. The main leakage monitoring domain isdefined as the area owned by the participating farmers or communitiesoutside the area where the specific project activities take place. Thenull-hypothesis (no leakage) is that non-project land owned by the farmeror community will experience the same carbon stock changes as predictedby the regional baseline, specifically developed for the project. Firstwe assessed the most likely causes and sources of leakage that may occurin the project. From this analysis, one type of leakage seems to beimportant, i.e., activity shifting. Second we estimated the leakage of asample of participating farmers and communities. Actual land use was thencompared with expected land use derived from the baseline. The Plan Vivoof each participant, complemented with readily available tools toidentify the main sources and drivers of leakage are used to developsimple leakage assessment procedures, as demonstrated in this paper.Negative leakage was estimated to be negligible in this study.Incorporating these procedures already in the project planning stage willreduce the uncertainties related to the actual carbon mitigationpotential of any forestry project.

De Jong, B.H.J.; Bazan, E. Esquivel; Quechulpa Montalvo, S.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Baseline System Costs for 50.0 MW Enhanced Geothermal System -- A Function  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Baseline System Costs for 50.0 MW Enhanced Geothermal System -- A Function Baseline System Costs for 50.0 MW Enhanced Geothermal System -- A Function of: Working Fluid, Technology, and Location Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Baseline System Costs for 50.0 MW Enhanced Geothermal System -- A Function of: Working Fluid, Technology, and Location Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Geothermal Analysis Project Description This effort will support the expansion of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), supporting DOE Strategic Themes of "energy security" and sub goal of "energy diversity"; reducing the Nation's dependence on foreign oil while improving our environment. A 50 MW has been chosen as a design point, so that the project may also assess how different machinery approaches will change the costing - it is a mid point in size where multiple solutions exist that will allow the team to effectively explore the options in the design space and understand the cost.

289

Radiation protection: Natural radiation risks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... radiation to which humans are exposed consists of four components - cosmic, gamma, internal, radon. The relative contribution that each makes to the sum is shown in the chart. ... but exposure of the whole body to terrestrial gamma rays and of the lungs to radon daughters are influenced by the nature and location of housing. Gamma rays are emitted ...

M. C. O'Riordan

1983-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

290

ARM - Measurement - Surface albedo  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

albedo albedo ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface albedo The fraction of incoming solar radiation at a surface (i.e. land, cloud top) that is effectively reflected by that surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer External Instruments ETA : Eta Model Runs ECMWFDIAG : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model

291

E-Print Network 3.0 - antibody-based surface plasmon Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

characteristic: plasmon resonance frequencies... -field imaging, multipolar surface ... Source: Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Radiation Physics and...

292

ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa Island, Azores, 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Surface Aerosol Observing System The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is equipped to quantify the interaction between clouds and aerosol particles. A counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI) is used to selectively sample cloud drops. The CVI takes advantage of the

293

The mixed waste management facility. Project baseline revision 1.2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Revision 1.2 to the Project Baseline (PB) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is in response to DOE directives and verbal guidance to (1) Collocate the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) and MWMF into a single complex, integrate certain and overlapping functions as a cost-saving measure; (2) Meet certain fiscal year (FY) new-BA funding objectives ($15.3M in FY95) with lower and roughly balanced funding for out years; (3) Reduce Total Project Cost (TPC) for the MWMF Project; (4) Include costs for all appropriate permitting activities in the project TPC. This baseline revision also incorporates revisions in the technical baseline design for Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO). Changes in the WBS dictionary that are necessary as a result of this rebaseline, as well as minor title changes, at WBS Level 3 or above (DOE control level) are approved as a separate document. For completeness, the WBS dictionary that reflects these changes is contained in Appendix B. The PB, with revisions as described in this document, were also the basis for the FY97 Validation Process, presented to DOE and their reviewers on March 21-22, 1995. Appendix C lists information related to prior revisions to the PB. Several key changes relate to the integration of functions and sharing of facilities between the portion of the DWTF that will house the MWMF and those portions that are used by the Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) Division at LLNL. This collocation has been directed by DOE as a cost-saving measure and has been implemented in a manner that maintains separate operational elements from a safety and permitting viewpoint. Appendix D provides background information on the decision and implications of collocating the two facilities.

Streit, R.D.; Throop, A.L.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

A PER-BASELINE, DELAY-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUE FOR ACCESSING THE 21 cm COSMIC REIONIZATION SIGNATURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A critical challenge in measuring the power spectrum of 21 cm emission from cosmic reionization is compensating for the frequency dependence of an interferometer's sampling pattern, which can cause smooth-spectrum foregrounds to appear unsmooth and degrade the separation between foregrounds and the target signal. In this paper, we present an approach to foreground removal that explicitly accounts for this frequency dependence. We apply the delay transformation introduced in Parsons and Backer to each baseline of an interferometer to concentrate smooth-spectrum foregrounds within the bounds of the maximum geometric delays physically realizable on that baseline. By focusing on delay modes that correspond to image-domain regions beyond the horizon, we show that it is possible to avoid the bulk of smooth-spectrum foregrounds. We map the point-spread function of delay modes to k-space, showing that delay modes that are uncorrupted by foregrounds also represent samples of the three-dimensional power spectrum, and can be used to constrain cosmic reionization. Because it uses only spectral smoothness to differentiate foregrounds from the targeted 21 cm signature, this per-baseline analysis approach relies on spectrally and spatially smooth instrumental responses for foreground removal. For sufficient levels of instrumental smoothness relative to the brightness of interfering foregrounds, this technique substantially reduces the level of calibration previously thought necessary to detect 21 cm reionization. As a result, this approach places fewer constraints on antenna configuration within an array, and in particular, facilitates the adoption of configurations that are optimized for power-spectrum sensitivity. Under these assumptions, we demonstrate the potential for the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) to detect 21 cm reionization at an amplitude of 10 mK{sup 2} near k {approx} 0.2 h Mpc{sup -1} with 132 dipoles in 7 months of observing.

Parsons, Aaron R.; Pober, Jonathan C. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Carilli, Christopher L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); Jacobs, Daniel C. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

295

Deflagration-to-detonation transition in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By means of highly resolved one-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations, we provide an understanding of the burn process in inertial-confinement-fusion baseline targets. The cornerstone of the phenomenology of propagating burn in such laser-driven capsules is shown to be the transition from a slow unsteady reaction-diffusion regime of thermonuclear combustion (some sort of deflagration) to a fast detonative one. Remarkably, detonation initiation follows the slowing down of a shockless supersonic reaction wave driven by energy redeposition from the fusion products themselves. Such a route to detonation is specific to fusion plasmas.

P. Gauthier; F. Chaland; L. Masse

2004-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

296

Baseline Report for the Fort Hood Army Base: Sept. 1, 2002 - Aug. 31, 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESL-TR-03/12-02 BASELINE REPORT FOR THE FORT HOOD ARMY BASE: SEPT. 1 ST , 2002 TO AUG. 31 ST , 2003 A Research Project for the U.S. Army C.E.R.L. and the Ft. Hood Energy Office Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P....E. Juan-Carlos Baltazar Cervantes, Zi Liu David E. Claridge, Ph.D., P.E. W. Dan Turner, Ph.D., P.E. December 2003 ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University System Ft. Hood...

Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Liu, Z.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

CP and T violation in long baseline experiments with low energy neutrino from muon storage ring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stimulated by the idea of PRISM, a very high intensity muon ring with rather low energy, we consider possibilities of observing CP-violation effects in neutrino oscillation experiments. More than 10% of CP-violation effect can be seen within the experimentally allowed region. Destructive sum of matter effect and CP-violation effect can be avoided with use of initial nu_e beam. We finally show that the experiment with (a few) x 100 MeV of neutrino energy and (a few) x 100 km of baseline length, which is considered in this paper, is particularly suitable for a search of CP violation in view of statistical error.

Masafumi Koike; Joe Sato

1999-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

298

FOCUSING HORN SYSTEM FOR THE BNL VERY LONG BASELINE NEUTRINO OSCILLATION EXPERIMENT.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the focusing horn system for the proposed very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment using a neutrino beam from BNL to an underground facility such as the Homestake Mine in South Dakota. The proposed experiment uses a 1 MW upgraded AGS. In order to achieve this performance the AGS will operate with a cycle time of 2.5 Hz and 8.9 x 10{sup 13} protons on target at 28 GeV. This paper discusses the design criteria of a horn system necessary to handle this intense beam and the optical geometry to achieve the desired flux distribution at the detector.

KAHN,S.A.CARROLL,A.DIWAN,M.V.GALLARDO,J.C.KIRK,H.SCARLETT,C.SIMOS,N.VIREN,B.ZHANG,W.

2003-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

299

Investigation of neutrino oscillations in the T2k long-baseline accelerator experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-sensitivity searches for transitions of muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos are the main task of the T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) second-generation long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The present article is devoted to describing basic principles of T2K, surveying experimental apparatuses that it includes, and considering in detail the muon-range detector (SMRD) designed and manufactured by a group of physicists from the Institute of Nuclear Research (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The results of the first measurements with a neutrino beam are presented, and plans for the near future are discussed.

Izmaylov, A. O., E-mail: izmaylov@inr.ru; Yershov, N. V.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Matveev, V. A.; Mineev, O. V.; Musienko, Yu. V.; Khabibulliun, M. M.; Khotjantsev, A. N.; Shaykhiev, A. T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

SRC-I Project Baseline. [SRC-I demonstration project near Owensboro, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Process Design Criteria Specification forms the basis for process design for the 6000-TPSD SRC-I Demonstration Plant. It sets forth: basic engineering data, e.g., type and size of plant, feedstocks, product specifications, and atmospheric emission and waste disposal limits; utility conditions; equipment design criteria and sparing philosophy; and estimating criteria for economic considerations. Previously the formal ICRC Document No. 0001-01-002 has been submitted to DOE and revised, as necessary, to be consistent with the SRC-I Project Baseline. Revision 6, dated 19 March 1982, 51 pages, was forwarded to DOE on 19 March 1982.

None

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Energy baseline and energy efficiency resource opportunities for the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides recommendations to improve the energy use efficiency at the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin. The assessment focuses upon the four largest buildings and central heating plant at the facility comprising a total of approximately 287,000 square feet. The analysis is comprehensive in nature, intended primarily to determine what if any energy efficiency improvements are warranted based upon the potential for cost-effective energy savings. Because of this breadth, not all opportunities are developed in detail; however, baseline energy consumption data and energy savings concepts are described to provide a foundation for detailed investigation and project design where warranted.

Mazzucchi, R.P. [SBW Consulting Co., Bellevue, WA (US); Richman, E.E.; Parker, G.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Radiating gravastars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Considering a Vaidya exterior spacetime, we study dynamical models of prototype gravastars, made of an infinitely thin spherical shell of a perfect fluid with the equation of state p = ?, enclosing an interior de Sitter spacetime. We show explicitly that the final output can be a black hole, an unstable gravastar, a stable gravastar or a 'bounded excursion' gravastar, depending on how the mass of the shell evolves in time, the cosmological constant and the initial position of the dynamical shell. This work presents, for the first time in the literature, a gravastar that emits radiation.

Chan, R. [Coordenação de Astronomia e Astrofísica, Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino, 77, São Cristóvão 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.F.A. da [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, Maracanã 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Jaime F. Villas da [Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Pasteur 458, Urca, CEP 22290-240, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wang, Anzhong, E-mail: chan@on.br, E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com, E-mail: jfvroch@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu [GCAP-CASPER, Department of Physics, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Measurements of photon ionizing radiation fields in the reactor room of the 4th power-generating unit of the chernobyl nuclear power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A radiation examination of the reactor room of the damaged fourth unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was performed. The most strongly radiating surfaces...

A. G. Volkovich; V. N. Potapov; S. V. Smirnov; L. I. Urutskoev…

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Heat pump augmented radiator for low-temperature space applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Closed-cycle, space-based heat rejection systems depend solely on radiation to achieve their heat dissipation function. Since the payload heat rejection temperature is typically 50 K above that of the radiation sink in near earth orbit, the size and mass of these systems can be appreciable. Size (and potentially mass) reductions are achievable by increasing the rejection temperature via a heat pump. Two heat pump concept were examined to determine if radiator area reductions could be realized without increasing the mass of the heat rejection system. The first was a conventional, electrically-driven vapor compression system. The second is an innovative concept using a solid-vapor adsorption system driven by reject heat from the prime power system. The mass and radiator area of the heat pumpradiator systems were compared to that of a radiator only system to determine the merit of the heat pump concepts. Results for the compressor system indicated that the mass minimum occured at a temperature lift of about 50 K and radiator area reductions of 35% were realized. With a radiator specific mass of 10 kgm/sup 2/, the heat pump system is 15% higher than the radiator only baseline system. The complex compound chemisorption systems showed more promising results. Using water vapor as the working fluid in a single stage heat amplifier resulted in optimal temperature lifts exceeding 150 K. This resulted in a radiator area reduction of 83% with a mass reduction of 64%. 7 refs., 9 figs.

Olszewski, M.; Rockenfeller, U.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Technical Note: Estimating Aerosol Effects on Cloud Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimating anthropogenic aerosol effects on the planetary energy balance through the aerosol influence on clouds using the difference in cloud radiative forcing from simulations with and without anthropogenic emissions produces estimates that are positively biased. A more representative method is suggested using the difference in cloud radiative forcing calculated with aerosol radiative effects neglected. The method also yields an aerosol radiative forcing decomposition that includes a term quantifying the impact of changes in surface albedo. The method requires only two additional diagnostic calculations: the whole-sky and clear-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative flux with aerosol radiative effects neglected.

Ghan, Steven J.

