National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for based materials view

  1. Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement: Supplementary Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement: Supplementary Material Erin Baker Keywords: Biofuels; Technology R&D; Uncertainty; Environmental policy 2 #12;1 Introduction This paper contains supplementary material for "Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement

  2. Materialized View Selection and Maintenance Using Multi-Query Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramamritham, Krithi

    Materialized View Selection and Maintenance Using Multi-Query Optimization Hoshi Mistry ¡ Prasan the differentials as above. Our work addresses the problem of optimizing the main- tenance of a set of materialized Materialized views have been found to be very effective at speeding up queries, and are increasingly being

  3. COMMUNICATION www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    are consumed at an extremely fast rate, various types of renewable energy technologies have been developed National Cheng Kung University Tainan 70101, Taiwan Prof. C.-P. Liu Research Center for Energy Technology that the output performance of n-type ZnO-based NGs can be enhanced by p-type doping,[20] but decreased

  4. news and views A key issue for hydrogen storage materi-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palumbi, Stephen

    news and views A key issue for hydrogen storage materi- als is that the hydrogenation and dehydro be possible to discover stable hydrogen hydrates with higher storage Hydrogen Posture Plan www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/ hydrogen_posture_plan.pdf 7. Kuhs, W

  5. www.advmat.de www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    by plasma- enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Methane (CH4) was used as the carbon source to synthesize. The strong protein-based adhesives found in marine mussel Mytilus edulis, provide an important insight for the solidification by oxidative chemical crosslinking.[21­24] From a chemical point of view, covalent crosslinking

  6. Evolving Materialized Views in Data Warehouse Chuan Zhang,* Xin Yao: Jian Yang t

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Xin

    Evolving Materialized Views in Data Warehouse Chuan Zhang,* Xin Yao: Jian Yang t Abstract- A data have some views materialized, and some vir- 'Chuan Zhang and Xin Yao are with the School of Computer

  7. A DATABASE INTEGRATION SYSTEM BASED ON GLOBAL VIEW GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Ramon

    A DATABASE INTEGRATION SYSTEM BASED ON GLOBAL VIEW GENERATION Uchang Park Duksung Women: database, integration, view, heterogeneity. Abstract: Database integration is a common and growing challenge with the proliferation of database systems, data warehouses, data marts, and other OLAP systems

  8. Polyphosphazine-based polymer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V.; Avci, Recep; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2010-05-25

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  9. Conductive polymer-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI); Dourado, Sunil K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Dulebohn, Joel I. (Lansing, MI); Hanchar, Robert J. (Charlotte, MI)

    2007-04-17

    Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

  10. How can I view submitted materials? | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNew Jersey:Hopkinsville,Advanced ResearchHow can I view

  11. A View Based Survey on Web services Registries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dustdar, Schahram

    A View Based Survey on Web services Registries Schahram Dustdar and Martin Treiber dustdar Information Systems Institute Distributed Systems Group Web services registries are a cornerstone for the emerging service-oriented architecture and constitute a critical resource for Web services. Based on a case

  12. Carbon-based Materials for Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice, Lynn Margaret

    2012-01-01

    based Materials for Energy Storage A dissertation submittedbased Materials for Energy storage by Lynn Margaret Ricewind are intermittent. Energy storage systems, then, that

  13. Materialized Views in Probabilistic Databases For Information Exchange and Query Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thrun, Sebastian

    probabilistic data contain correlations between tuples, and the current approach is to capture these correla (BID) table. Not all views can be rep- resented as BID tables and so we propose a novel partial processing on probabilistic data, we can ignore the lineage and use materialized views to more efficiently

  14. 589wileyonlinelibrary.com www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    -electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) has been limited by the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) which phases/elements, and their distri- bution, within the sample. Typical GDEs, used for fuel cell and CO22) to value- added compounds requires the advent of catalytic material with high activity

  15. Using an infared scope to view Materials Physics and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renerwable Energy Laboratory, United Technolo- gies, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, General Motors, Ford researchers from the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory's Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos, propose and a magnetic material. The research, led by Tuson Park and Joe D. Thompson, of the Condensed Matter and Thermal

  16. An Inductive Database Prototype Based on Virtual Mining Views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robardet, Céline

    An Inductive Database Prototype Based on Virtual Mining Views Hendrik Blockeel K.U. Leuven Leuven, Belgium Toon Calders T.U. Eindhoven Eindhoven, The Netherlands Elisa Fromont K.U. Leuven Leuven, Belgium Bart Goethals Universiteit Antwerpen Antwerp, Belgium Adriana Prado Universiteit Antwerpen Antwerp

  17. www.MaterialsViews.com www.advenergymat.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    A, Weinheim (1 of 7) 1301315wileyonlinelibrary.com Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Solar Cells Using solar cells (OSCs) based on conjugated polymers due to their promising poten- tial for future energy the current world- record value for OSCs.[4] However, this value is much lower compared to inor- ganic multi-junction

  18. 364 wileyonlinelibrary.com www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    to tailor BHJ morphology.[8,9] Despite these improvements, most optimized D-A polymer BHJ solar cells in the Mixed Regions of Polymer­Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells J. A. Bartelt, Z. M. Beiley, W. R-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells[1] consisting of electron-donating polymers and electron

  19. www.afm-journal.de www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    containing main- chain fluorene and hydrofluoric acid (HF) degradable disilane for sorting and preferentially­12] Fluorene-based aromatic poly- mers such as poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl) (usually referred to as PFO] reported relatively good transistor Degradable Conjugated Polymers: Synthesis and Applications

  20. Design and Selection of Materialized Views in a Data Warehousing Environment: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Il-Yeol

    , including query access frequencies, base-data update frequencies, query access costs, view maintenance costs views, the total cost of the maintenance, storage and query processing of the system is optimized incur a high maintenance cost. Furthermore, for a system with limited storage space and

  1. Material-based design computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxman, Neri

    2010-01-01

    The institutionalized separation between form, structure and material, deeply embedded in modernist design theory, paralleled by a methodological partitioning between modeling, analysis and fabrication, resulted in ...

  2. Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries Frontiers in Materials Science Seminar / Chemistryg g g g g y University at Buffalo ­ The State University of New York (SUNY) Abstract Batteries/SVO batteries. A case study highlighting the rich chemistry and electrochemistry of the Li/SVO system providing

  3. Laser gain media based on nanocomposite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Robert W.

    19, 2007 A new way of controlling the laser properties of optical materials by designing compositeLaser gain media based on nanocomposite materials Ksenia Dolgaleva* and Robert W. Boyd The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA *Corresponding author: ksenia

  4. Materials Issues in High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers for Under-Sodium Viewing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Harris, Robert V.; Baldwin, David L.

    2012-06-12

    Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970's, and, over the intervening 30+ years the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased array 2 MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

  5. Porous hydroxyapatite-based obturation materials for dentistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    of Advanced Polymers & Optimized Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University Laboratory of Advanced Polymers & Optimized Materials, Department of Materials Science and EngineeringPorous hydroxyapatite-based obturation materials for dentistry Witold Brostowa) Laboratory

  6. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance...

  7. DOE Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit: Defining Pathways...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit: Defining Pathways for Onboard Automotive Applications DOE Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit: Defining Pathways for Onboard Automotive...

  8. MedView: A Declarative Approach to Evidence-Based Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersson, Olof

    MedView: A Declarative Approach to Evidence-Based Medicine Göran Falkman Department of Computer Abstract. MedView is a project that meets the challenges of evidence-based oral medicine by providing", John Naisbitt exclaimed in 1982 [1]. This is perhaps particularly true for clinical medicine

  9. Model-Based Multi-view Fusion of Cinematic Flow and Optical Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paragios, Nikos

    Model-Based Multi-view Fusion of Cinematic Flow and Optical Imaging Mickael Savinaud1,2,3 , Martin-view Fusion of Cinematic Flow and Optical Imaging 669 optical imaging devices are now able to image does not enable cinematic acquisition. The use of temporal information involves either animal tracking

  10. A manual procedure for assembly sequence planning based on the exploded view method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivero, Andres R

    1995-01-01

    This thesis covers the development of a manual planning procedure based on the computerized method of exploded views to generate an optimal or near-optimal assembly sequence. Care has been taken to minimize iterative and ...

  11. Panoramic view of electrochemical pseudocapacitor and organic solar cell research in molecularly engineered energy materials (MEEM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    material and as a lithium-ion battery elec- trode. 16,17known high-rate lithium ion battery material. A crossover

  12. Image-Based Reconstruction of Spatially Varying Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidrich, Wolfgang

    Image-Based Reconstruction of Spatially Varying Materials Hendrik P. A. Lensch1 Jan Kautz1 Michael material properties is an important step towards photorealistic rendering. Many real-world objects are composed of a number of materials that often show subtle changes even within a single material. Thus

  13. GPU-based Scalable Volumetric Reconstruction for Multi-view Stereo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, H; Duchaineau, M; Max, N

    2011-09-21

    We present a new scalable volumetric reconstruction algorithm for multi-view stereo using a graphics processing unit (GPU). It is an effectively parallelized GPU algorithm that simultaneously uses a large number of GPU threads, each of which performs voxel carving, in order to integrate depth maps with images from multiple views. Each depth map, triangulated from pair-wise semi-dense correspondences, represents a view-dependent surface of the scene. This algorithm also provides scalability for large-scale scene reconstruction in a high resolution voxel grid by utilizing streaming and parallel computation. The output is a photo-realistic 3D scene model in a volumetric or point-based representation. We demonstrate the effectiveness and the speed of our algorithm with a synthetic scene and real urban/outdoor scenes. Our method can also be integrated with existing multi-view stereo algorithms such as PMVS2 to fill holes or gaps in textureless regions.

