National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for baseline solar radiation

  1. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    1981-07-15

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  2. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  3. Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data UO SOLAR MONITORING LAB Physics Department -- Solar Energy Center 1274 University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403-1274 April 1, 1999 #12;Hourly solar radiation data can be obtained from the University of Oregon Solar Moni- toring Laboratory after obtaining permission

  4. Solar radiation intensity calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Randolph Steven

    1978-01-01

    , radiation per unit area per unit time, on a flat-plate collector is given by: I = I cos B (2. 1a) where I is the solar constant. insolation received at one astro- nomical unit from the sun. Since clear sky conditions are assumed I o w i 1 1 b e a.... INSOLATION EQUATIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page III. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES APPENDIX VITA 25 47 48 52 Vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. Optimal Inclination for Ap=O, No Checks for Ip &0 and a Time Independent Solar Constant. II. Optimal...

  5. Arctic and Antarctic diurnal and seasonal variations of snow albedo from multiyear Baseline Surface Radiation Network measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xianwei; Zender, Charles S

    2011-01-01

    With constant SZA and solar radiation and extreme low airof long?term solar radiation measurements from two BSRNand direct and diffuse solar radiation used here. We thank

  6. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01

    Igari, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version56326 High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells Finalprototype high efficiency multijunction (MJ) solar cells use

  7. Solar Radiation and Asteroidal Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2000-09-07

    Effects of solar wind and solar electromagnetic radiation on motion of asteroids are discussed. The results complete the statements presented in Vokrouhlick\\'{y} and Milani (2000). As for the effect of electromagnetic radiation, the complete equation of motion is presented to the first order in $v/c$ -- the shape of asteroid (spherical body is explicitly presented) and surface distribution of albedo should be taken into account. Optical quantities must be calculated in proper frame of reference.

  8. Numerical Modeling of CIGS Solar Cells: Definition of the Baseline and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    Thesis Numerical Modeling of CIGS Solar Cells: Definition of the Baseline and Explanation our supervision by Markus Gloeckler entitled "Numerical Modeling of CIGS Solar Cells: Definition. A three-layer structure, simulating a Cu(InGa)Se2 (CIGS) heterojunction solar cell, was set up using

  9. NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE M. Gloeckler, A important complications that are often found in experimental CIGS and CdTe solar cells. 1. INTRODUCTION Numerical modeling of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells is an important strategy to test the viability

  10. Baseline and Target Values for PV Forecasts: Toward Improved Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat

    2015-08-05

    Accurate solar power forecasting allows utilities to get the most out of the solar resources on their systems. To truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods can provide, it is important to first develop (or determine) baseline and target solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims to develop baseline and target values for solar forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output. forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output.

  11. Microbunch preserving in-line system for an APPLE II helical radiator at the LCLS baseline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-01-01

    In a previous work we proposed a scheme for polarization control at the LCLS baseline, which exploited the microbunching from the planar undulator. After the baseline undulator, the electron beam is transported through a drift by a FODO focusing system, and through a short helical radiator. The microbunching structure can be preserved, and intense coherent radiation is emitted in the helical undulator at fundamental harmonic. The driving idea of this proposal is that the background linearly-polarized radiation from the baseline undulator is suppressed by spatial filtering. Filtering is achieved by letting radiation and electron beam through Be slits upstream of the helical radiator, where the radiation spot size is about ten times larger than the electron beam transverse size. Several changes considered in the present paper were made to improve the previous design. Slits are now placed immediately behind the helical radiator. The advantage is that the electron beam can be spoiled by the slits, and narrower sl...

  12. VII. SOLAR RADIATION DATA COMPARISONS In this section some of the solar radiation data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    18 VII. SOLAR RADIATION DATA COMPARISONS In this section some of the solar radiation data gathered by the UO Solar Monitoring Network is presented in tabular and pictorial form and related to similar information from other Western U.S. sites. A comparison of the amount of incident solar radiation is made us

  13. Deriving cloud velocity from an array of solar radiation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosch, J.L.; Zheng, Y.; Kleissl, J.

    2013-01-01

    of solar radiation based on satellite data. Proc. ISESsolar radiation: a statistical approach using satellite data.

  14. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse, and Total Solar Radiation," Solar Energy, vol. 4,r Presented at the Solar Radiation workshop of Solar Rising,MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION D. Grether, D.

  15. Estimating GroundEstimating Ground--Level Solar RadiationLevel Solar Radiation and Evapotranspiration In Puerto Ricoand Evapotranspiration In Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Estimating GroundEstimating Ground--Level Solar RadiationLevel Solar Radiation radiation, therefore, solar radiation measurements throughout the island are essential. #12;Currently, including solar radiation ·In PR, solar radiation is only available at selected locations. · The majority

  16. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  17. Solar Radiation and Meteorological Data Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    -9 2011March 8 9, 2011 #12;LISF Solar Radiation and Meteorological Sensor Network ·· Technology Needs:TechnologyCharacterize the solar resource potential for feasibility assessment of centralized PV solarfeasibility assessment of centralized PV solar gene ating facilities in the No theastgene ating facilities in the No theastgenerating

  18. Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-07-01

    SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

  19. Absorption of solar radiation by solar neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Duplancic; P. Minkowski; J. Trampetic

    2004-03-22

    We calculate the absorption probability of photons radiated from the surface of the Sun by a left-handed neutrino with definite mass and a typical momentum for which we choose |p_1|=0.2 MeV, producing a heavier right-handed antineutrino. Considering two transitions the \

  20. The European Solar Radiation Atlas 1 Page J., M. Albuisson, L. Wald, 2001. The European solar radiation atlas: a valuable digital tool. Solar Energy,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : solar water heaters, passive solar buildings, photovoltaic cells and biomass production. In each caseThe European Solar Radiation Atlas 1 Page J., M. Albuisson, L. Wald, 2001. The European solar radiation atlas: a valuable digital tool. Solar Energy, 71, 81-83, 2001.1 The European Solar Radiation Atlas

  1. Part 1. Energy and Mass Solar Radiation and the Seasons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Youmin

    Part 1. Energy and Mass Chapter 2. Solar Radiation and the Seasons #12;Introduction Solar Radiation radiation = 10 m peak #12;#12;The Solar Constant Energy intensity decreases in proportion to the distance of the Earth's Seasons Orbital alignment to the Sun = seasonal variations in solar energy Revolution

  2. Radiative cooling of solar cells LINXIAO ZHU,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Radiative cooling of solar cells LINXIAO ZHU,1 AASWATH RAMAN,2 KEN XINGZE WANG,1 MARC ABOU ANOMA,3. We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the operating temperature of a solar cell for the radiative cooling of solar cells. For an example case of a bare crystalline silicon solar cell, we show

  3. Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere: Further interpretations of collocated aircraft measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-01

    J. Vitko Jr. , Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudyet al. , Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: Observa-1999 Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere:

  4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) Instrument of Energy (DoE). Objectives · Provide Improved Methods for Radiometer Calibrations · Develop a Solar Energy Resources · Offer Unique Training Methods for Solar Monitoring Network Design, Operation

  5. Solar radiation decreases parasitism in Daphnia Erin P. Overholt,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Spencer

    LETTER Solar radiation decreases parasitism in Daphnia Erin P. Overholt,1 * Spencer R. Hall,2 Craig spores but did not affect host susceptibility to infection. The parasiteÕs sensitivity to solar radiation may underlie patterns in a lake survey: higher penetration of solar radiation into lakes correlated

  6. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Schiavon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    22] NREL , National Solar Radiation Data Base, http://data not be available, Table 1 contains direct solar beam radiation

  7. III. VALUE OF LONG-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Long-term solar radiation data sets are scarce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    indicator of the amount of useful energy that a solar energy system can collect. The variations of monthly5 III. VALUE OF LONG-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Long-term solar radiation data sets are scarce due to the considerable effort and expense of data gathering. Long-term (30-year) solar ra- diation data sets

  8. A STARMA MODEL FOR SOLAR RADIATION Chris Glasbey & Dave Allcroft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasbey, Chris

    Scotland #12;QUESTION: If the Pentland Hills were covered with solar panels how would energy output varyA STARMA MODEL FOR SOLAR RADIATION Chris Glasbey & Dave Allcroft Biomathematics & Statistics? Solar radiation was measured at 10 sites every 10 minutes for a month 2 #12;3 #12;PLAN 1. Transformation

  9. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    0.1? by 0.1? National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB-SUNY)have used measured solar radiation data instead of clear-skySolar Radiation Database, 1991-2005 Update. solar/old_data/

  10. The equation of radiative transfer in the solar interior (Collective plasma processes and the solar neutrino problem)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsytovich, V N; De Angelis, U; Forlani, A

    1995-01-01

    The equation of radiative transfer in the solar interior (Collective plasma processes and the solar neutrino problem)

  11. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-10-22

    The direct gap of the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloy system extends continuously from InN (0.7 eV, in the near IR) to GaN (3.4 eV, in the mid-ultraviolet). This opens the intriguing possibility of using this single ternary alloy system in single or multi-junction (MJ) solar cells of the type used for space-based surveillance satellites. To evaluate the suitability of In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N as a material for space applications, high quality thin films were grown with molecular beam epitaxy and extensive damage testing with electron, proton, and alpha particle radiation was performed. Using the room temperature photoluminescence intensity as a indirect measure of minority carrier lifetime, it is shown that In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N retains its optoelectronic properties at radiation damage doses at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than the damage thresholds of the materials (GaAs and GaInP) currently used in high efficiency MJ cells. This indicates that the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N is well-suited for the future development of ultra radiation-hard optoelectronics. Critical issues affecting development of solar cells using this material system were addressed. The presence of an electron-rich surface layer in InN and In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N (0 < x < 0.63) was investigated; it was shown that this is a less significant effect at large x. Evidence of p-type activity below the surface in Mg-doped InN was obtained; this is a significant step toward achieving photovoltaic action and, ultimately, a solar cell using this material.

  12. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01

    efficiency multijunction (MJ) solar cells use componentsin current multijunction (MJ) solar cells (GaAs and GaInP)

  13. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    2003-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307­312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted thin-film indium phosphide solar cell and its computer simulation Guohua Lia, *, Qingfen Yanga+ -i-p+ InP solar cell is developed. The total thickness of its epitaxial layer is only 0.22 mm

  14. Radiation belt electrons respond to multiple solar wind inputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiation belt electrons respond to multiple solar wind inputs E. J. Rigler,1 M. Wiltberger,1 and D is clearly valuable from a practical standpoint, but the latter helps build confidence in any physical on the fractional or percent variance of radiation belt electron flux that can be attributed to each different solar

  15. Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan Abstract Geoengineering via solar radiation management could affect agricultural productivity due to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation

  16. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dunlop, PV-GIS: a web-based solar radiation database for the2010. 10. NREL, National Solar Radiation Database, 1991-200514. S. Wilcox, National solar radiation database 1991-2005

  17. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Schiavon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Parsons K. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-K. The effects of solar radiation on thermal comfort.exposed to the solar radiation - a generalised algorithm.

  18. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01

    M. , “III-V compound multi-junction solar cells: present andand fabricating multi-junction solar cells using a singleanalysis of multi-junction space solar cells,” Nuc. Instrum.

  19. Spectral Solar Radiation Data Base at NREL

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    *In September 1991 the Solar Energy Research Institute became the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Description taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/spectral/

  20. Diabat L., Blanc Ph., Wald L., Solar radiation climate in Africa. Solar Energy, 76, 733-744, 2004. SOLAR RADIATION CLIMATE IN AFRICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Diabaté L., Blanc Ph., Wald L., Solar radiation climate in Africa. Solar Energy, 76, 733-744, 2004 is very useful for preliminary assessment and modeling of solar energy systems. Following the approach: clearness index, atmosphere optics, clustering, interpolation, map, solar energy systems Nomenclature: (KTd

  1. Denoising solar radiation data using coiflet wavelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul Janier, Josefina B. Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram; Hasan, Mohammad Khatim; Sulaiman, Jumat; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-10-24

    Signal denoising and smoothing plays an important role in processing the given signal either from experiment or data collection through observations. Data collection usually was mixed between true data and some error or noise. This noise might be coming from the apparatus to measure or collect the data or human error in handling the data. Normally before the data is use for further processing purposes, the unwanted noise need to be filtered out. One of the efficient methods that can be used to filter the data is wavelet transform. Due to the fact that the received solar radiation data fluctuates according to time, there exist few unwanted oscillation namely noise and it must be filtered out before the data is used for developing mathematical model. In order to apply denoising using wavelet transform (WT), the thresholding values need to be calculated. In this paper the new thresholding approach is proposed. The coiflet2 wavelet with variation diminishing 4 is utilized for our purpose. From numerical results it can be seen clearly that, the new thresholding approach give better results as compare with existing approach namely global thresholding value.

  2. Rapid and extensive warming following cessation of solar radiation management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCusker, Kelly E

    Solar radiation management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to alleviate the climate impacts of ongoing anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, its efficacy depends on its indefinite maintenance, without ...

  3. National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2010 Update: User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    This user's manual provides information on the updated 1991-2010 National Solar Radiation Database. Included are data format descriptions, data sources, production processes, and information about data uncertainty.

  4. National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2005 Update: User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.

    2007-04-01

    This manual describes how to obtain and interpret the data products from the updated 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This is an update of the original 1961-1990 NSRDB released in 1992.

  5. Frank Vignola Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    (independent power producer) electric generating facility (e.g., gas turbines, etc.). In the mid-1980s, solar prompted utilities to either build their own solar generating facilities or, more often, enter into firm there was a hiatus in building large solar thermal electric facilities. Ten years ago, photovoltaic (PV) systems

  6. The optimization of solar radiation upon a rectangular building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingle, James Allen

    1973-01-01

    THE OPTIMIZATION OF SOLAR RADIATION UPON A RECTANGULAR BUILDING A Thesis by JAMES ALLEN INGLF. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 19... 3 Major Subjeoti Meteorology THE OPTIMIZATION OF SOLAR RADIATION UPON A RECTANGULAR BUILDING A Thesis by JAILS ALLEN INGLE Approved as to style and content bye Cha an of ittee Mr, ' ohn F, Griffiths Member Dro Robert CD Runnels Head...

  7. Solar and Photovoltaic Data from the University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory (UO SRML)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The UO SRML is a regional solar radiation data center whose goal is to provide sound solar resource data for planning, design, deployment, and operation of solar electric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. The laboratory has been in operation since 1975. Solar data includes solar resource maps, cumulative summary data, daily totals, monthly averages, single element profile data, parsed TMY2 data, and select multifilter radiometer data. A data plotting program and other software tools are also provided. Shade analysis information and contour plots showing the effect of tilt and orientation on annual solar electric system perfomance make up a large part of the photovoltaics data.(Specialized Interface)

  8. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Schiavon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    2004. [3] Blum HF. Solar heat load, its relationship to theS, Parsons K. The effects of solar radiation on thermalParsons K. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-

  9. Solar neutrinos radiative corrections in neutrino-electron scattering experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahcall, J N; Sirlin, A; Bahcall, John N; Kamionkowski, Marc; Sirlin, Alberto

    1995-01-01

    Radiative corrections to the electron recoil-energy spectra and to total cross sections are computed for neutrino-electron scattering by solar neutrinos. Radiative corrections change monotonically the electron recoil spectrum for incident \\b8 neutrinos, with the relative probability of observing recoil electrons being reduced by about 4 \\% at the highest electron energies. For p-p and \\be7 neutrinos, the recoil spectra are not affected significantly. Total cross sections for solar neutrino-electron scattering are reduced by about 2 \\% compared to previously computed values. We also calculate the recoil spectra from ^{13}N and ^{15}O neutrinos including radiative corrections.

  10. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

  11. Scheme for generating and transporting THz radiation to the X-ray experimental floor at the LCLS baseline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel scheme for integrating a coherent THz source in the baseline of the LCLS facility. Any method relying on the spent electron beam downstream of the baseline undulator should provide a way of transporting the radiation up to the experimental floor. Here we propose to use the dump area access maze. In this way the THz output must propagate with limited size at least for one hundred meters in a maze, following many turns, to reach the near experimental hall. The use of a standard, discrete, open beam-waveguide formed by periodic reflectors, that is a mirror guide, would lead to unacceptable size of the system. To avoid these problems, in this paper we propose an alternative approach based on periodically spaced metallic screens with holes. This quasi-optical transmission line is referred to as an iris line. We present complete calculations for the iris line using both analytical and numerical methods, which we find in good agreement. We present a design of a THz edge radiation source ...

  12. 12th North America Bangla Literature and Culture Convention 2010 (NABLCC10) EFFECT OF SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahar, Sultana Nurun

    scatters and burns part of the incoming particles. However, the visible and near-infrared solar radiation penetrate through the earth's atmosphere. Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere and Grrenhouse Effect The solar a fine energy balance for thousands of years. It radiates back in to space the same amount of solar

  13. VARIABILITY OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA OVER SHORT TIME INTERVALS Frank Vignola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    VARIABILITY OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA OVER SHORT TIME INTERVALS Frank Vignola Department of Physics ra- diation. This article examines at the variability of beam and global solar radiation over short solar radiation values with ground-based data. 1. INTRODUCTION It is difficult to evaluate solar

  14. Solar Radiation Pressure and Deviations from Keplerian Orbits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Ya. Kezerashvili; Justin F. Vazquez-Poritz

    2009-04-15

    Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.

  15. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Information Technology, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R{sup 2}. The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both with two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods.

  16. ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    at high photon energies. · Water vapor, CO2, absorb in infra-red. ­ Clouds, other local variation its spectral irradiance ­ Calculate properties of black body radiation: Max temperature, total power · Outline ­ Properties of radiation: Summary of equations, terms, concepts ­ Solar Spectrum ­ Terrestrial

  17. Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  18. Precision measurement of solar neutrino oscillation parameters by a long-baseline reactor neutrino experiment in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. T. Petcov; T. Schwetz

    2006-07-13

    We consider the determination of the solar neutrino oscillation parameters $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ and $\\theta_{12}$ by studying oscillations of reactor anti-neutrinos emitted by nuclear power plants (located mainly in France) with a detector installed in the Frejus underground laboratory. The performances of a water Cerenkov detector of 147 kt fiducial mass doped with 0.1% of Gadolinium (MEMPHYS-Gd) and of a 50 kt scale liquid scintillator detector (LENA) are compared. In both cases 3$\\sigma$ uncertainties below 3% on $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ and of about 20% on $\\sin^2\\theta_{12}$ can be obtained after one year of data taking. The Gadolinium doped Super-Kamiokande detector (SK-Gd) in Japan can reach a similar precision if the SK/MEMPHYS fiducial mass ratio of 1 to 7 is compensated by a longer SK-Gd data taking time. Several years of reactor neutrino data collected by MEMPHYS-Gd or LENA would allow a determination of $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ and $\\sin^2\\theta_{12}$ with uncertainties of approximately 1% and 10% at 3$\\sigma$, respectively. These accuracies are comparable to those that can be reached in the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters $\\Delta m^2_{31}$ and $\\sin^2\\theta_{23}$ in long-baseline superbeam experiments.

  19. Reliability analysis of solar photovoltaic system using hourly mean solar radiation data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moharil, Ravindra M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India); Kulkarni, Prakash S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440011, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents the hourly mean solar radiation and standard deviation as inputs to simulate the solar radiation over a year. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) technique is applied and MATLAB program is developed for reliability analysis of small isolated power system using solar photovoltaic (SPV). This paper is distributed in two parts. Firstly various solar radiation prediction methods along with hourly mean solar radiation (HMSR) method are compared. The comparison is carried on the basis of predicted electrical power generation with actual power generated by SPV system. Estimation of solar photovoltaic power using HMSR method is close to the actual power generated by SPV system. The deviation in monsoon months is due to the cloud cover. In later part of the paper various reliability indices are obtained by HMSR method using MCS technique. Load model used is IEEE-RTS. Reliability indices, additional load hours (ALH) and additional power (AP) reduces exponentially with increase in load indicates that a SPV source will offset maximum fuel when all of its generated energy is utilized. Fuel saving calculation is also investigated. Case studies are presented for Sagardeep Island in West Bengal state of India. (author)

  20. SOLAR RADIATION DURABILITY OF MATERIALS, COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    SOLAR RADIATION DURABILITY OF MATERIALS, COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS Myles P. Murray 1 exposed photovoltaic materials, is defined as the rate of photodarkening or photobleaching of a material testing. The potential to predict power losses in a photovoltaic system over time caused

  1. FORECASTING SOLAR RADIATION PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF AN APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    a limited evaluation of its performance against ground-measured and satellite-derived irradiances in AlbanyFORECASTING SOLAR RADIATION -- PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF AN APPROACH BASED UPON THE NATIONAL NREL, 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80841 stephen_wilcox@nrel.gov Antoine Zelenka Meteosuisse

  2. Simple radiative neutrino mass matrix for solar and atmospheric oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, E

    1995-01-01

    A simple 3 X 3 neutrino Majorana mass matrix is proposed to accommodate both the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits. This scenario can be realized naturally by a radiative mechanism for the generation of neutrino masses. It also goes together naturally with electroweak baryogenesis and cold dark matter in a specific model.