2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

306

ccsd-00012522,version1-24Oct2005 Long Baseline Interferometry of Be Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, based on a latitude-dependant radiatively driven wind. The model confirms that its free parameters can be understood as an inclination effect. The strong correlation of the minimum inclination de- rived in this way

Boyer, Edmond

307

Natural and Radiation Carcinogenesis in Man. III. Radiation Carcinogenesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mice. NATURAL AND RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN MAN. 3. RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS. | Journal Article | Japan Neoplasms etiology Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced Radiation Genetics | JAPAN NEOPLASM ETIOLOGY NEOPLASMS, RADIATION-INDUCED RADIATION...

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Alcator C-Mod Experiments in Support of the ITER Baseline 15 MA Scenario  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments on Alcator C-Mod have addressed several issues for the ITER 15 MA baseline scenario from 2009-2012. Rampup studies show ICRF can save significant V-s, and that an H-mode in the ramp can be utilized to save 50% more. ICRF modifications to li(1) are minimal, although the Te profile is peaked relative to ohmic in the plasma center, and alter sawtooth onset times. Rampdown studies show H-modes can be routinely sustained, avoiding an OH coil over-current associated with the H-L transition, that fast rampdowns are preferred, the density drops with Ip, and that the H-L transition occurs at Ploss/Pthr,LH ~ 1.0-1.3 at n/nGr ~ 0.85. Flattop plasmas targeting ITER baseline parameters have been sustained for 20 ?E or 8-13 ?CR, but only reach H98 ~ 0.6 at n/nGr = 0.85, rising to 0.9 at n/nGr = 0.65.

C Kessel, et al

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

309

Trends and variations in the baseline soundscape of America’s first offshore wind farm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the development of Cape Wind Nantucket Sound Massachusetts may become home to America’s first offshore wind farm. The goal of this ongoing project is to establish the baseline (pre-construction) soundscape of anthropogenic and biological activity including diel and seasonal variability of various sound types at the construction site and nearby comparison sites. Acoustic recorders have been deployed since April 2012 recording on a 10% duty cycle (sample rate: 80 kHz). Multiple fish sounds have been identified with the predominant signals attributed to cusk eels (Family Ophidiidae). Cusk eel sounds consist of a series of pulses with energy between 400 and 2500 Hz. They are detectable from April to October with dense choruses occurring during the summer months. Sound energy levels during these choruses increased near the hours of sunrise and sunset. Vessel traffic also showed diel and seasonal trends with peaks during the daytime and in the summer. These trends in biological and human activity provide key baseline records for evaluating the possible influence of wind farm construction and operation on a local US soundscape.

T Aran Mooney; Maxwell B. Kaplan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Comprehensive baseline environmental audit of former underground test areas in Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit of Former Underground Test Areas (FUTAS) in the States of Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico. DOE and contractor systems for management of environmental protection activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were not within the scope of the audit. The audit was conducted May 16-May 26, 1994, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). DOE 5482.1 B, {open_quotes}Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program{close_quotes}, establishes the mission of EH-24, which is to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is to enhance environmental protection and minimize risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission using systematic and periodic evaluations of DOE`s environmental programs within line organizations and supplemental activities that strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations. These evaluations function as a vehicle through which the Secretary and program managers are apprised of the status and vulnerabilities of Departmental environmental activities and environmental management systems. Several types of evaluations are conducted, including: (1) comprehensive baseline environmental audits; (2) routine environmental audits; (3) environmental management assessments; and (4) special issue reviews.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Baseline Design Compliance Matrix for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the design compliance matrix (DCM) is to provide a single-source document of all design requirements associated with the fifteen subsystems that make up the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) system. It is intended to be the baseline requirement document for the RMCS system and to be used in governing all future design and design verification activities associated with it. This document is the DCM for the RMCS system used on Hanford single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks. This includes the Exhauster System, Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks, Universal Sampling System, Diesel Generator System, Distribution Trailer, X-Ray Cart System, Breathing Air Compressor, Nitrogen Supply Trailer, Casks and Cask Truck, Service Trailer, Core Sampling Riser Equipment, Core Sampling Support Trucks, Foot Clamp, Ramps and Platforms and Purged Camera System. Excluded items are tools such as light plants and light stands. Other items such as the breather inlet filter are covered by a different design baseline. In this case, the inlet breather filter is covered by the Tank Farms Design Compliance Matrix.

LECHELT, J.A.

2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

312

Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis. Quarterly report, October 1992--December 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: (1) A base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; (2) A cost estimate and economic analysis; (3) A computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; (4) A comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; (5) A thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics, and (6) A user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future. With the inclusion of the improved baseline case, the above primary objective is extended to include the impact of higher space velocity through liquefaction reactor. The progress made during any particular quarter is published in a quarterly report following the duration of the quarter. The report consists of the following four sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Summary; (3) Technical Progress Report (By Tasks); and (4) Key Personnel Staffing Report.

NONE

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis. Quarterly report, July 1995--September 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: (1) A base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; (2) A cost estimate and economic analysis; (3) A computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; (4) A comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; (5) A thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics, and (6) A user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future. With the inclusion of the improved baseline case, the above primary objective is extended to include the impact of higher space velocity through liquefaction reactor. The progress made during any particular quarter is published in a quarterly report following the duration of the quarter. The report consists of the following four sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Summary; (3) Technical Progress Report (By Tasks); and (4) Key Personnel Staffing Report.

NONE

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Tools for Closure Project and Contract Management: Development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper details the development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline - an innovative project management effort undertaken to ensure proactive management of the Rocky Flats Closure Contract in support of the Department's goal for achieving the safe closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in December 2006. The accelerated closure of RFETS is one of the most prominent projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management program. As the first major former weapons plant to be remediated and closed, it is a first-of-kind effort requiring the resolution of multiple complex technical and institutional challenges. Most significantly, the closure of RFETS is dependent upon the shipment of all special nuclear material and wastes to other DOE sites. The Department is actively working to strengthen project management across programs, and there is increasing external interest in this progress. The development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline represents a groundbreaking and cooperative effort to formalize the management of such a complex project across multiple sites and organizations. It is original in both scope and process, however it provides a useful precedent for the other ongoing project management efforts within the Environmental Management program.

Gelles, C. M.; Sheppard, F. R.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

315

Establishing baselines of tolerance of Texas Gulf Coast adult populations of Culex quinquefasciatus Say to malathion and chlorpyrifos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESTABLISHING BASELINES OF TOLERANCE OF TEXAS GULF SAY TO MALATHION AND CHLORPYRIFOS A Thesis by JERRY STEPHEN SMITH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1981 Major Subject: Entomology ESTABLISHING BASELINES OF TOLERANCE OF TEXAS GULF SAY TO MALATHION AND CHLORPYRIFOS A Thesis by JERRY STEPHEN SMITH Approved as to style and content by: (C airman of Committee) (Member) (Member...

Smith, Jerry Stephen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

316

Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) Exploration Methodology Project is developing an exploration approach for EGS through the integration of geoscientific data. The Project chose the Dixie Valley Geothermal System in Nevada as a field laboratory site for methodology calibration purposes because, in the public domain, it is a highly characterized geothermal system in the Basin and Range with a considerable amount of geoscience and most importantly, well data. The overall project area is 2500km2 with the Calibration Area (Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield) being about 170km2. The project was subdivided into five tasks (1) collect and assess the existing public domain geoscience data; (2) design and populate a GIS database; (3) develop a baseline (existing data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate geostatistical relationships, and generate baseline, coupled EGS favorability/trust maps from +1km above sea level (asl) to -4km asl for the Calibration Area at 0.5km intervals to identify EGS drilling targets at a scale of 5km x 5km; (4) collect new geophysical and geochemical data, and (5) repeat Task 3 for the enhanced (baseline + new ) data. Favorability maps were based on the integrated assessment of the three critical EGS exploration parameters of interest: rock type, temperature and stress. A complimentary trust map was generated to compliment the favorability maps to graphically illustrate the cumulative confidence in the data used in the favorability mapping. The Final Scientific Report (FSR) is submitted in two parts with Part I describing the results of project Tasks 1 through 3 and Part II covering the results of project Tasks 4 through 5 plus answering nine questions posed in the proposal for the overall project. FSR Part I presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region. FSR Part II presents (1) 278 new gravity stations; (2) enhanced gravity-magnetic modeling; (3) 42 new ambient seismic noise survey stations; (4) an integration of the new seismic noise data with a regional seismic network; (5) a new methodology and approach to interpret this data; (5) a novel method to predict rock type and temperature based on the newly interpreted data; (6) 70 new magnetotelluric (MT) stations; (7) an integrated interpretation of the enhanced MT data set; (8) the results of a 308 station soil CO2 gas survey; (9) new conductive thermal modeling in the project area; (10) new convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (11) pseudo-convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (12) enhanced data implications and qualitative geoscience correlations at three scales (a) Regional, (b) Project, and (c) Calibration Area; (13) quantitative geostatistical exploratory data analysis; and (14) responses to nine questions posed in the proposal for this investigation. Enhanced favorability/trust maps were not generated because there was not a sufficient amount of new, fully-vetted (see below) rock type, temperature, and stress data. The enhanced seismic data did generate a new method to infer rock type and temperature. However, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator for this project, this new methodology needs to be tested and evaluated at other sites in the Basin and Range before it is used to generate the referenced maps. As in the baseline conceptual model, the enhanced findings can be applied to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

Iovenitti, Joe

2014-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

317

COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS TO PROJECT FUTURE BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS IN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST, CURINANCO, CHILE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deforestation of temperate rainforests in Chile has decreased the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation can restore those ecosystem services. Greenhouse gas policies that offer financing for the carbon emissions avoided by preventing deforestation require a projection of future baseline carbon emissions for an area if no forest conservation occurs. For a proposed 570 km{sup 2} conservation area in temperate rainforest around the rural community of Curinanco, Chile, we compared three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions: extrapolation from Landsat observations, Geomod, and Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis (FRCA). Analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data show 1986-1999 net deforestation of 1900 ha in the analysis area, proceeding at a rate of 0.0003 y{sup -1}. The gross rate of loss of closed natural forest was 0.042 y{sup -1}. In the period 1986-1999, closed natural forest decreased from 20,000 ha to 11,000 ha, with timber companies clearing natural forest to establish plantations of non-native species. Analyses of previous field measurements of species-specific forest biomass, tree allometry, and the carbon content of vegetation show that the dominant native forest type, broadleaf evergreen (bosque siempreverde), contains 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon, compared to the carbon density of non-native Pinus radiata plantations of 240 {+-} 60 t ha{sup -1}. The 1986-1999 conversion of closed broadleaf evergreen forest to open broadleaf evergreen forest, Pinus radiata plantations, shrublands, grasslands, urban areas, and bare ground decreased the carbon density from 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon to an average of 100 t ha{sup -1} (maximum 160 t ha{sup -1}, minimum 50 t ha{sup -1}). Consequently, the conversion released 1.1 million t carbon. These analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data provided the data to evaluate the three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions. Extrapolation from Landsat change detection uses the observed rate of change to estimate change in the near future. Geomod is a software program that models the geographic distribution of change using a defined rate of change. FRCA is an integrated spatial analysis of forest inventory, biodiversity, and remote sensing that produces estimates of forest biodiversity and forest carbon density, spatial data layers of future probabilities of reforestation and deforestation, and a projection of future baseline forest carbon sequestration and emissions for an ecologically-defined area of analysis. For the period 1999-2012, extrapolation from Landsat change detection estimated a loss of 5000 ha and 520,000 t carbon from closed natural forest; Geomod modeled a loss of 2500 ha and 250 000 t; FRCA projected a loss of 4700 {+-} 100 ha and 480,000 t (maximum 760,000 t, minimum 220,000 t). Concerning labor time, extrapolation for Landsat required 90 actual days or 120 days normalized to Bachelor degree level wages; Geomod required 240 actual days or 310 normalized days; FRCA required 110 actual days or 170 normalized days. Users experienced difficulties with an MS-DOS version of Geomod before turning to the Idrisi version. For organizations with limited time and financing, extrapolation from Landsat change provides a cost-effective method. Organizations with more time and financing could use FRCA, the only method where that calculates the deforestation rate as a dependent variable rather than assuming a deforestation rate as an independent variable. This research indicates that best practices for the projection of baseline carbon emissions include integration of forest inventory and remote sensing tasks from the beginning of the analysis, definition of an analysis area using ecological characteristics, use of standard and widely used geographic information systems (GIS) software applications, and the use of species-specific allometric equations and wood densities developed for local species.

Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor

2005-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

318

ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

skin temperature skin temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface skin temperature The radiative surface skin temperature, from an IR thermometer measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface in its field of view. Categories Radiometric, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments IRT : Infrared Thermometer MFRIRT : Multifilter Radiometer and Infrared Thermometer External Instruments

319

Surface premelting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The most important results obtained in the theory of surface premelting of crystals are briefly discussed on the basis of the vibration-positional model, the quasiliquid layer model, the surface roughness model, and in the case of ice, the model of the oriented dipoles at the surface. A review of the existing experimental results on surface premelting is presented, these results being obtained by investigating the crystal morphology, the polar diagram of the specific surface energy, the surface self-diffusion, the thermal emissivity, as well as upon application of LEED, NMR, Rutherford backscattering at proton channeling and ellipsometry. The agreement between theoretical and experimental data is discussed.

D. Nenow

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Adaptors for radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

Livesay, Ronald Jason

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Figure 5. Net radiation of the study area on June 21, 2003 ESTIMATION OF HEAT FLUXES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of incoming solar radiation and long-wave radiation emitted from the atmosphere to land surface and from chimneys etc. In addition anthropogenic sensible heat contributes to increased surface temperature. However this influence is sufficiently small compared to the solar radiation under clear skies during

Hall, Sharon J.