  14. Base Technology for Radioactive Material Transportation Packaging Systems

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-07-08

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) policies and responsibilities for coordinating and planning base technology for radioactive material transportation packaging systems.

  15. Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, Kimberly Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices."devices for energy harvesting, storage, and conversion are based on the incorporation of nanostructured

  16. Carbon-Based Materials, High-Surface-Area Sorbents, and New Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    technologies includes a range of carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes, aerogels, nanofibers (including metal-doped hybrids), as well as metal-organic frameworks,...

  17. Materialized views for P2P XML warehousing Ioana Manolescu Spyros Zoupanos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manolescu, Ioana

    , the European defense company, and CEA, the French nuclear energy producer. The project focuses on giving in the number of views, and describe rewriting algorithms. Our approach is validated by experiments these companies efficient tools for gathering, enriching and exploiting (e.g. by semantic and linguistic analysis

  18. SUPERVISED AND UNSUPERVISED MRF BASED 3D SCENE CLASSIFICATION IN MULTIPLE VIEW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUPERVISED AND UNSUPERVISED MRF BASED 3D SCENE CLASSIFICATION IN MULTIPLE VIEW AIRBORNE OBLIQUE Classification in 3D object space Basic idea Supervised approach Unsupervised approah Experiments: data and results Discussion CONTENTS #12; State-of-the-Art digital camera hardware and processing stimuate

  19. View Based Integration of Heterogeneous Web Service Registries--the Case of VISR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dustdar, Schahram

    View Based Integration of Heterogeneous Web Service Registries--the Case of VISR Schahram Dustdar efforts in the Web service area, several dif- ferent incompatible Web service registry implementations distributed Web service registries. In addition, the creation of specialized Web service registries leads

  20. Hierarchical Volumetric Multi-view Stereo Reconstruction of Manifold Surfaces based on Dual Graph Embedding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazhdan, Michael

    Hierarchical Volumetric Multi-view Stereo Reconstruction of Manifold Surfaces based on Dual Graph://www.rwth-graphics.de Abstract This paper presents a new volumetric stereo algorithm to reconstruct the 3D shape of an arbitrary into the volumetric grid, which establishes a well defined relationship between the integrated photo

  1. Hydroxyapatite based hybrid dental materials with controlled porosity and improved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    Dental obturation materials are perhaps the simplest biomaterials introduced into the human body becauseHydroxyapatite based hybrid dental materials with controlled porosity and improved tribological Lobland2 and J. R. Rodriguez1 Hybrid dental materials were designed with controlled porosity and improved

  2. NATURE MATERIALS | VOL 10 | NOVEMBER 2011 | www.nature.com/naturematerials 811 news & views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    competition between crystal growth and adsorption of organic material10 , is needed to determine design criteria for the pairing of host crystals with occlusion materials that achieve a desired degree under control The ability to control the nuclear spins in a semiconductor quantum dot is an important

  3. Carbon-based Materials for Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice, Lynn Margaret

    2012-01-01

    to a renewable energy-fueled future is therefore contingentare key to a future fueled by renewable energy. Carbon-based

  4. Testing for characterization of the materials from radiological point of view

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bercea, Sorin; Iliescu, Elena; Dudu, Dorin; Iancso, Georgeta [National Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering-Horia Hulubei , Reactorului 30 St, P.O.BOX MG-6,Magurele, cod 077125 (Romania)

    2013-12-16

    The nuclear techniques and materials are now used in a large number of applications, both in medicine and industry. Due to this fact, new materials are needed in order to assure the radiological protection of the personnel involved in these activities. But, finally, all these materials have to be tested for some specific parameters, in order to prove that they are adequate for the purposed for which they were created. One of the important parameters of the materials used for the radiological protection is the attenuation coefficient. The attenuation coefficient of the ionizing radiation composed by particles without electrical charge (X,?-ray and neutron) is the most important parameter for the materials used for the shielding of these ionizing radiation. This paper deals with the experimental methods developed for the determination of the attenuation of fast and thermal neutrons. These experimental methods, involved the use of Am-Be source and U-120 Cyclotron of IFIN-HH. For the tests which were done at the U-120 Cyclotron, a number of experiments had to be performed, in order to establish the irradiation geometry and the dose equivalent rates in front of and behind the material samples. The experimental results obtained for samples of several materials, confirmed the methods as adequate for the aim of the test.

  5. Diamond Based TE Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy2 DOE| DepartmentEnergy

  6. 782 NATURE MATERIALS | VOL 12 | SEPTEMBER 2013 | www.nature.com/naturematerials news & views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    and negligible dielectric losses, and is likely to enable further scaling in electronic and energy-storage dielectrics. This requires engineering the competing materials' interactions by creating and locally). However, the Lyddane­Sachs­Teller relation may be generalized for other types of dipole-active process

  7. Characterization of New Cathode Materials using Synchrotron-based...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Techniques Characterization of New Cathode Materials using Synchrotron-based X-ray Techniques Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008...

  8. Oxide based thermoelectric materials for large scale power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    The thermoelectric (TE) devices are based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects, which describe the conversion between temperature gradient and electricity. The effectiveness of the material performance can be described by ...

  9. Characterization of New Cathode Materials using Synchrotron-based...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Cathode Materials using Synchrotron-based X-ray Techniques and the Studies of Li-Air Batteries 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review...

  10. Investigating physical properties of novel carbon-based materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Nasser Soliman, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, we present the results of studies of physical properties in three classes of novel carbon-based materials: carbon aerogels, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and high thermal conductivity graphitic foams. The ...

  11. Lithium-based inorganic-organic framework materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, Hamish Hei-Man

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes research into lithium-based inorganic-organic frameworks, which has led to an increased understanding of the structural diversity and properties of these materials. The crystal structures of 11 new forms of lithium...

  12. MaterialsViews.com We're pleased to announce the intro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    ), anode (Ni3Sn4­C alloy), and electrolyte (gel-polymer membrane), werefabricatedaimingat theproduction to the authors whose work we highlight. Related news is a dynamic list featuring other stories that may interest-Based Resins Biobased polymers from vegetable oils are excellent alternatives to petroleum-based resins

  13. NATURE MATERIALS | VOL 10 | AUGUST 2011 | www.nature.com/naturematerials 565 news & views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, John

    coefficients, which can be exploited for sound-insulation applications5,6 . Zhang and colleagues now take frequency range may enable new applications based on the control of acoustic, elastic and seismic waves

  14. View on mobile or on web page AbbVie is a new global, research-based biopharmaceutical company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Paul R.

    View on mobile or on web page AbbVie is a new global, research-based biopharmaceutical company try copying and pasting the entire URL below into your web browser: http

  15. Essays on Dynamic Value Change Perspective in Resource Based View, Determinants of Alliance Formation and Risk Preference in Alliance Formation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun, Ik Su

    2011-02-22

    ON DYNAMIC VALUE CHANGE PERSPECTIVE IN RESOURCE BASED VIEW, DETERMINANTS OF ALLIANCE FORMATION AND RISK PREFERENCE IN ALLIANCE FORMATION A Dissertation by IK SU JUN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2009 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics ESSAYS ON DYNAMIC VALUE CHANGE PERSPECTIVE IN RESOURCE BASED VIEW, DETERMINANTS OF ALLIANCE FORMATION...

  16. Vision Based Navigation for a Mobile Robot with Different Field of Views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Rizwan A; Saeed, Saqib

    2009-01-01

    The basic idea behind evolutionary robotics is to evolve a set of neural controllers for a particular task at hand. It involves use of various input parameters such as infrared sensors, light sensors and vision based methods. This paper aims to explore the evolution of vision based navigation in a mobile robot. It discusses in detail the effect of different field of views for a mobile robot. The individuals have been evolved using different FOV values and the results have been recorded and analyzed.The optimum values for FOV have been proposed after evaluating more than 100 different values. It has been observed that the optimum FOV value requires lesser number of generations for evolution and the mobile robot trained with that particular value is able to navigate well in the environment.

  17. Active, polymer-based composite material implementing simple shear 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sang Jin

    2009-05-15

    , Dr. Terry S. Creasy. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This material is based upon work supported by DARPA and the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command under contract W911 W6-04-C... of Shear Actuator .................................................................46 3.3.1 Mold design and CNC machining.............................................47 3.3.2 Assembly...

  18. 2006 Nature Publishing Group Graphene-based composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the preparation of graphene-polymer composites via complete exfoliation of graphite9 and molecular© 2006 Nature Publishing Group Graphene-based composite materials Sasha Stankovich1 *, Dmitriy A. Piner1 , SonBinh T. Nguyen2 & Rodney S. Ruoff1 Graphene sheets--one-atom-thick two-dimensional layers

  19. Graphene-based Materials for Biosensing and Bioimaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Dan; Yang, Yuqi; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-12-01

    Graphene, a free-standing two-dimensional crystal with one-atom thickness, exhibits distinct properties that are highly attractive for biosensing and bioimaging, such as a high electrical conductivity, a large planar area, and an excellent ability to quench fluorescence. This article selectively reviews recent advances in the field of graphene-based materials for biosensing and bioimaging. In particular, graphene-based enzyme biosensors, DNA biosensors, and immunosensors are summarized in detail. Graphene-based biotechnology for cell imaging is also described. Future perspectives and possible challenges in this rapidly developing area are also discussed.