  3. Supporting Information (SI) Section Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    S1 Supporting Information (SI) Section Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties..................................................................................................7 Figure S3. A typical solar and spectral flux density of radiation, D0(), from the irradiation

  4. Progress on an Updated National Solar Radiation Data Base: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.; Anderberg, M.; George, R.; Marion, W.; Myers, D.; Renne, D.; Beckman, W.; DeGaetano, A.; Gueymard, C.; Perez, R.; Plantico, M.; Stackhouse, P.; Vignola, F.

    2004-03-01

    In 1992, The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB), a 30-year set of hourly solar radiation data. In April 2003, NREL convened a meeting of experts to investigate issues concerning a proposed update of the NSRDB. The panel determined that an important difficulty posed by the update was the shift from manual to automated cloud observations at National Weather Service stations in the United States. The solar model used in the original NSRDB relied heavily on the methodology and resolution of the manual cloud observations. The meeting participants recommended that NREL produce a plan for creating an update using currently available meteorological observations and satellite imagery. This paper describes current progress toward a plan for an updated NSRDB.

  5. A path to practical Solar Pumped Lasers via Radiative Energy Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reusswig, Philip D.

    The optical conversion of incoherent solar radiation into a bright, coherent laser beam enables the application of nonlinear optics to solar energy conversion and storage. Here, we present an architecture for solar pumped ...

  6. Tethered balloon-based soundings of ozone, aerosols, and solar radiation near Mexico City during MIRAGE-MEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, JP; Guenther, AB; Turnipseed, A

    2009-01-01

    ozone, aerosols, and solar radiation near Mexico City duringand solar radiation in the atmospheric boundary layer on the northern edge of Mexico

  7. EXPLOITATION OF DISTRIBUTED SOLAR RADIATION DATABASES THROUGH A SMART NETWORK: THE PROJECT SODA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    ) Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (Germany) Abstract ­ The project SoDa answers the needs of raw data. 1. INTRODUCTION Information on solar radiation is a critical issue for the use of solar energy. Solar radiation is measured by ground networks of measuring stations, but well- controlled

  8. Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D: a cross-sectional population-based study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D: a cross-sectional population-based study using data, J. A. (2012) Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D: a cross-sectional population-based study Access Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D: a cross-sectional population-based study using data

  9. ESTIMATING GROUND-LEVEL SOLAR RADIATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN PUERTO RICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    1 ESTIMATING GROUND-LEVEL SOLAR RADIATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN PUERTO RICO USING SATELLITE between the methods. A comparison between estimated and observed solar radiation is also presented for the period April 1 through June 21, 2009, which indicates a need for calibration of the solar radiation

  10. Using observations of deep convective systems to constrain atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    column absorption of solar radiation (Acol) is a fundamental part of the Earth's energy cycle.e., the Acol values at both regions converge to the same value ($0.27 of the total incoming solar radiation to constrain atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation in the optically thick limit, J. Geophys. Res

  11. On the incident solar radiation in CMIP5 models Linjiong Zhou1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Minghua

    On the incident solar radiation in CMIP5 models Linjiong Zhou1,2,3 , Minghua Zhang3,4 , Qing Bao1 of Sciences, Beijing, China Abstract Annual incident solar radiation at the top of atmosphere should solar radiation at the top of atmosphere (TOA) is the most important forcing of the climate system

  12. IV. STATION CONFIGURATION AND SENSOR COMPARISONS Comparison of solar radiation data gathered at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    8 IV. STATION CONFIGURATION AND SENSOR COMPARISONS Comparison of solar radiation data gathered of the instruments used to monitor the incident solar radiation. Five types of so- lar sensors and several different data loggers have been used to gather the solar radiation data presented in this data book

  13. 794 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Effect of Solar Radiation on Severity of Soybean Rust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuerger, Andrew C.

    794 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Mycology Effect of Solar Radiation on Severity of Soybean Rust Heather M. Young., and Marois, J. J. 2012. Effect of solar radiation on disease severity of soybean rust. Phytopathology 102). Although solar radiation can reduce SBR urediniospore survival, limited information is available on how

  14. A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasbey, Chris

    A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation C.A. Glasbey and D 1). Solar radiation, averaged over ten minute intervals, was recorded at each site for two years otherwise there are too many parameters to be estimated. As we wish to simulate solar radiation on a network

  15. Search for possible solar neutrino radiative decays during total solar eclipses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cecchini, S; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, R; Popa, V

    2006-01-01

    Total solar eclipses (TSEs) offer a good opportunity to look for photons produced in possible radiative decays of solar neutrinos. In this paper we briefly review the physics bases of such searches as well as the existing limits on the neutrino proper lifetimes obtained by such experiments. We the report on the observations performed in occasion of the 29 March 2006 TSE, from Waw an Namos, Libya.

  16. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Solar Data a. SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation data provide aAppendix C - Appendix 0 - Solar Radiation Glossary. Convers

  17. Non-radiative synthesis of Be7 in solar plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Shevchenko; S. A. Rakityansky; S. A. Sofianos; V. B. Belyaev

    1998-04-09

    The nuclear reaction e + He3 + He4 ---> e + Be7 is considered at thermonuclear energies. The motion of the electron is treated within the adiabatic approximation and the He3-He4 scattering state is calculated using an effective He3-He4 potential constructed via the Marchenko inverse scattering method. The reaction rate thus obtained for solar interior conditions is approximately 10^{-4} of the corresponding rate for the radiative capture He3 + He4 ----> Be7 + gamma. However, at the conditions corresponding to the early stages of the primordial nucleosynthesis, the non-radiative fusion is five times faster than the radiative one. The importance of the non-radiative processes for the energy balance in the sun, which for electrons is totally opaque, is discussed.

  18. ENERGY-SPECIFIC SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM MSG: CURRENT STATUS OF THE HELIOSAT-3 PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    ENERGY-SPECIFIC SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM MSG: CURRENT STATUS OF THE HELIOSAT-3 PROJECT Marion Solar energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, passive solar heating and operating of solar energy systems and as basis data set for electricity load forecasting. Both long term

  19. Evolution of Meteorological Base Models for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.S

    2013-01-01

    -11-01 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Evaluation of Meteorological Base Models for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas Kee Han..., U.S.A. Abstract Building thermal performance and potential solar applications depend on the quality of the solar resource data available. Unfortunately, most of the locations do not account for measured solar radiation data and, as a result, rely...

  20. Prediction of Solar Radiation on Building Rooftops: A Data-Mining Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Kodysh, Jeffrey B

    2012-01-01

    Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable, and domestic energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. The accurate measurement of solar radiation data is essential for optimum site selection of future distributed solar power plants as well as sizing photovoltaic systems. However, solar radiation data are not readily available because measured sequences of radiation values are obtained for a few locations in a country. When the data are available, they are usually at different time periods and spatial scale. The availability of solar radiation data at hourly or daily time scale will enhance the integration of solar energy into electricity generation and promote a sustainable energy future. The ability to generate approximate solar radiation values is often the only practical way to obtain radiation data at hourly or daily time scale. As a result, several models have been developed for estimating solar radiation values based on analytical, numerical simulation, and statistical approaches. However, these models have inherent challenges. We will discuss some of those challenges in this paper. To enhance the prediction of solar radiation values, a novel approach is presented for estimating solar radiation values using support vector machine technique. The approach accounts for unique characteristics that influence solar radiation values. The preliminary results obtained offer useful insights for model enhancements.

  1. Are energetic electrons in the solar wind the source of the outer radiation belt?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    . Mewaldt6 Abstract. Using data from WIND, SAMPEX (Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer the outer radiation belt electrons. Al- though lower energy electrons in the solar wind could be a seedAre energetic electrons in the solar wind the source of the outer radiation belt? Xinlin Li,1 D. N

  2. Satellite-Based Techniques for the Retrieval of Solar Radiation Data A Review of Current European

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    . In addition, the potential of satellite data for short-term forecasting of solar irradiance is briefly for surface solar irradiance estiumation is not new Largely applied for climate research, global radiativeSatellite-Based Techniques for the Retrieval of Solar Radiation Data ­ A Review of Current European

  3. Radiative Heating and the Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Radiative Heating and the Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Interior Y. Fan National the e ect of radiative heating on the evolution of thin magnetic ux tubes in the solar interior Solar Observatoryy, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719. G. H. Fisher Space Sciences Laboratory, Univ

  4. Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trenberth, Kevin Edward

    Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 greenhouse gases build up from 1950 to 2100. There is an increase in net radiation absorbed, but not in ways from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly

  5. Radiation Belt Activity Indices and Solar Proton Event Alarm on the CRATERRE Project Web Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiation Belt Activity Indices and Solar Proton Event Alarm on the CRATERRE Project Web Site D--Two Radiation Belt Activity Indices, based on electron flux measurement >300 keV and >1.6 MeV, and one Solar updated. Index Terms- CRATERRE project, Radiation belts activity, Space environment I. INTRODUCTION

  6. Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt energetic electron flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt energetic electron flux, and A. J. Klimas (2005), Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt 2005. [1] In developing models of the radiation belt energetic electron flux, it is important

  7. Spatial Evidence for Transition Radiation in a Solar Radio Burst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelu M. Nita; Dale E. Gary; Gregory D. Fleishman

    2005-07-10

    Microturbulence, i.e. enhanced fluctuations of plasma density, electric and magnetic fields, is of great interest in astrophysical plasmas, but occurs on spatial scales far too small to resolve by remote sensing, e.g., at ~ 1-100 cm in the solar corona. This paper reports spatially resolved observations that offer strong support for the presence in solar flares of a suspected radio emission mechanism, resonant transition radiation, which is tightly coupled to the level of microturbulence and provides direct diagnostics of the existence and level of fluctuations on decimeter spatial scales. Although the level of the microturbulence derived from the radio data is not particularly high, /n^2 ~ 10^{-5}$, it is large enough to affect the charged particle diffusion and give rise to effective stochastic acceleration. This finding has exceptionally broad astrophysical implications since modern sophisticated numerical models predict generation of much stronger turbulence in relativistic objects, e.g., in gamma-ray burst sources.

  8. Improving the reliability and accuracy of a multipyranometer array measuring solar radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klima, Peter Miloslaw

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of solar radiation is crucial for the use of solar energy in fields including power generation, agriculture and meteorology. In the building sciences, It is essential for daylighting studies, energy use calculations, and thermal...

  9. Detection of Atmospheric Cherenkov Radiation Using Solar Heliostat Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rene A. Ong; the STACEE Collaboration

    1996-05-06

    The gamma-ray energy region between 20 and 250 GeV is largely unexplored. Ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov detectors offer a possible way to explore this region, but large Cherenkov photon collection areas are needed to achieve low energy thresholds. This paper discusses the development of a Cherenkov detector using the heliostat mirrors of a solar power plant as the primary collector. As part of this development, we built a prototype detector consisting of four heliostat mirrors and used it to record atmospheric Cherenkov radiation produced in extensive air showers created by cosmic ray particles.

  10. Detection of atmospheric Cherenkov radiation using solar heliostat mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, R A

    1996-01-01

    The gamma-ray energy region between 20 and 250 GeV is largely unexplored. Ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov detectors offer a possible way to explore this region, but large Cherenkov photon collection areas are needed to achieve low energy thresholds. This paper discusses the development of a Cherenkov detector using the heliostat mirrors of a solar power plant as the primary collector. As part of this development, we built a prototype detector consisting of four heliostat mirrors and used it to record atmospheric Cherenkov radiation produced in extensive air showers created by cosmic ray particles.

  11. A limited assessment and characterization of the solar radiation energy resources in the Caribbean region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulstrom, R.L.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of our work was to produce a preliminary assessment and characterization of the Caribbean region (Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, and Panama) solar radiation energy resources. Such information will be used to estimate the performance of, and identify the most promising applications of, solar heat technologies in the Caribbean region. We expect the solar radiation resources in the Caribbean region to be very location specific. Sunny areas will have an annual direct-beam resource of about 3,000 kWhm/sup /minus 2// and a global solar radiation resource of about 2,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2//. Cloud-covered areas will have annual solar radiation resources of about 1,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2/ for both the direct-beam and the global solar radiation. Monthly levels of solar radiaion will vary markedly, ranging from an average of 9 to 3 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the direct-beam and from an average of 7 to 4 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the global solar radiation. The Caribbean region is comparable to the Great Plains region of the US, in terms of annual solar radiation resources; however, thorough ''prospecting'' is required to avoid areas having very low amounts of solar radiation.

  12. National Solar Radiation Data Bases (NSRDB): 1961 to 1990 and 1991 to 2005

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Solar Radiation Data Base 1961-1990 (NSRDB) contains 30 years of solar radiation and supplementary meteorological data from 237 NWS sites in the U.S., plus sites in Guam and Puerto Rico. The updated 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database holds solar and meteorological data for 1,454 locations in the United States and its territories. See also the interactive data maps for the 1961 to 1990 data at http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1961-1990/redbook/atlas/.

  13. Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1990-07-01

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  14. PAPER www.rsc.org/pps | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommaruga, Ruben

    dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A + PAR, PAR increases significantly after exposure of CDOM to solar radiation.4,9,10,11­13 This increase in bacterial

  15. Chapter 1.12: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Renewable Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses measurements, modeling, and databases of solar energy potential that may serve as fuel for solar energy conversion systems. Developing innovative designs for capturing and converting solar radiation is only one part of the equation for solar system deployment. Identifying, locating, and prospecting for the appropriate quantity and quality of solar resources to fuel these systems is critical to system designers, investors, financial backers, utilities, governments, and owner/operators. This chapter addresses the fundamentals and state of the art for measuring, modeling, and applying solar radiation resource data to meet decision-making needs.

  16. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  17. Ann. Geophysicae 14, 1051--1059 (1996) EGS --Springer-Verlag 1996 Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1996-01-01

    Ann. Geophysicae 14, 1051--1059 (1996) EGS -- Springer-Verlag 1996 Diffuse solar radiation: 15 May 1996/Accepted: 27 May 1996 Abstract. Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis

  18. Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. E Girish; S Aranya

    2010-12-03

    Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the lunar environment.

  19. Modeling the radiation belt electrons with radial diffusion driven by the solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    Modeling the radiation belt electrons with radial diffusion driven by the solar wind A. B. Barker1 October 2005. [1] On the basis of the correlation between the solar wind and radiation belt electron fluxes, we develop a model to simulate the MeV electron phase space density variations from L = 3 to L

  20. Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Zhongping

    Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters (2005), Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal; Siegel et al., 1995] have demonstrated that the penetration of EVIS in the upper layer of the ocean plays

  1. Tethered balloon-based soundings of ozone, aerosols, and solar radiation near Mexico City during MIRAGE-MEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, JP; Guenther, AB; Turnipseed, A

    2009-01-01

    ozone, aerosols, and solar radiation near Mexico City duringsolar radiation in the atmospheric boundary layer on the northern edge of Mexico

  2. SHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF SOLAR RADIATION BASED ON SATELLITE DATA WITH STATISTICAL METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    for this systems. Depending on the application, prediction of solar irradiance is beneficial on different timeSHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF SOLAR RADIATION BASED ON SATELLITE DATA WITH STATISTICAL METHODS Annette Solar World Congress. This portion of the paper is the abstract. The abstract should not exceed 250

  3. GEOGRAPHY 104 BOUNDARY LAYER CLIMATES Assignment #4: Solar Radiation on Angled Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : You are designing a solar collector for your own residence in Los Angeles: a). Draw 2 diagrams one radiation absorption in all seasons. Where would be the best place to put a solar collector and to what drawn for Part a, indicate how you would adjust your solar collector for obstruction due to the presence

  4. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01

    data for proposed or actual concentrating solar energyconcentrating solar energy systems. In this paper data from

  5. Collective plasma effects in scattering of radiation in astrophysical plasmas (Collective plasma processes and the solar neutrino problem)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsytovich, V N; De Angelis, U; Forlani, A

    1995-01-01

    Collective plasma effects in scattering of radiation in astrophysical plasmas (Collective plasma processes and the solar neutrino problem)

  6. Atmospheric radiative transfer parametrization for solar energy yield calculations on buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jochen E

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the practical approach to evaluate the incoming solar radiation on buildings based on atmospheric composition and cloud cover is presented. The effects of absorption and scattering due to atmospheric composition is taken into account to calculate, using radiative transfer models, the net incoming solar radiation at surface level. A specific validation of the Alpine Region in Europe is presented with a special focus on the region of South Tyrol.

  7. Analysis of the empirical relations between visible solar radiation, the solar altitude and the transparency of the atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Occhipinti, Antonio

    1965-01-01

    ls determined by a four parameter system including the two parameters which characterize the transmission of the direct solar radiation. The four parameter model ls )ustified in terms of actual measurements for clear sky conditions. The system... Sketch Illustrating Coordinate System, . 39 4, 2 The Coordinate System Used to Describe the Multiple Scattering Radiation Field 41 4, 3 Optical Thickness Coordinate Schematic of the Zv + 2 Radiant Fluxes of the Diffuse Radiation Field Model 47 4. 5...

  8. Deriving cloud velocity from an array of solar radiation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosch, J.L.; Zheng, Y.; Kleissl, J.

    2013-01-01

    forecasts in the US. Solar Energy 84, 2161–2172. Velden,a total sky imager at the UCSan Diego solar energy testbed.Solar Energy 85, 2881–2893. Durre, I. , Vose, R.S. , Wuertz,

  9. Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft, and surface data during the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft of 0.33 0.04 for the total atmosphere (surface to top). The absorptance of solar radiation estimated more solar radiation than is predicted by theory [e.g., Stephens and Tsay 1990]. Recently, and nearly

  10. Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 43.5 billion years ago

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4­3.5 billion years ago 2007. [1] Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1­320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect due to variability in solar emission are small compared to this. In all cases surface radiation levels

  11. PERSPECTIVE www.rsc.org/pps | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences Effects of solar UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    species and aquatic ecosystems (e.g., lakes, rivers, marshes, oceans). Solar UV radiation penetrates and high to mid latitudes have aroused concern about the effects of increased solar UV-B radiation of low temperatures.7 Exposure to solar UV radiation can reduce productivity, affect reproduction

  12. Deriving cloud velocity from an array of solar radiation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosch, J.L.; Zheng, Y.; Kleissl, J.

    2013-01-01

    evaluating short-term predictions of solar irradiance at theSolar and photovoltaic forecasting through post-processing of the Global Environmental Multiscale numer- ical weather prediction

  13. Validation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ABSTRACT: Publicly accessible, high-quality, long-term, satellite-based solar resource data is foundational and critical to solar technologies to quantify system...

  14. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    and forecasting of solar radiation data: a review,”forecasting of solar- radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol.sequences of global solar radiation data for isolated sites:

  15. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01

    of the International Solar Energy Society, Philadelphia, PA,of the International Solar Energy Society, Atlanta, Ga. ,of the International Solar Energy Society, Phoenix, Ariz. ,

  16. Solar2014: The 52nd Annual Conference of the Australian Solar Council 1 Open cavity receiver geometry influence on radiative losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems, the receiver, placed at the focus of the light-concentrator, absorbs concentrated solar radiation at high temperatures. Using ray-tracing and a stochastic optimisation method with comparable radiative performances. 1 - Open cavity receivers losses in concentrated solar applications

  17. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01

    Perfor- mance of Focusing Collectors," Solar Energy ResearchCollectors," Proceedings of the 1979 International Congress of the International Solar

  18. Statistical investigation of the saturation effect in the ionospheric foF2 versus sunspot, solar radio noise, and solar EUV radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yuh-Ing

    Statistical investigation of the saturation effect in the ionospheric foF2 versus sunspot, solar radio noise, and solar EUV radiation J. Y. Liu Institute of Space Science and Center for Space in the ionospheric foF2 due to sunspot number R, solar radio noise (10.7 cm) flux F10.7, and solar EUV fluxes

  19. Coastal-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the coastal zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three sites (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (coastal sites) to assess the insolation at the coast. A site (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional sites, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the coastal sites and the control site, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each site to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton sites only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the coastal sites.

  20. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  1. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

    1985-06-27

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  2. An improved multipyranometer array for the measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, Bryce Kirtley

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of an improved multipyranometer array (NDA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diff-use solar radiation. The NWA described in this thesis is an improvement over ...

  3. An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an improved multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over previously published MPA ...

  4. ANALYSIS OF SHORT-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Gayathri Vijayakumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    . Beckman University of Wisconsin-Solar Energy Laboratory 1500 Engineering Drive Madison, WI, 53706 USA. Simulation studies of solar energy systems have generally used these hourly values to estimate long- term performance of solar energy systems. The inaccuracies are determined by examination of the frequency

  5. CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 109, NO. 10, 25 NOVEMBER 2015 1765 Indian Solar Radiation Atlas is launched

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Shiv K.

    energy sector in the country. NIWE is a research institute under the Ministry of New and Renewable EnergyMap Project facilitated set- ting up the Solar Radiation Measuring Network and later the development, planners of the state solar parks, investors, and financial institutions involved in renew- able energy

  6. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating CHRISTOPHER M. HARTMAN AND JERRY Y. HARRINGTON Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth

  7. A long baseline RICH with a 27-kiloton water target and radiator for detection of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ypsilantis, T.; Seguinot, J.; Zichichi, A.