322

Radiation Safety  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Brotherhood of Locomotive Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers & Trainmen Scott Palmer BLET Radiation Safety Officer New Hire Training New Hire study topics * GCOR * ABTH * SSI * Employee Safety * HazMat * Railroad terminology * OJT * 15-week class * Final test Hazardous Materials * Initial new-hire training * Required by OSHA * No specified class length * Open book test * Triennial module Locomotive Engineer Training A little bit older...a little bit wiser... * Typically 2-4 years' seniority * Pass-or-get-fired promotion * Intensive program * Perpetually tested to a higher standard * 20 Weeks of training * 15 of that is OJT * General Code of Operating Rules * Air Brake & Train Handling * System Special Instructions * Safety Instructions * Federal Regulations * Locomotive Simulators * Test Ride * Pass test with 90% Engineer Recertification

323

Improved polymeric surface for adhesion through electron stimulated chemical modification of polymeric surface  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Treating polymer surfaces, e.g., Teflon, particularly very thin surfaces, e.g., 50-10,000 A, with low energy electron radiation, e.g., 100-1000 eV, in a high vacuum environment, e.g., less than 10 /sup /minus/6/ Torr, to enhance the ability of the surface to be adhered to a variety of substrates.

Kelber, J.A.

1987-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

324

Sea surface exchanges of momentum, heat, and freshwater determined by satellite remote sensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Sea surface exchanges of momentum, heat, and freshwater determined by satellite remote sensing Freshwater flux Latent heat flux Longwave radiation Satellite remote sensing Sea surface flux estimation Sensible heat flux Shortwave radiation Surface wind fields 2 #12;Sea surface exchanges of momentum, heat

Yu, Lisan

325

Modeling Carbon Sequestration over the Large-Scale Amazon Basin, Aided by Satellite Observations. Part I: Wet- and Dry-Season Surface Radiation Budget Flux and Precipitation Variability Based on GOES Retrievals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this first part of a two-part investigation, large-scale Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) analyses over the Amazônia region have been carried out for March and October of 1999 to provide detailed information on surface ...

Jiujing Gu; Eric A. Smith; Harry J. Cooper; Andrew Grose; Guosheng Liu; James D. Merritt; Maarten J. Waterloo; Alessandro C. de Araújo; Antonio D. Nobre; Antonio O. Manzi; Jose Marengo; Paulo J. de Oliveira; Celso von Randow; John Norman; Pedro Silva Dias

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

DOE-EM-STD-5502-94; DOE Limited Standard Hazard Baseline Documentation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-EM-STD-5502-94 August 1994 DOE LIMITED STANDARD HAZARD BASELINE DOCUMENTATION U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; (615) 576-8401. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 487-4650. Order No. DE94016623 DOE-EM-STD-5502-94

327

Assessment Hydrogen Production with CO2 Capture, Volume 1: Baseline State of the Art Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Hydrogen Production with CO 2 Capture Volume 1: Baseline State-of- the-Art Plants August 30, 2010 DOE/NETL-2010/1434 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States

328

BASELINE RISK ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION AT THE URAN~UM MILL TAILINGS  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

I~:-:ii*.i: i,<;.;.-;_r- --:-:ir-- I~:-:ii*.i: i,<;.;.-;_r- --:-:ir-- - . . - -. . - . . - , -, . , , , - - - - . BASELINE RISK ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION AT THE URAN~UM MILL TAILINGS SITE NEAR RIVERTON, WYOMING I i I I I Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Albuquerque, New Mexico September 1995 INTENDED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE This report has been reproduced from the best available copy. Avai and microfiche Number of pages in this report: 166 DOE and DOE contractors can obtain copies of this report from: Office of Scientific and Technical information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (61 5) 576-8401 This report is publicly available from: National Technical information Service Department of Commerce 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 (703) 487-4650 DOEIAL162350-65

329

VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 6240: RESOLVING THE DOUBLE NUCLEI AND RADIO SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The European Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network was used at two epochs in 2003 and 2009 to obtain multi-frequency high-resolution images of the merger galaxy NGC 6240 in order to study the radio properties of all compact high-brightness components in the galaxy. Our observations at milliarcsecond resolution detected the northern and southern nuclei and two radio components, which we interpret as long-lived luminous supernovae associated with circumnuclear starburst activity in the southern nucleus. The new VLBI data support the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) together with starburst activity in the southern nucleus and provide some evidence for an AGN in the northern nucleus. Both nuclei display an inverted spectrum at lower GHz frequencies. The spectrum of the southern nucleus indicates thermal free-free absorption on parsec scales, consistent with the presence of an AGN.

Hagiwara, Yoshiaki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, 181-8588 Tokyo (Japan); Baan, Willem A. [ASTRON, P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Kloeckner, Hans-Rainer, E-mail: yoshiaki.hagiwara@nao.ac.jp [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Etalon-induced Baseline Drift And Correction In Atom Flux Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atom flux sensors based on atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy are of significant interest in thin film growth as they can provide unobtrusive, element specific, real-time flux sensing and control. The ultimate sensitivity and performance of the sensors are strongly affected by the long-term and short term baseline drift. Here we demonstrate that an etalon effect resulting from temperature changes in optical viewport housings is a major source of signal instability which has not been previously considered or corrected by existing methods. We show that small temperature variations in the fused silica viewports can introduce intensity modulations of up to 1.5%, which in turn significantly deteriorate AA sensor performance. This undesirable effect can be at least partially eliminated by reducing the size of the beam and tilting the incident light beam off the viewport normal.

Du, Yingge; Chambers, Scott A.

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

331

A Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment Using J-PARC Neutrino Beam and Hyper-Kamiokande  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hyper-Kamiokande will be a next generation underground water Cherenkov detector with a total (fiducial) mass of 0.99 (0.56) million metric tons, approximately 20 (25) times larger than that of Super-Kamiokande. One of the main goals of Hyper-Kamiokande is the study of $CP$ asymmetry in the lepton sector using accelerator neutrino and anti-neutrino beams. In this document, the physics potential of a long baseline neutrino experiment using the Hyper-Kamiokande detector and a neutrino beam from the J-PARC proton synchrotron is presented. The analysis has been updated from the previous Letter of Intent [K. Abe et al., arXiv:1109.3262 [hep-ex

Hyper-Kamiokande Working Group; :; K. Abe; H. Aihara; C. Andreopoulos; I. Anghel; A. Ariga; T. Ariga; R. Asfandiyarov; M. Askins; J. J. Back; P. Ballett; M. Barbi; G. J. Barker; G. Barr; F. Bay; P. Beltrame; V. Berardi; M. Bergevin; S. Berkman; T. Berry; S. Bhadra; F. d. M. Blaszczyk; A. Blondel; S. Bolognesi; S. B. Boyd; A. Bravar; C. Bronner; F. S. Cafagna; G. Carminati; S. L. Cartwright; M. G. Catanesi; K. Choi; J. H. Choi; G. Collazuol; G. Cowan; L. Cremonesi; G. Davies; G. De Rosa; C. Densham; J. Detwiler; D. Dewhurst; F. Di Lodovico; S. Di Luise; O. Drapier; S. Emery; A. Ereditato; P. Fernandez; T. Feusels; A. Finch; M. Fitton; M. Friend; Y. Fujii; Y. Fukuda; D. Fukuda; V. Galymov; K. Ganezer; M. Gonin; P. Gumplinger; D. R. Hadley; L. Haegel; A. Haesler; Y. Haga; B. Hartfiel; M. Hartz; Y. Hayato; M. Hierholzer; J. Hill; A. Himmel; S. Hirota; S. Horiuchi; K. Huang; A. K. Ichikawa; T. Iijima; M. Ikeda; J. Imber; K. Inoue; J. Insler; R. A. Intonti; T. Irvine; T. Ishida; H. Ishino; M. Ishitsuka; Y. Itow; A. Izmaylov; B. Jamieson; H. I. Jang; M. Jiang; K. K. Joo; C. K. Jung; A. Kaboth; T. Kajita; J. Kameda; Y. Karadhzov; T. Katori; E. Kearns; M. Khabibullin; A. Khotjantsev; J. Y. Kim; S. B. Kim; Y. Kishimoto; T. Kobayashi; M. Koga; A. Konaka; L. L. Kormos; A. Korzenev; Y. Koshio; W. R. Kropp; Y. Kudenko; T. Kutter; M. Kuze; L. Labarga; J. Lagoda; M. Laveder; M. Lawe; J. G. Learned; I. T. Lim; T. Lindner; A. Longhin; L. Ludovici; W. Ma; L. Magaletti; K. Mahn; M. Malek; C. Mariani; L. Marti; J. F. Martin; C. Martin; P. P. J. Martins; E. Mazzucato; N. McCauley; K. S. McFarland; C. McGrew; M. Mezzetto; H. Minakata; A. Minamino; S. Mine; O. Mineev; M. Miura; J. Monroe; T. Mori; S. Moriyama; T. Mueller; F. Muheim; M. Nakahata; K. Nakamura; T. Nakaya; S. Nakayama; M. Needham; T. Nicholls; M. Nirkko; Y. Nishimura; E. Noah; J. Nowak; H. Nunokawa; H. M. O'Keeffe; Y. Okajima; K. Okumura; S. M. Oser; E. O'Sullivan; R. A. Owen; Y. Oyama; J. Perez; M. Y. Pac; V. Palladino; J. L. Palomino; V. Paolone; D. Payne; O. Perevozchikov; J. D. Perkin; C. Pistillo; S. Playfer; M. Posiadala-Zezula; J. -M. Poutissou; B. Quilain; M. Quinto; E. Radicioni; P. N. Ratoff; M. Ravonel; M. Rayner; A. Redij; F. Retiere; C. Riccio; E. Richard; E. Rondio; H. J. Rose; M. Ross-Lonergan; C. Rott; S. D. Rountree; A. Rubbia; R. Sacco; M. Sakuda; M. C. Sanchez; E. Scantamburlo; K. Scholberg; M. Scott; Y. Seiya; T. Sekiguchi; H. Sekiya; A. Shaikhiev; I. Shimizu; M. Shiozawa; S. Short; G. Sinnis; M. B. Smy; J. Sobczyk; H. W. Sobel; T. Stewart; J. L. Stone; Y. Suda; Y. Suzuki; A. T. Suzuki; R. Svoboda; R. Tacik; A. Takeda; A. Taketa; Y. Takeuchi; H. A. Tanaka; H. K. M. Tanaka; H. Tanaka; R. Terri; L. F. Thompson; M. Thorpe; S. Tobayama; N. Tolich; T. Tomura; C. Touramanis; T. Tsukamoto; M. Tzanov; Y. Uchida; M. R. Vagins; G. Vasseur; R. B. Vogelaar; C. W. Walter; D. Wark; M. O. Wascko; A. Weber; R. Wendell; R. J. Wilkes; M. J. Wilking; J. R. Wilson; T. Xin; K. Yamamoto; C. Yanagisawa; T. Yano; S. Yen; N. Yershov; M. Yokoyama; M. Zito

2015-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

332

Baseline LHC machine parameters and configuration of the 2015 proton run  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper shows the baseline LHC machine parameters for the 2015 start-up. Many systems have been upgraded during LS1 and in 2015 the LHC will operate at a higher energy than before and with a tighter filling scheme. Therefore, the 2015 commissioning phase risks to be less smooth than in 2012. The proposed starting configuration puts the focus on feasibility rather than peak performance and includes margins for operational uncertainties. Instead, once beam experience and a better machine knowledge has been obtained, a push in $\\beta^*$ and performance can be envisaged. In this paper, the focus is on collimation settings and reach in $\\beta^*$---other parameters are covered in greater depth by other papers in these proceedings.

Bruce, R; Fartoukh, S; Giovannozzi, M; Lamont, M; Metral, E; Pieloni, T; Redaelli, S; Wenninger, J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Baseline LHC machine parameters and configuration of the 2015 proton run  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper shows the baseline LHC machine parameters for the 2015 start-up. Many systems have been upgraded during LS1 and in 2015 the LHC will operate at a higher energy than before and with a tighter filling scheme. Therefore, the 2015 commissioning phase risks to be less smooth than in 2012. The proposed starting configuration puts the focus on feasibility rather than peak performance and includes margins for operational uncertainties. Instead, once beam experience and a better machine knowledge has been obtained, a push in $\\beta^*$ and performance can be envisaged. In this paper, the focus is on collimation settings and reach in $\\beta^*$---other parameters are covered in greater depth by other papers in these proceedings.

R. Bruce; G. Arduini; S. Fartoukh; M. Giovannozzi; M. Lamont; E. Metral; T. Pieloni; S. Redaelli; J. Wenninger

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

334

CERTS 2012 Program Review - Baselining Studies and Analysis - Bharat Bhargava, EPG  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Song Xue, Prashant Palayam, Mark Woodall Washington, DC June 12-13, 2012 1 Project Objective  Operators monitor power flows at specific interchange points (like Keystone-Juniata). However, power flows may not be a good measure of wide area system stress  Phasor networks provide the capability to monitor in real-time phase angle differences and other power system metrics which are better indicators of wide area system stress  Angle differences can also be correlated with power flows and State Estimator outputs  Research objective is to develop approach for EI baselining using data from different ISOs and establish limits for use in real-time operations  Approach utilized is to use data from state estimation and stressed

335

Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate base line exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will be at least somewhat uncertain. The contemporary technology base provides ways-and-means for commencing the development of such a meteorological measurement-intensive climate baseline, moreover with a program budget far less than the {approx}$2.5 B/year which the US. currently spends on ''global change'' studies. In particular, the recent advent of satellite-based global telephony enables real-time control of, and data-return from, instrument packages of very modest scale, and Silicon Revolution-based sensor, data-processing and -storage advances permit 'intelligent' data-gathering payloads to be created with 10 gram-scale mass budgets. A geophysical measurement system implemented in such modern technology is a populous constellation 03 long-lived, highly-miniaturized robotic weather stations deployed throughout the weather-generating portions of the Earths atmosphere, throughout its oceans and across its land surfaces. Leveraging the technological advances of the OS, the filly-developed atmospheric weather station of this system has a projected weight of the order of 1 ounce, and contains a satellite telephone, a GPS receiver, a full set of atmospheric sensing instruments and a control computer - and has an operational life of the order of 1 year and a mass-production cost of the order of $20. Such stations are effectively ''intra-atmospheric satellites'' but likely have serial-production unit costs only about twenty-billionths that of a contemporary NASA global change satellite, whose entirely-remote sensing capabilities they complement with entirely-local sensing. It's thus feasible to deploy millions of them, and thereby to intensively monitor all aspects of the Earths weather. Analogs of these atmospheric weather stations will be employed to provide comparable-quality reporting of oceanic and land-surface geophysical parameters affecting weather. This definitive climate baselining system could be in initial-prototype operation on a one-year time-scale, and in intermediate-scale, proof-of-principle operation within three years, at a total cost of {approx}$95M. Steady-state operating costs are estimated to be {approx} $75M/year, or {approx}3% of the current US. ''global change'' program-cost. Its data-return would be of great value very quickly as simply the best weather information, and within a few years as the definitive climatic variability-reporting system. It would become the generator of a definitive climate baseline at a total present-value cost of {approx}$0.9 B.

Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Marion, J; Wood, L

2001-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

336

The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.

LBNE Collaboration; Corey Adams; David Adams; Tarek Akiri; Tyler Alion; Kris Anderson; Costas Andreopoulos; Mike Andrews; Ioana Anghel; João Carlos Costa dos Anjos; Maddalena Antonello; Enrique Arrieta-Diaz; Marina Artuso; Jonathan Asaadi; Xinhua Bai; Bagdat Baibussinov; Michael Baird; Baha Balantekin; Bruce Baller; Brian Baptista; D'Ann Barker; Gary Barker; William A. Barletta; Giles Barr; Larry Bartoszek; Amit Bashyal; Matt Bass; Vincenzo Bellini; Pietro Angelo Benetti; Bruce E. Berger; Marc Bergevin; Eileen Berman; Hans-Gerd Berns; Adam Bernstein; Robert Bernstein; Babu Bhandari; Vipin Bhatnagar; Bipul Bhuyan; Jianming Bian; Mary Bishai; Andrew Blake; Flor Blaszczyk; Erik Blaufuss; Bruce Bleakley; Edward Blucher; Steve Blusk; Virgil Bocean; F. Boffelli; Jan Boissevain; Timothy Bolton; Maurizio Bonesini; Steve Boyd; Andrew Brandt; Richard Breedon; Carl Bromberg; Ralph Brown; Giullia Brunetti; Norman Buchanan; Bill Bugg; Jerome Busenitz; E. Calligarich; Leslie Camilleri; Giada Carminati; Rachel Carr; Cesar Castromonte; Flavio Cavanna; Sandro Centro; Alex Chen; Hucheng Chen; Kai Chen; Daniel Cherdack; Cheng-Yi Chi; Sam Childress; Brajesh Chandra Choudhary; Georgios Christodoulou; Cabot-Ann Christofferson; Eric Church; David Cline; Thomas Coan; Alfredo Cocco; Joao Coelho; Stephen Coleman; Janet M. Conrad; Mark Convery; Robert Corey; Luke Corwin; Jack Cranshaw; Daniel Cronin-Hennessy; A. Curioni; Helio da Motta; Tristan Davenne; Gavin S. Davies; Steven Dazeley; Kaushik De; Andre de Gouvea; Jeffrey K. de Jong; David Demuth; Chris Densham; Milind Diwan; Zelimir Djurcic; R. Dolfini; Jeffrey Dolph; Gary Drake; Stephen Dye; Hongue Dyuang; Daniel Edmunds; Steven Elliott; Muhammad Elnimr; Sarah Eno; Sanshiro Enomoto; Carlos O. Escobar; Justin Evans; A. Falcone; Lisa Falk; Amir Farbin; Christian Farnese; Angela Fava; John Felde; S. Fernandes; Fernando Ferroni; Farshid Feyzi; Laura Fields; Alex Finch; Mike Fitton; Bonnie Fleming; Jack Fowler; Walt Fox; Alex Friedland; Stu Fuess; Brian Fujikawa; Hugh Gallagher; Raj Gandhi; Gerald Garvey; Victor M. Gehman; Gianluigi de Geronimo; Daniele Gibin; Ronald Gill; Ricardo A. Gomes; Maury C. Goodman; Jason Goon; Nicholas Graf; Mathew Graham; Rik Gran; Christopher Grant; Nick Grant; Herbert Greenlee; Leland Greenler; Sean Grullon; Elena Guardincerri; Victor Guarino; Evan Guarnaccia; Germano Guedes; Roxanne Guenette; Alberto Guglielmi; Marcelo M. Guzzo; Alec T. Habig; Robert W. Hackenburg; Haleh Hadavand; Alan Hahn; Martin Haigh; Todd Haines; Thomas Handler; Sunej Hans; Jeff Hartnell; John Harton; Robert Hatcher; Athans Hatzikoutelis; Steven Hays; Eric Hazen; Mike Headley; Anne Heavey; Karsten Heeger; Jaret Heise; Robert Hellauer; Jeremy Hewes; Alexander Himmel; Matthew Hogan; Pedro Holanda; Anna Holin; Glenn Horton-Smith; Joe Howell; Patrick Hurh; Joey Huston; James Hylen; Richard Imlay; Jonathan Insler; G. Introzzi; Zeynep Isvan; Chris Jackson; John Jacobsen; David E. Jaffe; Cat James; Chun-Min Jen; Marvin Johnson; Randy Johnson; Robert Johnson; Scott Johnson; William Johnston; John Johnstone; Ben J. P. Jones; H. Jostlein; Thomas Junk; Richard Kadel; Karl Kaess; Georgia Karagiorgi; Jarek Kaspar; Teppei Katori; Boris Kayser; Edward Kearns; Paul Keener; Ernesto Kemp; Steve H. Kettell; Mike Kirby; Joshua Klein; Gordon Koizumi; Sacha Kopp; Laura Kormos; William Kropp; Vitaly A. Kudryavtsev; Ashok Kumar; Jason Kumar; Thomas Kutter; Franco La Zia; Kenneth Lande; Charles Lane; Karol Lang; Francesco Lanni; Richard Lanza; Tony Latorre; John Learned; David Lee; Kevin Lee; Qizhong Li; Shaorui Li; Yichen Li; Zepeng Li; Jiang Libo; Steve Linden; Jiajie Ling; Jonathan Link; Laurence Littenberg; Hu Liu; Qiuguang Liu; Tiankuan Liu; John Losecco; William Louis; Byron Lundberg; Tracy Lundin; Jay Lundy; Ana Amelia Machado; Cara Maesano; Steve Magill; George Mahler; David Malon; Stephen Malys; Francesco Mammoliti; Samit Kumar Mandal; Anthony Mann; Paul Mantsch; Alberto Marchionni; William Marciano; Camillo Mariani; Jelena Maricic; Alysia Marino; Marvin Marshak; John Marshall; Shiegenobu Matsuno; Christopher Mauger; Konstantinos Mavrokoridis; Nate Mayer; Neil McCauley; Elaine McCluskey; Kirk McDonald; Kevin McFarland; David McKee; Robert McKeown; Robert McTaggart; Rashid Mehdiyev; Dongming Mei; A. Menegolli; Guang Meng; Yixiong Meng; David Mertins; Mark Messier; William Metcalf; Radovan Milincic; William Miller; Geoff Mills; Sanjib R. Mishra; Nikolai Mokhov; Claudio Montanari; David Montanari; Craig Moore; Jorge Morfin; Ben Morgan; William Morse; Zander Moss; Célio A. Moura; Stuart Mufson; David Muller; Jim Musser; Donna Naples; Jim Napolitano; Mitch Newcomer; Ryan Nichol; Tim Nicholls; Evan Niner; Barry Norris

2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

337

Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ``baseline`` risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Baseline for Climate Change: Modeling Watershed Aquatic Biodiversity Relative to Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objectives of the two-year study were to (1) establish baselines for fish and macroinvertebrate community structures in two mid-Atlantic lower Piedmont watersheds (Quantico Creek, a pristine forest watershed; and Cameron Run, an urban watershed, Virginia) that can be used to monitor changes relative to the impacts related to climate change in the future; (2) create mathematical expressions to model fish species richness and diversity, and macroinvertebrate taxa and macroinvertebrate functional feeding group taxa richness and diversity that can serve as a baseline for future comparisons in these and other watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region; and (3) heighten people’s awareness, knowledge and understanding of climate change and impacts on watersheds in a laboratory experience and interactive exhibits, through internship opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, a week-long teacher workshop, and a website about climate change and watersheds. Mathematical expressions modeled fish and macroinvertebrate richness and diversity accurately well during most of the six thermal seasons where sample sizes were robust. Additionally, hydrologic models provide the basis for estimating flows under varying meteorological conditions and landscape changes. Continuations of long-term studies are requisite for accurately teasing local human influences (e.g. urbanization and watershed alteration) from global anthropogenic impacts (e.g. climate change) on watersheds. Effective and skillful translations (e.g. annual potential exposure of 750,000 people to our inquiry-based laboratory activities and interactive exhibits in Virginia) of results of scientific investigations are valuable ways of communicating information to the general public to enhance their understanding of climate change and its effects in watersheds.

Maurakis, Eugene G

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Nuclear radiation electronic gear  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear radiation electronic gear ... Examines the line of nuclear radiation instrumentation offered by Nuclear-Chicago Corporation and Victoreen Instrument Company. ... Nuclear / Radiochemistry ...

S. Z. Lewin

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Heat transfer in a radiating fluid with slug flow in a parallel-plate channel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As a step towards a better understanding of combined conduction, convection, and radiation, fully developed heat transfer in slug flow in a flat duct ... , nonblack, isothermal surfaces. The gray radiating fluid ...

R. Viskanta

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

344

Surface Soil  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface Soil Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal Laboratory operations. April 12, 2012 Farm soil sampling Two LANL environmental field team members take soil samples from a farm. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Measurements are compared to samples from the regional sites and compared to averages over time to see if there are changes in concentrations. Monitoring surface soil LANL has monitored surface soils since the early 1970s. Institutional surface soil samples are collected from 17 on-site, 11 perimeter, and six regional (background) locations every three years.

345

Super?bandgap radiation in a?Si  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The nature of the super?bandgap radiation observed in a?Si and a?Si:H is investigated. This broad spectrum postulated to arise from localized states above the mobility gap exhibits many remarkable features. These same features occur in radiation from porous quartz but in that case the effect is known to be surface related.2 Using the Raman spectrum for calibration the strength of the signal from a?Si has been studied as a function of surface preparation. The results suggest the possibility that the radiation is a surface contaminant effect unrelated to the bulk states of the material.

B. A. Wilson

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The 1993 baseline biological studies and proposed monitoring plan for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains baseline data and recommendations for future monitoring of plants and animals near the new Device Assembly Facility (DAF) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The facility is a large structure designed for safely assembling nuclear weapons. Baseline data was collected in 1993, prior to the scheduled beginning of DAF operations in early 1995. Studies were not performed prior to construction and part of the task of monitoring operational effects will be to distinguish those effects from the extensive disturbance effects resulting from construction. Baseline information on species abundances and distributions was collected on ephemeral and perennial plants, mammals, reptiles, and birds in the desert ecosystems within three kilometers (km) of the DAF. Particular attention was paid to effects of selected disturbances, such as the paved road, sewage pond, and the flood-control dike, associated with the facility. Radiological monitoring of areas surrounding the DAF is not included in this report.

Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Implications of sterile neutrinos for medium/long-baseline neutrino experiments and the determination of ?13  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We revisit some of the recent neutrino observations and anomalies in the context of sterile neutrinos. Among our aims is to understand more clearly some of the analytic implications of the current global neutrino fits from short-baseline experiments. Of particular interest to us are the neutrino disappearance measurements from MINOS and the recent indications of a possibly nonvanishing angle, ?13, from T2K, MINOS and Double CHOOZ. Based on a general parametrization motivated in the presence of sterile neutrinos, the consistency of the MINOS disappearance data with additional sterile neutrinos is discussed. We also explore the implications of sterile neutrinos for the measurement of |U?3| in this case. We then turn our attention to the study of |Ue3| extraction in electron neutrino disappearance and appearance measurements. In particular, we study the effects of some of the additional CP phases that appear when there are sterile neutrinos. We observe that the existence of sterile neutrinos may induce a significant modification of the ?13 angle in neutrino appearance experiments like T2K and MINOS, over and above the ambiguities and degeneracies that are already present in three-neutrino parameter extractions. There are reactor experiments, for instance those measuring ?e disappearance like Double CHOOZ, Daya Bay and RENO, where this modification is less significant and therefore the extracted |Ue3| value when sterile neutrinos are present is close to the one that would be obtained in the three-neutrino case. Based on our study, we also conclude that the results from T2K imply a 90% C.L. lower bound on |Ue3|, in the “3+2” neutrino case, which is still within the sensitivity of future reactor neutrino experiments like Daya Bay, and consistent with the one-? range of sin?22?13 recently reported by the Double CHOOZ experiment. Finally, we argue that for the recently determined best-fit parameters, the results in the “3+1” scenario would be very close to the medium/long-baseline results obtained in the “3+2” case analyzed in this work.

Bhubanjyoti Bhattacharya; Arun M. Thalapillil; Carlos E. M. Wagner

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

348

Shedding light on LMA-Dark solar neutrino solution by medium baseline reactor experiments: JUNO and RENO-50  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the presence of Non-Standard neutral current Interactions (NSI) a new solution to solar neutrino anomaly with $\\cos 2\\theta_{12}<0$ appears. We investigate how this solution can be tested by upcoming intermediate baseline reactor experiments, JUNO and RENO-50. We point out a degeneracy between the two solutions when both hierarchy and the $\\theta_{12}$ octant are flipped. We then comment on how this degeneracy can be partially lifted by long baseline experiments sensitive to matter effects such as the NOvA experiment.