  20. Piezoresistive Cement-based Materials for Strain Sensing D. D. L. CHUNG*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Piezoresistive Cement-based Materials for Strain Sensing D. D. L. CHUNG* Composite Materials ABSTRACT: Cement-based materials that exhibit piezoresistivity with sufficient magnitude and reversibility. The piezoresistive behavior, mechanism and materials are reviewed, including cement-based materials with continuous

  1. Material identification based upon energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marleau, Peter

    2015-10-06

    Various technologies pertaining to identifying a material in a sample and imaging the sample are described herein. The material is identified by computing energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons that is caused by presence of the sample in travel paths of the neutrons. A mono-energetic neutron generator emits the neutron, which is downscattered in energy by a first detector unit. The neutron exits the first detector unit and is detected by a second detector unit subsequent to passing through the sample. Energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons passing through the sample is computed based upon a computed energy of the neutron, wherein such energy can be computed based upon 1) known positions of the neutron generator, the first detector unit, and the second detector unit; or 2) computed time of flight of neutrons between the first detector unit and the second detector unit.

  2. NREL Simulations Provide New Insight on Polymer-Based Energy Storage Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    Atomistic simulations correlate molecular packing and electron transport in polymer-based energy storage materials.

  3. Analytical models to evaluate system performance measures for vehicle based material-handling systems under various dispatching policies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Moonsu

    2005-08-29

    -route material-handling systems from two different perspectives: the workcenters?? point of view and the transporters?? point of view. The state-dependent nature of the transportation time is considered here for more accurate analytical approximation models...

  4. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiStefano, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Keiser, J.R.; Klueh, R.L.; Eatherly, W.P.

    1995-02-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF{sub 2} molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized.

  5. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiStefano, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Keiser, J.R.; Klueh, R.L.; Eatherly, W.P.

    1995-03-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF{sub 2} molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized.

  6. Method and apparatus for making articles from particle based materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, A.J.; Menchhofer, P.A.

    1995-12-19

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the production of articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is conveyed through an elongate flow area having a desired cross-sectional configuration. The slurry is heated as it is advanced through the flow area causing the slurry to set or harden in a shape which conforms to the cross-sectional configuration of the flow area. The material discharges from the flow area as a self-supporting solid of near net final dimensions. The article may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product. 10 figs.

  7. View-based dynamic object recognition based on human perception Heinrich H. Bulthoff, Christian Wallraven, Arnulf Graf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a particular object or ob- ject category. For example, frontal-, side- or top-views of a helicopter are very

  8. TrafficView: A Driver Assistant Device for Traffic Monitoring based on Car-to-Car Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iftode, Liviu

    TrafficView: A Driver Assistant Device for Traffic Monitoring based on Car-to-Car Communication an intelligent transportation system, a common platform for inter-vehicle communication is needed. This platform, Directions, etc. Slide bar for areas infront or behind you Your car Other cars Fig. 1. Example of Traffic

  9. The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Toward Ultra Short Gamma Ray Burst Ground Based De-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Toward Ultra Short Gamma Ray Burst Ground Based De- tection- liminary data taking started in November 2002. 1. Introduction Gamma-ray bursts observed with space Tcherenkovlightfromoneshower Few 100MeV gamma-rays Fig. 1. In an imaging telescope, -ray bursts should appear as a Cherenkov

  10. Universal Robotic Gripper based on the Jamming of Granular Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Brown; Nicholas Rodenberg; John Amend; Annan Mozeika; Erik Steltz; Mitchell R. Zakin; Hod Lipson; Heinrich M. Jaeger

    2010-11-05

    Gripping and holding of objects are key tasks for robotic manipulators. The development of universal grippers able to pick up unfamiliar objects of widely varying shape and surface properties remains, however, challenging. Most current designs are based on the multi-fingered hand, but this approach introduces hardware and software complexities. These include large numbers of controllable joints, the need for force sensing if objects are to be handled securely without crushing them, and the computational overhead to decide how much stress each finger should apply and where. Here we demonstrate a completely different approach to a universal gripper. Individual fingers are replaced by a single mass of granular material that, when pressed onto a target object, flows around it and conforms to its shape. Upon application of a vacuum the granular material contracts and hardens quickly to pinch and hold the object without requiring sensory feedback. We find that volume changes of less than 0.5% suffice to grip objects reliably and hold them with forces exceeding many times their weight. We show that the operating principle is the ability of granular materials to transition between an unjammed, deformable state and a jammed state with solid-like rigidity. We delineate three separate mechanisms, friction, suction and interlocking, that contribute to the gripping force. Using a simple model we relate each of them to the mechanical strength of the jammed state. This opens up new possibilities for the design of simple, yet highly adaptive systems that excel at fast gripping of complex objects.

  11. Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, Kimberly Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of Periodic Surfactant/Inorganic Composite Materials."materials, have been used as inorganic templates for the synthesissynthesis of periodic mesoporous organosilicas (Scott, Many types of organic-inorganic molecular composites or hybrid materials

  12. Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  13. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  14. Fullerene-based materials research and development. LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahill, P A; Henderson, C C; Rohlfing, C M; Loy, D A; Assink, R A; Gillen, K T; Jacobs, S J; Dugger, M T

    1995-05-01

    The chemistry and physical properties of fullerenes, the third, molecular allotrope of carbon, have been studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Early computational work investigated the stability of fullerene isomers and oxides, which was followed by extensive work on hydrogenated fullerenes. Our work led to the first synthesis of a polymer containing C{sub 60} and the synthesis of the simplest hydrocarbon derivatives of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70}. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment ({plus_minus} 0.1 kcal/mol in the relative stability of isomers) has provided insight into the chemical nature of fullerenes and has yielded a sound basis for prediction of the structure of derivatized fullerenes. Such derivatives are the key to the preparation of fullerene-based materials.

  15. Double percolation in the electrical conduction in carbon fiber reinforced cement-based materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Double percolation in the electrical conduction in carbon fiber reinforced cement-based materials Available online 9 November 2006 Abstract Electrically conductive cement-based materials are important conduction in carbon fiber cement-based materials. It involves fiber percolation and cement paste percolation

  16. Fabrication of Functionally Graded-cellular Structures of Cement-based Materials by Co-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Fabrication of Functionally Graded-cellular Structures of Cement-based Materials by Co- extrusion Y-extrusion of layered cement-based materials. The paste flow in the barrel and the die land in a ram extruder should. The functionally graded cellular structures of cement-based materials were successfully fabricated by co

  17. Improved method and composition for immobilization of waste in cement-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, O.K.; Dodson, K.E.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-10-01

    A composition and method for fixation or immobilization of aqueous hazardous waste material in cement-based materials (grout) is disclosed. The amount of drainable water in the cured grout is reduced by the addition of an ionic aluminum compound to either the waste material or the mixture of waste material and dry-solid cement- based material. This reduction in drainable water in the cured grout obviates the need for large, expensive amounts of gelling clays in grout materials and also results in improved consistency and properties of these cement-based waste disposal materials.

  18. Universal robotic gripper based on the jamming of granular material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    it and conforms to its shape. Upon application of a vacuum the granular material contracts and hardens quickly individual fingers by a material or interface that upon contact molds itself around the object. Such a

  19. Strain-based control of crystal anisotropy for perovskite oxides on semiconductor-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney Allen (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick Joseph (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A crystalline structure and a semiconductor device includes a substrate of a semiconductor-based material and a thin film of an anisotropic crystalline material epitaxially arranged upon the surface of the substrate so that the thin film couples to the underlying substrate and so that the geometries of substantially all of the unit cells of the thin film are arranged in a predisposed orientation relative to the substrate surface. The predisposition of the geometries of the unit cells of the thin film is responsible for a predisposed orientation of a directional-dependent quality, such as the dipole moment, of the unit cells. The predisposed orientation of the unit cell geometries are influenced by either a stressed or strained condition of the lattice at the interface between the thin film material and the substrate surface.

  20. Anisotropy-based crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney Allen (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick Joseph (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor structure and device for use in a semiconductor application utilizes a substrate of semiconductor-based material, such as silicon, and a thin film of a crystalline oxide whose unit cells are capable of exhibiting anisotropic behavior overlying the substrate surface. Within the structure, the unit cells of the crystalline oxide are exposed to an in-plane stain which influences the geometric shape of the unit cells and thereby arranges a directional-dependent quality of the unit cells in a predisposed orientation relative to the substrate. This predisposition of the directional-dependent quality of the unit cells enables the device to take beneficial advantage of characteristics of the structure during operation. For example, in the instance in which the crystalline oxide of the structure is a perovskite, a spinel or an oxide of similarly-related cubic structure, the structure can, within an appropriate semiconductor device, exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic, ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, magneto-optic or large dielectric properties that synergistically couple to the underlying semiconductor substrate.

  1. Metal-oxide-based energetic materials and synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA), Simpson; Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-01-17

    A method of preparing energetic metal-oxide-based energetic materials using sol-gel chemistry has been invented. The wet chemical sol-gel processing provides an improvement in both safety and performance. Essentially, a metal-oxide oxidizer skeletal structure is prepared from hydrolyzable metals (metal salts or metal alkoxides) with fuel added to the sol prior to gelation or synthesized within the porosity metal-oxide gel matrix. With metal salt precursors a proton scavenger is used to destabilize the sol and induce gelation. With metal alkoxide precursors standard well-known sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation reactions are used. Drying is done by standard sol-gel practices, either by a slow evaporation of the liquid residing within the pores to produce a high density solid nanocomposite, or by supercritical extraction to produce a lower density, high porous nanocomposite. Other ingredients may be added to this basic nanostructure to change physical and chemical properties, which include organic constituents for binders or gas generators during reactions, burn rate modifiers, or spectral emitters.