    1997-01-01

    A 27 kt water volume is investigated as a target for a long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso. Charged secondaries from the neutrino interactions produce Cherenkov photons in water which are imaged as rings by a spherical mirror. The photon detector elements are 14 400 photomultipliers (PM`s) of 127 mm diameter or 3600 HPD`s of 250 mm diameter with single photon sensitivity. A coincidence signal of about 300 pixel elements in time with the SPS beam starts readout in bins of 1 ns over a period of 128 ns. Momentum, direction, and velocity of hadrons and mucons are determined from the width, center, and radius of the rings, respectively. Momentum is measured if multiple scattering dominates the ring width, as is the case for most of the particles of interest. Momentum, direction, and velocity of hadrons and muons are determined from the width, center, and radius of the rings, respectively. Momentum is measured if multiple scattering dominates the ring width, as is the case for most of the particles of interest. Momentum resolutions of 1-10%, mass resolutions of 5-50 MeV, and direction resolutions of < 1 mrad are achievable. Thresholds in water for muons, pions, kaons, and protons are 0.12, 0.16, 0.55, and 1.05 GeV/c, respectively. Electrons and gammas can be measured with energy resolution {sigma}{sub E}/E{approx}8.5%/{radical}E(GeV) and with direction resolution {approx} 1 mrad. The detector can be sited either inside a Gran Sasso tunnel or above ground because it is directional and the SPS beam is pulsed; thus the rejection of cosmic ray background is excellent.

  8. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part II: Solar Zenith Angle Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part II: Solar 19 November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating at a variety of solar zenith angles ( o trajectories and is used to drive an offline microphysical model that includes the influence of radiation

  9. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page C.1 6/20/2011 Appendix C: Vocabulary The following cell or module Global Irradiance (GHI) Total solar radiation on a horizontal surface Direct Normal an electrical current when illuminated by light­ also called a solar cell Photovoltaic Module A group

  10. Improved Methodology to Measure Normal Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar, J.C.; Sun, Y.; Haberl, J.

    2013-01-01

    -11-02 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Improved Methodology to Measure Normal Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array Juan...-Carlos Baltazar*, Yifu Sun, Jeff Haberl Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station, The Texas A&M University System College Station, TX 77845, U.S.A. Abstract An improved methodology to estimate the normal incident solar radiation...

  11. 9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Hubertus

    . Ionization chambers and neutron monitors have directly monitored the intensity of cosmic radiation since be considered as a kind of a "natural neutron monitor," can be used as a proxy for cosmic radiation (2 system during supernova explo- sions. Mainly two magnetic shields, the solar magnetic field

  12. Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt energetic electron flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliadis, Dimitrios

    Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt energetic electron flux 2005. [1] In developing models of the radiation belt energetic electron flux, it is important identify its peaks in reference to the radial regions P0 (L = 3.1­4.0, inner edge of the outer belt), P1 (4

  13. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques for Daily Solar Radiation Data. Proceedings ofa. SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation data provide a measure ofMonthly Solar Data Latitude: Jan SOLAR RADIATION (kWhJm2 per

  14. Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote 2013. [1] Penetration of solar radiation in the ocean is determined by the attenuation coefficient (Kd indicated that the penetration of the blue-green radiation for most oceanic waters is $30­40% deeper than

  15. Transition radiation in turbulent astrophysical medium. Application to solar radio bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory D. Fleishman; Dale E. Gary; Gelu M. Nita

    2007-10-01

    Modern observations and models of various astrophysical objects suggest that many of their physical parameters fluctuate substantially at different spatial scales. The rich variety of the emission processes, including Transition Radiation but not limited to it, arising in such turbulent media constitutes the scope of Stochastic Theory of Radiation. We review general approaches applied in the stochastic theory of radiation and specific methods used to calculate the transition radiation produced by fast particles in the magnetized randomly inhomogeneous plasma. The importance of the theory of transition radiation for astrophysics is illustrated by one example of its detailed application to a solar radio burst, including specially designed algorithms of the spectral forward fitting.

  16. Short term forecasting of solar radiation based on satellite data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    have a significant influence on electric power generation by solar energy systems. An efficient use. Examples are the management of electricity grids with high penetration rates from solar sources are a high quality source for irradiance information because of excellent temporal and spatial resolution

  17. Forecasting of Solar Radiation Detlev Heinemann, Elke Lorenz, Marco Girodo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    , Germany E-mail: detlev.heinemann@uni-oldenburg.de URL: www.energy-meteorology.de Abstract Solar energy. Any efficient implementation of wind and solar energy conversion processes has to account application. Examples are the storage management in stand-alone photo- voltaic or wind energy systems, control

  18. Renewable energies such as solar photovoltaics "PV" have been widely used to minimize the use of grid power. Nevertheless, solar PV is hampered by the lack of solar radiation during peak energy demand hours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable energies such as solar photovoltaics "PV" have been widely used to minimize the use of grid power. Nevertheless, solar PV is hampered by the lack of solar radiation during peak energy demand curve and make the energy accessible during peak hours can be accomplished through pairing solar PV

  19. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)synthetic hourly radiation,” Solar Energy, vol. 49, pp. 67–for supplementing solar radiation network data,” Final

  20. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and the Solar Radiation Monitoring LaboratoryH:PVKitComponents© TableH.1:ContentsofPVKitandpartsrequiredforcomponents Quantity Item Quantity Item 1 Solar panel 1

  1. By Stanley Micklavzina for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page A.1 6/20/2011 Appendix A information about selected solar technologies. #12;Name: ________________________ Kit

  2. Validation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) (2005-2012): Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, Manajit; Weekley, Andrew; Habte, Aron; Lopez, Anthony; Molling, Christine

    2015-09-15

    Publicly accessible, high-quality, long-term, satellite-based solar resource data is foundational and critical to solar technologies to quantify system output predictions and deploy solar energy technologies in grid-tied systems. Solar radiation models have been in development for more than three decades. For many years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and/or updated such models through the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). There are two widely used approaches to derive solar resource data from models: (a) an empirical approach that relates ground-based observations to satellite measurements and (b) a physics-based approach that considers the radiation received at the satellite and creates retrievals to estimate clouds and surface radiation. Although empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation, the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) that computes global horizontal irradiance (GHI) using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) system. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and then uses those properties in the Satellite Algorithm for Surface Radiation Budget (SASRAB) model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, the University of Wisconsin, and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a high temporal and spatial resolution data set. The product initially generates the cloud properties using the AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres-Extended (PATMOS-x) algorithms [3], whereas the GHI is calculated using SASRAB. Then NREL implements accurate and high-resolution input parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) to compute direct normal irradiance (DNI) using the DISC model. The AOD and PWV, temperature, and pressure data are also combined with the MMAC model to simulate solar radiation under clear-sky conditions. The current NSRDB update is based on a 4-km x 4-km resolution at a 30-minute time interval, which has a higher temporal and spatial resolution. This paper demonstrates the evaluation of the data set using ground-measured data and detailed evaluation statistics. The result of the comparison shows a good correlation to the NSRDB data set. Further, an outline of the new version of the NSRDB and future plans for enhancement and improvement are provided.

  3. Extraterrestrial Materials: The Role of Synchrotron Radiation Analyses in the Study of Our Solar System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sutton, Stephen R. [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2010-01-08

    Sample-return missions and natural collection processes have provided us with a surprisingly extensive collection of matter from Solar System bodies other than the Earth. These collections include samples from the Moon, Mars, asteroids, interplanetary dust, and, recently, from the Sun (solar wind) and a comet. This presentation will describe some of these materials, how they were collected, and what we have learned from them. Synchrotron radiation analyses of these materials are playing an increasingly valuable role in unraveling the histories and properities of the parent Solar System bodies.

  4. Physics-Based GOES Satellite Product for Use in NREL's National Solar Radiation Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Gotseff, P.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Molling, C.; Heidinger, A.

    2014-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), University of Wisconsin, and National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration are collaborating to investigate the integration of the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave Radiation Budget (SASRAB) products into future versions of NREL's 4-km by 4-km gridded National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This paper describes a method to select an improved clear-sky model that could replace the current SASRAB global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiances reported during clear-sky conditions.

  5. 2D radiative modelling of He I spectral lines formed in solar prominences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Leger; F. Paletou

    2008-07-11

    We present preliminary results of 2D radiative modelling of He I lines in solar prominences, using a new numerical code developed by us (Leger, Chevallier and Paletou 2007). It treats self-consistently the radiation transfer and the non-LTE statistical equilibrium of H and, in a second stage, the one of He using a detailed atomic model. Preliminary comparisons with new visible plus near-infrared observations made at high spectral resolution with THeMIS are very satisfactory.

  6. A comparison of the radiation tolerance characteristics of multijunction solar cells with series and voltage-matched configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M; Curtis, H.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of series and voltage-matched configurations on the performance of multijunction solar cells in a radiation environment was investigated. It was found that the configuration of the multijunction solar cell can have a significant impact on its radiation tolerence characteristics.

  7. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01

    circumsolar region. Let e be one solar radius (=1/4°), and esolar spectrum into eight intervals of roughly equal energy content, and one

  8. Radial gradients of phase space density of the outer radiation belt electrons prior to sudden solar wind pressure enhancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    PSD radial gradient at and beyond GEO prior to a sudden solar wind pressure impact based on the fact by a sudden solar wind pressure enhancement, dayside trapped electrons are transported radially inwards), Radial gradients of phase space density of the outer radiation belt electrons prior to sudden solar wind

  9. Radiation damage of GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itoh, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishioka, T.; Yamamoto, A.

    1987-01-15

    1-MeV electron irradiation damages in GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates are examined for the first time. Damage constant for minority-carrier diffusion length in GaAs heteroepitaxial films on Si substrates is found to be the same as that in GaAs homoepitaxial films on GaAs substrates. This agreement suggests that GaAs/Si has the same defect introduction rate with radiation as GaAs/GaAs. The degradation of GaAs solar cells on Si with electron irradiation is less than that of GaAs solar cells on GaAs, because in the present, GaAs films on Si substrates have lower minority-carrier diffusion length compared to GaAs films on GaAs and these films are insensitive to radiation. The p/sup +/-p/sup +/-n AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cell with junction depth of about 0.3 ..mu..m is concluded to be useful for a high-efficiency and radiation-resistant solar cell fabricated on a Si substrate.

  10. Plant Physiology: Manipulating Plant Growth with Solar Radiation Dennis Decoteau, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    Plant Physiology: Manipulating Plant Growth with Solar Radiation Dennis Decoteau, Ph.D. Department of light that surrounds the plant. Light ­ Radiant Energy All light is made up of energy. Light to plants (Villee, 1977). Plant Uses Of Radiant Energy And Plant "Vision" Plants utilize specialized pigments

  11. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory circuit voltage as the distance between the lamp and the solar cell changes. A discussion between solar cell and light bulb filament. #12;Name: _____________________________ Kit

  12. Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutschick, V.P.; Barron, M.H.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.

    1985-04-30

    An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

  13. Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutschick, Vincent P. (Los Alamos, NM); Barron, Michael H. (Los Alamos, NM); Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

  14. PROCEEDINGS O F THE IEEE, VOL.56, NO. 1, JANUARY196837 [`I J. J. Wysocki,"Lithium-doped radiation-resistant silicon solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teich, Malvin C.

    ,"Lithium-doped radiation-resistant silicon solar cells," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science. vol.NS-13, pp. 168-173, December 1966. X-713-6548, November1965. 161 ~ , "Thermalannealing of radiation damagein solar cells," ['I R. L. Tech. J.,vol. 41, pp.1573-1588,September 1962. ["I R. L. Statler, "Radiation damage insilicon solar

  15. By Stanley Micklavzina, James Utterback and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory significantly change the incident solar radiation and this will affect the experimental results. The idea, obtains a reading of current from the diffuse solar radiation, light from the sky, ground, surrounding

  16. P.A. Nelson S.M. Kajiura G.S. Losey Exposure to solar radiation may increase ocular UV-filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kajiura, Stephen

    P.A. Nelson Æ S.M. Kajiura Æ G.S. Losey Exposure to solar radiation may increase ocular UV levels of solar radiation than they had previously experienced in the source habitat in the turbid waters spectrum, but sharks exposed to greater solar radiation showed increased UV blocking in their corneal

  17. Using Satellite Ocean Color Data to Derive an Empirical Model for the Penetration Depth of Solar Radiation (Hp) in the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, .Dake

    the climate through the penetration depth of solar radiation in the upper ocean (Hp), a primary parameter on penetrative solar radiation in the tropical Pacific, demonstrating the dynamical implication of remotely in which incident solar radiation is absorbed in the mixed layer and the verti- cal penetration down

  18. Estimation of total cloud cover from solar radiation observations at Lake Rotorua, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Liancong; Hamilton, David; Han, Boping

    2010-03-15

    The DYRESM-CAEDYM model is a valuable tool for simulating water temperature for biochemical studies in aquatic ecosystem. The model requires inputs of surface short-wave radiation and long-wave radiation or total cloud cover fraction (TC). Long-wave radiation is often not measured directly so a method to determine TC from commonly measured short-wave solar irradiance (E{sub 0}) and theoretical short-wave solar irradiance under a clear sky (E{sub c}) has broad application. A more than 17-year (15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009) hourly solar irradiance data set was used to estimate the peak solar irradiance for each ordinal date over one year, which was assumed to be representative of solar irradiance in the absence of cloud. Comparison between these daily observed values and the modelled clear-sky solar radiation over one year was in close agreement (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.995 and root mean squared error, RMSE = 12.54 W m{sup -2}). The downloaded hourly cloudiness measurements from 15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009 was used to calculate the daily values for this period and then the calculated daily values over the 17 years were used to calculate the average values for each ordinal date over one year. A regression equation between (1 - E{sub 0}/E{sub c}) and TC produced a correlation coefficient value of 0.99 (p > 0.01, n = 71). The validation of this cloud cover estimation model was conducted with observed short-wave solar radiation and TC at two sites. Values of TC derived from the model at the Lake Rotorua site gave a reasonable prediction of the observed values (RMSE = 0.10, r = 0.86, p > 0.01, n = 61). The model was also tested at Queenstown (South Island of New Zealand) and it provided satisfactory results compared to the measurements (RMSE = 0.16, r = 0.67, p > 0.01, n = 61). Therefore the model's good performance and broad applicability will contribute to the DYRESM-CAEDYM accuracy of water temperature simulation when long-wave radiation is not available. (author)

  19. The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 18812000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured radiation was associated with the concurrent changes measured in specific humidity; the remaining quarter was associated with increases in the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic radiatively active

  20. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies, making it challenging to estimate its contribution to radiative forcing. Furthermore, optical properties were observed to photobleach (i.e., lose their ability to absorb visible radiation) with an effective

  1. Non LTE radiation processes: application to the solar corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzy Collin

    2001-01-12

    These lectures are intended to present a simple but relatively complete description of the theory needed to understand the formation of lines in non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE), without appealing to any previous knowledge except a few basics of physics and spectroscopy. After recalling elementary notions of radiation transfer, the chapter is focussed on the computation of the level populations, the source function, the ionization state, and finally the line intensity. An application is made to forbidden coronal lines which were observed during eclipses since decades.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE CALIFORNIA SOLAR RESOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2011-01-01

    OF DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR RADIATION AND TOTAL SOLAR RADIA- TIONSUMMARY OF USERS' NEEDS FOR SOLAR RADIATION DATA SUMMARY ANDCALIFORNIA SOURCES OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA CALI FORN IA

  3. A new correlation between solar energy radiation and some atmospheric parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumas, Antonio; Bonnici, Maurizio; Madonia, Mauro; Trancossi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The energy balance for an atmospheric layer near the soil is evaluated. By integrating it over the whole day period a linear relationship between the global daily solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface and the product of the sunshine hours at clear sky with the maximum temperature variation in the day is achieved. The results show a comparable accuracy with some well recognized solar energy models such as the \\ang-Prescott one, at least for Mediterranean climatic area. Validation of the result has been performed using old dataset which are almost contemporary and relative to the same sites with the ones used for comparison.

  4. High-sensitivity observations of solar flare decimeter radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold O. Benz; Peter Messmer; Christian Monstein

    2000-12-05

    A new acousto-optic radio spectrometer has observed the 1 - 2 GHz radio emission of solar flares with unprecedented sensitivity. The number of detected decimeter type III bursts is greatly enhanced compared to observations by conventional spectrometers observing only one frequency at the time. The observations indicate a large number of electron beams propagating in dense plasmas. For the first time, we report weak, reversed drifting type III bursts at frequencies above simultaneous narrowband decimeter spikes. The type III bursts are reliable signatures of electron beams propagating downward in the corona, apparently away from the source of the spikes. The observations contradict the most popular spike model that places the spike sources at the footpoints of loops. Conspicuous also was an apparent bidirectional type U burst forming a fish-like pattern. It occurs simultaneously with an intense U-burst at 600-370 MHz observed in Tremsdorf. We suggest that it intermodulated with strong terrestrial interference (cellular phones) causing a spurious symmetric pattern in the spectrogram at 1.4 GHz. Symmetric features in the 1 - 2 GHz range, some already reported in the literature, therefore must be considered with utmost caution.

  5. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    and M. Cony, “Prediction of global solar irradiance based onand C. K. Chan, “Prediction of hourly solar radiation usingand K. C. Chee, “Prediction of hourly solar radiation using

  6. Development of Simplified Calculations for a Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B. K.; Haberl, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of simplified procedures for a multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over ...

  7. The influence of stratus, stratocumulus, and altocumulus clouds on the spectral distribution of solar radiation over Antarctic waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettett, James Eugene

    1973-01-01

    ON TEE I I ! 1 INFLUENCE OF STRATUS& STRATOCUMULUS, AND ALTOCUMULUS CLOUDS SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOLAR RADIATION OVER ANTARCTIC WATERS A Thesis by JAMES EUGENE PETTETT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the MASTER OF SCIENCE degree of August 1973 Major Subjett: Meteorology THE INFLUENCE OF STRATUS, STRATOCUMULUS, AND ALTOCUMULUS CLOUDS ON THE SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOLAR RADIATION OVER ANTARCTIC WATERS...

  8. Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2009-03-01

    The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

  9. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Weather Data . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . .Solar DataB. l'he Solar Constant. . . . . . C. Solar Time and Standard

  10. Materials and Processes for Direct Sun-to-Fuel Chemical Transformations Solar radiation can be used to drive heterogeneous electrochemical reactions at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    Materials and Processes for Direct Sun-to-Fuel Chemical Transformations Solar radiation can be used and an efficient means for solar radiation delivery and trapping, poses a major challenge to the commercialization, resulting in the production of solar fuels, including hydrogen via water reduction or hydrocarbons (methane

  11. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Optimum tilt of a solar collector, Solar & Wind Technology.and orientation for solar collector in Brunei Darussalam,Optimum tilt angle for solar collectors, Energy Sources.

  12. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    and orientation for solar collector in Brunei Darussalam,Optimum tilt angle for solar collectors, Energy Sources.Optimum tilt of a solar collector, Solar & Wind Technology.

  13. Solar Flare Chromospheric Line Emission: Comparison Between IBIS High-resolution Observations and Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahé; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation in a broad spectral and at a wide height range. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere (lower atmosphere) can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results can be extremely valuable, but has not been attempted so far. We present in this paper such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope's (DST) Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 that we have modeled with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN (Carlsson & Stein 1992, 1997; Abbett & Hawley 1999; Allred et al. 2005). We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in H$\\alpha$ 6563 \\AA\\ and Ca II 8542 \\AA, and with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in X-rays. The latter was used to infer the non-thermal elect...

  14. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory as the distance between the solar cell and the lamp changes. The power generated by the solar cell is calculated Circuit Current and PV Cell Power Output 1. Connect one Solar Cell in the PV Module to an ammeter

  15. By Raghu Parthasarathy for the Meyer for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page 7.1 6 of the solar cell as temperature increases. Describe your findings: #12;Name

  16. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  17. Numerical Study on In-Situ Prominence Formation by Radiative Condensation in the Solar Corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaneko, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    We propose an in-situ formation model for inverse-polarity solar prominence and demonstrate it using self-consistent 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations, including thermal conduction along magnetic fields and optically thin radiative cooling. The model enables us to form cool dense plasma clouds inside a flux rope by radiative condensation, which is regarded as an inverse-polarity prominence. Radiative condensation is triggered by changes in the magnetic topology, i.e., formation of the flux rope from the sheared arcade field, and by thermal imbalance due to the dense plasma trapped inside the flux rope. The flux rope is created by imposing converging and shearing motion on the arcade field. Either when the footpoint motion is in the anti-shearing direction or when heating is proportional to local density, the thermal state inside the flux rope becomes cooling-dominant, leading to radiative condensation. By controlling the temperature of condensation, we investigate the relationship between the t...