Pouya Bakhti; Yasaman Farzan

2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

349

radiation.p65  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

5 5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small amounts of radiation. For most people, the benefits from using such products far outweigh the radiation risks. Radiation Dose Radiation is measured in various units. Individuals who have been exposed to radiation have received a radiation dose. Radiation dose to people is expressed in

350

VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY SEARCH FOR THE RADIO COUNTERPART OF HESS J1943+213  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HESS J1943+213, a TeV point source close to the Galactic plane recently discovered by the H.E.S.S. Collaboration, was proposed to be an extreme BL Lacertae object, though a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature could not be completely discarded. To investigate its nature, we performed high-resolution radio observations with the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN) and reanalyzed archival continuum and H I data. The EVN observations revealed a compact radio counterpart of the TeV source. The low brightness temperature and the resolved nature of the radio source are indications against the beamed BL Lacertae hypothesis. The radio/X-ray source appears immersed in a {approx}1' elliptical feature, suggesting a possible galactic origin (PWN nature) for the HESS source. We found that HESS J1943+213 is located in the interior of a {approx}1 Degree-Sign diameter H I feature and explored the possibility of them being physically related.

Gabanyi, K. E. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary)] [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Dubner, G.; Giacani, E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paragi, Z.; Pidopryhora, Y. [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)] [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Frey, S., E-mail: gabanyi@konkoly.hu [FOeMI Satellite Geodetic Observatory, P.O. Box 585, H-1592 Budapest (Hungary)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Determination of ?23 in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments with three-flavor mixing effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine the accuracy of ?23 determination in future long-baseline (LBL) ?? disappearance experiments in the three-flavor mixing scheme of neutrinos. Despite that the error of sin?22?23 is indeed a few percent level at around the maximal mixing, we show that the error of physics variable s232 is large, ?(s232)/s232?10-20%, depending upon regions of ?23. The errors are severely affected by the octant degeneracy of ?23, and ?(s232) is largely amplified by the Jacobian factor relating these two variables in a region near the maximal mixing. The errors are also affected by the uncertainty due to the unknown value of ?13; ?(s232) is doubled at off maximal in the second octant of ?23 where the effect is largest. To overcome this problem, we discuss combined analysis with ?e appearance measurement in LBL experiments, or with reactor measurement of ?13. For possible relevance of subleading effects even in the next generation LBL experiments, we give a self-contained derivation of the survival probability to the next to leading order in s132 and ?m212/?m312.

Hisakazu Minakata; Masashi Sonoyama; Hiroaki Sugiyama

2004-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

352

Resolving parameter degeneracies in long-baseline experiments by atmospheric neutrino data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work we show that the physics reach of a long-baseline (LBL) neutrino oscillation experiment based on a superbeam and a megaton water Cherenkov detector can be significantly increased if the LBL data are combined with data from atmospheric neutrinos (ATM) provided by the same detector. ATM data are sensitive to the octant of ?23 and to the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy, mainly through three-flavor effects in e-like events. This allows to resolve the so-called ?23- and sign(?m312)-parameter degeneracies in LBL data. As a consequence it becomes possible to distinguish the normal from the inverted neutrino mass ordering at 2? C.L. from a combined LBL+ATM analysis if sin?22?13?0.02. The potential to identify the true values of sin?22?13 and the CP-phase ?CP is significantly increased through the lifting of the degeneracies. These claims are supported by a detailed simulation of the T2K (phase II) LBL experiment combined with a full three-flavor analysis of ATM data in the HyperKamiokande detector.

Patrick Huber; Michele Maltoni; Thomas Schwetz

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

353

Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption by the station. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Cape Canaveral AFS. It is A companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profiles to be used to improve the current energy system on the station. The characteristics of electricity, diesel fuel, No. 2 fuel oil, and motor vehicle gasoline (MOGAS) are analyzed for on-base facilities. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Cape Canaveral AFS facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985--1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the North, South, and Titan Substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

Wahlstrom, R.R.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption on the base. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Patrick AFB. It is a comparison report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profile information to be used to improve the characterization of energy use on the base. The characteristics of electricity, natural gas, and No. 2 fuel oil are analyzed for on-base facilities and housing. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Patrick AFB facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985-1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the north and south substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

Wahlstrom, R.R.; King, D.A.; Parker, S.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

LTC America`s, Inc. PTC-6 vacuum system (metal): Baseline report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Optimization of neutrino fluxes for future long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the main goals of the Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation experiment (LBNO) experiment is to study the L/E behaviour of the electron neutrino appearance probability in order to determine the unknown phase $\\delta_{CP}$. In the standard neutrino 3-flavour mixing paradigm, this parameter encapsulates a possibility of a CP violation in the lepton sector that in turn could help explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. In LBNO, the measurement of $\\delta_{CP}$ would rely on the observation of the electron appearance probability in a broad energy range covering the 1$^{st}$ and 2$^{nd}$ maxima of the oscillation probability. An optimization of the energy spectrum of the neutrino beam is necessary to find the best coverage of the neutrino energies of interest. This in general is a complex task that requires exploring a large parameter space describing hadron target and beamline focusing elements. In this paper we will present a numerical approach of finding a solution to this difficult optimiza...

Calviani, M; Galymov, V; Velten, P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Integrated Baseline System (IBS). Version 1.03, System Management Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This IBS System Management Guide explains how to install or upgrade the Integrated Baseline System (IBS) software package. The IBS is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This guide includes detailed instructions for installing the IBS software package on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX computer from the IBS distribution tapes. The installation instructions include procedures for both first-time installations and upgrades to existing IBS installations. To ensure that the system manager has the background necessary for successful installation of the IBS package, this guide also includes information on IBS computer requirements, software organization, and the generation of IBS distribution tapes. When special utility programs are used during IBS installation and setups, this guide refers you to the IBS Utilities Guide for specific instructions. This guide also refers you to the IBS Data Management Guide for detailed descriptions of some IBS data files and structures. Any special requirements for installation are not documented here but should be included in a set of installation notes that come with the distribution tapes.

Williams, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bailey, S. [Innovative Emergency Management, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, Washington (United States)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Radiation Damange Effects in Candidate Titanates for Plutonium Disposition: Pyrochlore.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify certain assumptions as to the swelling, chemical durability, and microcracking that might occur in a waste-form ceramic as 239Pu decays. To study to effects of 239Pu decay, 238Pu, a short-lived isotope, was incorporated into a pyrochlore-rich baseline titanate – one that is formulated for pyrochlore as the dominant phase. The self-irradiation with 238Pu provided information on damage to the crystal structures of the phases in the ceramic as well as changes in dimensions, densities, and chemical durability. Overall, the pyrochlore baseline material appears to be a viable material for the immobilization of weapons-ready Pu. The physical and chemical properties of this material are not adversely affected by the material becoming amorphous from radiation-induced damage.

Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Rachel L.; Elovich, Robert J.; Buchmiller, William C.

2005-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The objective of this course is to provide students with an introduction to the fundamentals of ionizing radiation protection and safety. The course curriculum combines...

360

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiation emitted by the earth. This instrument is onboard a European Union geostationary weather satellite launched in December 2005; it is collecting data over Niamey and the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Analyzing Surface Solar Flux Data in Oregon for Changes Due to Aerosols Laura D. Riihimaki1, Frank E. Vignola1, Charles N. Long2, James A. Coakley Jr.3 1 University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Lab 2 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 3 Oregon State University, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

76 76 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 100 150 200 250 Direct Normal Irradiance (W/m 2 ) Eugene Hermiston Burns 3. All-sky direct normal irradiance increases 5% per decade Eppley NIP Conclusions Annual average all-sky total and direct normal irradiance measurements show an overall increase in Oregon between 1980 and 2007. Two measurement sites show statistically significant increases in clear- sky direct normal irradiance in background periods before and after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo [6] (1987- 2008), consistent with the hypothesis that a reduction in anthropogenic aerosols may contribute to the increase in surface irradiance. References 1. Long, C.N. and T. P. Ackerman, 2000: J. Geophys. Res., 105(D12), 15,609-15,626. 2. Long, C.N., and K.L. Gaustad, 2004: Atmospheric Radiation

362

radiation.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Radiation-It's a Fact of Life Radiation-It's a Fact of Life It has been with us since the beginning of time. Everyone who has ever walked on this planet has been exposed to radiation. For the most part, nature is the largest source of exposure. It's in the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, and even the food we eat. The radiation we receive from all natural and some man-made sources is called "background radiation." The millirem (mrem) is a unit used for measuring radiation received by a person. The total average background for radiation received by people living in the United States is 360 millirem per year (mrem/yr), of which 300 mrem/yr is from natural sources, and 60 mrem/yr is man-made. Cosmic Radiation from the sun and stars Internal Radiation from naturally radioactive

363

Fireball during combustion of hydrocarbon fueld releases II. Thermal radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The processes of radiative heat transfer in a fireball which develops upon ignition of a cloud of hydrocarbon fuel near the Earth’s surface are simulated numerically. The emissive characteristics of combustion pr...

G. M. Makhviladze; J. P. Roberts; S. E. Yakush

364

Programmable surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Baseline information development for energy smart schools -- applied research, field testing and technology integration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The original scope of work was to obtain and analyze existing and emerging data in four states: California, Florida, New York, and Wisconsin. The goal of this data collection was to deliver a baseline database or recommendations for such a database that could possibly contain window and daylighting features and energy performance characteristics of Kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) school buildings (or those of classrooms when available). In particular, data analyses were performed based upon the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) databases to understand school energy use, features of window glazing, and availability of daylighting in California K-12 schools. The outcomes from this baseline task can be used to assist in establishing a database of school energy performance, assessing applications of existing technologies relevant to window and daylighting design, and identifying future R&D needs. These are in line with the overall project goals as outlined in the proposal. Through the review and analysis of this data, it is clear that there are many compounding factors impacting energy use in K-12 school buildings in the U.S., and that there are various challenges in understanding the impact of K-12 classroom energy use associated with design features of window glazing and skylight. First, the energy data in the existing CEUS databases has, at most, provided the aggregated electricity and/or gas usages for the building establishments that include other school facilities on top of the classroom spaces. Although the percentage of classroom floor area in schools is often available from the databases, there is no additional information that can be used to quantitatively segregate the EUI for classroom spaces. In order to quantify the EUI for classrooms, sub-metering of energy usage by classrooms must be obtained. Second, magnitudes of energy use for electricity lighting are not attainable from the existing databases, nor are the lighting levels contributed by artificial lighting or daylight. It is impossible to reasonably estimate the lighting energy consumption for classroom areas in the sample of schools studied in this project. Third, there are many other compounding factors that may as well influence the overall classroom energy use, e.g., ventilation, insulation, system efficiency, occupancy, control, schedules, and weather. Fourth, although we have examined the school EUI grouped by various factors such as climate zones, window and daylighting design features from the California databases, no statistically significant associations can be identified from the sampled California K-12 schools in the current California CEUS. There are opportunities to expand such analyses by developing and including more powerful CEUS databases in the future. Finally, a list of parameters is recommended for future database development and for use of future investigation in K-12 classroom energy use, window and skylight design, and possible relations between them. Some of the key parameters include: (1) Energy end use data for lighting systems, classrooms, and schools; (2) Building design and operation including features for windows and daylighting; and (3) Other key parameters and information that would be available to investigate overall energy uses, building and systems design, their operation, and services provided.

Xu, Tengfang; Piette, Mary Ann

2004-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

366

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

367

Level III baseline risk evaluation for Building 3505 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Level III Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) for Building 3505, the ORNL Metal Recovery Facility, provides an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects, current or future, associated with the presence of hazardous substances in the building. The Metal Recovery Facility was used from 1952 through 1960 to process large quantities of radioactive material using the PUREX process for the recovery of uranium-238, plutonium-239, neptunium-237, and americium-241. The facility consists of seven process cells (A through G), a canal, a dissolver room, a dissolver pit, an office, locker room, storage area, control room, electrical gallery, shop, and makeup area. The cells were used to house the nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment, and the canal was constructed to be used as a water-shielded transfer canal. Currently, there are no known releases of radioactive contaminants from Building 3505. To perform the BRE, historical radiological survey data were used to estimate the concentration of alpha- and beta/gamma emitting radionuclides in the various cells, rooms, and other areas in Building 3505. Data from smear surveys were used to estimate the amount of transferable contamination (to which receptors can be exposed via inhalation and ingestion), and data from probe surveys were used to estimate the amount of both fixed and transferable contamination (from which receptors can receive external exposure). Two land use scenarios, current and future, and their subsequent exposure scenarios were explored in the BRE. Under the current land use scenario, two exposure scenarios were evaluated. The first was a worst-case industrial exposure scenario in which the receptor is a maintenance worker who works 8 hours/day, 350 days/year in the building for 25 years. In the second, more realistic exposure scenario, the receptor is a surveillance and maintenance (S&M) worker who spends two 8-hour days/year in the building for 25 years.

Mostella, W.B. Jr.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Statistical Comparison of the Baseline Mechanical Properties of NBG-18 and PCEA Graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled design that is capable of producing process heat for power generation and for industrial process that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a comprehensive comparison between these values in different nuclear grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons and variations between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between the two grades of graphite that were initially favored in the two main VHTR designs. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration, while PCEA, a smaller grain, petroleum coke, extruded graphite from GrafTech was favored for the prismatic configuration. An analysis of the comparison between these two grades will include not only the differences in fundamental and statistically-significant individual strength levels, but also the differences in variability in properties within each of the grades that will ultimately provide the basis for the prediction of in-service performance. The comparative performance of the different types of nuclear grade graphites will continue to evolve as thousands more specimens are fully characterized from the numerous grades of graphite being evaluated.