  2. Pyroelectric behavior of cement-based materials Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Pyroelectric behavior of cement-based materials Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials for temperature sensing, was observed in cement-based materials. The use of short steel fibers (8 mm diameter dielectric constant, the pyroelectric voltage is lower than those of plain cement paste or carbon fiber (15

  3. Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, Kimberly Michelle

    2012-01-01

    as an additional viable alternative energy and power sourceas sources for alternative energy and power. The deviceperformance of various alternative energy materials. iv The

  4. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01

    the-art thin film solar cell design and processing becauseto incorporate into the solar cell design the materials withor conventional tandem solar cell designs. The physical

  5. Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, Kimberly Michelle

    2012-01-01

    O. M. Yaghi (2003). "Hydrogen Storage in Microporous Metal-materials for hydrogen storage." Innovation in MetallicRecent Advances in Hydrogen Storage in Metal- Containing

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of High Temperature Cement-Based Hydroceramic Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyritsis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Cement-based materials are of importance in the construction of geothermal wells and high-temperature oil and gas wells. These materials fill the annulus between the well casing and the rock forming a protective layer, ...

  7. Materials Considerations and Data Base APEX Interim Report November, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    - activation structural materials (ferritic-martensitic steel, V-4Cr-4Ti, and SiC/SiC composites), oxide for the APEX project. This list included conventional materials (e.g., austenitic stainless steel), low dispersion strengthened ferritic steel, conventional high temperature refractory alloys (Nb, Ta, Mo, W alloys

  8. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01

    band impact ionization and solar cell efficiency,” J. Appl.Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92, 273, (2008). [28]third generation solar cells Solar cells may be formed using

  9. Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit Attendee List

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecial Report ManagementMarineLaboratory:Materials Materials 2011

  10. Discriminative Illumination: Per-Pixel Classification of Raw Materials based on Optimal Projections of Spectral BRDF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Jinwei

    Discriminative Illumination: Per-Pixel Classification of Raw Materials based on Optimal Projections the discriminative illumination method for classifying a variety of raw materials, including metal (aluminum, alloy], mineralogy, and recycling [10]. In computer vision, we primarily focus on uncoated or unpainted raw materials

  11. Materials Chemistry and Performance of Silicone-Based Replicating Compounds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Mirabal, Alex James; Kalan, Michael; Trujillo, Ana B; Hale, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Replicating compounds are used to cast reproductions of surface features on a variety of materials. Replicas allow for quantitative measurements and recordkeeping on parts that may otherwise be difficult to measure or maintain. In this study, the chemistry and replicating capability of several replicating compounds was investigated. Additionally, the residue remaining on material surfaces upon removal of replicas was quantified. Cleaning practices were tested for several different replicating compounds. For all replicating compounds investigated, a thin silicone residue was left by the replica. For some compounds, additional inorganic species could be identified in the residue. Simple solvent cleaning could remove some residue.

  12. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan R&D Manager Office of Technology and Innovations Phone: 847 768 0812

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  13. Communication Role of moisture in the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Role of moisture in the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials Jingyao Cao, D of liquid water contributes little, if any, to the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials. Moisture loss Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Fiber reinforcement; Cement paste; Electrical properties

  14. Electric polarization and depolarization in cement-based materials, studied by apparent electrical resistance measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Electric polarization and depolarization in cement-based materials, studied by apparent electrical September 2003 Abstract Electric polarization in cement-based materials (without conductive admixture) under in carbon fiber cement, due to the fast hole response. Sand addition slowed down polarization saturation

  15. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 38 (2003) 307 322 Crystal plasticity-based finite element analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    2003-01-01

    JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 38 (2003) 307­ 322 Crystal plasticity-based finite element analysis-dependent, finite-strain, crystal-plasticity based materials constitutive model is used to represent the deformation obtained show that plastic flow localizes into deformation bands even at an overall strain level of only 0

  16. Nanocluster-based white-light-emitting material employing surface tuning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcoxon, Jess P. (Albuquerque, NM); Abrams, Billie L. (Albuquerque, NM); Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-26

    A method for making a nanocrystal-based material capable of emitting light over a sufficiently broad spectral range to appear white. Surface-modifying ligands are used to shift and broaden the emission of semiconductor nanocrystals to produce nanoparticle-based materials that emit white light.

  17. Site-Dependent Activity of Atomic Ti Catalysts in Al-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciobanu, Cristian

    Site-Dependent Activity of Atomic Ti Catalysts in Al-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials Abdullah Al storage processes. Here we analyze the role of atomic Ti catalysts in the hydrogenation of Al-based hydrogen storage materials. We show that Ti atoms near the Al surface activate gas-phase H2, a key step

  18. Agent-based Control for Material Handling Systems in In-House Logistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agent-based Control for Material Handling Systems in In-House Logistics Towards Cyber-Physical Systems in In-House-Logistics Utilizing Realsize Evaluation of Agent-based Material Handling Technology Werthmann Intelligent Production and Logistics Systems BIBA ­ Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik

  19. High Efficiency White Organic Light Emission Device Based On New Orange Phosphorescence Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Efficiency White Organic Light Emission Device Based On New Orange Phosphorescence Material University, Kowloon, Hong Kong ABSTRACT White light emitting device based on a new orange phosphorescent fabricated. The white OLED consists of it and a blue phosphorescent material FIrPic (iridum-bis(4

  20. Identifying Affinity Classes of Inorganic Materials Binding Sequences via a Graph-based Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    material. We first generate a large set of simulated peptide sequences based on an amino acid transition peptide sequences, which are usually 7-14 amino acids long, are differentiated from other polypeptides1 Identifying Affinity Classes of Inorganic Materials Binding Sequences via a Graph-based Model Nan

  1. Process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN); Kim, Hyoun-Ee (Seoul, KR)

    2000-01-01

    A process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics is provided. A gaseous atmosphere consisting essentially of silicon monoxide gas is formed by exposing a source of silicon to an atmosphere consisting essentially of hydrogen and a sufficient amount of water vapor. The aluminum based ceramic is exposed to the gaseous silicon monoxide atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to produce a continuous, stable silicon-containing film on the surface of the aluminum based ceramic that increases the strength of the ceramic.

  2. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01

    efficiency of solar panels and power to weight ratio insolar cells, there exist two basic processes to convert sunlight power topower to a load connected when charged by Sun. The typical output voltage of a silicon based solar

  3. Symmetry in Data Mining and Analysis: A Unifying View based on Hierarchy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fionn Murtagh

    2009-06-01

    Data analysis and data mining are concerned with unsupervised pattern finding and structure determination in data sets. The data sets themselves are explicitly linked as a form of representation to an observational or otherwise empirical domain of interest. "Structure" has long been understood as symmetry which can take many forms with respect to any transformation, including point, translational, rotational, and many others. Beginning with the role of number theory in expressing data, we show how we can naturally proceed to hierarchical structures. We show how this both encapsulates traditional paradigms in data analysis, and also opens up new perspectives towards issues that are on the order of the day, including data mining of massive, high dimensional, heterogeneous data sets. Linkages with other fields are also discussed including computational logic and symbolic dynamics. The structures in data surveyed here are based on hierarchy, represented as p-adic numbers or an ultrametric topology.

  4. Materials Selection for Oxide-based Resistive Random Access Memories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2014-12-05

    and interstitials in four key oxides used for RRAM; HfO2, TiO2, Ta2O5 and Al2O3, so as to understand which properties are critical for memory operation. An oxide-based RRAM consists of an oxide layer between two electrodes and with a thin metal layer next...

  5. DOE Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit: Participant Survey Results

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigerators |Departmentof Energy

  6. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDS onBudgetMaterialMaterials Materials Access to

  7. Materials Express NewsandViews

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tománek, David

    .aspbs.com/mex 2014 symposium on phosphorene: An emerging 2D semiconductor There is a new kid on the block among layered mate- rials that can be exfoliated: phosphorene. In analogy to graphene, a monolayer of graphite from bulk black phosphorus in the same way as graphene from bulk graphite. It is stable but, unlike

  8. DOE Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigerators |Departmentof Energy Public3.1-1Project

  9. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. McGrath; Donald G. Baird; Michael von Spakovsky

    2005-10-26

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 degrees C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic fillers, such as phosphotungstic acid and zirconium hydrogen phosphate. Block copolymers were also studied due to the possibility to achieve a desired combination of homopolymer properties as well as the unique morphologies that are possible with block copolymers. Bezoyl substituted poly(p-phenylene) blocks were combined with poly(arylene ether) blocks to merge the structural rigidity of the poly(p-phenylene) with the ductility and high protonic conductivity of the poly(arylene ether)s. As evidenced by our many refereed publications and preprints, the research that we have conducted over the past several years has made a valuable and significant contribution to the literature and to the state of understanding of proton exchange membranes. Our early efforts at scale-up have suggested that the directly polymerized disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers are commercially viable alternatives for proton exchange membranes. A new process for bipolar plates was developed and is described. An important single domain PEMFC model was developed and is documented in herein.