  18. Gschwind Benot, Lionel Mnard, Thierry Ranchin, Lucien Wald, Paul Stackhouse, 2007. A proposal for a thesaurus for web services in solar radiation. In Proceedings EnviroInfo 2007, O. Hryniewicz, J. Studzinski and M. Romaniuk (Eds), Shaker Verlag,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for a thesaurus for web services in solar radiation. In Proceedings EnviroInfo 2007, O. Hryniewicz, J. Studzinski in Solar Radiation Benoît Gschwind1 , Lionel Ménard1 , Thierry Ranchin1 , Lucien Wald1 and Paul Stackhouse2 energies. This communication focuses on solar energy and more specifically on aspects in solar radiation

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE CALIFORNIA SOLAR RESOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY OF USERS' NEEDS FOR SOLAR RADIATION DATA SUMMARY ANDDETERMINED NEED FOR SOLAR RADIATION DATA - Made directinter- polation of solar radiation data (Section 4.3)

  20. Analysis of Gamma Radiation from a Radon Source: Indications of a Solar Influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter A. Sturrock; Gideon Steinitz; Ephraim Fischbach; Daniel Javorsek, II; Jere H. Jenkins

    2012-05-01

    This article presents an analysis of about 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between 28 January 2007 and 10 May 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmental influences. However, time-series analysis reveals a number of periodicities, including two at approximately 11.2 year$^{-1}$ and 12.5 year$^{-1}$. We have previously found these oscillations in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and we have suggested that these oscillations are attributable to some form of solar radiation that has its origin in the deep solar interior. A curious property of the GSI data is that the annual oscillation is much stronger in daytime data than in nighttime data, but the opposite is true for all other oscillations. This may be a systematic effect but, if it is not, this property should help narrow the theoretical options for the mechanism responsible for decay-rate variability.

  1. The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorguinpour, Camron Saul

    2010-01-01

    A Synthesis of Solar Cycle Prediction Techniques. ” JournalA Synthesis of Solar Cycle Prediction Techniques. ” JournalA Synthesis of Solar Cycle Prediction Techniques. ” Journal

  2. The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorguinpour, Camron Saul

    2010-01-01

    of SPE occurrence from one solar cycle to the next. Forlong duration missions (one or more solar cycle), it is anat solar minimum. In one year near solar maximum, doses from

  3. Neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere under influence of wavelength-dependent solar radiation pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Tarnopolski; M. Bzowski

    2008-04-21

    We study the influence of the non-flat shape of the solar Lyman-alpha line on the distribution of neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere and assess importance of this effect for interpretation of heliospheric in situ measurements. Based on available data, construct a model of evolution of the solar Lyman-alpha line profile with solar activity. Modify an existing test-particle code calculating distribution of neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere to take into account the dependence of radiation pressure on radial velocity. Discrepancies between the classical and Doppler models appear at ~ 5 AU and increase towards the Sun from a few percent to a factor of 1.5 at 1 AU. The classical model overestimates density everywhere except a ~ 60 deg cone around the downwind direction, where a density deficit appears. The magnitude of discrepancies depends appreciably on the phase of solar cycle, but only weakly on the parameters of the gas at the termination shock. For in situ measurements of neutral atoms performed at ~ 1 AU, as those planned for IBEX, the Doppler correction will need to be taken into account, because the modifications include both the magnitude and direction of the local flux by a few km/s and degree, which, when unaccounted for, would bring an error of a few degrees and a few km/s in determination of the bulk velocity vector at the termination shock. The Doppler correction is appreciable for in situ observations of neutral H populations and their derivatives performed a few AU from the Sun.

  4. VISUAL-SOLAR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003661IBMPC00 Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops   

  5. The long term dynamics of the solar radiative zone associated to new results from SoHO and young solar analogs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvaine Turck-Chieze; Sebastien Couvidat; Antonio Eff-Darwich; Vincent Duez; Rafael A. Garcia; Stephane Mathis; Savita Mathur; Laurent Piau; David Salabert

    2011-09-19

    The Standard Solar Model (SSM) is no more sufficient to interpret all the observations of the radiative zone obtained with the SoHO satellite. We recall our present knowledge of this internal region and compare the recent results to models beyond the SSM assumptions. Then we discuss the missing processes and quantify some of them in using young analog observations to build a more realistic view of our star. This progress will be useful for solar-like stars observed by COROT and KEPLER.

  6. Evaluation of two Vaisala RS92 radiosonde solar radiative dry bias correction algorithms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dzambo, A. M.; Turner, D. D.; Mlawer, E. J.

    2015-10-20

    Solar heating of the relative humidity (RH) probe on Vaisala RS92 radiosondes results in a large dry bias in the upper troposphere. Two different algorithms (Miloshevich et al., 2009, MILO hereafter; and Wang et al., 2013, WANG hereafter) have been designed to account for this solar radiative dry bias (SRDB). These corrections are markedly different with MILO adding up to 40 % more moisture to the original radiosonde profile than WANG; however, the impact of the two algorithms varies with height. The accuracy of these two algorithms is evaluated using three different approaches: a comparison of precipitable water vapor (PWV),more »downwelling radiative closure with a surface-based microwave radiometer at a high-altitude site (5.3 km MSL), and upwelling radiative closure with the space-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). The PWV computed from the uncorrected and corrected RH data is compared against PWV retrieved from ground-based microwave radiometers at tropical, mid-latitude, and arctic sites. Although MILO generally adds more moisture to the original radiosonde profile in the upper troposphere compared to WANG, both corrections yield similar changes to the PWV, and the corrected data agree well with the ground-based retrievals. The two closure activities – done for clear-sky scenes – use the radiative transfer models MonoRTM and LBLRTM to compute radiance from the radiosonde profiles to compare against spectral observations. Both WANG- and MILO-corrected RH are statistically better than original RH in all cases except for the driest 30 % of cases in the downwelling experiment, where both algorithms add too much water vapor to the original profile. In the upwelling experiment, the RH correction applied by the WANG vs. MILO algorithm is statistically different above 10 km for the driest 30 % of cases and above 8 km for the moistest 30 % of cases, suggesting that the MILO correction performs better than the WANG in clear-sky scenes. The cause of this statistical significance is likely explained by the fact the WANG correction also accounts for cloud cover – a condition not accounted for in the radiance closure experiments.« less

  7. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    ://www.californiasolarcenter.org/history_pv.html http://www.eere.energy.gov/basics/renewable_energy/solar.html http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/ http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/education/index.htm http://www.nrel.gov/data/pix/searchpix.html http://www.ases.org/ http://www.seia.org/cs/about_solar_energy and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

  8. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory of solar cells when they are connected in series or in parallel. To help answer the question of how solar cells behave like batteries. Current meter measuring short circuit current for two cells

  9. By Stanley Micklavzina and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page 2.1 6 when ½ of solar cell is covered MATERIALS PV Cell Module Electrical Leads DC ammeter DC circuit current is measured when the solar cells are connected in parallel and series. An experiment

  10. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    dropped from near zero to -7°C. Subsequently mean energy budget residuals remained small and near zero. Energy budget transitions were dominated by the net radiative fluxes, largely controlledA transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo

  11. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)2.4 Evaluation of Solar Forecasting . . . . . . . . .2.4.1 Solar Variability . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  12. Radiative hydrodynamic modelling and observations of the X-class solar flare on 2011 March 9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Michael B; Allred, Joel C; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the response of the solar atmosphere to non-thermal electron beam heating using the radiative transfer and hydrodynamics modelling code RADYN. The temporal evolution of the parameters that describe the non-thermal electron energy distribution were derived from hard X-ray observations of a particular flare, and we compared the modelled and observed parameters. The evolution of the non-thermal electron beam parameters during the X1.5 solar flare on 2011 March 9 were obtained from analysis of RHESSI X-ray spectra. The RADYN flare model was allowed to evolve for 110 seconds, after which the electron beam heating was ended, and was then allowed to continue evolving for a further 300s. The modelled flare parameters were compared to the observed parameters determined from extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy. The model produced a hotter and denser flare loop than that observed and also cooled more rapidly, suggesting that additional energy input in the decay phase of the flare is required. In the explosi...

  13. Solar surface emerging flux regions: a comparative study of radiative MHD modeling and Hinode SOT observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. M. Cheung; M. Schuessler; T. D. Tarbell; A. M. Title

    2008-10-31

    We present results from numerical modeling of emerging flux regions on the solar surface. The modeling was carried out by means of 3D radiative MHD simulations of the rise of buoyant magnetic flux tubes through the convection zone and into the photosphere. Due to the strong stratification of the convection zone, the rise results in a lateral expansion of the tube into a magnetic sheet, which acts as a reservoir for small-scale flux emergence events at the scale of granulation. The interaction of the convective downflows and the rising magnetic flux undulates it to form serpentine field lines emerging into the photosphere. Observational characteristics including the pattern of emerging flux regions, the cancellation of surface flux and associated high speed downflows, the convective collapse of photospheric flux tubes, the appearance of anomalous darkenings, the formation of bright points and the possible existence of transient kilogauss horizontal fields are discussed in the context of new observations from the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope. Implications for the local helioseismology of emerging flux regions are also discussed.

  14. The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorguinpour, Camron Saul

    2010-01-01

    of Radiation Interaction and Matter and Detection. Worldof Radiation Interaction and Matter and Detection. WorldDetection Efficiency of Charged Particles and Electromagnetic radiation

  15. The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorguinpour, Camron Saul

    2010-01-01

    Rancoita. Principles of Radiation Interaction and Matter andRancoita. Principles of Radiation Interaction and Matter andThe basic measurement of radiation interaction in matter for

  16. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    a two-axis tracking solar panel. Figure 5b: Map of theannual azimuth for a solar panel, and can be combined withand azimuth angles for solar panels were calculated for a

  17. The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorguinpour, Camron Saul

    2010-01-01

    Electrons and Ions in Solar Flares”. Astrophysical Journal,Electrons and Ions in Solar Flares”. Astrophysical Journal,can also originate from solar flares and the so-called Co-

  18. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    a two-axis tracking solar panel. Figure 5b: Map of theand azimuth angles for solar panels were calculated for aannual azimuth for a solar panel, and can be combined with

  19. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Schiavon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    giving reasonable predictions of solar effects on MRT, andsolar gain produced an increase of roughly one PMV scale unit. The SolarCal PMV prediction

  20. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    in the Design of Photovoltaic Systems, in: T. Markvart, L.1. Introduction Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are quicklyphotovoltaic energy output for cloudy conditions with a solar tracking system’,

  1. SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment of Dalhousie University.................................................................................................. 2 2.2 Solar Radiation Data for Calculating Solar Energy Resource .................... 3 3 Campus.1 Evaluation of Suitability for Solar Energy Generation................................ 12 4.2 Solar

  2. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J.; Saul, L.; Wurz, P.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Frisch, P.; Gruntman, M.; Mueller, H. R.

    2013-10-01

    Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 ± 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 ± 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

  3. Evaluation of Various Methods for Estimating Global Solar Radiation in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.

    2011-12-23

    Global solar radiation Rg is an important input for crop models to simulate crop responses. Because the scarcity of long and continuous records of Rg is a serious limitation in many countries, Rg is estimated using models. For crop-model application, empirical Rg models that use commonly measured meteorological variables, such as temperature and precipitation, are generally preferred. Although a large number of models of this kind exist, few have been evaluated for conditions in the United States. This study evaluated the performances of 16 empirical, temperature- and/or precipitation-based Rg models for the southeastern United States. By taking into account spatial distribution and data availability, 30 locations in the region were selected and their daily weather data spanning eight years obtained. One-half of the data was used for calibrating the models, and the other half was used for evaluation. For each model, location-specific parameter values were estimated through regressions. Models were evaluated for each location using the root-mean-square error and the modeling efficiency as goodness-of-fit measures. Among the models that use temperature or precipitation as the input variable, the Mavromatis model showed the best performance. The piecewise linear regression�¢����based Wu et al. model (WP) performed best not only among the models that use both temperature and precipitation but also among the 16 models evaluated, mainly because it has separate relationships for low and high radiation levels. The modeling efficiency of WP was from ~5% to more than 100% greater than those of the other models, depending on models and locations.

  4. Analysis of the California Solar Resource--Volume 3: Appendices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    erdahl, P.

    2011-01-01

    No.9. Goodridge, J. , 1974. Solar Radiation Measurements invs. temperature and solar radiation vs. cloudiness. Hourlyenergy in the form of solar radiation and pro- duces output

  5. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    to varying levels solar radiation, and quantify theirproperties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,siding surface. Direct solar radiation to siding, reflected

  6. Analysis of the California Solar Resource--Volume 3: Appendices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    erdahl, P.

    2011-01-01

    TECHNIQUES FOR DAILY SOLAR RADIATION DATA ABSTRACT Dailya corrected solar radiation data base for 19 locations inTechniques for Daily Solar Radiation Data Appendix A

  7. Solar variability of four sites across the state of Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2010-01-01

    geographical wealth of solar radiation data is availableSolar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL), South Park Mountain Data (Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL), the South Park Mountain Data (

  8. Transportation Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kramer, George Leroy Jr.

    1999-12-01

    The National Transportation Program 1999 Transportation Baseline Report presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste and materials transportation. In addition, this Report provides a summary overview of DOE’s projected quantities of waste and materials for transportation. Data presented in this report were gathered as a part of the IPABS Spring 1999 update of the EM Corporate Database and are current as of July 30, 1999. These data were input and compiled using the Analysis and Visualization System (AVS) which is used to update all stream-level components of the EM Corporate Database, as well as TSD System and programmatic risk (disposition barrier) information. Project (PBS) and site-level IPABS data are being collected through the Interim Data Management System (IDMS). The data are presented in appendices to this report.

  9. Impact of surface inhomogeneity on solar radiative transfer under overcast conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    by radiative transfer models founded on the classical electromagnetic and quantum mechanics theories. While the fundamentals of radiative transfer theories are well-established, radiative transfer models used to describe

  10. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Schiavon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    7]); h r is the radiation heat transfer coefficient (W/m 2Unit °C W/m 2 h r Radiation heat transfer coefficient W/m

  11. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Mexico, and along the Pacific Coastline. A due south azimuth would suggest that equal amounts of solar

  12. Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  13. Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2007-05-02

    A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  14. Inward shift of outer radiation belt electrons as a function of Dst index and the influence of the solar wind on electron injections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    Inward shift of outer radiation belt electrons as a function of Dst index and the influence of the solar wind on electron injections into the slot region H. Zhao1 and X. Li1 Received 30 July 2012 electrons as a function of the Dst index and the controlling solar wind parameters for deep penetration

  15. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    of solar- radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol. 19, no. 6, pp.16 independent data banks,” Solar Energy, vol. 80, no. 4,data,” Final Report of International Energy Agency Solar

  16. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation in Canada. Solar Energy ~, p.153. Threlkeld, J.L.pool. As the use of solar energy becomes more widespread,a high potential for solar energy use. Solar-heated swimming

  17. Regional Energy Baseline 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.

    2011-01-01

    -09-02 REGIONAL ENERGY BASELINE (1960 ~ 2009) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 To tal En erg y U se pe r C ap ita (M MB tu) Year Total Energy Use per Capita (1960-2009) US... SEEC 12-States TX Hyojin Kim Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D. Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. September 2011 ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University System 1960-2009 Regional Energy...

  18. Forecasting of preprocessed daily solar radiation time series using neural networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paoli, Christophe; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie-Laure [University of Corsica, CNRS UMR SPE, Corte (France); Voyant, Cyril [University of Corsica, CNRS UMR SPE, Corte (France); Hospital of Castelluccio, Radiotherapy Unit, Ajaccio (France)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, we present an application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in the renewable energy domain. We particularly look at the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) network which has been the most used of ANNs architectures both in the renewable energy domain and in the time series forecasting. We have used a MLP and an ad hoc time series pre-processing to develop a methodology for the daily prediction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. First results are promising with nRMSE {proportional_to} 21% and RMSE {proportional_to} 3.59 MJ/m{sup 2}. The optimized MLP presents predictions similar to or even better than conventional and reference methods such as ARIMA techniques, Bayesian inference, Markov chains and k-Nearest-Neighbors. Moreover we found that the data pre-processing approach proposed can reduce significantly forecasting errors of about 6% compared to conventional prediction methods such as Markov chains or Bayesian inference. The simulator proposed has been obtained using 19 years of available data from the meteorological station of Ajaccio (Corsica Island, France, 41 55'N, 8 44'E, 4 m above mean sea level). The predicted whole methodology has been validated on a 1.175 kWc mono-Si PV power grid. Six prediction methods (ANN, clear sky model, combination..) allow to predict the best daily DC PV power production at horizon d + 1. The cumulated DC PV energy on a 6-months period shows a great agreement between simulated and measured data (R{sup 2} > 0.99 and nRMSE < 2%). (author)

  19. Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 , A.E. Pantoja 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 ice show daily oscillations consistent with heating by solar radiation. We present and solve a heat for solar power absorption based on Monte Carlo scatter­ ing simulations of penetrating photons. We observe

  20. Sri M., Huld T., Dunlop E.D., Albuisson M., Lefvre M., Wald L., 2007. Uncertainties in photovoltaic electricity yield prediction from fluctuation of solar radiation. Proceedings of the 22nd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in photovoltaic electricity yield prediction from fluctuation of solar radiation. Proceedings of the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milano, Italy 3-7.9.2007 (preprint). UNCERTAINTIES IN PHOTOVOLTAIC ELECTRICITY YIELD PREDICTION FROM FLUCTUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION Marcel Súri1 , Thomas Huld1 , Ewan D. Dunlop1

  1. Multi-Project Baselines for Evaluation of Industrial Energy-Efficiency and Electric Power Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    Africa compared to the sector-wide baseline Best Plant 10th Percentile Project #5 - off-grid solar Project #Africa compared to the all-fossil baseline Best Plant 10th Percentile 25th Percentile Project #5 - off-grid solar Weighted Average Project #

  2. Solar UV radiation exposure of seamen - Measurements, calibration and model calculations of erythemal irradiance along ship routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feister, Uwe; Meyer, Gabriele; Kirst, Ulrich

    2013-05-10

    Seamen working on vessels that go along tropical and subtropical routes are at risk to receive high doses of solar erythemal radiation. Due to small solar zenith angles and low ozone values, UV index and erythemal dose are much higher than at mid-and high latitudes. UV index values at tropical and subtropical Oceans can exceed UVI = 20, which is more than double of typical mid-latitude UV index values. Daily erythemal dose can exceed the 30-fold of typical midlatitude winter values. Measurements of erythemal exposure of different body parts on seamen have been performed along 4 routes of merchant vessels. The data base has been extended by two years of continuous solar irradiance measurements taken on the mast top of RV METEOR. Radiative transfer model calculations for clear sky along the ship routes have been performed that use satellite-based input for ozone and aerosols to provide maximum erythemal irradiance and dose. The whole data base is intended to be used to derive individual erythemal exposure of seamen during work-time.

  3. Solar Radiation Map of the U.S. - Annual (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Maps that provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size.

  4. University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA): Solar Radiation Lab (SRL); Edinburg, Texas (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ramos, J.; Andreas, A.

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  5. University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA): Solar Radiation Lab (SRL); Edinburg, Texas (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ramos, J.; Andreas, A.

    2011-09-01

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  6. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of minute solar radiation data, Solar Energy,geographical wealth of solar radiation data is available0.1? by 0.1? National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB-SUNY)

  7. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory of wavelength (color) of light on the output of a solar cell. Using an incandescent light bulb, the current output of the solar cell is measured as a series of filters are placed over the solar cell. Next

  8. Combined Modeling of Acceleration, Transport, and Hydrodynamic Response in Solar Flares. II. Inclusion of Radiative Transfer with RADYN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahe'; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares involve complex processes that are coupled together and span a wide range of temporal, spatial, and energy scales. Modeling such processes self-consistently has been a challenge in the past. Here we present such a model to simulate the coupling of high-energy particle kinetics with hydrodynamics of the atmospheric plasma. We combine the Stanford unified Fokker-Planck code that models particle acceleration, transport, and bremsstrahlung radiation with the RADYN hydrodynamic code that models the atmospheric response to collisional heating by non-thermal electrons through detailed radiative transfer calculations. We perform simulations using different injection electron spectra, including an {\\it ad hoc} power law and more realistic spectra predicted by the stochastic acceleration model due to turbulence or plasma waves. Surprisingly, stochastically accelerated electrons, even with energy flux $\\ll 10^{10}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$, cause "explosive" chromospheric evaporation and drive stronger up- an...

  9. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    at scattering incoming solar radiation and results in lessabsorbs both incoming solar radiation and reflected SW ra-m absorb incoming solar radiation as well as SW radiation

  10. Baseline Control Measures.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Individual Permit Baseline Control Measures at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Poster, Individual Permit for Storm Water, NPDES Permit No. NM0030759 Author(s): Veenis, Steven J....

  11. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  12. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    M. Filippi, B.W. Olesen, Solar radiation and cooling loadY. Chen, The effect of solar radiation on dynamic thermaldependant upon solar radiation, ASHRAE Transactions, (2006)

  13. Evaluation of numerical weather prediction for intra-day solar forecasting in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    to  predict daily solar radiation.   Agriculture and Forest and Chuo, S.   2008.  Solar radiation forecasting using Short?term forecasting of solar radiation:   A statistical 

  14. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    and operation of a solar radiation data collection networkimplementation of a solar radiation data collection networka high quality solar radiation data base for well-located

  15. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozzola, A. Kowalczewski, P.; Andreani, L. C.