Mark C. Carroll; David T. Rohrbaugh

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Baseline risk assessment for exposure to contaminants at the St. Louis Site, St. Louis, Missouri  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The St. Louis Site comprises three noncontiguous areas in and near St. Louis, Missouri: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLAPS), and the Latty Avenue Properties. The main site of the Latty Avenue Properties includes the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and the Futura Coatings property, which are located at 9200 Latty Avenue. Contamination at the St. Louis Site is the result of uranium processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1970s. Uranium processing took place at the SLDS from 1942 through 1957. From the 1940s through the 1960s, SLAPS was used as a storage area for residues from the manufacturing operations at SLDS. The materials stored at SLAPS were bought by Continental Mining and Milling Company of Chicago, Illinois, in 1966, and moved to the HISS/Futura Coatings property at 9200 Latty Avenue. Vicinity properties became contaminated as a result of transport and movement of the contaminated material among SLDS, SLAPS, and the 9200 Latty Avenue property. This contamination led to the SLAPS, HISS, and Futura Coatings properties being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the St. Louis Site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The primary goal of FUSRAP is the elimination of potential hazards to human health and the environment at former Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites so that, to the extent possible, these properties can be released for use without restrictions. To determine and establish cleanup goals for the St. Louis Site, DOE is currently preparing a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS). This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is a component of the process; it addresses potential risk to human health and the environment associated wi

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon fiber-reinforced bisphenol-A epoxy matrix composite was evaluated for gamma radiation resistance. The composite was exposed to total gamma doses of 50, 100, and 200 Mrad. Irradiated and baseline samples were tested for tensile strength, hardness and evaluated using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) for structural changes. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate microstructural behavior. Mechanical testing of the composite bars revealed no apparent change in modulus, strain to failure, or fracture strength after exposures. However, testing of only the epoxy matrix revealed changes in hardness, thermal properties, and FTIR results with increasing gamma irradiation. The results suggest the epoxy within the composite can be affected by exposure to gamma irradiation.

Hoffman, E

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

372

Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) Water Cherenkov Detector Schedule and Cost Books LBNE Far Site Internal Review(December 6-9,2011)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Schedule and Cost Books developed for the Water Cherenkov Detector (WCD) option for the far detector of the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)

Stewart J.; Diwan, M.; Dolph, J.; Novakova, P.; Sharma, R.; Stewart, J.; Viren, B.; Russo, T.; Kaducak, M.; Mantsch, P.; Paulos, B.; Feyzi, F.; Sullivan, G.; Bionta, R.; Fowler, J.; Warner, D.; Bahowick, S.; Van Berg, R.; Kearns, E.; Hazen, E.; Sinnis, G.; Sanchez, M.

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

373

Dual baseline search for muon antineutrino disappearance at 0.1 eV^2 < {\\Delta}m^2 < 100 eV^2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MiniBooNE and SciBooNE collaborations report the results of a joint search for short baseline disappearance of \\bar{{\

MiniBooNE,; Aguilar-Arevalo, A A; Alcaraz-Aunion, J L; Brice, S J; Brown, B C; Bugel, L; Catala-Perez, J; Church, E D; Conrad, J M; Dharmapalan, R; Djurcic, Z; Dore, U; Finley, D A; Ford, R; Franke, A J; Garcia, F G; Garvey, G T; Giganti, C; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Grange, J; Guzowski, P; Hanson, A; Hayato, Y; Hiraide, K; Ignarra, C; Imlay, R; Johnson, R A; Jones, B J P; Jover-Manas, G; Karagiorgi, G; Katori, T; Kobayashi, Y K; Kobilarcik, T; Kubo, H; Kurimoto, Y; Louis, W C; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Mahn, K B M; Mariani, C; Marsh, W; Masuike, S; Matsuoka, K; McGary, V T; Metcalf, W; Mills, G B; Mirabal, J; Mitsuka, G; Miyachi, Y; Mizugashira, S; Moore, C D; Mousseau, J; Nakajima, Y; Nakaya, T; Napora, R; Nienaber, P; Orme, D; Osmanov, B; Otani, M; Pavlovic, Z; Perevalov, D; Polly, C C; Ray, H; Roe, B P; Russell, A D; Sanchez, F; Shaevitz, M H; Shibata, T -A; Sorel, M; Spitz, J; Stancu, I; Stefanski, R J; Takei, H; Tanaka, H -K; Tanaka, M; Tayloe, R; Taylor, I J; Tesarek, R J; Uchida, Y; Van de Water, R G; Walding, J J; Wascko, M O; White, D H; White, H B; Wickremasinghe, D A; Yokoyama, M; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Opportunities in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation Tuesday 10/8/02 Chair: Lars Pettersson 1:30-1:40 Anders Nilsson Welcome 1:40-2:30 Gabor Somorjai University of California, Berkeley and LBLN Need for New Directions of Research at the Frontiers of Catalysis Science 2:30-3:00 Geoff Thornton University of Manchester Influence of defects on the reactivity of ZnO 3:00-3:30 Anders Nilsson Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of Surfaces and Reactions 3:30-3:45 Break Chair: Anders Nilsson 3:45-4:15 Lars Pettersson Stockholm University Adsorbate-Substrate Bonding: An Experimental and Theoretical MO Picture 4:15-4:45 Miquel Salmeron Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Photoelectron Spectroscopy studies of surfaces in high pressure gas

375

Radiation Safety Program Annual Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................10 AREA RADIATION SURVEYS AND CONTAMINATION CONTROL...........................................11.....................................................................................................13 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT meetings of the Radiation Safety Committee where new users and uses of radioactive materials, radiation

Lyubomirsky, Ilya

376

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of steam buildings. Radiator Labs developed a mechanism that allows heating systems to control heat transfer at each radiator. The Radiator Labs design utilizes an...

377

The universal radiative transport equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE UNIVERSAL RADIATIVE TRANSPORT EQUATION Rudolph W.The Universal Radiative Transport Equation Rudolph W.The various radiative transport equations used in general

Preisendorfer, Rudolph W

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Campaign Links CARES Website Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) - Surface Meteorological Sounding 2010.05.26, Zaveri, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) Photo-Acoustic Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering 2010.05.26, Arnott, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES): SMPS & CCN counter deployment during CARES/Cal-NEx 2010.05.04, Wang, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Ground Based Instruments 2010.04.01, Cziczo, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

379

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air- tantly, what radiation dose people may have received. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP, additionalProjectworkcouldresultin revisions of these dose estimates. April 21, 1994 Companion

380

Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

WI Radiation Protection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

382

RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPYRIGHT 2002 Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 98, No'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

Healy, Kevin Edward

383

Realistic Solar Surface Convection Simulations Robert F. Stein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Realistic Solar Surface Convection Simulations Robert F. Stein Michigan State University, East free simulations with re­ alistic physics of convection near the solar surface. We summarize solar convection is non­local. It is driven from a thin surface thermal boundary layer where radiative

Stein, Robert

384

Radioactivity and Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radioactivity and Radiation Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects Radioactivity and Radiation Discussion of radioactivity and radiation, uranium and radioactivity, radiological health risks of uranium isotopes and decay products. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. This process, also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity

385

TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

Clements, Emily B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

An investigation of sea surface temperature patterns in the Gulf of Mexico as determined by an airborne infrared sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation from the sea surface may be used to delineate reliable horizontal patterns of surface temperature. The airborne data nave revealed horizontal temperature changes of 1. 5C to 4. 0C across the boundary of the major current systems in the Gulf... Surface Temperature. . . . Radiation Characteristics of the Sea Surface. . . Atmospheric Attenuation and Emission of Long-Nave Radiation. III. INSTRPilEK'TATION AND AIRBORNE PLATFORvh . 16 General Radiometer 16 16 Aircraft and Navigational System...

Drennan, Kirby Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

387

Radiation at FUSRAP Sites U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Building Strong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2012 Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) The Nature of Radiation Radiation is a naturally occurring type of energy. It is released by unstable forms of atoms, the basic units of matter year from the ground surface. Food accounts for about 20 mrem of our annual radiation exposure. Natural

US Army Corps of Engineers

388

Bacterial carbon production in Lake Erie is influenced by viruses and solar radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bacterial carbon production in Lake Erie is influenced by viruses and solar radiation Steven W basin, solar radiation was also dem- onstrated to regulate bacterial productivity. Ultraviolet radiation and >30% of the population of Canada. The lakes themselves constitute the largest system of fresh, surface

Wilhelm, Steven W.

389

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

390

Collecting program planning and evaluation data from low-income, minority households: A case study baseline survey  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Wisconsin Demand Side Demonstrations (WDSD) collaborative effort, Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCo) is implementing a direct-install lighting program in two minority low-income communities in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. One of the communities has a very high proportion of Hispanic residents, many of whom speak only Spanish, while the other is a predominantly African-American neighborhood. This demonstration is designed to test the use of community based organizations (CBOs) to contact, market and recruit program participants. As a matter of policy WDSD requires that all programs be evaluated and that whenever feasible, baseline studies be conducted. This paper describes the methods used to conduct the baseline studies in these neighborhoods. The methods are important for evaluators because they demonstrate a very effective way of surveying a hard to reach population. They may also be useful for marketers and program staff who may find the approach useful for working with similar populations. The methods presented in this paper resulted in a 94% completion rate for a baseline survey that averaged twenty-two minutes. The survey probed household activities, appliance mix, appliance use, and community social activities. The paper demonstrates what can be achieved in minority communities when resources located in the neighborhoods are mobilized to obtain market, program or evaluation information.

Hall, N. [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Wintersberger, J. [Wisconsin Electric Power Co., Milwaukee, WI (United States); Reed, J.; Maggiore, A.; Pinkowski, C. [Wisconsin Demand Side Demonstration, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Edward S. Van Vleet, Peter M. Williams. Sampling sea surface films ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

May 21, 1979 ... tive of naturally occurring films. Stainless steel .... rally occuring sea surface films present in uncontaminated areas ... radiation; an-. HAM. 1979.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

392

Radiation: Facts, Risks and Realities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Radiation 3 Understanding Radiation Risks 6 Naturally Occurring (Background) Radiation 7 Man-Made Radiation, beta particles and gamma rays. Other types, such as x-rays, can occur naturally or be machine-produced. Scientists have also learned that radiation sources are naturally all around us. Radiation can come from

393

Radiation-tolerant imaging device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A barrier at a uniform depth for an entire wafer is used to produce imaging devices less susceptible to noise pulses produced by the passage of ionizing radiation. The barrier prevents charge created in the bulk silicon of a CCD detector or a semiconductor logic or memory device from entering the collection volume of each pixel in the imaging device. The charge barrier is a physical barrier, a potential barrier, or a combination of both. The physical barrier is formed by an SiO{sub 2} insulator. The potential barrier is formed by increasing the concentration of majority carriers (holes) to combine with the electron`s generated by the ionizing radiation. A manufacturer of CCD imaging devices can produce radiation-tolerant devices by merely changing the wafer type fed into his process stream from a standard wafer to one possessing a barrier beneath its surface, thus introducing a very small added cost to his production cost. An effective barrier type is an SiO{sub 2} layer. 7 figs.

Colella, N.J.; Kimbrough, J.R.

1996-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

394

National Solar Radiation Data Base | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Radiation Data Base Solar Radiation Data Base Dataset Summary Description The National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) is the most comprehensive collection of solar data freely available. The 1991 - 2005 NSRDB contains hourly solar radiation (including global, direct, and diffuse) and meteorological data for 1,454 stations. NCDC's Integrated Surface Data (ISD) were the key data source for this effort, with much of the solar data modeled/estimated based on the surface observations. This dataset builds on the 1961-1990 NSRDB, which contains data for 239 stations. These data are extremely useful in estimating solar energy potential across the U.S., and in estimating heating/cooling requirements for buildings based on heat-gain from solar radiation. More information available at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/reds/

395

Design considerations for a ceramic fabric radiator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of an Advanced Ceramic Fabric (ACF) thermal management device for use in both interplanetary and near-earth space must consider several important aspects of the environment. First, the radiation field at various locations is dominated by a proton component which deposits its energy on the surface of the device. Second, the ACF materials, as well as pressure liner materials, must also be compatible with the working fluids selected for the system. Third, the fluid dynamics and heat transfer characteristics of this device should be adequately characterized. With the proper consideration of materials and operating conditions, the Bubble Membrane Radiator (BMR) may be utilized for several advanced space missions. 17 refs.

Pauley, K.A.; Webb, B.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Klein, A.C. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

BWR radiation control: plant demonstration. Volume 2. Appendixes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first year's progress is presented for a four-year program intended to implement and evaluate BRAC radiation reduction operational guidelines at the Vermont Yankee BWR and to document the results in sufficient detail to provide guidance to other BWR owners. Past operational, chemistry and radiation level data have been reviewed to provide a historical base of reference. Extensive sampling and chemistry monitoring systems have been installed to evaluate plant chemistry status and the effects of program implemented changes. Radiation surveys and piping gamma scans are being performed at targeted locations to quantify radiation level trends and to identify and quantify piping isotopics. Contact radiation levels on the recirculation line at Vermont Yankee have been increasing at a rate of 175 mR/h-EFPY since 1978. A materials survey of feedwater and reactor components in contact with the process liquid has been performed to identify sources of corrosion product release, particularly cobalt and nickel. A feedwater oxygen injection system has been installed to evaluate the effects of oxygen control on feedwater materials corrosion product releases. A baseline performance evaluation of the condensate treatment and reactor water cleanup systems has been completed. Data on organics and ionics at Vermont Yankee have been obtained. A methodology of BWR feedwater system layup during extended outages was developed, and an evaluation performed of layup and startup practices utilized at Vermont Yankee during the fall 1980 and 1981 refueling outages.