  10. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. McGrath

    2005-10-26

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 �������������������������������°C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic fillers, such as phosphotungstic acid and zirconium hydrogen phosphate. Block copolymers were also studied due to the possibility to achieve a desired combination of homopolymer properties as well as the unique morphologies that are possible with block copolymers. Bezoyl substituted poly(p-phenylene) blocks were combined with poly(arylene ether) blocks to merge the structural rigidity of the poly(p-phenylene) with the ductility and high protonic conductivity of the poly(arylene ether)s. As evidenced by our many refereed publications and preprints, the research that we have conducted over the past several years has made a valuable and significant contribution to the literature and to the state of understanding of proton exchange membranes. Our early efforts at scale-up have suggested that the directly polymerized disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers are commercially viable alternatives for proton exchange membranes. A new process for bipolar plates was developed and is described. An important single domain PEMFC model was developed and is documented in this final report.

  11. Category theory based solution for the building block replacement problem in materials design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spivak, David

    1 Category theory based solution for the building block replacement problem in materials design blocks, theory, modeling, mathematics, hierarchical materials Submitted to: Advanced Engineering be replaced by other molecular structures, such as weak van der Waals or hydrogen bonds, without compromising

  12. Modeling decadal bed material sediment flux based on stochastic Michael Bliss Singer and Thomas Dunne

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Michael

    Modeling decadal bed material sediment flux based on stochastic hydrology Michael Bliss Singer; published 18 March 2004. [1] Estimates of decadal bed material sediment flux and net storage are derived by driving sediment transport calculations with a stochastic hydrology model. The resulting estimates

  13. Synthesis and Hydrogen Sorption Properties of Carborane Based Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Synthesis and Hydrogen Sorption Properties of Carborane Based Metal-Organic Framework Materials@northwestern.edu Tailorable inorganic coordination polymers,1-7 in particular, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)2-7 comprise an important emerging class of materials. They are noteworthy for their structural and chemical diversity, high

  14. Mn-Substituted Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials Based on ZnSe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Mn-Substituted Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials Based on ZnSe: Nanostructures That May Lead research that deals with synthesis, characterization, and modification of organic-inorganic hybrid to integrate functional materials that utilize both electron charge and spin.1 Thus, the introduction

  15. Spall-Fracture Physics and Spallation-Resistance-Based Material Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Spall-Fracture Physics and Spallation-Resistance-Based Material Selection M. Grujicic, B. Pandurangan, B.A. Cheeseman, and C.-F. Yen (Submitted July 29, 2011) Spallation is a fracture mode commonly cause material damage and ultimate fracture (spallation). In this study, the phenomenon of spall-fracture

  16. Investigation on Aluminum-Based Amorphous Metallic Glass as New Anode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Shirley Y.

    Aluminum based amorphous metallic glass powders were produced and tested as the anode materials for the lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Ground Al??Ni₁?La₁? was found to have a ...

  17. Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

    2014-02-04

    Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

  18. Web-based Supplementary Materials for Test for Rare Variants by Environment Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xihong

    Web-based Supplementary Materials for Test for Rare Variants by Environment Interactions and Xihong Lin May 2015 #12;Contents Web Appendix 1. Bias Analysis of Burden Tests dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Web Appendix 2. i

  19. Sorbents and Carbon-Based Materials for Hydrogen Storage Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's research and development on sorbents and carbon-based materials for hydrogen storage targets breakthrough concepts for storing hydrogen in high-surface-area sorbents...

  20. Physical properties and design of light-emitting devices based on organic materials and nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anikeeva, Polina Olegovna

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the detailed experimental and theoretical characterization of light-emitting devices (LEDs) based on organic semiconductors and colloidal quantum dots (QDs). This hybrid material system has several ...

  1. Application for managing model-based material properties for simulation-based engineering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Edward L. (Alameda, CA)

    2009-03-03

    An application for generating a property set associated with a constitutive model of a material includes a first program module adapted to receive test data associated with the material and to extract loading conditions from the test data. A material model driver is adapted to receive the loading conditions and a property set and operable in response to the loading conditions and the property set to generate a model response for the material. A numerical optimization module is adapted to receive the test data and the model response and operable in response to the test data and the model response to generate the property set.

  2. Method of production of pure hydrogen near room temperature from aluminum-based hydride materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Balema, Viktor P.

    2004-08-10

    The present invention provides a cost-effective method of producing pure hydrogen gas from hydride-based solid materials. The hydride-based solid material is mechanically processed in the presence of a catalyst to obtain pure gaseous hydrogen. Unlike previous methods, hydrogen may be obtained from the solid material without heating, and without the addition of a solvent during processing. The described method of hydrogen production is useful for energy conversion and production technologies that consume pure gaseous hydrogen as a fuel.

  3. Pose Estimation using 3D View-Based Eigenspaces Louis-Philippe Morency Patrik Sundberg Trevor Darrell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darrell, Trevor

    is a classic problem in computer vision and has many useful applications. We are particu- larly interested an iterative view registration algorithm [13]. This computation uses intensity information as well as depth (if of the subject's head, and could be provided with 2D or stereo images as input, depending on the view

  4. Effect of Heat Treatment on Silicon Carbide Based Joining Materials for Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewinsohn, Charles A.; Jones, Russell H.; Nozawa, T.; Kotani, M.; Kishimoto, H.; Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, A.

    2001-10-01

    Two general approaches to obtaining silicon carbide-based joint materials were used. The first method relies on reactions between silicon and carbon to form silicon carbide, or to bond silicon carbide powders together. The second method consists of pyrolysing a polycarbosilane polymer to yield an amorphous, covalently bonded material. In order to assess the long-term durability of the joint materials, various heat treatments were performed and the effects on the mechanical properties of the joints were measured. Although the joints derived from the polycarbosilane polymer were not the strongest, the value of strength measured was not affected by heat treatment. On the other hand, the value of the strength of the reaction-based joints was affected by heat treatment, indicating the presence of residual stresses or unreacted material subsequent to processing. Further investigation of reaction-based joining should consist of detailed microscopic studies; however, continued study of joints derived from polymers is also warranted.

  5. SPIE's 1996 Symposium on Smart Structures and Smart Materials, February 1996, paper # 2717-67. Transducer based measurements of Terfenol-D material properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatau, Alison B.

    -67. Transducer based measurements of Terfenol-D material properties Frederick T. Calkins Alison B. Flatau Quantification of Terfenol-D material properties is not readily achieved through standard stress-strain test procedures due to the sensitivity of material properties to changes in magnetic and mechanical loads

  6. 7 July 2011 The contents and views included in Science for Environment Policy are based on independent, peer-reviewed research and do not necessarily reflect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    7 July 2011 The contents and views included in Science for Environment Policy are based. To cite this article/service: "Science for Environment Policy": European Commission DG Environment News to each of the ethical principles. For example, the European Commission is urged to establish monitoring

  7. The superconducting properties of two classes of iron-based materials have been studied in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    The superconducting properties of two classes of iron-based materials have been studied in high Jc define the applications limit of any superconductor. We found that Tc and Hc2 of Ba1-xKxFe2As2 can. 98, 042509 (2011) High field performances in iron-based superconductors Gregory S. Boebinger

  8. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 29 (1994) 4135-4151 Bismuth oxide-based solid electrolytes for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    1994-01-01

    for fuel cells A. M. AZAD, S. LAROSE, S. A. AKBAR Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio of investigations has been reported pertaining to the science and technology of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based electrolytes based on bismuth sesquioxide for fuel cell applications at moderate tem- peratures. 1

  9. One dimensional Si/Sn -based nanowires and nanotubes for lithium-ion energy storage materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    One dimensional Si/Sn - based nanowires and nanotubes for lithium-ion energy storage materials Nam of advanced energy storage applications. In this feature article, we review recent progress on Si-based NWs to their uneven energy production. From this perspective, the interest in energy storage technology is on the rise

  10. Modeling of diffusive mass transport in micropores in cement based materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuji, E-mail: yamaguchi.tetsuji@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Negishi, Kumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Taiheiyo Consultant Company Limited, 2-4-2, Osaku, Sakura, Chiba 285-8655 (Japan); Hoshino, Seiichi; Tanaka, Tadao [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    In order to predict long-term leaching behavior of cement constituents for safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal, we modeled diffusive mass transport in micropores in cement based materials. Based on available knowledge on the pore structure, we developed a transport porosity model that enables us to estimate effective porosity available for diffusion (transport porosity) in cement based materials. We microscopically examined the pore structure of hardened cement pastes to partially verify the model. Effective diffusivities of tritiated water in hardened cement pastes were also obtained experimentally, and were shown to be proportional to the estimated transport porosity.

  11. ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 20 (7), 502-508, 2008. Early-Age Properties of Cement-Based Materials: I. Influence of Cement Fineness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    of Cement-Based Materials: I. Influence of Cement Fineness Dale P. Bentz1* , Gaurav Sant1 , and Jason Weiss1 Abstract The influence of cement fineness on early-age properties of cement-based materials is investigated deformation. Measurements of these properties for two cements of widely different fineness are supplemented

  12. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDS onBudgetMaterial

  13. High mobility high efficiency organic films based on pure organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzman, Rhonda F. (Ann Arbor, MI); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2009-01-27

    A method of purifying small molecule organic material, performed as a series of operations beginning with a first sample of the organic small molecule material. The first step is to purify the organic small molecule material by thermal gradient sublimation. The second step is to test the purity of at least one sample from the purified organic small molecule material by spectroscopy. The third step is to repeat the first through third steps on the purified small molecule material if the spectroscopic testing reveals any peaks exceeding a threshold percentage of a magnitude of a characteristic peak of a target organic small molecule. The steps are performed at least twice. The threshold percentage is at most 10%. Preferably the threshold percentage is 5% and more preferably 2%. The threshold percentage may be selected based on the spectra of past samples that achieved target performance characteristics in finished devices.