    2014-03-07

    Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged as an alternative to standard thick wafers technology, but they are less efficient, because of incomplete absorption of sunlight, and non-radiative recombinations. In this paper, we focus on the case of crystalline silicon (c-Si) devices, and we present a full analytic electro-optical model for p-n junction solar cells with Lambertian light trapping. This model is validated against numerical solutions of the drift-diffusion equations. We use this model to investigate the interplay between light trapping, and bulk and surface recombination. Special attention is paid to surface recombination processes, which become more important in thinner devices. These effects are further amplified due to the textures required for light trapping, which lead to increased surface area. We show that c-Si solar cells with thickness of a few microns can overcome 20% efficiency and outperform bulk ones when light trapping is implemented. The optimal device thickness in presence of light trapping, bulk and surface recombination, is quantified to be in the range of 10–80??m, depending on the bulk quality. These results hold, provided the effective surface recombination is kept below a critical level of the order of 100?cm/s. We discuss the possibility of meeting this requirement, in the context of state-of-the-art techniques for light trapping and surface passivation. We show that our predictions are within the capability of present day silicon technologies.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL TEST FACILITY FOR SELECTIVE RADIATIVE COOLING SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakkal, Fateh

    2011-01-01

    heating purposes in solar collectors. For such applicationsthe inverse of the solar collector case. Visible radiation

  17. A preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged daily solar radiation and daily thermal amplitude in the north of Buenos Aires provence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cionco, R; Rodriguez, R

    2012-01-01

    Using irradiance and temperature measurements obtained at the Facultad Regional San Nicol\\'as of UTN, we performed a preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged daily solar radiation and daily thermal amplitude. The results show a very satisfactory adjustment (R = 0.848, RMS = 0.066, RMS% = 9.690 %), even taking into account the limited number of months (36). Thus, we have a formula of predictive nature, capable of estimating mean monthly solar radiation for various applications. We expect to have new data sets to expand and improve the statistical significance of these results.

  18. Neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere under the influence of wavelength-dependent solar radiation pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Tarnopolski; M. Bzowski

    2008-12-04

    With the plethora of detailed results from heliospheric missions and at the advent of the first mission dedicated IBEX, we have entered the era of precision heliospheric studies. Interpretation of these data require precision modeling, with second-order effects quantitatively taken into account. We study the influence of the non-flat shape of the solar Ly-alpha line on the distribution of neutral interstellar H in the inner heliosphere. Based on available data, we (i) construct a model of evolution for the solar Ly-alpha line profile with solar activity, (ii) modify an existing test-particle code used to calculate the distribution of neutral interstellar H in the inner heliosphere so that it takes the dependence of radiation pressure on radial velocity into account, and (iii) compare the results of the old and new version. Discrepancies between the classical and Doppler models appear between ~5 and ~3 AU and increase towards the Sun from a few percent to a factor of 1.5 at 1 AU. The classical model overestimates the density everywhere except for a ~60-degr cone around the downwind direction, where a density deficit appears. The magnitude of the discrepancies appreciably depends on the phase of the solar cycle, but only weakly on the parameters of the gas at the termination shock. For in situ measurements of neutral atoms performed at ~1 AU, the Doppler correction will need to be taken into account, because the modifications include both the magnitude and direction of the local flux by a few km/s and degrees, respectively, which, when unaccounted for, would introduce an error of a few km/s and degrees in determination of the magnitude and direction of the bulk velocity vector at the termination shock.

  19. Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urquhart, Bryan Glenn

    2011-01-01

    1995). In National Solar Radiation Data Base—Final Technicalobtained from the Solar Radiation Data Service (WR7). 4.3.3global solar radiation from meteorological satellite data.

  20. Continental-scale net radiation and evapotranspiration estimated using MODIS satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    of green LAI and solar radiation, provides the highestin temperature and solar radiation, but may be inappropriatecontrast, the incoming solar radiation (S ? ) and incoming

  1. PSW1-C0.2-D0.1-E2.4-F0.1-PSRB2-0021-02 SOLAR WIND-DRIVEN ELECTRON RADIATION BELT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PSW1-C0.2-D0.1-E2.4-F0.1-PSRB2-0021-02 SOLAR WIND-DRIVEN ELECTRON RADIATION BELT RESPONSE FUNCTIONS linear filters, to remove unwanted "col- ored noise" from solar wind and radiation belt electron data prediction filters to represent the driven portion of the linear dynamics that describe the coupling between

  2. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATIONS AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2014 1745 The HelioClim-1 Database of Daily Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , MAY 2014 1745 The HelioClim-1 Database of Daily Solar Radiation at Earth Surface: An Example Abstract--The HelioClim-1 database contains daily values of the solar radiation reaching the ground-CORE) covers Europe, Africa and the Atlantic Ocean, from 1985 to 2005. It is freely accessible at no cost

  3. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory in this experiment is investigate the power output of the cell and how output current and voltage change when solar? What is the maximum Power one can attain with a solar cell? How does load affects the Power produced

  4. An evaluation of the effect of volcanic eruption on the solar radiation at Australian and Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yatko, B.R.; Garrison, J.D.

    1996-11-01

    Peak (most probable) and average values of {angstrom}`s turbidity coefficient {beta} and peak (most probable) and average values of the diffuse index k{sub d} are obtained from the solar radiation data from 21 stations in Australia and 5 stations in Canada. These data exhibit clear increases in their values when the volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere increase following volcanic eruptions of sufficient magnitude. The effect of the eruptions of Fuego (1974), El Chichon (1982) and Pinatubo (1991) are seen most clearly in the data. The effect of lesser eruptions is also seen. The store of volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere shifts with the season so that scattering by volcanic aerosols in the spring half of the year is stronger than in the fall.

  5. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  6. On the relationship factor between the PV module temperature and the solar radiation on it for various BIPV configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplanis, S. Kaplani, E.

    2014-10-06

    Temperatures of c-Si, pc-Si and a-Si PV modules making part of a roof in a building or hanging outside windows with various inclinations were measured with respect to the Intensity of the solar radiation on them under various environmental conditions. A relationship coefficient f was provided whose values are compared to those from a PV array operating in a free standing mode on a terrace. A theoretical model to predict f was elaborated. According to the analysis, the coefficient f takes higher values for PV modules embedded on a roof compared to the free standing PV array. The wind effect is much stronger for the free standing PV than for any BIPV configuration, either the PV is part of the roof, or placed upon the roof, or is placed outside a window like a shadow hanger. The f coefficient depends on various parameters such as angle of inclination, wind speed and direction, as well as solar radiation. For very low wind speeds the effect of the angle of inclination, ?, of the PV module with respect to the horizontal on PV temperature is clear. As the wind speed increases, the heat transfer from the PV module shifts from natural flow to forced flow and this effect vanishes. The coefficient f values range from almost 0.01 m{sup 2°}C/W for free standing PV arrays at strong wind speeds, v{sub W}>7m/s, up to around 0.05 m{sup 2°}C/W for the case of flexible PV modules which make part of the roof in a BIPV system.

  7. By Asher Tubman for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    By Asher Tubman for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page F.1 6/20/2011 Appendix F: Review of PV Panels Labs These kits were used for the first year of a two IB physics class

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    8-12. Würfel P. Physics of solar cells : from principles toPhotocell for Converting Solar Radiation into Electricalgeneration photovoltaics: solar cells for 2020 and beyond.

  9. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, A.

    2014-01-01

    2007a, “Evaluating the Limits of Solar Photovoltaics (PV) infor Short-Term Variability of Solar Power. Lawrence Berkeleyand Medium Term Operational Solar Radiation Forecasts in the

  10. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    demands are high and solar radiation is low. A betterof Tracking for Capturing Solar Radiation in the ContinentalTime Scales of the Surface Solar Radiation Field, Journal of

  11. Radiative transfer modeling of the enigmatic scattering polarization in the solar NaI D1 line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belluzzi, Luca; Degl'Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2015-01-01

    The modeling of the peculiar scattering polarization signals observed in some diagnostically important solar resonance lines requires the consideration of the detailed spectral structure of the incident radiation field as well as the possibility of ground level polarization, along with the atom's hyperfine structure and quantum interference between hyperfine F-levels pertaining either to the same fine structure J-level, or to different J-levels of the same term. Here we present a theoretical and numerical approach suitable for solving this complex non-LTE radiative transfer problem. This approach is based on the density-matrix metalevel theory (where each level is viewed as a continuous distribution of sublevels) and on accurate formal solvers of the transfer equations and efficient iterative methods. We show an application to the D-lines of NaI, with emphasis on the enigmatic D1 line, pointing out the observable signatures of the various physical mechanisms considered. We demonstrate that the linear polariza...

  12. ARM - Lesson Plans: Effects of Solar Radiation on Land and Sea

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Room News PublicationsClimate in theEffects of Solar

  13. NREL: MIDC/University of Texas Panamerican Solar Radiation Lab (26.49 N,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The GeospatialSolar Energy The(35.93 N, 84.3198.17

  14. Modelling solar low-lying cool loops with optically thick radiative losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasso, C; Spadaro, D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the increase of the DEM (differential emission measure) towards the chromosphere due to small and cool magnetic loops (height $\\lesssim8$~Mm, $T\\lesssim10^5$~K). In a previous paper we analysed the conditions of existence and stability of these loops through hydrodynamic simulations, focusing on their dependence on the details of the optically thin radiative loss function used. In this paper, we extend those hydrodynamic simulations to verify if this class of loops exists and it is stable when using an optically thick radiative loss function. We study two cases: constant background heating and a heating depending on the density. The contribution to the transition region EUV output of these loops is also calculated and presented. We find that stable, quasi-static cool loops can be obtained by using an optically thick radiative loss function and a background heating depending on the density. The DEMs of these loops, however, fail to reproduce the observed DEM for temperatures between $4.6<\\log...

  15. RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ext. 6782 Radiative and Passive Cooling Marlo Martin andof the Second Nation- al Passive Solar Conference (owned rights. ,I I RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING* LAIVRENCE

  16. Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queener, Benjamin Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A. E. Ruano, “Prediction of the solar radiation evolutionin ground- level solar irradiance prediction on similar

  17. Radiation Characteristics of Botryococcus braunii, Chlorococcum littorale, and Chlorella sp. Used For CO2 Fixation and Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berberoglu, Halil; Gomez, Pedro; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    for absorbing solar radiation and generating electrons thatMicroorganisms Suspensions Solar radiation transfer withinocean optics [50, 54], solar radiation conversion to algae [

  18. Influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO 2 and CO 18 O exchanges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    reductions of surface solar radiation at sites in the Unitedtrends in surface solar radiation? , Science, 308, 850 –changes in surface solar radiation, Science, 308, 847 – 850,

  19. Prenatal Risk and Protective Factors for Childhood Cancer: Investigating the Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation, Pesticide Exposure, and Maternal Diet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lombardi, Christina

    2013-01-01

    study based on solar radiation data from NASA relying onwith data from the National Solar Radiation Database. Ourusing data from the National Solar Radiation Database from

  20. Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Solar Zenith Angle Correction Factor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel Ruggirello RachelRadiation Dry Bias in the

  1. Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jixia; Malakhova, Margarita; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Reddy, Kanamata; Kurinov, Igor; Carper, Andria; Langfald, Alyssa; Oi, Naomi; Kim, Myoung Ok; Zhu, Feng; Sosa, Carlos P.; Zhou, Keyuan; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2012-06-27

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the leading factor in the development of skin cancer, prompting great interest in chemopreventive agents for this disease. In this study, we report the discovery of norathyriol, a plant-derived chemopreventive compound identified through an in silico virtual screening of the Chinese Medicine Library. Norathyriol is a metabolite of mangiferin found in mango, Hypericum elegans, and Tripterospermum lanceolatum and is known to have anticancer activity. Mechanistic investigations determined that norathyriol acted as an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activity to attenuate UVB-induced phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling cascades. We confirmed the direct and specific binding of norathyriol with ERK2 through a cocrystal structural analysis. The xanthone moiety in norathyriol acted as an adenine mimetic to anchor the compound by hydrogen bonds to the hinge region of the protein ATP-binding site on ERK2. Norathyriol inhibited in vitro cell growth in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells at the level of G{sub 2}-M phase arrest. In mouse skin tumorigenesis assays, norathyriol significantly suppressed solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis indicated that norathyriol mediates its chemopreventive activity by inhibiting the ERK-dependent activity of transcriptional factors AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B during UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Taken together, our results identify norathyriol as a safe new chemopreventive agent that is highly effective against development of UV-induced skin cancer.

  2. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Donald

    2013-01-01

    data acquisition system. Support facilities at LBL include the Solar Energydata to the atmos- pheric processes that attenuate the solar radiation available to terres- trial solar energy

  3. Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4-3.5 billion years ago

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Cnossen; J. Sanz-Forcada; F. Favata; O. Witasse; T. Zegers; N. F. Arnold

    2007-02-20

    Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1-320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect of the circumstances under which life formed on Earth. The quantity that is received depends on two main variables: the emission of radiation by the young Sun and its extinction through absorption and scattering by the Earth's early atmosphere. The spectrum emitted by the Sun when life formed, between 4 and 3.5 Ga, was modeled here, including the effects of flares and activity cycles, using a solar-like star that has the same age now as the Sun had 4-3.5 Ga. Atmospheric extinction was calculated using the Beer-Lambert law, assuming several density profiles for the atmosphere of the Archean Earth. We found that almost all radiation with a wavelength shorter than 200 nm is attenuated effectively, even by very tenuous atmospheres. Longer-wavelength radiation is progressively less well attenuated, and its extinction is more sensitive to atmospheric composition. Minor atmospheric components, such as methane, ozone, water vapor, etc., have only negligible effects, but changes in CO2 concentration can cause large differences in surface flux. Differences due to variability in solar emission are small compared to this. In all cases surface radiation levels on the Archean Earth were several orders of magnitude higher in the 200-300 nm wavelength range than current levels in this range. That means that any form of life that might have been present at Earth's surface 4-3.5 Ga must have been exposed to much higher quantities of damaging radiation than at present.

  4. Parameterization of solar flare dose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamarche, Anne Helene

    1995-01-01

    A critical aspect of missions to the Moon or Mars is the safety and health of the crew. Radiation in space is a hazard for astronauts, especially high-energy radiation following certain types of solar flares. A solar flare ...

  5. Solar-Powered Smart Wireless Camera Network for Outdoor Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abas, Kevin Mathys

    2015-01-01

    Figure 1: Average solar radiation data for the United StatesUsing the data from our solar radiation research we founddata, 2014. http: //www.nrel.gov/solar_radiation/. [40] K.

  6. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01

    TMY or actual solar radiation data, and thus serves theTMY or actual solar radiation data, and thus serves theyear (TMY) solar radiation data. The goal here is to

  7. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    and forecasting of solar radiation data: a review. Int. J.beam and global solar radiation data. Solar Energy , 81:768–forecasting of solar radiation data: a review. International

  8. Reconstruction and Prediction of Variations of Total Ozone and Associated Variations of UV-B Solar Radiation for Subarctic Regions Based of Dendrochronologic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuev, V.V.; Bondarenko, S.L.

    2005-03-18

    Variations of dendrochronologic parameters, especially annual ring density, significantly reflect the physiological tree response to systematic variations of solar UV-B radiation, taking place on monthly and longer timescales during growing season. Such variations of UV-B radiation are totally governed by variations of total ozone (TO). Thus, in any dendrochronologic signal, especially for coniferous trees, there is also a recorded response to TO variations, characterizing variations of UV-B radiation. Because a monitoring of global TO distribution is regularly performed since 1979 using TOMS satellite instrumentation, there appears a possibility to reconstruct TO behavior in the past practically at any point of dendrochronologic monitoring network. The reconstruction is performed by the method of linear regression, based on significant correlation of annual ring density of coniferous trees and TO for coordinates of denrochronologic signal. The present report considers the Subarctic latitudes, which are characterized by considerable TO variations in the second half of twentieth century.

  9. The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Dezful Branch (Iran); Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

  10. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Aiona, Paige K.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2014-09-02

    Sources, optical properties, and chemical composition of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) aerosol are uncertain, making it challenging to estimate its contribution to radiative forcing. Furthermore, optical properties of BrC may change significantly during its atmospheric aging. We examined the effect of solar photolysis on the molecular composition, mass absorption coefficient, and fluorescence of secondary organic aerosol prepared by high-NOx photooxidation of naphthalene (NAP SOA). The aqueous solutions of NAP SOA was observed to photobleach with an effective half-time of ?15 hours (with sun in its zenith) for the loss of the near-UV (300 -400 nm) absorbance. The molecular composition of NAP SOA was significantly modified by photolysis, with the average SOA formula changing from C14.1H14.5O5.1N0.08 to C11.8H14.9O4.5N0.02 after 4 hours of irradiation. The average O/C ratio did not change significantly, however, suggesting that it is not a good metric for assessing the extent of photolysis-driven aging in NAP SOA (and in BrC in general). In contrast to NAP SOA, the photolysis of BrC material produced by aqueous reaction of limonene+O3 SOA (LIM/O3 SOA) with ammonium sulfate was much faster, but it did not result in a significant change in the molecular level composition. The characteristic absorbance of the aged LIM/O3 SOA in the 450-600 nm range decayed with an effective half-time of <0.5 hour. This result emphasizes the highly variable and dynamic nature of different types of atmospheric BrC.

  11. Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queener, Benjamin Daniel

    2012-01-01

    model performance,” Solar Energy, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 125–global solar radiation,” Solar Energy, vol. 78, no. 6, pp.solar radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 6, pp.

  12. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  13. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    of existing solar radiation data and recommendations for thesolar radiation from measured horizontal solar data. I.A.2 (Solar Rad·iation Ana·lysis of exi nc :;:; ;;;- radiation data

  14. Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

  15. Hydrogen H$?$ line polarization in solar flares. Theoretical investigation of atomic polarization by proton beams considering self-consistent NLTE polarized radiative transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiri Stepan; Petr Heinzel; Sylvie Sahal-Brechot

    2007-01-22

    Context. We present a theoretical review of the effect of impact polarization of a hydrogen H$\\alpha$ line due to an expected proton beam bombardment in solar flares. Aims. Several observations indicate the presence of the linear polarization of the hydrogen H$\\alpha$ line observed near the solar limb above 5% and preferentially in the radial direction. We theoretically review the problem of deceleration of the beam originating in the coronal reconnection site due to its interaction with the chromospheric plasma, and describe the formalism of the density matrix used in our description of the atomic processes and the treatment of collisional rates. Methods. We solve the self-consistent NLTE radiation transfer problem for the particular semiempirical chromosphere models for both intensity and linear polarization components of the radiation field. Results. In contrast to recent calculations, our results show that the energy distribution of the proton beam at H$\\alpha$ formation levels and depolarizing collisions by background electrons and protons cause a significant reduction of the effect below 0.1%. The radiation transfer solution shows that tangential resonance-scattering polarization dominates over the impact polarization effect in all considered models. Conclusions. In the models studied, proton beams are unlikely to be a satisfying explanation for the observed linear polarization of the H$\\alpha$ line.

  16. Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS Large scale (up to 100 Mm) anomalies in the structure and radiation of the solar atmosphere. Photosphere : AR = cluster of strong magnetic flux tubes of facular points. Filamentary structure due to supergranulation. #12;Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle

  17. Baseline Test Specimen Machining Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    mark Carroll

    2009-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. Establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis is one of the major fundamental objectives of the project. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as “nuclear grade,” an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al, 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing on specimens drawn from carefully controlled sections of each billet. To this end, this report will discuss the machining of the first set of test specimens that will be evaluated in this program through tensile, compressive, and flexural testing. Validation that the test specimens have been produced to the tolerances required by the applicable ASTM standards, and to the quality control levels required by this program, will demonstrate the viability of sending graphite to selected suppliers that will provide valuable and certifiable data to future data sets that are integral to the NGNP program and beyond.

  18. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    important evaluation criterion for photovoltaic (PV) technology. Therefore, research on novel structuresTowards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping February 2014; published online 3 March 2014) Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged

  19. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  20. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  1. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  2. Petrovay: Solar physics Solar wind and heliosphere THE SOLAR WIND AND THE HELIOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    Petrovay: Solar physics Solar wind and heliosphere THE SOLAR WIND AND THE HELIOSPHERE 1951: First proposal of solar corpuscular radiation by Biermann, to explain slight deviation of comets' ion tails from radial (aberration effect). 1958: Parker's supersonic wind model 1962: Mariner-2 detects solar wind. v

  3. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  4. Baseline Graphite Characterization: First Billet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark C. Carroll; Joe Lords; David Rohrbaugh

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. To meet this goal, the program is generating the extensive amount of quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the available nuclear graphite grades. In order determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for the latest proposed designs, two main programs are underway. The first, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) program, is a set of experiments that are designed to evaluate the irradiated properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences, and compressive loads. Despite the aggressive experimental matrix that comprises the set of AGC test runs, a limited amount of data can be generated based upon the availability of space within the Advanced Test Reactor and the geometric constraints placed on the AGC specimens that will be inserted. In order to supplement the AGC data set, the Baseline Graphite Characterization program will endeavor to provide supplemental data that will characterize the inherent property variability in nuclear-grade graphite without the testing constraints of the AGC program. This variability in properties is a natural artifact of graphite due to the geologic raw materials that are utilized in its production. This variability will be quantified not only within a single billet of as-produced graphite, but also from billets within a single lot, billets from different lots of the same grade, and across different billets of the numerous grades of nuclear graphite that are presently available. The thorough understanding of this variability will provide added detail to the irradiated property data, and provide a more thorough understanding of the behavior of graphite that will be used in reactor design and licensing. This report covers the development of the Baseline Graphite Characterization program from a testing and data collection standpoint through the completion of characterization on the first billet of nuclear-grade graphite. This data set is the starting point for all future evaluations and comparisons of material properties.