Palino, G.F.; Hobart, R.L.; Wall, P.S.; Sawochka, S.G.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

399

The flying radiation case  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum.

Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Applied Theoretical and Computational Physics Div.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Radiative Importance of ThinŽ Liquid Water Clouds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Program Program Accomplishments of the Instantaneous Radiative Flux (IRF) Working Group August 2006 AERI Observations at Southern Great Plains Improve Infrared Radiative Transfer Models Turner et al., JAS, 2004 * AERI observations used to evaluate clear sky IR radiative transfer models * Long-term comparisons have improved - Spectral line database parameters - Water vapor continuum absorption models * Reduced errors in computation of downwelling radiative IR flux by approx 4; current uncertainty is on the order of 1.5 W/m 2 AERI - (Pre-ARM Model) AERI - (Model in 2003) 1 RU = 1 mW / (m 2 sr cm -1 ) Excellent Agreement in Clear Sky Shortwave Radiative Transfer Between Obs and Calcs Shortwave Flux Bias (Solid) Shortwave Flux RMS (Hatched) W m -2 * Comparison of shortwave radiative flux at the surface

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Observations of Strong Surface Radar Ducts over the Persian Gulf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ducting of microwave radiation is a common phenomenon over the oceans. The height and strength of the duct are controlling factors for radar propagation and must be determined accurately to assess propagation ranges. A surface evaporation duct ...

Ian M. Brooks; Andreas K. Goroch; David P. Rogers

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Retrieval of hourly records of surface hydrometeorological variables using satellite remote sensing data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new algorithm is formulated for retrieving hourly time-series of surface hydrometeorological variables including net radiation, sensible heat flux, and near-surface air temperature aided by hourly visible images from the Geostationary ...

Sanaz Moghim; Andrew Jay Bowen; Sepideh Sarachi; Jingfeng Wang

403

RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Geothermal environmental assessment baseline study: vegetation and soils of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Resource Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Identification and elemental concentrations of indigenous soil and plant systems found on the Roosevelt Hot Spring KGRA are described. Twenty-three different soils and five separate plant communities are geographically mapped and identified. One hundred forty-seven plant species were identified. Forbs, shrubs, and grasses are represented by 58, 53, and 36 species respectively. Three sites, each measuring 25 hectares, were selected for long-term vegetative assessment. At these locations a permanent enclosure measuring 24.4 meters x 24.4 meters was constructed to assess long-term effects of livestock grazing. Biomass, plant species, percentage composition, ground cover and livestock carrying capacities were determined at each site. Surface soils and Artemisia tridentata leaf tissue were collected for elemental analysis.

Brown, K.W.; Wiersma, G.B.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Surface and Interface Sciences  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home Home About Us Departments Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences > Radiation & Solid Interactions > Nanomaterials Sciences > Surface & Interface Sciences Semiconductor & Optical Sciences Energy Sciences Small Science Cluster Business Office News Partnering Research Carlos Gutierrez Carlos Gutierrez Manager Resources Department Folder 01114 Sharepoint Visit Our Labs Grest Group Nanorheology Research (514 KB PDF) Interfacial Force Microscopy Group (701 KB PDF) Research Image Gallery (3,698 KB PDF) Surface Imaging Laboratory Technology - Metals for tomorrow Tina Nenoff Departments Surface and Interface Sciences The Surface and Interface Sciences Department is engaged in a diverse portfolio of leading-edge research projects related to the understanding

406

Atomic Radiation (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

407

Radiation.cdr  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

An average American's exposure is about 620 millirems per year from naturally occurring and other sources. Other Factors Background radiation varies with location....

408

Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

409

Radiation Safety September 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

...................................................................................... 8 2.6 RUA Holder........................................................................................................ 11 3.3 Radiation Use Authorization (RUA).......................................................................................... 11 3.4 Review of RUA Applications

California at Irvine, University of

410

Radiative polarization of electrons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a new method of calculating the radiative polarization of electrons in homogeneous magnetic fields, using the modified electron propagation function.

Julian Schwinger and Wu-yang Tsai

1974-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for understanding

Pennycook, Steve

412

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM

Pennycook, Steve

413

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sources. People are exposedAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 Fig. F.1. The hydrogen atom and its

Pennycook, Steve

414

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation G-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation G-3 Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

415

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

416

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank–sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ? P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ? P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results support further development of structured didactic curricula for the radiation oncology clerkship.

Jagadeesan, Vikrant S. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Raleigh, David R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of California–San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Golden, Daniel W., E-mail: dgolden@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Methodological and Practical Considerations for DevelopingMultiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects inCentral America  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) andthe Center for Sustainable Development in the Americas (CSDA) conductedtechnical studies and organized two training workshops to developcapacity in Central America for the evaluation of climate changeprojects. This paper describes the results of two baseline case studiesconducted for these workshops, one for the power sector and one for thecement industry, that were devised to illustrate certain approaches tobaseline setting. Multiproject baseline emission rates (BERs) for themain Guatemalan electricity grid were calculated from 2001 data. Inrecent years, the Guatemalan power sector has experienced rapid growth;thus, a sufficient number of new plants have been built to estimateviable BERs. We found that BERs for baseload plants offsetting additionalbaseload capacity ranged from 0.702 kgCO2/kWh (using a weighted averagestringency) to 0.507 kgCO2/kWh (using a 10th percentile stringency),while the baseline for plants offsetting load-followingcapacity is lowerat 0.567 kgCO2/kWh. For power displaced from existing load-followingplants, the rate is higher, 0.735 kgCO2/kWh, as a result of the age ofsome plants used for meeting peak loads and the infrequency of their use.The approved consolidated methodology for the Clean Development Mechanismyields a single rate of 0.753 kgCO2/kWh. Due to the relatively smallnumber of cement plants in the region and the regional nature of thecement market, all of Central America was chosen as the geographicboundary for setting cement industry BERs. Unfortunately, actualoperations and output data were unobtainable for most of the plants inthe region, and many data were estimated. Cement industry BERs rangedfrom 205 kgCO2 to 225 kgCO2 per metric ton of cement.

Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion,Kristel

2004-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

419

Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bands Campaign (RHUBC) D. Turner and E. Mlawer RHUBC Breakout Session 2008 ARM Science Team Meeting 13 March, 2008 Norfolk, Virginia Motivation * Radiative heating/cooling in the mid-troposphere modulate the vertical motions of the atmosphere - This heating/cooling occurs primarily in water vapor absorption bands that are opaque at the surface * Approximately 40% of the OLR comes from the far-IR * Until recently, the observational tools were not available to evaluate the accuracy of the far-IR radiative transfer models - Spectrally resolved far-IR radiances, accurate PWV * Need to validate both clear sky (WV) absorption and cirrus scattering properties in these normally opaque bands Scientific Objectives * Conduct clear sky radiative closure studies in order to reduce uncertainties

420

Literature Review for the Baseline Knowledge Assessment of the DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program.  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3/258 3/258 LITERATURE REVIEW FOR THE BASELINE KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENT OF THE HYDROGEN, FUEL CELLS, AND INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Tykey Truett Center for Transportation Analysis Oak Ridge National Laboratory October 2003 Prepared by the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6073 Managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC For the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 Prepared for the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Washington, D.C. CONTENTS ABSTRACT................................................................................................................. iii ACRONYMS ............................................................................................................... iv

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Formation and sustainment of internal transport barriers in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor with the baseline heating mix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs) are a potential and attractive route to steady-state operation in ITER. These plasmas exhibit radially localized regions of improved confinement with steep pressure gradients in the plasma core, which drive large bootstrap current and generate hollow current profiles and negative magnetic shear. This work examines the formation and sustainment of ITBs in ITER with electron cyclotron heating and current drive. The time-dependent transport simulations indicate that, with a trade-off of the power delivered to the equatorial and to the upper launcher, the sustainment of steady-state ITBs can be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating configuration.

Poli, Francesca M.; Kessel, Charles E. [Princeton Plasma Physics laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Thermal Decomposition of Radiation-Damaged Polystyrene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiation-damaged polystyrene material (''polycube'') used in this study was synthesized by mixing a high-density polystyrene (''Dylene Fines No. 100'') with plutonium and uranium oxides. The polycubes were used on the Hanford Site in the 1960s for criticality studies to determine the hydrogen-to-fissile atom ratios for neutron moderation during processing of spent nuclear fuel. Upon completion of the studies, two methods were developed to reclaim the transuranic (TRU) oxides from the polymer matrix: (1) burning the polycubes in air at 873 K; and (2) heating the polycubes in the absence of oxygen and scrubbing the released monomer and other volatile organics using carbon tetrachloride. Neither of these methods was satisfactory in separating the TRU oxides from the polystyrene. Consequently, the remaining polycubes were sent to the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for storage. Over time, the high dose of alpha and gamma radiation has resulted in a polystyrene matrix that is highly cross-linked and hydrogen deficient and a stabilization process is being developed in support of Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-1. Baseline processes involve thermal treatment to pyrolyze the polycubes in a furnace to decompose the polystyrene and separate out the TRU oxides. Thermal decomposition products from this degraded polystyrene matrix were characterized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to provide information for determining the environmental impact of the process and for optimizing the process parameters. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system coupled to a horizontal tube furnace was used for the characterization studies. The decomposition studies were performed both in air and helium atmospheres at 773 K, the planned processing temperature. The volatile and semi-volatile organic products identified for the radiation-damaged polystyrene were different from those observed for virgin polystyrene. The differences were in the n umber of organic species generated and their concentrations.

J Abrefah GS Klinger

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

423

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DDE ESTIMATED DOSE FROM CONCEPTION TO DECLARATION: DDE Radiation Safety Officer Signature for increased protection from ionizing radiation for declared pregnant radiation workers. The radiation dose of the occupational dose limit of 50 mSv (5.0 rem). The CPMC Radiation Safety Office will provide education

Jia, Songtao

424

RADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. · Radiation therapist - a health professional who designs, calculates (plans) and provides the radiation dose and monitors the delivery of radiation therapy, taking into account the protection and safety of patientsRADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE #12;A Career in Radiation Oncology YOUR CHOICE SAVE LIVES

Tobar, Michael

425

Radiation safety system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......occupational illness to personnel, major damage...acceptable levels. Selection of control measures...or equipment operating correctly in...99 103 to 104 Personnel life safety...and abnormal operating conditions under...radiation risk to personnel, public and...worker radiation training) reduces the......

Vaclav Vylet; James C. Liu; Lawrence S. Walker

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Radiation safety system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......disable this safety function and...circuits and software. Other required...source in case of radiation monitors. Feedback...from other non-safety systems to prevent...write and check software. The expected...logic systems for safety functions can...levels of prompt radiation hazard. ACS......

Vaclav Vylet; James C. Liu; Lawrence S. Walker

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Risks from ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... RADON indoors now accounts for nearly half of the average UK population exposure to ionizing radiation ... exposure to ionizing radiation. We believe that the extent of the variation in exposure to radon in the United Kingdom and else-where and its magnitude in relation to exposures from ...

R. H. Clarke; T. R. E. Southwood

1989-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

428

Three-dimensional architecture for solid state radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation-damage resistant radiation detector is formed on a substrate formed of a material doped with a first conductivity type dopant. The detector includes at least one first electrode formed of first conductivity type dopant, and at least one second electrode that is spaced-apart from the first electrode and formed of a second conductivity type dopant. Each first and second electrode penetrates into the substrate from a substrate surface, and one or more electrodes may penetrate entirely through the substrate, that is traversing from one surface to the other surface. Particulate and/or electromagnetic radiation penetrating at least a surface of the substrate releases electrons and holes in substrate regions. Because the electrodes may be formed entirely through the substrate thickness, the released charges will be a relatively small distance from at least a portion of such an electrode, e.g., a distance less than the substrate thickness. The electrons and/or holes traverse the small distance and are collected by said electrodes, thus promoting rapid detection of the radiation. By providing one or more electrodes with a dopant profile radially graded in a direction parallel to a substrate surface, an electric field results that promotes rapid collection of released electrons and said holes. Monolithic combinations of such detectors may be fabricated including CMOS electronics to process radiation signals. 45 figs.

Parker, S.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

429

Three-dimensional architecture for solid state radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation-damage resistant radiation detector is formed on a substrate formed of a material doped with a first conductivity type dopant. The detector includes at least one first electrode formed of first conductivity type dopant, and at least one second electrode that is spaced-apart from the first electrode and formed of a second conductivity type dopant. Each first and second electrode penetrates into the substrate from a substrate surface, and one or more electrodes may penetrate entirely through the substrate, that is traversing from one surface to the other surface. Particulate and/or electromagnetic radiation penetrating at least a surface of the substrate releases electrons and holes in substrate regions. Because the electrodes may be formed entirely through the substrate thickness, the released charges will be a relatively small distance from at least a portion of such an electrode, e.g., a distance less than the substrate thickness. The electrons and/or holes traverse the small distance and are collected by said electrodes, thus promoting rapid detection of the radiation. By providing one or more electrodes with a dopant profile radially graded in a direction parallel to a substrate surface, an electric field results that promotes rapid collection of released electrons and said holes. Monolithic combinations of such detectors may be fabricated including CMOS electronics to process radiation signals.

Parker, Sherwood (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

The development and testing of emissivity enhancement coatings for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) radiator applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One requirement of a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) radiator is to efficiently emit photons at high temperatures to TPV cells for conversion to electric power. Because many candidate radiator materials with adequate structural properties display low emissivity, coatings or other surface modifications are required for enhancement of emissivity. Six plasma sprayed coatings and one textured surface demonstrated adequate thermal stability and emittance values of 0.8 or greater. Promising attributes of modified surfaces are identified.