  14. The role and importance of porosity in the deflagration rates of HMX-based materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Hsu, P C; Springer, H K

    2011-03-15

    The deflagration behavior of thermally damaged HMX-based materials will be discussed. Strands of material were burned at pressures ranging from 10-300 MPa using the LLNL high pressure strand burner. Strands were heated in-situ and burned while still hot; temperatures range from 90-200 C and were chosen in order to allow for thermal damage of the material without significant decomposition of the HMX. The results indicate that multiple variables affect the burn rate but the most important are the polymorph of HMX and the nature and thermal stability of the non-HE portion of the material. Characterization of the strands indicate that the thermal soak produces significant porosity and permeability in the sample allowing for significantly faster burning due to the increased surface area and new pathways for flame spread into the material. Specifically, the deflagration rates of heated PBXN-9, LX-10, and PBX-9501 will be discussed and compared.

  15. A comparison of material balance calculations based on equilibrium ratios with Schilthuis balance calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clanton, John L

    1956-01-01

    . CALCULATION OF OIL INITIALLY IN PLACE BY SCHILTHUIS MATERIAL BALANCE . . . ZO 6. MATERIAL BALANCE BASED ON EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS 7. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 8. CONCLUSIONS 9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 10. REFERENCES 11. BIBLIOGRAPHY , 36 . 38 39 LIST... OF FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURES FOLLOWING PAGE Isovol Map of Scurry Reef Reservoir 22 Histogram of Production, Gas-Oil Ratio, Pressure and Water Injection History. Shrinkage of Scurry Reef Reservoir Oil, Scurry County, Texas. Gas Volumes Liberated from...

  16. SummitView 1.0: a code to automatically generate 3D solid models of surface micro-machining based MEMS designs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Yarberry, Victor R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)

    2006-11-01

    This report describes the SummitView 1.0 computer code developed at Sandia National Laboratories. SummitView is designed to generate a 3D solid model, amenable to visualization and meshing, that represents the end state of a microsystem fabrication process such as the SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-Planar Multilevel MEMS Technology) V process. Functionally, SummitView performs essentially the same computational task as an earlier code called the 3D Geometry modeler [1]. However, because SummitView is based on 2D instead of 3D data structures and operations, it has significant speed and robustness advantages. As input it requires a definition of both the process itself and the collection of individual 2D masks created by the designer and associated with each of the process steps. The definition of the process is contained in a special process definition file [2] and the 2D masks are contained in MEM format files [3]. The code is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes represent the geometric data and the SUMMiT V process steps. Classes are provided for the following process steps: Planar Deposition, Planar Etch, Conformal Deposition, Dry Etch, Wet Etch and Release Etch. SummitView is built upon the 2D Boolean library GBL-2D [4], and thus contains all of that library's functionality.

  17. Mining Views: Database Views for Data Mining Hendrik Blockeel1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antwerpen, Universiteit

    Mining Views: Database Views for Data Mining Hendrik Blockeel1 , Toon Calders2 , Elisa Fromont1 model towards the inte- gration of data mining into relational database systems, based on the so called virtual mining views. We show that several types of patterns and models over the data, such as itemsets

  18. Holographic imaging based on time-domain data of natural-fiber-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunch, Kyle J.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-09-04

    Methods and apparatuses for imaging material properties in natural-fiber-containing materials can utilize time-domain data. In particular, images can be constructed that provide quantified measures of localized moisture content. For example, one or more antennas and at least one transceiver can be configured to collect time-domain data from radiation interacting with the natural-fiber-containing materials. The antennas and the transceivers are configured to transmit and receive electromagnetic radiation at one or more frequencies, which are between 50 MHz and 1 THz, according to a time-domain impulse function. A computing device is configured to transform the time-domain data to frequency-domain data, to apply a synthetic imaging algorithm for constructing a three-dimensional image of the natural-fiber-containing materials, and to provide a quantified measure of localized moisture content based on a pre-determined correlation of moisture content to frequency-domain data.

  19. Experimental Studies of Ilmenite as a Weighting Material in Oil-based Drilling Fluids for HPHT Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Jie

    2013-12-06

    ilmenite (5 µm) was introduced to address shortcomings of the traditional weighting materials. The objective of this study is to discuss the performance of oil-based drilling fluids using ilmenite as a weighting material for HPHT applications. Oil...

  20. Author's personal copy Variable field-of-view machine vision based row guidance of an agricultural robot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    robot Jinlin Xue a , Lei Zhang b , Tony E. Grift b, a College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural guidance Autonomous guidance Agricultural robot Fuzzy logic control a b s t r a c t A novel variable field-of-view machine vision method was developed allowing an agricultural robot to navigate between rows in cornfields

  1. Relationship Between Engineering Properties, Mineralogy, and Microstructure in Cement-Based Hydroceramic Materials Cured at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    . I. Introduction CEMENT is universally used in the construction of oil and geothermal wells. Cement-based materials used to seal geothermal or deep oil wells are exposed to severe conditions. Optimizing engineering for geothermal and deep, hot oil wells. These formulations contain minerals that occur in nature and hence have

  2. Damage mechanisms identification of polymer based composite materials: time-frequency investigation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Damage mechanisms identification of polymer based composite materials: time-frequency investigation 2012, Nantes, France 2045 #12;Presented in this paper, a time-frequency damage characterization Emission (AE) signals by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). It is to be noted that the study of damage

  3. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL-BASED STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING (SHM) SYSTEMS FOR COMPOSITE MATERIAL UNDER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FINITE ELEMENT MODEL-BASED STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING (SHM) SYSTEMS FOR COMPOSITE MATERIAL UNDER). To design a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system, it is important to understand phenomenologically Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring July 8-11, 2014. La Cité, Nantes, France Copyright © Inria (2014

  4. Filament-Level Modeling of Aramid-Based High-Performance Structural Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Filament-Level Modeling of Aramid-Based High-Performance Structural Materials M. Grujicic, W/ filaments. These fibers can be considered as prototypes for advanced high strength/high-stiffness fibers to be most affected by the presence of sheet stacking faults. Keywords filament-level modeling, Kevlar

  5. LDRD final report on nanocomposite materials based on hydrocarbon-bridged siloxanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulibarri, T.A.; Bates, S.E.; Loy, D.A.; Jamison, G.M.; Emerson, J.A.; Curro, J.G.

    1997-05-01

    Silicones [polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers] are environmentally safe, nonflammable, weather resistant, thermally stable, low T{sub g} materials which are attractive for general elastomer applications because of their safety and their performance over a wide temperature range. However, PDMS is inherently weak due to its low glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and lack of stress crystallization. The major goal of this project was to create a family of reinforced elastomers based on silsesquioxane/PDMS networks. Polydimethylsiloxane-based (PDMS) composite materials containing a variety of alkylene-arylene-bridged polysilsesquioxanes were synthesized in order to probe short chain and linkage effects in bimodal polymer networks. Monte Carlo simulations on the alkylene-bridged silsesquioxane/PDMS system predicted that the introduction of the silsesquioxane short chains into the long chain PDMS network would have a significant reinforcing effect on the elastomer. The silsesquioxane-PDMS networks were synthesized and evaluated. Analysis of the mechanical properties of the resulting materials indicated that use of the appropriate silisesquioxane generated materials with greatly enhanced properties. Arylene and activated alkylene systems resulted in materials that showed superior adhesive strength for metal-to-metal adhesion.

  6. New Carbon-Based Porous Materials with Increased Heats of Adsorption for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snurr, Randall Q.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.

    2014-11-03

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are a promising alternative to internal combustion engines that burn gasoline. A significant challenge in developing fuel cell vehicles is to store enough hydrogen on-board to allow the same driving range as current vehicles. One option for storing hydrogen on vehicles is to use tanks filled with porous materials that act as “sponges” to take up large quantities of hydrogen without the need for extremely high pressures. The materials must meet many requirements to make this possible. This project aimed to develop two related classes of porous materials to meet these requirements. All materials were synthesized from molecular constituents in a building-block approach, which allows for the creation of an incredibly wide variety of materials in a tailorable fashion. The materials have extremely high surface areas, to provide many locations for hydrogen to adsorb. In addition, they were designed to contain cations that create large electric fields to bind hydrogen strongly but not too strongly. Molecular modeling played a key role as a guide to experiment throughout the project. A major accomplishment of the project was the development of a material with record hydrogen uptake at cryogenic temperatures. Although the ultimate goal was materials that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen at room temperature, this achievement at cryogenic temperatures is an important step in the right direction. In addition, there is significant interest in applications at these temperatures. The hydrogen uptake, measured independently at NREL was 8.0 wt %. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest validated excess hydrogen uptake reported to date at 77 K. This material was originally sketched on paper based on a hypothesis that extended framework struts would yield materials with excellent hydrogen storage properties. However, before starting the synthesis, we used molecular modeling to assess the performance of the material for hydrogen uptake. Only after modeling suggested record-breaking hydrogen uptake at 77 K did we proceed to synthesize, characterize, and test the material, ultimately yielding experimental results that agreed closely with predictions that were made before the material was synthesized. We also synthesized, characterized, and computationally simulated the behavior of two new materials displaying the highest experimental Brunauer?Emmett?Teller (BET) surface areas of any porous materials reported to date (?7000 m2/g). Key to evacuating the initially solvent-filled materials without pore collapse, and thereby accessing the ultrahigh areas, was the use of a supercritical CO2 activation technique developed by our team. In our efforts to increase the hydrogen binding energy, we developed the first examples of “zwitterionic” metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The two structures feature zwitterionic characteristics arising from N-heterocyclic azolium groups in the linkers and negatively charged Zn2(CO2)5 nodes. These groups interact strongly with the H2 quadrupole. High initial isosteric heats of adsorption for hydrogen were measured at low H2 loading. Simulations were used to determine the H2 binding sites, and results were compared with inelastic neutron scattering. In addition to MOFs, the project produced a variety of related materials known as porous organic frameworks (POFs), including robust catechol-functionalized POFs with tunable porosities and degrees of functionalization. Post-synthesis metalation was readily carried out with a wide range of metal precursors (CuII, MgII, and MnII salts and complexes), resulting in metalated POFs with enhanced heats of hydrogen adsorption compared to the starting nonmetalated materials. Isosteric heats of adsorption as high as 9.6 kJ/mol were observed, compared to typical values around 5 kJ/mol in unfunctionalized MOFs and POFs. Modeling played an important role throughout the project. For example, we used molecular simulations to determine that the optimal isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst) for maximum hydrogen delivery using MOFs is appro

  7. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  8. Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon Adsorber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H.; Tran, Diana N.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Cheng, Yisun; Lupescu, Jason; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Lambert, Christine; McCabe, Robert W.