  5. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4867008] I. INTRODUCTION A central focus of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell research important evaluation criterion for photovoltaic (PV) technology. Therefore, research on novel structures

  6. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    betterbuildings.energy.gov Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance i Preface The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program (Better...

  7. UCSF Sustainability Baseline Assessment: Carbon Footprint Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Keith

    UCSF Sustainability Baseline Assessment: Carbon Footprint Analysis Final Issue Date: March 21, 2010 #12;Carbon Footprint Analysis Background This chapter of the Sustainability Assessment focuses on UCSF

  8. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  9. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  10. Space radiation environment impacts on high power amplifiers and solar cells on-board geostationary communications satellites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lohmeyer, Whitney Quinne

    2015-01-01

    Communications satellite operators maintain archives of component telemetry to monitor system function. Operators generally do not typically use the telemetry data for scientific analysis of the space radiation environment ...

  11. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Models of diffuse solar radiation, Renew Energ, 33 (2008) [solar irradiance for analyzing areally- totalized PV systems, Sol Energsolar irradiance for analyzing areally- totalized PV systems, Sol Energ

  12. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01

    and operation of a solar radiation data collection net- workdata will be collected on weather conditions, solar radiation,solar radiation are available that the colored filter pyrheliometer data

  13. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  14. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Clement J. (New Brunswick, NJ)

    1992-01-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  15. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Models guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Models Guide summarizes the IBS use of several computer models for predicting the results of emergency situations. These include models for predicting dispersion/doses of airborne contaminants, traffic evacuation, explosion effects, heat radiation from a fire, and siren sound transmission. The guide references additional technical documentation on the models when such documentation is available from other sources. The audience for this manual is chiefly emergency management planners and analysts, but also data managers and system managers.

  16. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    junction tandem solar cells, one wide-bandgap material withare being applied in one tandem solar-cell device, theTo utilize solar radiation more effectively, one possible

  17. LongBaseline Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics Institute for Nuclear Theory Summer Program 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

    LongBaseline Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics Institute for Nuclear Theory Summer Program 2010 for Nuclear Theory Summer Program 2010 Robert J. Wilson 8/11/2010Page 2 Wednesday August 11th Session 6 PWG C520 14:00 Solar, Geo, and Reactor Neutrinos N. Tolich (Washington) 14:30 Q&A Guests/PWG Session 8

  18. Evaluation of numerical weather prediction for intra-day solar forecasting in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Downward surface solar radiation  data released at 12 UTC solar radiation:   A statistical approach using satellite data.   

  19. New Physics Effects in Long Baseline Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osamu Yasuda

    2007-10-13

    We discuss the implications of new physics, which modifies the matter effect in neutrino oscillations, to long baseline experiments, particularly the MINOS experiment. An analytic formula in the presence of such a new physics interaction is derived for $P(\

  20. Post-fire changes in net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal gradient in boreal North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y, Jin; Randerson, J T; Goulden, M L; Goetz, S J

    2012-01-01

    winter incoming solar radiation and summer albedo changeDa) and incoming solar radiation (S in ), both of which varymean all-sky incoming solar radiation at the surface (S in )

  1. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  2. Performance analysis of medium temperature non-tracking solar thermal concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balkoski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Solar Thermal Energy 1.1.1. Physics of Solar Thermal Energy Blackbody Radiation3]. SunTherm Energy, Inc. Solar Thermal Market Research.

  3. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    From the k(t + 1) predictions, solar irradiance forecastsand M. Cony. Prediction of global solar irradiance based onand A. E. Ruano. Prediction of the solar radiation evolution

  4. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    load and capacity; solar heat gain; Radiant design standardssignificance of solar radiation in the design process andthe magnitude of solar impacts under various design/control

  5. Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queener, Benjamin Daniel

    2012-01-01

    global solar radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 6,solar energy, to achieve economically viability and competitiveness [12, 13, 14]. 2.1 Irradiance Data

  6. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV. Development of an isolation handbook and instrument package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The following are covered: the Sun and its radiation, solar radiation and atmospheric interaction, solar radiation measurement methods, spectral irradiance measurements of natural sources, the measurement of infrared radiation, the measurement of circumsolar radiation, some empirical properties of solar radiation and related parameters, duration of sunshine, and meteorological variables related to solar energy. Included in appendices are manufacturers and distributors of solar radiation measuring instruments and an approximate method for quality control of solar radiation instruments. (MHR)

  7. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditionalpenetrations of solar photovoltaics (PV) into an electricSolar Radiation Climatology in the Design of Photovoltaic Systems, Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics:

  8. UNIVERSITY OF OREGON SOLAR MONITORING LABORATORY The University of Oregon (UO) Solar Moni-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    i UNIVERSITY OF OREGON SOLAR MONITORING LABORATORY The University of Oregon (UO) Solar Moni- toring Laboratory has been measuring incident solar radiation since 1975. Current support for this work comes from the Regional Solar Radiation Monitoring Project (RSRMP), a utility consortium project including the Bon

  9. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction...

  10. South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and...

  11. Subject Title: UV Radiation Safety Program at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Hue Sun

    programs. The current UV radiation safety program does not cover exposure to solar UV light. Exposure to solar UV radiation is the predominant cause of skin cancer, particularly when the sun is highest exposure in both occupational and recreational activities. Solar UV radiation also affects the eyes

  12. Waste management project technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  13. Solar collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains summaries and pictures of projects funded by the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program which include the following solar technologies: solar dish; photovoltaics; passive solar building and solar hot water system; Trombe wall; hot air panel; hybrid solar heating system; solar grain dryer; solar greenhouse; solar hot water workshops; and solar workshops.

  14. SOLAR-BLIND PYROMETRIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT UNDER CONCENTRATED SOLAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solar thermal applications. As contact thermometry is often not appropriate in the presence of high;Introduction In high temperature solar thermal applications, where key components are driven near reflections1,2 . The distinction between the emitted thermal and the reflected solar radiation becomes

  15. Stimulated Radiative Molecular Association in the Early Solar System: Orbital Radii of Satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune, and Saturn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lombardi, James C

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation relates the orbital radii of regular satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune, and Saturn to photon energies in the spectra of atomic and molecular hydrogen. To explain these observations a model is developed involving stimulated radiative molecular association (SRMA) reactions among the photons and atoms in the protosatellite disks of the planets. In this model thermal energy is extracted from each disk due to a resonance at radii where there is a match between the temperature in the disk and a photon energy. Matter accumulates at these radii, and satellites and rings are ultimately formed. Orbital radii of satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, and Neptune are related to photon energies ($E_{PM}$ values) in the spectrum of molecular hydrogen. Orbital radii of satellites of Saturn are related to photon energies ($E_{PA}$ values) in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. The first hint that such relationships exist is found in the linearity of the graphs of orbital radii of uranian satellites vs. or...

  16. Response to "Comment on `Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations'" [J. Appl. Phys. 117,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Response to "Comment on `Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non.1063/1.4905182 Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non

  17. Baseline Microstructural Characterization of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapp, Phillip E.; Dunn, Kerry A

    2005-07-31

    Three DOE Standard 3013 outer storage containers were examined to characterize the microstructure of the type 316L stainless steel material of construction. Two of the containers were closure-welded yielding production-quality outer 3013 containers; the third examined container was not closed. Optical metallography and Knoop microhardness measurements were performed to establish a baseline characterization that will support future destructive examinations of 3013 outer containers in the storage inventory. Metallography revealed the microstructural features typical of this austenitic stainless steel as it is formed and welded. The grains were equiaxed with evident annealing twins. Flow lines were prominent in the forming directions of the cylindrical body and flat lids and bottom caps. No adverse indications were seen. Microhardness values, although widely varying, were consistent with annealed austenitic stainless steel. The data gathered as part of this characterization will be used as a baseline for the destructive examination of 3013 containers removed from the storage inventory.

  18. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  19. Analysis of the California Solar Resource--Volume 3: Appendices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    erdahl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Date September 24. 1976 11:00 a.m. Description of Solar RadiationDate November 11. 1976 11:45 a.m. Description of Solar Radiation

  20. Evaluating aerosol direct radiative effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    loading normally induces lower solar energy arriving at the land surface whereas plant photosynthesis of diffuse solar radiation for plant carbon uptake. Comparing with direct-beam solar radiation, diffuse solar to quantify aerosol effects on downward solar radiation. Simulations with and without considering the aerosol

  1. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Report SERI/TR-642-761, Solar Energy Research Institute,radiation Direct reflected solar energy from smooth surfaceshighest in the sky. The solar energy incident on a receiving

  2. Progress toward technology transition of GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, D.N.; Marvin, D.C.; Brinker, D.J.; Curtis, H.B.; Price, P.M.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the joint WL/PL/NASA Multijunction Solar Cell Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program is to scale up high efficiency GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge multijunction solar cells to production size, quantity, and yield while limiting the production cost/Watt ($/W) to 15% over GaAs cells. Progress made by the program contractors, Spectrolab and TECSTAR, include, respectively, best cell efficiencies of 25.76% and 24.7% and establishment of 24.2% and 23.8% lot average efficiency baseline designs. The paper also presents side-by-side testing results collected by Phillips Laboratory and NASA Lewis on Phase 1 deliverable cells, which shows compliance with program objectives. Cell performance, pre- and post-radiation, and temperature coefficient results on initial production GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge solar cells will be presented.

  3. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    from satellite data. Solar Energy, 76:475–484, 2004. [59] CM16 independent data banks. Solar Energy, 80:468–478, 2006. [solar radiation data. Solar Energy , 81:768–772, 2007. [80

  4. The Solar Activity in the Miocene Period In this Subthesis we study the solar activity in the Miocene (or Triassic)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rays, short­wave radiations, the solar constant). One of the longest series of data is the records of UV and X­ray radi­ ation also show a strong correlation between the radiative energy flux and solarThe Solar Activity in the Miocene Period In this Subthesis we study the solar activity

  5. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  6. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  7. California Baseline Energy Demands to 2050 for Advanced Energy Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    diesel). The baseline scenario is based upon the output of the CalCars model with the middle fuel price

  8. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

  9. US Biofuels Baseline and impact of extending the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    June 2011 US Biofuels Baseline and impact of extending the $0.45 ethanol blenders baseline projections for agricultural and biofuel markets.1 That baseline assumed current biofuel policy for cellulosic biofuels was assumed to expire at the end of 2012. This report compares a slightly modified

  10. Examining Uncertainty in Demand Response Baseline Models and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5096E Examining Uncertainty in Demand Response Baseline Models and Variability in Automated of California. #12;Examining Uncertainty in Demand Response Baseline Models and Variability in Automated.e. dynamic prices). Using a regression-based baseline model, we define several Demand Response (DR

  11. Photochemistry Radiation and Photolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    energy is done (i.e. energy per unit time) #12;Sample Problem: A microwave oven puts out radiation at 50? How does a microwave oven heat food anyway? First note that 50 GHz is a frequency (Hz = s-1) E = hn, as a function of l · Amount of solar radiation, as a function of

  12. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    solar radiation data, Solar Energy, 55 (1995) 21-27. [4] K.Energy, 24 (2005) 55- [9] NREL, Dynamic maps, GIS data, and analysis tools - solarSolar Energy, 36 (1986) 481-498. [18] NREL, Measurement and Instrumentation Data

  13. Solar 2014: The 52 Annual Conference of the Australian Solar Council

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .zapata@anu.edu.au Keywords: Concentrating Solar Power, Direct steam generation, Parabolic dishes, Continuous thermal power plants aims to achieve the stable operation of the plant under variable solar radiationSolar 2014: The 52 nd Annual Conference of the Australian Solar Council A Modified Extended Kalman

  14. Experimental Parameters for a Cerium 144 Based Intense Electron Antineutrino Generator Experiment at Very Short Baselines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Gaffiot; T. Lasserre; G. Mention; M. Vivier; M. Cribier; M. Durero; V. Fischer; A. Letourneau; E. Dumonteil; I. S. Saldikov; G. V. Tikhomirov

    2015-02-09

    The standard three-neutrino oscillation paradigm, associated with small squared mass splittings $\\ll 0.1\\ \\mathrm{eV^2}$, has been successfully built up over the last 15 years using solar, atmospheric, long baseline accelerator and reactor neutrino experiments. However, this well-established picture might suffer from anomalous results reported at very short baselines in some of these experiments. If not experimental artifacts, such results could possibly be interpreted as the existence of at least an additional fourth sterile neutrino species, mixing with the known active flavors with an associated mass splitting $\\ll 0.1\\ \\mathrm{eV^2}$, and being insensitive to standard weak interactions. Precision measurements at very short baselines (5 to 15 m) with intense MeV electronic antineutrino emitters can be used to probe these anomalies. In this article, the expected antineutrino signal and backgrounds of a generic experiment which consists of deploying an intense beta minus radioactive source inside or in the vicinity of a large liquid scintillator detector are studied. The technical challenges to perform such an experiment are identified, along with quantifying the possible source and detector induced systematics, and their impact on the sensitivity to the observation of neutrino oscillations at short baselines.

  15. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  16. Testing a model of IR radiative losses Frank Vignola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    losses associated with the pyranometers. High quality data from the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Energy Laboratory (NREL) operates a very high quality solar monitoring station at the Solar Radiation Energy Laboratory ABSTRACT Thermopile pyranometers exhibit IR radiative losses that affect global

  17. MEASUREMENT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION - STATUS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.F.

    2011-01-01

    data on the instantaneous values of circum- solar radiationradiation on specific solar collector designs. Requests for datasolar and circtmsolar radiation over the course of a day, month or year; and 3) detailed data

  18. Computing Solar Absolute Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Allende Prieto

    2007-09-14

    Computed color indices and spectral shapes for individual stars are routinely compared with observations for essentially all spectral types, but absolute fluxes are rarely tested. We can confront observed irradiances with the predictions from model atmospheres for a few stars with accurate angular diameter measurements, notably the Sun. Previous calculations have been hampered by inconsistencies and the use of outdated atomic data and abundances. I provide here a progress report on our current efforts to compute absolute fluxes for solar model photospheres. Uncertainties in the solar composition constitute a significant source of error in computing solar radiative fluxes.

  19. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Energy, 24 (2005) 55- [9] NREL, Dynamic maps, GIS data, andsolar maps. , 2010. [10] NREL, National Solar Radiation1986) 481-498. [18] NREL, Measurement and Instrumentation

  20. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLfor Innovative Solar PowerTribesDepartment ofbetterbuildings.energy.gov

  1. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  2. Variability of Photovoltaic Power in the State of Gujarat Using High Resolution Solar Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Zhang, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Parsons, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-03-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  3. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  4. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  5. LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  6. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  7. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, X.

    1996-12-17

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window. 5 figs.

  8. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Xucheng (Lisle, IL)

    1996-01-01

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window.

  9. SRS baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bledsoe, H.W.; Aadland, R.K. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Sargent, K.A. (Furman Univ., Greenville, SC (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1990-11-01

    Work on the Savannah River Site (SRS) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation began in 1983 when it was determined that the knowledge of the plant hydrogeologic systems needed to be expanded and improved in response to changing stratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic terminology and increased involvement by regulatory agencies (Bledsoe, 1984). Additionally, site-wide data were needed to determine flow paths, gradients, and velocities associated with the different aquifers underlying the plant site. The program was divided into three phases in order to allow the results of one phase to be evaluated and necessary changes and improvements incorporated into the following phases. This report summarizes the results of all three phases and includes modified graphic logs, lithologic descriptions of the different geologic formations, profiles of each cluster site, hydrostratigraphic cross sections, hydrographs of selected wells within each cluster for the first full year of uninterrupted water level measurements, potentiometric maps developed from data collected from all clusters, completion diagrams for each well, and a summary of laboratory tests. Additionally, the proposed new classification of hydrostratigraphic units at SRS (Aadland and Bledsoe, 1990) has been incorporated.

  10. Surface temperatures at the nearside of the Moon as a record of the radiation budget of Earth's climate system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Shaopeng

    for a focus on the solar radiation during its daytime, and on terrestrial radiation during its nighttime terrestrial radiation in nighttime than the strong solar radiation in daytime. Indeed, the long-term lunar, governed respectively by solar and terrestrial radiation. Ó 2007 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Performance Baseline Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-09-12

    The guide supports DOE O 413.3A and identifies key performance baseline development processes and practices. Does not cancel other directives.

  12. EA-1943: Long Baseline Neutrino Facility/Deep Underground Neutrino...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DUNE) at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois and the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota EA-1943: Long Baseline Neutrino FacilityDeep Underground Neutrino...

  13. EA-1943: Long Baseline Neutrino Facility/Deep Underground Neutrino...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    May 27, 2015 EA-1943: Draft Environmental Assessment Long Baseline Neutrino FacilityDeep Underground Neutrino Experiment (LBNFDUNE) at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois and the...

  14. Updates to the International Linear Collider Damping Rings Baseline...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Updates to the International Linear Collider Damping Rings Baseline Design Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Updates to the International Linear Collider Damping Rings...

  15. Cost and Performance Comparison Baseline for Fossil Energy Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blocks together into a new, revolutionary concept for future coal-based power and energy production. Objective To establish baseline performance and cost estimates for today's...

  16. UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    inventory Resource Type: Guidemanual Website: cdm.unfccc.intpublicinputsmethacm0001index.html Cost: Free Language: English References: UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and...

  17. Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title...

  18. California Baseline Energy Demands to 2050 for Advanced Energy Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    CEC (2005b) Energy demand forecast methods report.growth in California energy demands forecast in the baseline2006-2016: Staff energy demand forecast (Revised September

  19. Seismic baseline and induction studies- Roosevelt Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seismic baseline and induction studies- Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah and Raft River, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Seismic...

  20. ITP Distributed Energy: 2008 Combined Heat and Power Baseline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2008 Combined Heat and Power Baseline Assessment and Action Plan for the Nevada Market Final Project Report September 30, 2008 Prepared By: Pacific Region Combined Heat and...

  1. Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    cost reductions in the manufacturing of solar mod- ules.1 Moreover, it is essential to identify newSemiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers Linyou Cao, Pengyu Fan, Alok P. Vasudev the absorption for solar radiation by 25% while utilizing less than half of the semiconductor material (250

  2. Solar Flares STFC Advanced Summer School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar Flares STFC Advanced Summer School in Solar Physics H. S. Hudson Space Sciences Laboratory · A solar flare is, strictly speaking, the electromagnetic radiation from a coronal magnetic energy release and CME require a magnetic storage to supply the energy: #12;Glasgow Summerschool 2011 Why is flare

  3. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon (Golden, CO); Landry, Marc D. (Lafayette, CO); Pitts, John R. (Lakewood, CO)

    1997-01-01

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

  4. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

    1997-05-06

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

  5. II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    2 II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar Monitoring Laboratory has operated a solar radiation monitoring network in the Pacific Northwest. The number of stations participat of utilities headed by the Eugene Water and Electric Board initiated the Re- gional Solar Radiation Monitoring

  6. RESEARCH ARTICLE Solar activity during gestation does not affect human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helle, Samuli

    is increased mutagenic ultraviolet (UVB) radiation during high solar activity that damages DNA. Here, the aim born during the years of high solar activity, measured as the sunspot numbers. We used data on annual). Such solar radiation-induced reduction of lifespan may be mediated by the increased mortality from cancer

  7. The LBNO long-baseline oscillation sensitivities with two conventional neutrino beams at different baselines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LAGUNA-LBNO Collaboration; :; S. K. Agarwalla; L. Agostino; M. Aittola; A. Alekou; B. Andrieu; F. Antoniou; R. Asfandiyarov; D. Autiero; O. Bésida; A. Balik; P. Ballett; I. Bandac; D. Banerjee; W. Bartmann; F. Bay; B. Biskup; A. M. Blebea-Apostu; A. Blondel; M. Bogomilov; S. Bolognesi; E. Borriello; I. Brancus; A. Bravar; M. Buizza-Avanzini; D. Caiulo; M. Calin; M. Calviani; M. Campanelli; C. Cantini; G. Cata-Danil; S. Chakraborty; N. Charitonidis; L. Chaussard; D. Chesneanu; F. Chipesiu; P. Crivelli; J. Dawson; I. De Bonis; Y. Declais; P. Del Amo Sanchez; A. Delbart; S. Di Luise; D. Duchesneau; J. Dumarchez; I. Efthymiopoulos; A. Eliseev; S. Emery; T. Enqvist; K. Enqvist; L. Epprecht; A. N. Erykalov; T. Esanu; D. Franco; M. Friend; V. Galymov; G. Gavrilov; A. Gendotti; C. Giganti; S. Gilardoni; B. Goddard; C. M. Gomoiu; Y. A. Gornushkin; P. Gorodetzky; A. Haesler; T. Hasegawa; S. Horikawa; K. Huitu; A. Izmaylov; A. Jipa; K. Kainulainen; Y. Karadzhov; M. Khabibullin; A. Khotjantsev; A. N. Kopylov; A. Korzenev; S. Kosyanenko; D. Kryn; Y. Kudenko; P. Kuusiniemi; I. Lazanu; C. Lazaridis; J. -M. Levy; K. Loo; J. Maalampi; R. M. Margineanu; J. Marteau; C. Martin-Mari; V. Matveev; E. Mazzucato; A. Mefodiev; O. Mineev; A. Mirizzi; B. Mitrica; S. Murphy; T. Nakadaira; S. Narita; D. A. Nesterenko; K. Nguyen; K. Nikolics; E. Noah; Yu. Novikov; A. Oprima; J. Osborne; T. Ovsyannikova; Y. Papaphilippou; S. Pascoli; T. Patzak; M. Pectu; E. Pennacchio; L. Periale; H. Pessard; B. Popov; M. Ravonel; M. Rayner; F. Resnati; O. Ristea; A. Robert; A. Rubbia; K. Rummukainen; A. Saftoiu; K. Sakashita; F. Sanchez-Galan; J. Sarkamo; N. Saviano; E. Scantamburlo; F. Sergiampietri; D. Sgalaberna; E. Shaposhnikova; M. Slupecki; D. Smargianaki; D. Stanca; R. Steerenberg; A. R. Sterian; P. Sterian; S. Stoica; C. Strabel; J. Suhonen; V. Suvorov; G. Toma; A. Tonazzo; W. H. Trzaska; R. Tsenov; K. Tuominen; M. Valram; G. Vankova-Kirilova; F. Vannucci; G. Vasseur; F. Velotti; P. Velten; V. Venturi; T. Viant; S. Vihonen; H. Vincke; A. Vorobyev; A. Weber; S. Wu; N. Yershov; L. Zambelli; M. Zito

    2014-12-02

    The proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) initially consists of $\\sim 20$ kton liquid double phase TPC complemented by a magnetised iron calorimeter, to be installed at the Pyh\\"asalmi mine, at a distance of 2300 km from CERN. The conventional neutrino beam is produced by 400 GeV protons accelerated at the SPS accelerator delivering 700 kW of power. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the $L/E$ behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from $\\delta_{CP}$ and matter. In this paper we show how this comprehensive physics case can be further enhanced and complemented if a neutrino beam produced at the Protvino IHEP accelerator complex, at a distance of 1160 km, and with modest power of 450 kW is aimed towards the same far detectors. We show that the coupling of two independent sub-MW conventional neutrino and antineutrino beams at different baselines from CERN and Protvino will allow to measure CP violation in the leptonic sector at a confidence level of at least $3\\sigma$ for 50\\% of the true values of $\\delta_{CP}$ with a 20 kton detector. With a far detector of 70 kton, the combination allows a $3\\sigma$ sensitivity for 75\\% of the true values of $\\delta_{CP}$ after 10 years of running. Running two independent neutrino beams, each at a power below 1 MW, is more within today's state of the art than the long-term operation of a new single high-energy multi-MW facility, which has several technical challenges and will likely require a learning curve.