Cockeram, B.V.; Measures, D.P.; Mueller, A.J.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Nuclear radiation actuated valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Radiation Weighting Factors and High Energy Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......generally inadequate for high energy radiation. In order to determine...appropriate wR values in the high energy region, several criteria are...are proposed for neutrons of energy above 100 MeV and for protons above 10 MeV. The wR value for muons is confirmed to be practically......

M. Pelliccioni

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Wave transport along surfaces with random Guillaume Bal Valentin Freilikher y George Papanicolaou z  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#11;usion approximation of the surface radiative transport equation and calculate the angular-Salpeter equation simpli#12;es to a radiative transport equation [3] in the ladder approximation. A systematic and e uctuating impedance. We derive from #12;rst principles a radiative transport equa- tion for the angularly

Bal, Guillaume

434

Wave transport along surfaces with random Guillaume Bal \\Lambda Valentin Freilikher y George Papanicolaou z  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the diffusion approximation of the surface radiative transport equation and calculate the angular distribution to a radiative transport equation [3] in the ladder approximation. A systematic and efficient way to obtain with randomly fluctuating impedance. We derive from first principles a radiative transport equa­ tion

Ryzhik, Lenya

435

Optimal Surface Marker Locations for Tumor Motion Estimation in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), are capable of delivering highly conformal radiation dose., 2007), and the extra imaging radiation dose (Jiang, 2006b). In contrast, external surrogate based tumorOptimal Surface Marker Locations for Tumor Motion Estimation in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy Bin Dong

Soatto, Stefano

436

Environmental baseline monitoring in the area of general crude oil - Department of Energy Pleasant Bayou Number 2: a geopressured geothermal test well, 1979. Annual report, Volume I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program to monitor baseline air and water quality, subsidence, microseismic activity, and noise in the vicinity of Brazoria County geopressured geothermal test wells, Pleasant Bayou No. 1 and No. 2, has been underway since March 1978. The initial report on environmental baseline monitoring at the test well contained descriptions of baseline air and water quality, a noise survey, an inventory of microseismic activity, and a discussion of the installation of a liquid tilt meter (Gustavson, 1979). The following report continues the description of baseline air and water quality of the test well site, includes an inventory of microseismic activity during 1979 with interpretations of the origin of the events, and discusses the installation and monitoring of a liquid tilt meter at the test well site. In addition, a brief description of flooding at the test site is presented.

Gustavson, T.C.; Howard, R.C.; McGookey, D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (904-113G)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment (RFI/RI/BRA) for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (FDTF) (904-113G).

Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

A large liquid argon time projection chamber for long-baseline, off-axis neutrino oscillation physics with the NuMI beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results from neutrino oscillation experiments in the last ten years have revolutionized the field of neutrino physics. While the overall oscillation picture for three neutrinos is now well established and precision measurements of the oscillation parameters are underway, crucial issues remain. In particular, the hierarchy of the neutrino masses, the structure of the neutrino mixing matrix, and, above all, CP violation in the neutrino sector are the primary experimental challenges in upcoming years. A program that utilizes the newly commissioned NuMI neutrino beamline, and its planned upgrades, together with a high-performance, large-mass detector will be in an excellent position to provide decisive answers to these key neutrino physics questions. A Liquid Argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) [2], which combines fine-grained tracking, total absorption calorimetry, and scalability, is well matched for this physics program. The few-millimeter-scale spatial granularity of a LArTPC combined with dE/dx measurements make it a powerful detector for neutrino oscillation physics. Scans of simulated event samples, both directed and blind, have shown that electron identification in {nu}{sub e} charged current interactions can be maintained at an efficiency of 80%. Backgrounds for {nu}{sub e} appearance searches from neutral current events with a {pi}{sup 0} are reduced well below the {approx} 0.5-1.0% {nu}{sub e} contamination of the {nu}{sub {mu}} beam [3]. While the ICARUS collaboration has pioneered this technology and shown its feasibility with successful operation of the T600 (600-ton) LArTPC [4], a detector for off-axis, long-baseline neutrino physics must be many times more massive to compensate for the low event rates. We have a baseline concept [5] based on the ICARUS wire plane structure and commercial methods of argon purification and housed in an industrial liquefied-natural-gas tank. Fifteen to fifty kton liquid argon capacity tanks have been considered. A very preliminary cost estimate for a 50-kton detector is $100M (unloaded) [6]. Continuing R&D will emphasize those issues pertaining to implementation of this very large scale liquid argon detector concept. Key hardware issues are achievement and maintenance of argon purity in the environment of an industrial tank, the assembly of very large electrode planes, and the signal quality obtained from readout electrodes with very long wires. Key data processing issues include an initial focus on rejection of cosmic rays for a surface experiment. Efforts are underway at Fermilab and a small number of universities in the US and Canada to address these issues with the goal of embarking on the construction of industrial-scale prototypes within one year. One such prototype could be deployed in the MiniBooNE beamline or in the NuMI surface building where neutrino interactions could be observed. These efforts are complementary to efforts around the world that include US participation, such as the construction of a LArTPC for the 2-km detector location at T2K [7]. The 2005 APS neutrino study [1] recommendations recognize that ''The development of new technologies will be essential for further advances in neutrino physics''. In a recent talk to EPP2010, Fermilab director P. Oddone, discussing the Fermilab program, states on his slides: ''We want to start a long term R&D program towards massive totally active liquid Argon detectors for extensions of NOvA''. [8]. As such, we are poised to enlarge our R&D efforts to realize the promise of a large liquid argon detector for neutrino physics.

Finley, D.; Jensen, D.; Jostlein, H.; Marchionni, A.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.A.; /Fermilab; Bromberg, C.; /Michigan State U.; Lu, C.; McDonald, T.; /Princeton U.; Gallagher,; Mann, A.; Schneps, J.; /Tufts U.; Cline, D.; Sergiampietri, F.; Wang, H.; /UCLA; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B.T.; /Yale U.; Menary, S.; /York U., Canada

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet.

Barnes, Charles Marshall; Lauerhass, Lance; Olson, Arlin Leland; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Valentine, James Henry; Lockie, Keith Andrew

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet.

Barnes, C.M.; Lauerhass, L.; Olson, A.L.; Taylor, D.D.; Valentine, J.H.; Lockie, K.A. (DOE- ID)

2002-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "baseline surface radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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441

A Design Report of the Baseline for PEP-X: an Ultra-Low Emittance Storage Ring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past year, we have worked out a baseline design for PEP-X, as an ultra-low emittance storage ring that could reside in the existing 2.2-km PEPII tunnel. The design features a hybrid lattice with double bend achromat (DBA) cells in two arcs and theoretical minimum emittance (TME) cells in the remaining four arcs. Damping wigglers are used to reduce the horizontal emittance to 86 pm-rad at zero current for a 4.5 GeV electron beam. At a design current of 1.5 A, the horizontal emittance increases, due to intrabeam scattering, to 164 pm-rad when the vertical emittance is maintained at a diffraction limited 8 pm-rad. The baseline design will produce photon beams achieving a brightness of 10{sup 22} (ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW) at 10 keV in a 3.5-m conventional planar undulator. Our study shows that an optimized lattice has adequate dynamic aperture, while accommodating a conventional off-axis injection system. In this report, we present the results of study, including the lattice properties, nonlinear dynamics, intra-beam scattering and Touschek lifetime, RF system, and collective instabilities. Finally, we discuss the possibility of partial lasing at soft X-ray wavelengths using a long undulator in a straight section.

Bane, Karl; Bertsche, Kirk; Cai, Yunhai; Chao, Alex; Corbett, Willian; Fox, John; Hettel, Robert; Huang, Xiaobiao; Huang, Zhirong; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nosochkov, Yuri; Novokhatski, Sasha; Radedeau, Thomas; Raubenheimer, Tor; Rivetta, Claudio; Safranek, James; Seeman, John; Stohr, Joachim; Stupakov, Gennady; Wang, Lanfa; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

2010-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

442

Candidate Radiation Drugs Inch Forward  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Candidate Radiation Drugs Inch Forward 10.1126/science.331.6024...radiation, workers at the damaged Fukushima nuclear plant wear protective gear...Candidate radiation drugs inch forward. | News | 0 (E)-4-carboxystyryl-4-chlorobenzylsulfone...

Yudhijit Bhattacharjee

2011-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

443

ARM - Field Campaign - International Pyrgeometer Intercomparison  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Working Group hosted an International Pyrgeometer Intercomparison among Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) members September 20 - October 1, 1999. The comparison actually...

444

Minimal model for spoof acoustoelastic surface states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Similar to textured perfect electric conductors for electromagnetic waves sustaining artificial or spoof surface plasmons we present an equivalent phenomena for the case of sound. Aided by a minimal model that is able to capture the complex wave interaction of elastic cavity modes and airborne sound radiation in perfect rigid panels, we construct designer acoustoelastic surface waves that are entirely controlled by the geometrical environment. Comparisons to results obtained by full-wave simulations confirm the feasibility of the model and we demonstrate illustrative examples such as resonant transmissions and waveguiding to show a few examples of many where spoof elastic surface waves are useful.

Christensen, J., E-mail: jochri@fotonik.dtu.dk; Willatzen, M. [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Liang, Z. [College of Electronic Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen (China)

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Anisotropic electric surface resistance of Cu(110)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electric surface resistance is measured without contacts by grazing incidence of p-polarized infrared (IR) radiation for the adsorbates CO and C2H4, which settle on top of the close packed atomic ridges of Cu(110) in the 1, -1, 0 direction. Surface resistance has only been observed for the IR electric currents in this direction. This can be explained by the assumption that IR induced currents in the 001 direction can only flow in the second and deeper layers of Cu(110). Therefore, in this direction, there is no friction with the adsorbates and hence no surface resistance.

A Otto; P Lilie; P Dumas; C Hirschmugl; M Pilling; G P Williams

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Cloud Radiative Forcing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cloud Radiative Forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility: Part 2. The Cloud Radiative Forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility: Part 2. The Vertical Redistribution of Radiant Energy by Clouds. Mace, Gerald University of Utah Benson, Sally University of Utah Kato, Seiji Hampton University/NASA Langley Research Center Documentation with data of the effects of clouds on the radiant energy balance of the surface and atmosphere represent a critical shortcoming in the set of observations that are needed to ascertain the validity of model simulations of the earth's climate. While clouds are known to cool the climate system from TOA radiation budget studies, the redistribution of energy between the surface and atmosphere and within the atmosphere by clouds has not been examined in detail. Using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP)

447

Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

Ling, Hao [The University of Texas at Austin] [The University of Texas at Austin; Hamilton, Mark F. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories] [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Bhalla, Rajan [Science Applications International Corporation] [Science Applications International Corporation; Brown, Walter E. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories] [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Hay, Todd A. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories] [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Whitelonis, Nicholas J. [The University of Texas at Austin] [The University of Texas at Austin; Yang, Shang-Te [The University of Texas at Austin] [The University of Texas at Austin; Naqvi, Aale R. [The University of Texas at Austin] [The University of Texas at Austin

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

448

Device for calibrating a radiation detector system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device is disclosed for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a ''shield plate'' or shell, and an opposing ''source plate'' containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects. 3 figures.

McFee, M.C.; Kirkham, T.J.; Johnson, T.H.

1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

449

Device for calibrating a radiation detector system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a "shield plate" or shell, and an opposing "source plate" containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects.

Mc Fee, Matthew C. (New Ellenton, SC); Kirkham, Tim J. (Beech Island, SC); Johnson, Tippi H. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Exposures Review of phenomenon appears in Radiation Research Pamela Sykes and Benjamin Blyth One concern of radiobiologists is the effect radiation exposure might have on nearby unirradiated cells. For example, when only a small fraction of cells are directly hit by radiation energy, are the surrounding unirradiated cells also at an increased risk of cancer? The term "radiation-induced bystander effect" is used to describe radiation-induced biological changes that occur in unirradiated cells within an irradiated cell population. Radiation-induced bystander effects have become established in the vernacular and are considered as an authentic radiation response. However, there is still no consensus on a precise definition of the term, which

451

RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN ULTRARELATIVISTIC OUTFLOWS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical and numerical solutions are obtained for the equation of radiative transfer in ultrarelativistic opaque jets. The solution describes the initial trapping of radiation, its adiabatic cooling, and the transition to transparency. Two opposite regimes are examined. (1) Matter-dominated outflow. Surprisingly, radiation develops enormous anisotropy in the fluid frame before decoupling from the fluid. The radiation is strongly polarized. (2) Radiation-dominated outflow. The transfer occurs as if radiation propagated in vacuum, preserving the angular distribution and the blackbody shape of the spectrum. The escaping radiation has a blackbody spectrum if (and only if) the outflow energy is dominated by radiation up to the photospheric radius.

Beloborodov, Andrei M., E-mail: amb@phys.columbia.edu [Physics Department and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

452

Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

453

Radiation prevents much cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evidence reviewed here supports the concept that chronic exposure to ionising radiation can dramatically decrease cancer incidence and mortality. This evidence includes an inverse relationship between radiation levels and cancer induction and/or mortality in: over 200 million people in the USA; 200 million people in India; 10,000 residents of Taipei who live in cobalt-60 contaminated homes; high radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran; 12 million person-years of exposed and carefully selected control nuclear workers; almost 300,000 homes with radon in the USA; non-smokers in high radon areas of Saxony, Germany.

T.D. Luckey

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Biophysics and synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book, contains contributions to the conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation held in July 1986 at Frascati. It is devoted to advances in the resolution of biological molecule structure obtainable through synchroton radiation studies. The use of synchroton radiation has firmly established x-ray spectroscopy of biological molecules. More detailed knowledge on the local structure of active sites of metalloproteins, as well as a number of studies on the interaction of metal ions with other important biological macromolecular systems are presented. This new method for protein structure analysis is a major improvement for the rapidly expanding field of protein engineering.

Bianconi, A.; Castellano, C.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Miniaturized radiation chirper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consist