    2012-12-31

    In this collaborative program, scientists and engineers in the Institute for Integrated Catalysis at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and at Ford Motor Company have investigated laboratory- and engine-aged SCR catalysts, containing mainly base metal zeolites. These studies are leading to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of SCR catalysts and improve the correlation between laboratory and engine aging, saving experimental time and cost. We have also studied materials effective for the temporary storage of HC species during the cold-start period. In particular, we have examined the adsorption and desorption of various HC species produced during the combustion with different fuels (e.g., gasoline, E85, diesel) over potential HC adsorber materials, and measured the kinetic parameters to update Ford’s HC adsorption model. Since this CRADA has now been completed, in this annual report we will provide very brief summaries of most of the work carried out on this CRADA over the last several years.

  9. Novel Processing of Unique Ceramic-Based Nuclear Materials and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui Zhang; Raman P. Singh

    2008-11-30

    Advances in nuclear reactor technology and the use of gas-cooled fast reactors require the development of new materials that can operate at the higher temperatures expected in these systems. These include refractory alloys base on Nb, Zr, Ta, Mo, W, and Re; ceramics and composites such as those based on silicon carbide (SiCf-SiC); carbon-carbon composites; and advanced coatings. Besides the ability to handle higher expected temperatures, effective heat transfer between reactor componets is necessary for improved efficiency. Improving thermal conductivity of the materials used in nuclear fuels and other temperature critical components can lower the center-line fuel temperature and thereby enhance durability and reduce the risk of premature failure.

  10. Microscale electromagnetic heating in heterogeneous energetic materials based on X-ray CT imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kort-Kamp, W J M; Ionita, A; Glover, B B; Duque, A L Higginbotham; Perry, W L; Patterson, B M; Dalvit, D A R; Moore, D S

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic stimulation of energetic materials provides a noninvasive and nondestructive tool for detecting and identifying explosives. We combine structural information based on X-ray computed tomography, experimental dielectric data, and electromagnetic full-wave simulations, to study microscale electromagnetic heating of realistic three-dimensional heterogeneous explosives. We analyze the formation of electromagnetic hot spots and thermal gradients in the explosive-binder meso-structures, and compare the heating rate for various binder systems.

  11. Excimer Formation by Steric Twisting in Carbazole and Triphenylamine Based Host Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagnich, Sergey A.; Athanasopoulos, Stavros; Rudnick, Alexander; Schroegel, Pamela; Bauer, Irene; Greenham, Neil C.; Strohriegl, Peter; Köhler, Anna

    2015-01-09

    the ubiquitous use of these materials, the spectroscopic understanding of their excited states is limited.1,3,17,18 Carbazole and triphenylemine-based hosts have a tendency to form excimers12,14 that may impact on the performance of OLEDs.19 While excimer... spectrophotometer and a Jasco FP-8600 spectrofluorimeter, respectively. Phosphorescence at 77 K was measured using a Jasco spectrofluorimeter equipped with a liquid nitrogen cooling unit (PMU-830). Computational methods Density functional theory (DFT...

  12. Multiscale Design of Advanced Materials based on Hybrid Ab Initio and Quasicontinuum Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luskin, Mitchell

    2014-03-12

    This project united researchers from mathematics, chemistry, computer science, and engineering for the development of new multiscale methods for the design of materials. Our approach was highly interdisciplinary, but it had two unifying themes: first, we utilized modern mathematical ideas about change-of-scale and state-of-the-art numerical analysis to develop computational methods and codes to solve real multiscale problems of DOE interest; and, second, we took very seriously the need for quantum mechanics-based atomistic forces, and based our methods on fast solvers of chemically accurate methods.

  13. Sono synthesis and characterization of nanophase molybdenum-based materials for catalytic hydrodesulfurization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, D.; Marshall, C. L.; Castagnola, N.; Hanson, J. C.; BNL

    2004-02-10

    Unsupported nano-phase MoS{sub 2}, CoS, and CoS-MoS{sub 2} (Mo/Co mole ratio {approx}6/1) materials were prepared in hexadecane by sonolysis of the corresponding metal carbonyls at {approx}50 {sup o}C in high (>90%) yields as measured by the evolved carbon monoxide. Direct sonolysis of commercial micron-sized MoS{sub 2} in hexadecane did not result in nano-sizing. The TEM images showed that the synthesized MoS{sub 2} were aggregates of {approx}20 nm mean particle diameter, CoS was {approx}50 nm and the mixed-metal CoS-MoS{sub 2} could be viewed as a composite in which smaller MoS{sub 2} particles resided on the larger crystallites of CoS. The broad XRD peaks were consistent with nano-structured MoS{sub 2} and the sharp peaks were consistent with a more crystalline CoS-MoS{sub 2} species. The sharp peaks did not fit any single CoS pattern suggesting multiple phases. The XRD data showed that sonolysis did not alter the morphology of the micron-sized commercial MoS{sub 2} sample. In the HDS comparative activity study of dibenzothiophene, the synthesized nano-phase MoS{sub 2} exhibited more than an order of magnitude higher activity than its commercial micron-sized counterpart and the addition of Co further enhanced the activity. The HDS activity mirrored the temperature programmed reduction data. Interestingly, the nano-phase materials were less active for hydrogenation of 1-octene during the HDS study.

  14. Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

  15. RF Surface Impedance Characterization of Potential New Materials for SRF-based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Binping [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States) and College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Eremeev, Grigory V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Phillips, H. Lawrence [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    In the development of new superconducting materials for possible use in SRF-based accelerators, it is useful to work with small candidate samples rather than complete resonant cavities. The recently commissioned Jefferson Lab RF Surface Impedance Characterization (SIC) system can presently characterize the central region of 50 mm diameter disk samples of various materials from 2 to 40 K exposed to RF magnetic fields up to 14 mT at 7.4 GHz. We report the recent measurement results of bulk Nb, thin film Nb on Cu and sapphire substrates, Nb{sub 3}Sn sample, and thin film MgB{sub 2} on sapphire substrate provided by colleagues at JLab and Temple University.

  16. Materials for Better Li-based Storage Systems for a "Green Energy Society"

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jean-Marie Tarascon

    2010-01-08

    Li-ion batteries are strongly considered for powering the upcoming generations of HEVs and PHEVs, but there are still the issues of safety and costs in terms of materials resources and abundances, synthesis, and recycling processes. Notions of materials having minimum footprint in nature, made via eco-efficient processes, must be integrated in our new research towards the next generation of sustainable and "greener" Li-ion batteries. In this July 13, 2009 talk sponsored by Berkeley Lab's Environental Energy Technologies Division, Jean-Marie Tarascon, a professor at the University of Picardie (Amiens), discuss Eco-efficient synthesis via hydrothermal/solvothermal processes using latent bases as well as structure directing templates or other bio-related approaches of LiFePO4 nanopowders.

  17. Carbon Based Nano-Materials Research, Development and Applications in Optoelectronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Feihu

    2012-01-01

    the-Art Review. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 94, 87-Materials. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 99, 1-13 (in Vehicles. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 79, 409-

  18. Transportation legislative data base: State radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The TLDB has been operated by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) under cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management since 1992. The data base system serves the legislative and regulatory information needs of federal, state, tribal and local governments, the affected private sector and interested members of the general public. Users must be approved by DOE and NCSL. This report is a state statute compilation that updates the 1989 compilation produced by Battelle Memorial Institute, the previous manager of the data base. This compilation includes statutes not included in the prior compilation, as well as newly enacted laws. Statutes not included in the prior compilation show an enactment date prior to 1989. Statutes that deal with low-level radioactive waste transportation are included in the data base as are statutes from the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Over 155 new entries to the data base are summarized in this compilation.