  8. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  9. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project technical baseline document. Fiscal year 1995: Volume 1, Baseline description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womack, J.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cramond, R. [TRW (United States); Paedon, R.J. [SAIC (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-13

    This document is a revision to WHC-SD-SNF-SD-002, and is issued to support the individual projects that make up the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project in the lower-tier functions, requirements, interfaces, and technical baseline items. It presents results of engineering analyses since Sept. 1994. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safety, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner that stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel, although other SNF is involved also.

  11. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Energy Study: Sun Light Energy Study: Solar RadiationS, Perkins, If Sun 'Tracking Solar Energy Collector ll , N77L. Berger, "The Sun, a New Source of Energy", AD B 026689,

  12. Community Shared Solar with Solarize

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    An overview of the concept behind The Solarize Guidebook, which offers neighborhoods a plan for getting volume discounts when making group purchases of rooftop solar energy systems.

  13. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Solar Thermal Collectors .is solar energy. Solar thermal collector arrays can be usedon integrating solar thermal collectors with desalination

  14. SPECTRAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE AND ITS ENTROPIC EFFECT ON EARTH'S CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SPECTRAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE AND ITS ENTROPIC EFFECT ON EARTH'S CLIMATE Wei Wu1 , Yangang Liu1 of the spectral solar irradiance (SSI) at the top of the Earth's atmosphere by the Solar Radiation and Climate the total solar irradiance (TSI) at the top of the Earth's atmosphere (TOA) varies little (only about 0

  15. Gain Scheduled Control of a Solar Power Plant Tor A. Johansen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    to a pilot-scale solar power plant is described. A eld of parabolic collectors focus the solar radiation onto, is described. A eld of parabolic collectors focus the solar radiation onto a tube where oil is pumped through. Figures 1-2 shows photographs of the Acurex plant. The eld is composed of 480 distributed solar collectors

  16. PHASE-SENSITIVE HOLOGRAPHY OF SOLAR ACTIVITY D. C. BRAUN, and C. LINDSEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Douglas C.

    acoustic radiation coming out of a particular point on the solar photosphere with acoustic radiation going applied techniques in phase- sensitive seismic holography to data from the Solar Oscillations, that sunspots and solar active regions are strong absorbers of incident acoustic (p-mode) radiation (Braun

  17. Solar parameters for modeling interplanetary background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bzowski, M; Tokumaru, M; Fujiki, K; Quemerais, E; Lallement, R; Ferron, S; Bochsler, P; McComas, D J

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Fully Online Datacenter of Ultraviolet Emissions (FONDUE) Working Team of the International Space Science Institute in Bern, Switzerland, was to establish a common calibration of various UV and EUV heliospheric observations, both spectroscopic and photometric. Realization of this goal required an up-to-date model of spatial distribution of neutral interstellar hydrogen in the heliosphere, and to that end, a credible model of the radiation pressure and ionization processes was needed. This chapter describes the solar factors shaping the distribution of neutral interstellar H in the heliosphere. Presented are the solar Lyman-alpha flux and the solar Lyman-alpha resonant radiation pressure force acting on neutral H atoms in the heliosphere, solar EUV radiation and the photoionization of heliospheric hydrogen, and their evolution in time and the still hypothetical variation with heliolatitude. Further, solar wind and its evolution with solar activity is presented in the context of the charge excha...

  18. Sterile Neutrino Fits to Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conrad, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews short-baseline oscillation experiments as interpreted within the context of one, two, and three sterile neutrino models associated with additional neutrino mass states in the ~1?eV range. Appearance and ...

  19. Status of Baseline Sampling for Elements in Soil and Vegetation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Status of Baseline Sampling for Elements in Soil and Vegetation at Four Kgra's in the Imperial Valley, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  20. Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    www.netl.doe.gov This page intentionally left blank Cost and Performance Baseline for Coal-to-SNG and Ammonia (Volume 2) i Table of Contents LIST OF EXHIBITS......

  1. Space-Based Solar Power | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    radiation is then wirelessly beamed to Earth in a safe and controlled way as either a microwave or laser beam. Microwave Transmitting Solar Satellite Sunlight reflects off...

  2. University of Colorado-Boulder Researches Solar-Thermochemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    temperature quenching or in an electrolysis step. The conversion of solar radiation into chemical fuel, such as hydrogen, is an engineering challenge; however, unlike...

  3. Radiation Modeling In Fluid Flow Iain D. Boyd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    Collector #12;4 Fundamentals of Radiation (1) · All matter with non-zero temperature emits thermal radiation with energy flux given by the Stefan-Boltzmann Law: e.g., Sun: T=5800 K, total radiated power = 4 distribution (Planck spectrum) !q =T 4 W/m2 #12;5 Planck Radiation Spectrum #12;6 Solar Radiation Spectrum

  4. RADIATION AND CLOUD MONITORING STATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Geoffrey D.

    how they affect the energy balance between incoming solar radiation and heat re-radiated from Earth's surface back into space -- is crucial to improving the general circulation models used for climate students. #12;A MONTHLY PUBLICATION OF THE PUBLIC AFFAIRS OFFICE OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY LOS

  5. Local microwave background radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domingos Soares

    2014-11-13

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  6. Central solar energy receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  7. ORIGINAL PAPER Wintering forest birds roost in areas of higher sun radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrascal, Luis M.

    temperatures, and higher solar radiation in order to minimize thermoregulation costs during resting time situations). We employ GIS methods to quantify solar radiation at each location surrounding the nest boxes with higher solar radiation, where the period of light available for foraging is extended and thermoregulation

  8. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-18 PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION TRANSMITTANCE THROUGH ICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to obtain the ratios shown in Figure 9. 9. Ratio of under-ice to above-ice radiation (T) versus true solar. 12. Ratio of below- to above-ice radiation (T) as a function of true solar time (TST) during a period of melting snow for 7 March 1977. 13. Radiation transmittance (T) as a function of true solar time (TST

  9. Solar Forecasting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On December 7, 2012, DOE announced $8 million to fund two solar projects that are helping utilities and grid operators better forecast when, where, and how much solar power will be produced at U.S....

  10. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A solar energy system is defined as "a system affixed to a building or buildings that uses solar devices, which are thermally isolated from living space or any other area where the energy is used...

  11. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the context of this law, a solar energy device is a system "manufactured and sold for the sole purpose of facilitating the collection and beneficial use of solar energy, including passive...

  12. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  13. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  14. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  15. Multi-baseline interferometric synthetic aperture radar applications and error analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chua, Song Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we deal primarily with the multi-baseline SAR configuration utilizing three satellites. Two applications of InSAR, multi-baseline height retrieval and multi-baseline compensation of CCD's slope biasing ...

  16. Multiproject baselines for evaluation of electric power projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; Lefranc, Maurice; Roy, Joyashree; Winkler, Harald; Spalding-Fecher, Randall

    2003-03-12

    Calculating greenhouse gas emissions reductions from climate change mitigation projects requires construction of a baseline that sets emissions levels that would have occurred without the project. This paper describes a standardized multiproject methodology for setting baselines, represented by the emissions rate (kg C/kWh), for electric power projects. A standardized methodology would reduce the transaction costs of projects. The most challenging aspect of setting multiproject emissions rates is determining the vintage and types of plants to include in the baseline and the stringency of the emissions rates to be considered, in order to balance the desire to encourage no- or low-carbon projects while maintaining environmental integrity. The criteria for selecting power plants to include in the baseline depend on characteristics of both the project and the electricity grid it serves. Two case studies illustrate the application of these concepts to the electric power grids in eastern India and South Africa. We use hypothetical, but realistic, climate change projects in each country to illustrate the use of the multiproject methodology, and note the further research required to fully understand the implications of the various choices in constructing and using these baselines.

  17. Way to increase the user access at the LCLS baseline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    The LCLS beam is meant for a single user, but the baseline undulator is long enough to serve two users simultaneously. To this end, we propose a setup composed of two elements: an X-ray mirrors pair for X-ray beam deflection, and a 4 m-long magnetic chicane, which creates an offset for mirrors pair installation in the middle of the baseline undulator. The insertable mirrors pair can separate spatially the X-ray beams generated in the first and in the second half of the baseline undulator. Rapid switching of the FEL amplification process allows deactivating one half and activating another half of the undulator. As proposed elsewhere, using a kicker installed upstream of the LCLS baseline undulator and an already existing corrector in the first half of the undulator, it is possible to rapidly switch the X-ray beam from one user to another. We present simulation results for the LCLS baseline, and show that it is possible to generate two saturated SASE X-ray beams in the whole 0.8-8 keV photon energy range in the...

  18. High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a high-flux, microchannel solar receiver project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Oregon State University, is working to demonstrate a microchannel-based solar receiver capable of absorbing high solar flux, while using a variety of liquid and gaseous working fluids. High-flux microchannel receivers have the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of a solar receiver by minimizing re-radiation and convective losses.

  19. Stimulated Radiative Molecular Association in the Early Solar System. II. Orbital Radii of the Planets and Other Satellites of the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lombardi, James C

    2015-01-01

    In a previous investigation, the orbital radii of regular satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune, and Saturn are shown to be directly related to photon energies in the spectra of atomic and molecular hydrogen. To explain these observations a model was developed involving stimulated radiative molecular association (SRMA) reactions among photons and atoms in the protosatellite disks of the planets. In the present investigation, the previously developed model is applied to the planets and important satellites of the Sun. A key component of the model involves resonance associated with SRMA. Through this resonance, thermal energy is extracted from the protosun's protoplanetary disk at specific distances from the protosun wherever there is a match between the local thermal energy of the disk and the energy of photons impinging on the disk. Orbital radii of the planets and satellites are related to photon energies ($E_P$ values) in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. An expression determined previously is used to relat...

  20. ABB SCADA/EMS System INEEL Baseline Summary Test Report (November...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ABB SCADAEMS System INEEL Baseline Summary Test Report (November 2004) ABB SCADAEMS System INEEL Baseline Summary Test Report (November 2004) This document covers the security...

  1. Calculation of the Solar Load onto Occupants in a Room using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions and a View Factor Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jedek, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    calculation of the solar load of one specific Bin, it willfor the amount of solar load on one polygon of the manikina given day time. The solar radiation on the one hand can be

  2. A new generation of satellite based solar irradiance calculation schemes R. W. Mueller, D. Heinemann, C. Hoyer & R. Kuhlemann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    A new generation of satellite based solar irradiance calculation schemes R. W. Mueller, D. Piernavieja Instituto Tecnologico de Canarias, Spain Keywords: radiative transfer, solar irradiance, MSG irradiance calculation scheme, including the functional treatment of the diurnal variation of the solar

  3. Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-Stellar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    investigated in the build-up to one of the deepest solar minima expe- rienced in the past 100 years1 23 Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-Stellar Research and the Study of Solar-013-0335-3 Changes in Quasi-periodic Variations of Solar Photospheric Fields: Precursor to the Deep Solar Minimum

  4. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  5. 200-BP-5 operable unit Technical Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques, I.D.; Kent, S.K.

    1991-10-01

    This report supports development of a remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The report summarizes baseline information for waste sites and unplanned release sites located in the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The sites were investigated by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The investigation consisted of review and evaluation of current and historical Hanford Site reports, drawings, and photographs, and was supplemented with recent inspections of the Hanford Site and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted.

  6. Precision Measurements of Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation at LBNF

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-08-06

    In a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the primary physics objectives are to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle ?23, to search for CP violation in neutrino oscillation, and to precisely measure the size of any CP-violating effect that is discovered. This presentation provides a brief introduction to these measurements and reports on efforts to optimize the design of a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the status of LBNE, and the transition to an international collaboration at LBNF.

  7. Proceedings of ICRC 2001: 1 cCopernicus Gesellschaft 2001 The Evolution of Galactic Cosmic Ray Element Spectra from Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Andrew J.

    behind 5 gcm ¾ of shielding at solar minimum (data from Wilson et al., 1997). mission lasting a year of solar modulation. Depending on the applicable radiation limits, these uncertainties in the radiation Cosmic Ray Element Spectra from Solar Minimum to Solar Maximum: ACE Measurements A. J. Davis1 , R. A

  8. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a...

  9. Deep-level defects introduced by 1 MeV electron radiation in AlInGaP for multijunction space solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, H.S.; Yamaguchi, M.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J.; Khan, A.; Takamoto, T.; Agui, T.; Kamimura, K.; Kaneiwa, M.; Imaizumi, M.; Ohshima, T.; Itoh, H.

    2005-11-01

    Presented in this paper are 1 MeV electron irradiation effects on wide-band-gap (1.97 eV) (Al{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}){sub 0.52}In{sub 0.48}P diodes and solar cells. The carrier removal rate estimated in p-AlInGaP with electron fluence is about 1 cm{sup -1}, which is lower than that in InP and GaAs. From high-temperature deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements, a deep-level defect center such as majority-carrier (hole) trap H2 (E{sub {nu}}+0.90{+-}0.05 eV) was observed. The changes in carrier concentrations ({delta}p) and trap densities as a function of electron fluence were compared, and as a result the total introduction rate, 0.39 cm{sup -1}, of majority-carrier trap centers (H1 and H2) is different from the carrier removal rate, 1 cm{sup -1}, in p-AlInGaP. From the minority-carrier injection annealing (100 mA/cm{sup 2}), the annealing activation energy of H2 defect is {delta}E=0.60 eV, which is likely to be associated with a vacancy-phosphorus Frenkel pair (V{sub p}-P{sub i}). The recovery of defect concentration and carrier concentration in the irradiated p-AlInGaP by injection relates that a deep-level defect H2 acts as a recombination center as well as compensator center.

  10. 19.4% -EFFICIENT LARGE AREA REAR-PASSIVATED SCREEN-PRINTED SILICON SOLAR CELLS T. Dullweber*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -printed cells by 0.2% [6,7]. The electrical and optical losses of the full- area Al-BSF at the rear side can19.4% -EFFICIENT LARGE AREA REAR-PASSIVATED SCREEN-PRINTED SILICON SOLAR CELLS T. Dullweber*1 , S implemented a baseline solar cell process based on today's standard industrially manufactured silicon solar

  11. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    network approach of solar potential in Turkey,” Renewabledue to the high solar resource potential. However, the solar

  12. Automated baseline change detection phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD) project is supported by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) as part of its ER&WM cross-cutting technology program in robotics. Phase 1 of the Automated Baseline Change Detection project is summarized in this topical report. The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. In support of this primary objective, there are secondary objectives to determine DOE operational inspection requirements and DOE system fielding requirements.

  13. Technical Evaluation Report "Baseline Design for the COS Aperture Plate"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Technical Evaluation Report "Baseline Design for the COS Aperture Plate" Date: October 14, 1999 Document Number: COS-11-0009 Revision: Initial Release Contract No.: NAS5-98043 CDRL No.: SE-05 Prepared By: J. Morse, COS Project Scientist, CU/CASA Date Reviewed By: E. Wilkinson, COS Instrument Scientist

  14. THE FIRST VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRIC SETI EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rampadarath, H.; Morgan, J. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.

    2012-08-15

    The first Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) conducted with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is presented. By consideration of the basic principles of interferometry, we show that VLBI is efficient at discriminating between SETI signals and human generated radio frequency interference (RFI). The target for this study was the star Gliese 581, thought to have two planets within its habitable zone. On 2007 June 19, Gliese 581 was observed for 8 hr at 1230-1544 MHz with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The data set was searched for signals appearing on all interferometer baselines above five times the noise limit. A total of 222 potential SETI signals were detected and by using automated data analysis techniques were ruled out as originating from the Gliese 581 system. From our results we place an upper limit of 7 MW Hz{sup -1} on the power output of any isotropic emitter located in the Gliese 581 system within this frequency range. This study shows that VLBI is ideal for targeted SETI including follow-up observations. The techniques presented are equally applicable to next-generation interferometers, such as the long baselines of the Square Kilometre Array.

  15. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  16. New baseline for the magnet cooling system Yury Ivanyushenkov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    1 New baseline for the magnet cooling system Yury Ivanyushenkov Engineering and Instrumentation Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory #12;2 Liquid nitrogen cooling system: Conceptual points · Magnet the magnet as a stand alone system. #12;3 Liquid nitrogen cooling system: Diagram Drawn by Peter Titus #12

  17. Overview of the North Coast MPA Baseline Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    & Socioeconomic scope 10 Ecosystem Features Traditional Ecological Knowledge · Contextual Information e new contextual information More information on RFP p. 3-6 #12;North Coast Ecosystem Features.g., fisheries information, physical oceanographic information Baseline Program funds cannot be used to collect

  18. 2004 Compliance Recertification Application Performance Assessment Baseline Calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004 Compliance Recertification Application Performance Assessment Baseline Calculation Revision O Sandia National Laboratories Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2004 Compliance Recertification Application (2 ~"f, Date QA Review Mario Chavez Print WIPP: 1.4.1.1.:P A:QA-L:540232 lof153 #12;2004 Compliance

  19. Degree-1 Earth deformation from very long baseline interferometry measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulds, James E.

    of the center of mass of the Earth system through satellite orbit models and the former purely on observing earth and the center of mass of the entire Earth system (Earth, oceans and atmosphere). The load momentDegree-1 Earth deformation from very long baseline interferometry measurements D. Lavalle´e and G

  20. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The SRC Process Area Design Baseline consists of six volumes. The first four were submitted to DOE on 9 September 1981. The fifth volume, summarizing the Category A Engineering Change Proposals (ECPs), was not submitted. The sixth volume, containing proprietary information on Kerr-McGee's Critical Solvent Deashing System, was forwarded to BRHG Synthetic Fuels, Inc. for custody, according to past instructions from DOE, and is available for perusal by authorized DOE representatives. DOE formally accepted the Design Baseline under ICRC Release ECP 4-1001, at the Project Configuration Control Board meeting in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on 5 November 1981. The documentation was then revised by Catalytic, Inc. to incorporate the Category B and C and Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals. Volumes I through V of the Revised Design Baseline, dated 22 October 1982, are nonproprietary and they were issued to the DOE via Engineering Change Notice (ECN) 4-1 on 23 February 1983. Volume VI again contains proprieary information on Kerr-McGee Critical Solvent Deashing System; it was issued to Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. Subsequently, updated process descriptions, utility summaries, and errata sheets were issued to the DOE and Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. on nonproprietary Engineering Change Notices 4-2 and 4-3 on 24 May 1983.

  1. Historical forest baselines reveal potential for continued carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    Historical forest baselines reveal potential for continued carbon sequestration Jeanine M-based studies suggest that land-use history is a more important driver of carbon sequestration in these systems agricultural lands are being promoted as important avenues for future carbon sequestration (8). But the degree

  2. An Alternative Baseline Methodology for the Power Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Alternative Baseline Methodology for the Power Sector - Taking a Systemic Approach Jakob Asger in August 2005 to discuss the international future strategy of climate policies. Both events put our work process from idea to final thesis. Further we would like to express our warm thanks to Senior Energy

  3. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    data records. 1, Solar Data Solar energy is a general termin obtaining reliable data for solar energy applications,data and analyzed the consequences of designing solar energy

  4. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    a characteristic solar potential is expected to prevail, Theso many sites of potential solar energy applications will besun creates a high potential for solar energy use. Solar-

  5. Integrated solar thermal energy collector system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.D.

    1987-08-18

    A solar thermal collector system is described one of a class of devices which converts solar radiation into heat and transmits this heat to storage from whence it is utilized, comprising: an evacuated glass solar collector, the evacuated glass solar collector having a glass vacuum envelope, the upper portion of the glass vacuum envelope also serving as window to pass solar radiation, the evacuated glass solar collector having a multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent concentrating troughs, each trough shaped and mirror surfaced so as concentrate solar radiation in the vacuum, the mirror surface inside the vacuum and the concentration approximately ideal, the multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent troughs extending substantially over the entire length and width of the evacuated glass solar collector; a heat storage system, the heat storage system adjacent to the evacuated glass solar collector, the heat storage system having a heat storage tank which is thermally insulated, the heat storage tank containing a heat storage medium, and the heat storage system including means of removal of heat from the heat storage tank for utilization.

  6. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), in cooperation with the Commonwealth of Kentucky has contracted with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to design, build and operate a first-of-its-kind plant demonstrating the economic, environmental, socioeconomic and technical feasibility of the direct coal liquefaction process known as SRC-I. ICRC has made a massive commitment of time and expertise to design processes, plan and formulate policy, schedules, costs and technical drawings for all plant systems. These fully integrated plans comprise the Project Baseline and are the basis for all future detailed engineering, plant construction, operation, and other work set forth in the contract between ICRC and the DOE. Volumes I and II of the accompanying documents constitute the updated Project Baseline for the SRC-I two-stage liquefaction plant. International Coal Refining Company believes this versatile plant design incorporates the most advanced coal liquefaction system available in the synthetic fuels field. SRC-I two-stage liquefaction, as developed by ICRC, is the way of the future in coal liquefaction because of its product slate flexibility, high process thermal efficiency, and low consumption of hydrogen. The SRC-I Project Baseline design also has made important state-of-the-art advances in areas such as environmental control systems. Because of a lack of funding, the DOE has curtailed the total project effort without specifying a definite renewal date. This precludes the development of revised accurate and meaningful schedules and, hence, escalated project costs. ICRC has revised and updated the original Design Baseline to include in the technical documentation all of the approved but previously non-incorporated Category B and C and new Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals.

  7. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ordinances, bylaws, or regulations may reasonably restrict the installation and use of solar energy devices to protect public health and safety, buildings from damage, historic/aesthetic values ...

  8. MODIFIED SOLAR INSOLATION AS AN AGRONOMIC FACTOR IN TERRACED ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Tom

    of altitude, latitude, slope aspect, slope angle, and season. The net solar bene®t or cost from slope levelingMODIFIED SOLAR INSOLATION AS AN AGRONOMIC FACTOR IN TERRACED ENVIRONMENTS T. P. EVANS*1 AND B; Accepted 16 August 1999 ABSTRACT We present a model that calculates incident solar radiation falling

  9. Solar neutrinos and neutrino physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Maltoni; Alexei Yu. Smirnov

    2015-08-11

    Solar neutrino studies triggered and largely motivated the major developments in neutrino physics in the last 50 years. Theory of neutrino propagation in different media with matter and fields has been elaborated. It includes oscillations in vacuum and matter, resonance flavor conversion and resonance oscillations, spin and spin-flavor precession, etc. LMA MSW has been established as the true solution of the solar neutrino problem. Parameters theta12 and Delta_m21^2 have been measured; theta13 extracted from the solar data is in agreement with results from reactor experiments. Solar neutrino studies provide a sensitive way to test theory of neutrino oscillations and conversion. Characterized by long baseline, huge fluxes and low energies they are a powerful set-up to search for new physics beyond the standard 3nu paradigm: new neutrino states, sterile neutrinos, non-standard neutrino interactions, effects of violation of fundamental symmetries, new dynamics of neutrino propagation, probes of space and time. These searches allow us to get stringent, and in some cases unique bounds on new physics. We summarize the results on physics of propagation, neutrino properties and physics beyond the standard model obtained from studies of solar neutrinos.

  10. Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    1 23 Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar- Stellar Research and the Study of Solar-010-9653- x Solar Polar Fields During Cycles 21??? 23: Correlation with Meridional Flows #12;1 23 Your article's request, provided it is not made publicly available until 12 months after publication. #12;Solar Phys

  11. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, Nate; Cory, Karlynn; Hand, Maureen; Parkhill, Linda; Speer, Bethany; Stehly, Tyler; Feldman, David; Lantz, Eric; Augusting, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O'Connor, Patrick

    2015-07-08

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  12. Proceedings of the 5th ISES Europe Solar Conf., Freiburg (2004), vol. 2 591 Solar utilisation in low-energy buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gieseler, Udo D. J.

    2004-01-01

    @physik.uni-siegen.de Abstract For low-energy buildings, passive solar gains can contribute significantly to the heat bal- ance solar radiation and the geometry of the building. However, the relevant part of the solar gains, which temperature inside the buildings, which, in turn, is influenced by the amount of solar and internal gains

  13. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz

    2013-11-27

    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  14. XI. DIFFUSEGLOBAL CORRELATIONS: SEASONAL VARIATIONS Estimating the performance of a solar system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    39 XI. DIFFUSE­GLOBAL CORRELATIONS: SEASONAL VARIATIONS Estimating the performance of a solar system requires an accurate assessment of incident solar radiation. Ordinarily, solar radiation-9]. In the previous section we presented a one- parameter correlation study using direct and global data from our

  15. Predicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1061/ ASCE 0733-9437 2003 129:4 256 CE Database subject headings: Radiation; Solar radiationPredicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1 S. Irmak, M.ASCE2 ; A. Irmak3 ; J Abstract: Net radiation (Rn) is a key variable for computing reference evapotranspiration and is a driving

  16. Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

  17. IX. IMPACT OF AEROSOLS FROM THE ERUPTION OF EL CHICHN ON BEAM RADIATION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    in clear day transmission values of beam and global solar radiation from several different sites measured on clear days the effects of normal climatic differences are avoided. Solar radiation data taken. Clear Day Global Radiation The effect of El Chichón upon the solar radia- tion is best studied

  18. Proceedings of Eurotherm78 Computational Thermal Radiation in Participating Media II 5-7 April 2006, Poitiers, France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006, Poitiers, France A diffusion-based approximate model for radiation heat transfer in a solar An approximate method for fast calculations of the radiation heat transfer in a solar thermochemical reactor cavity is proposed. The two-step method with separate calculations for solar and thermal radiation

  19. Unified Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Unified Solar is an MIT startup that is commercializing an integrated circuit solution that eliminates most of the adverse effects caused by partial shading in photovoltaic power systems. With its patent-pending design, Unified Solar's solution is smaller, cheaper and more powerful than any competing power optimizer in the market.

  20. Petrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology SOLAR OSCILLATIONS: INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    where = T(P0/P) ad (potential temperature) #12;Petrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology Group velocity Helioseismology Global helioseismology: Determine set of nlm's infer global mean solar structure. LocalPetrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology SOLAR OSCILLATIONS: INTRODUCTION Small departures from

  1. Accelerators for Testing Radiation Tolerances of Electronics...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    benefit to spin-off field: Qualify components used in space radiation environments. Solar Flares, cosmic rays, and the Earth's Van Allen Belts serve as natural sources of space...

  2. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: User guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, WA (United States); Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.; Wood, B.M.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. This User Guide explains how to start and use the IBS Program, which is designed to help civilian emergency management personnel to plan for and support their responses to a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. The intended audience for this document is all users of the IBS, especially emergency management planners and analysts.

  3. Solar | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar SHARE Solar ORNL's Solar Technologies program supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Office - SunShot Initiative goal to make solar energy...

  4. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  5. Sandia Energy - Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Resource Assessment Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Resource Assessment Solar Resource AssessmentTara...

  6. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  7. Solar Two

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Solar Two is a concentrating solar power plant that can supply electric power on demand to the local utility, Southern California Edison Company. It can do so because it operates not only during sunny parts of the day, but it can store enough thermal energy from the sun to operate during cloudy periods and after dark, for up to three hours, at its rated output of 10 megawatts (MW). For the first time ever, a utility scale solar power plant can supply electricity when the utility needs it most, to satisfy the energy requirements of its customers.

  8. Detection of solar events

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2013-08-27

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  9. Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobranich, Dean D.

    2009-07-01

    In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.

  10. Modeling IR Radiative Loss from Eppley PSP Pyranometers Frank Vignola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Renewable Energy Laboratory ABSTRACT A method has been developed to estimate IR radiative losses using solar, irradiance, IR, modeling, global, diffuse, PSP 1. INTRODUCTION Since the 1970s, solar radiation data has been Energy Laboratory (NREL) data page3 along with the original global data. Corrections to the PSP

  11. Invariant Manifolds for the Station Keeping of Solar Sails Ariadna Farres, AJ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Invariant Manifolds for the Station Keeping of Solar Sails Ariadna Farr´es, AJ Universitat de 2 / 45 inria-00585612,version1-14Apr2011 #12;Background What is a Solar Sail ? Solar Sails are a new concept of spacecraft propulsion that takes ad- vantage of the Solar radiation pressure to propel

  12. Solar Flares and the Chromosphere A white paper for the Decadal Survey*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar Flares and the Chromosphere A white paper for the Decadal Survey* L. Fletcher, R. Turkmani, H acceleration (De Pontieu et al. 2007). The need for chromospheric observations of flares: The solar flare of radiation in a solar flare (Canfield et al 1986, Neidig 1989, Woods et al. 2004). In other words, solar

  13. Phase-change materials to improve solar panel's performance Pascal Biwole1,2,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -mail:phbiwole@unice.fr Abstract: High operating temperatures induce a loss of efficiency in solar photovoltaic and thermal panels. Introduction The efficiency of solar panels depends on three factors: the intensity of the solar radiation flux-change materials to improve solar panel's performance Pascal Biwole1,2,* , Pierre Eclache3 , Frederic Kuznik3 1

  14. Solar Position Algorithm for Solar Radiation Applications (Revised...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    agency thereof. Available electronically at http:www.osti.govbridge Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in paper, from: U.S....

  15. Solar Position Algorithm for Solar Radiation Applications (Revised)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation FederatedInformation What's nextInformationSciTech Revised

  16. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June of 2015, SB 1626 was signed into law. It provides that during the development period, the developer may only prohibit  a property owner from installing solar in developments with 50 or...

  17. Kenya Hourly DNI, GHI and Diffuse Solar Data - Datasets - OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya Hourly DNI, GHI and Diffuse Solar Data Abstract Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation (DNI, GHI and diffuse) and meteorological elements for a 1-year...

  18. Engineering the optical properties of luminescent solar concentrators at the molecular scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulder, Carlijn Lucinde

    2012-01-01

    Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) concentrate solar radiation onto photovoltaic (PV) cells using an inexpensive collector plate to absorb incoming photons and waveguide fluorescently re-emitted photons to PVs at the ...

  19. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal...

  20. 4 ESS switch electromagnetic pulse assessment. Volume 1. Test-bed design installation, and baselining. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-19

    The content of this report is defined by paragraph 3/1 of the Statement of Work for contract DCA100-88-C-0027. This report documents Task 1 and 2, Test-Bed Design, Installation, and Baselining of the 4 ESS Switch Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Assessment Program. ATT has engineered an operational digital 4 ESS switch for the purpose of testing the susceptibility of 4 ESS switch systems to high-altitude EMP. The switch is installed in two specially designed trailers that are transparent to electro-magnetic radiation and is located in Colorado Springs, Colorado, where current-injection testing and further performance baselining is presently underway. Batteries, air conditioning, and spare parts are housed in two additional trailers. ATT Bell Laboratories has developed and implemented a test system for generating current pulses, monitoring the pulses, generating calls, and measuring switch performance. Digital traffic has been successfully generated and switched for three signaling systems: Multifrequency (MF); Common Channel Signaling System 7 (CCS7); and Q.931 (used on direct Integrated Services Digital Network connections). Due to problems in acquiring properly engineered signaling-translation software, however, the CCS7 and Q.931 signaling systems have not yet been implemented with a full complement of trunk assignments. Subsequent tasks will entail further baselining, provisioning of backup methods for the operating software, and current-injection testing of the switch.

  1. 200-UP-2 Operable Unit technical baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deford, D.H.

    1991-02-01

    This report is prepared in support of the development of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit by EBASCO Environmental, Incorporated. It provides a technical baseline of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit and results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Technical Baseline Report is based on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, Hanford Site drawings and photographs and is supplemented with Hanford Site inspections and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted. Each waste site in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit consists of liquid-waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, U Plant operations in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The U Plant'' refers to the 221-U Process Canyon Building, a chemical separations facility constructed during World War 2. It also includes the Uranium Oxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant, which was constructed at the same time and, like the 221-U Process Canyon Building, was later converted for other missions. Waste sites in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit are associated with the U Plant Uranium Metal Recovery Program mission that occurred between 1952 and 1958 and the UO{sub 3} Plant's ongoing uranium oxide mission and include one or more cribs, reverse wells, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, waste vaults, and the lines and encasements that connect them. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Solar spectral measurements and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, R.E.; Hulstrom, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A newly developed spectroradiometer for routine measurement of the solar spectra is described. This instrument measures the solar spectrum between 300 and 2500 nm in less than 2.5 min, with 0.7-nm resolution in the visible and 10-nm resolution in the infrared. Many examples of global, direct, and diffuse spectra are illustrated for Bedford, Mass. and Golden, Colo. The effects of air mass, turbidity, and sun tracking on the spectrum are presented, and radiative transfer modeling capabilities and comparisons between models and between models and experiment are discussed.

  3. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cousins, Peter John

    2014-11-04

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  4. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cousins, Peter John (Menlo Park, CA)

    2012-07-17

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  5. Vietnam-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin, NewArkansas:Standards JumpUSA JumpVideoconVientiane,Baseline

  6. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Utilities Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Williams, J.R.; Bower, J.C.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Utilities Guide explains how you can use the IBS utility programs to manage and manipulate various kinds of IBS data. These programs include utilities for creating, editing, and displaying maps and other data that are referenced to geographic location. The intended audience for this document are chiefly data managers but also system managers and some emergency management planners and analysts.

  7. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 1.03: Utilities guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Pottier, M.C.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This Utilities Guide explains how to operate utility programs that are supplied as a part of the IBS. These utility programs are chiefly for managing and manipulating various kinds of IBS data and system administration files. Many of the utilities are for creating, editing, converting, or displaying map data and other data that are related to geographic location.

  8. National Solar Radiation Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures Ltd Jump to: navigation,Naples,DevelopmentLeaseProject

  9. Solar Rights | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics Daylighting Solar Pool...

  10. Grocery 2009 TSD Chicago Baseline | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynn County,Solar Jump to:ResourcesGriggs County, NorthGroSolar

  11. Grocery 2009 TSD Miami Baseline | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynn County,Solar Jump to:ResourcesGriggs County, NorthGroSolar50%

  12. CROSS VALIDATION OF SATELLITE RADIATION TRANSFER MODELS DURING SWERA PROJECT IN BRAZIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    between two different core radiation transfer models that will be applied during the SWERA (Solar and Wind ­ 048°31'42"W / 10m) 2. BASIC DESCRIPTION OF SOLAR RADIATION SITES The two sites were chosen because they provide high quality radiation data and represent different climatic/environmental regions and different

  13. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    will enable optimal solar cell efficiencies in multiple bandlow cost, high efficiency hybrid solar cells. 4.6 Conclusioncosts and improving efficiencies of solar photovoltaic

  14. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"aided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  15. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditionalthe limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric powertechnologies is that of solar photovoltaics due to the high

  16. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    2008, uses concentrated solar power to split water. Figurethe main reason the potential for solar power is boundless.a clean energy source, solar power is inexhaustible, fairly

  17. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  18. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    of these errors on solar design is discussed. To facilitateone of the simplified solar design methods discussed inWisconsin Interactive Solar Heating Design Program, , , , c,

  19. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  20. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    the cloud index,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 280 –Cover Indices,” ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering (inHorizontal Irradiance,” submitted to Solar Energy, 2012.

  1. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energya Passive Flat-Plate Solar Collector," International Journalof Flat Plate Solar Collector Equipped with Rectangular Cell

  2. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    nanocrystal-polymer solar cells The full potential of hybridto reach the full potential of polymer blend solar cells.solar cells described here offer several potential

  3. Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE solar resource research focuses on understanding historical solar resource patterns and making future predictions, both of which are needed to support reliable power system operation. As solar...

  4. Baseline Glass Development for Combined Fission Products Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Billings, Amanda Y.; Lang, Jesse B.; Marra, James C.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-06-29

    Borosilicate glass was selected as the baseline technology for immobilization of the Cs/Sr/Ba/Rb (Cs), lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) waste steams as part of a cost benefit analysis study.[1] Vitrification of the combined waste streams have several advantages, minimization of the number of waste forms, a proven technology, and similarity to waste forms currently accepted for repository disposal. A joint study was undertaken by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop acceptable glasses for the combined Cs + Ln + TM waste streams (Option 1) and Cs + Ln combined waste streams (Option 2) generated by the AFCI UREX+ set of processes. This study is aimed to develop baseline glasses for both combined waste stream options and identify key waste components and their impact on waste loading. The elemental compositions of the four-corners study were used along with the available separations data to determine the effect of burnup, decay, and separations variability on estimated waste stream compositions.[2-5] Two different components/scenarios were identified that could limit waste loading of the combined Cs + LN + TM waste streams, where as the combined Cs + LN waste stream has no single component that is perceived to limit waste loading. Combined Cs + LN waste stream in a glass waste form will most likely be limited by heat due to the high activity of Cs and Sr isotopes.

  5. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvis, M.T.; Jarvis, T.T.; Van Houten, N.C.; Lewis, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report.

  6. Passive solar design handbook. Volume two of two volumes: passive solar design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Barley, D.; McFarland, R.; Perry, J. Jr.; Wray, W.; Noll, S.

    1980-01-01

    A manual for the design and performance evaluation and analysis of passive solar heating systems is presented. Two passive solar building types are analyzed: direct gain and thermal storage walls. Rules of thumb for the schematic design phase and simplified procedures for the design development phase are described. Analysis methods for the construction documents phase are given. The design procedure for fan-forced rock beds for hybrid systems is presented. Economic analysis methods for passive solar buildings are described. Tables of monthly average solar radiation, temperature, and degree-days for various locations in the US and southern Canada are included. (WHK)

  7. Central solar-energy receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-10-27

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  8. Determination of the relativistic parameter gamma using very long baseline interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. B. Lambert; C. Le Poncin-Lafitte

    2009-03-09

    Relativistic bending in the vicinity of a massive body is characterized only by the post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$ within the standard parameterized post-Newtonian formalism, which is unity in General Relativity. Aiming at estimating this parameter, we use very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) to measure the gravitational deflection of radio waves emitted by distant compact radio sources, by Solar System bodies. We analyze geodetic VLBI observations recorded since 1979. We compare estimates of $\\gamma$ and errors obtained using various analysis schemes including global estimations over several time spans and with various Sun elongation cut-off angles, and analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We arrive at the conclusion that the relativistic parameter $\\gamma$ cannot be estimated at better than $2\\times10^{-4}$. The main factor of limitation is the uncertainty in the determination of (global or session-wise) radio source coordinates. A sum of various instrumental and modeling errors and analysis strategy defects, that cannot be decorrelated and corrected yet, is at the origin of the limitating noise.

  9. Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  10. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  11. Solar thermophotovoltaic system using nanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ungaro, Craig; Gray, Stephen K.; Gupta, Mool C.

    2015-08-20

    This paper presents results on a highly efficient experimental solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) system using simulated solar energy. An overall power conversion efficiency of 6.2% was recorded under solar simulation. This was matched with a thermodynamic model, and the losses within the system, as well as a path forward to mitigate these losses, have been investigated. The system consists of a planar, tungsten absorbing/emitting structure with an anti-reflection layer coated laser-microtextured absorbing surface and single-layer dielectric coated emitting surface. A GaSb PV cell was used to capture the emitted radiation and convert it into electrical energy. This simple structure is bothmore »easy to fabricate and temperature stable, and contains no moving parts or heat exchange fluids.« less

  12. Energy savings obtainable through passive solar techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. The purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the US. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.

  13. Current and lattice matched tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1987-01-01

    A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x P (0.505.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low-resistance heterojunction, preferably a p+/n+ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice matched and current matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

  14. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-26

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  15. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  16. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Beckman, Solar Energy Thermal Processes (John Wiley & Sons,New York. Solar Energy Thermal Processes. John Duncan, C,

  17. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    and operation of solar power plants and the model- ing offor application to solar ther- mal power plants energy

  18. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  20. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.