  19. Engineering Al-based Thin Film Materials for Power Devices and Energy Storage Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perng, Ya-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Station Material Stainless steel (316) Filename HEATER LIFTStation Material Ceramic-top stage/Stainless steel (316) Filename HEATER LIFT

  20. 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 1657wileyonlinelibrary.com www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Science and Engineering Stanford University Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials 476 Lomita Mall low energy photons to pass through ssDSC and be absorbed in the lower bandgap solar cell.[10 of a semitransparent solar cell by absorbing sub-bandgap light passing through the device and re-emitting higher energy

  1. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim400 wileyonlinelibrary.com www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    , and light- to-electricity conversion in solar cells is one of the best-devel- oped renewable energy of ca. 30%, and the performance of multi-junction devices can now exceed 43%.[1] The limiting factors that will emerge as the demand for solar cells reaches towards the terawatt scale are material cost

  2. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim1254 wileyonlinelibrary.com www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Arrays Although III­V compound semiconductor multi-junction cells show the highest efficiency among all. Introduction III­V material has been widely used in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, light emitting- ductor multijunction cells have demon- strated the highest efficiencies among all types of solar cells.[1

  3. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 1wileyonlinelibrary.com www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Arrays Although III­V compound semiconductor multi-junction cells show the highest efficiency among all. Introduction III­V material has been widely used in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, light emitting- ductor multijunction cells have demon- strated the highest efficiencies among all types of solar cells.[1

  4. Advancement of Systems Designs and Key Engineering Technologies for Materials Based Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Hassel, Bart A.

    2015-09-18

    UTRC lead the development of the Simulink Framework model that enables a comparison of different hydrogen storage systems on a common basis. The Simulink Framework model was disseminated on the www.HSECoE.org website that is hosted by NREL. UTRC contributed to a better understanding of the safety aspects of the proposed hydrogen storage systems. UTRC also participated in the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of both the chemical- and the adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system during Phase 2 of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. UTRC designed a hydrogen storage system with a reversible metal hydride material in a compacted form for light-duty vehicles with a 5.6 kg H2 storage capacity, giving it a 300 miles range. It contains a heat exchanger that enables efficient cooling of the metal hydride material during hydrogen absorption in order to meet the 3.3 minute refueling time target. It has been shown through computation that the kinetics of hydrogen absorption of Ti-catalyzed NaAlH4 was ultimately limiting the rate of hydrogen absorption to 85% of the material capacity in 3.3 minutes. An inverse analysis was performed in order to determine the material property requirements in order for a metal hydride based hydrogen storage system to meet the DOE targets. Work on metal hydride storage systems was halted after the Phase 1 to Phase 2 review due to the lack of metal hydride materials with the required material properties. UTRC contributed to the design of a chemical hydrogen storage system by developing an adsorbent for removing the impurity ammonia from the hydrogen gas, by developing a system to meter the transport of Ammonia Borane (AB) powder to a thermolysis reactor, and by developing a gas-liquid-separator (GLS) for the separation of hydrogen gas from AB slurry in silicone oil. Stripping impurities from hydrogen gas is essential for a long life of the fuel cell system on board of a vehicle. Work on solid transport of AB was halted after the Phase 1 to Phase 2 review in favor of studying the slurry-form of AB as it appeared to be difficult to transport a solid form of AB through the thermolysis reactor. UTRC demonstrated the operation of a compact GLS in the laboratory at a scale that would be required for the actual automotive application. The GLS met the targets for weight and volume. UTRC also reported about the unresolved issue associated with the high vapor pressure of fluids that could be used for making a slurry-form of AB. Work on the GLS was halted after the Phase 2 to Phase 3 review as the off-board regeneration efficiency of the spent AB was below the DOE target of 60%. UTRC contributed to the design of an adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system through measurements of the thermal conductivity of a compacted form of Metal Organic Framework (MOF) number 5 and through the development and sizing of a particulate filter. Thermal conductivity is important for the design of the modular adsorbent tank insert (MATI), as developed by Oregon State University (OSU), in order to enable a rapid refueling process. Stringent hydrogen quality requirements can only be met with an efficient particulate filtration system. UTRC developed a method to size the particulate filter by taking into account the effect of the pressure drop on the hydrogen adsorption process in the tank. UTRC raised awareness about the potential use of materials-based H2 storage systems in applications outside the traditional light-duty vehicle market segment by presenting at several conferences about niche application opportunities in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), portable power and others.

  5. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Wiemann, Dora K.; Choi, Junoh; Howell, Stephen W.

    2015-09-01

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development of room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.

  6. Iron-Based Amorphous-Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Material (HPCRM) Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C; Haslam, J; Day, D; Hailey, P; Lian, T; Rebak, R; Perepezko, J; Payer, J; Branagan, D; Beardsley, B; D'Amato, A; Aprigliano, L

    2008-01-09

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional stainless steel and nickel-based materials, and are proving to have excellent wear properties, sufficient to warrant their use in earth excavation, drilling and tunnel boring applications. Large areas have been successfully coated with these materials, with thicknesses of approximately one centimeter. The observed corrosion resistance may enable applications of importance in industries such as: oil and gas production, refining, nuclear power generation, shipping, and others.

  7. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, F., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de; Schneider, A., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT (Germany); Elsner, P., E-mail: peter.elsner@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT, Germany and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO{sub 2} balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

  8. Dual energy CT-based characterization of x-ray attenuation properties of breast equivalent material plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dual energy CT-based characterization of x-ray attenuation properties of breast equivalent material of the same nominal breast density equivalence (+ 1.5 HU). In addition, dual energy CT provided mono equivalent material, breast density, attenuation properties, linear attenuation coefficients, dual energy CT

  9. Image-based stochastic modeling of the 3D morphology of energy materials on various length scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    Image-based stochastic modeling of the 3D morphology of energy materials on various length scales tomography image data O. Stenzel et al., Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering microstructure of compressed graphite electrodes 3D morphology of hybrid organic solar cells Charge transport

  10. Final Report: Characterization of Hydrogen Adsorption in Carbon-Based Materials by NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yue; Kleinhammes, Alfred

    2011-07-11

    In support of DOE/EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE), UNC conducted Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements that contributed spectroscopic information as well as quantitative analysis of adsorption processes. While NMR based Langmuir isotherms produce reliable H2 capacity measurements, the most astute contribution to the center is provided by information on dihydrogen adsorption on the scale of nanometers, including the molecular dynamics of hydrogen in micropores, and the diffusion of dihydrogen between macro and micro pores. A new method to assess the pore width using H2 as probe of the pore geometry was developed and is based on the variation of the observed chemical shift of adsorbed dihydrogen as function of H2 pressure. Adsorbents designed and synthesized by the Center were assessed for their H2 capacity, the binding energy of the adsorption site, their pore structure and their ability to release H2. Feedback to the materials groups was provided to improve the materials’ properties. To enable in situ NMR measurements as a function of H2 pressure and temperature, a unique, specialized NMR system was designed and built. Pressure can be varied between 10-4 and 107 Pa while the temperature can be controlled between 77K and room temperature. In addition to the 1H investigation of the H2 adsorption process, NMR was implemented to measure the atomic content of substituted elements, e.g. boron in boron substituted graphitic material as well as to determine the local environment and symmetry of these substituted nuclei. The primary findings by UNC are the following: • Boron substituted for carbon in graphitic material in the planar BC3 configuration enhances the binding energy for adsorbed hydrogen. • Arrested kinetics of H2 was observed below 130K in the same boron substituted carbon samples that combine enhanced binding energy with micropore structure. • Hydrogen storage material made from activated PEEK is well suited for hydrogen storage due to its controlled microporous structure and large surface area. • A new porosimetry method for evaluating the pore landscape using H2 as a probe was developed. 1H NMR can probe the nanoscale pore structure of synthesized material and can assess the pore dimension over a range covering 1.2 nm to 2.5 nm, the size that is desired for H2 adsorption. • Analysis of 1H NMR spectra in conjunction with the characterization of the bonding structure of the adsorbent by 13C NMR distinguishes between a heterogeneous and homogeneous pore structure as evidenced by the work on AX21 and activated PEEK. • Most of the sorbents studied are suited to hydrogen storage at low temperature (T < 100K). Of the materials investigated, only boron substituted graphite has the potential to work at higher temperatures if the boron content in the favorable planar BC3 configuration that actively contributes to adsorption can be increased.

  11. Engineering Al-based Thin Film Materials for Power Devices and Energy Storage Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perng, Ya-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    of Nitride Semiconductors and Devices: Materials Properties,semiconductor electronic devices. AlN, possessing similar material propertiessemiconductors, SiC and AlGaN/GaN. Due to the differences in material properties,

  12. Investigation of Spin-Based Phenomena in Candidate Spintronic Materials by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swartz, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Phenomena in Candidate Spintronic Materials by MolecularPhenomena in Candidate Spintronic Materials by Molecularmolecules) and candidate spintronic mate- rials (i.e. GaAs,

  13. A spallation-based irradiation test facility for fusion and future fission materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samec, K.; Kadi, Y.; Luis, R.; Romanets, Y.; Behzad, M.; Aleksan, R.; Bousson, S.

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s FP7 TIARA program for developing accelerator-based facilities has recently demonstrated the unique capabilities of a compact and powerful spallation source for irradiating advanced nuclear materials. The spectrum and intensity of the neutron flux produced in the proposed facility fulfils the requirements of the DEMO fusion reactor for ITER, ADS reactors and also Gen III / IV reactors. Test conditions can be modulated, covering temperature from 400 to 550°C, liquid metal corrosion, cyclical or static stress up to 500 MPa and neutron/proton irradiation damage of up to 25 DPA per annum. The entire “TMIF” facility fits inside a cube 2 metres on a side, and is dimensioned for an accelerator beam power of 100 kW, thus reducing costs and offering great versatility and flexibility.

  14. NuMas: A LAN-based materials control and accounting system in production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strickland, T.W.; Bracey, J.T.; McMahon, S.A. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States). Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    1995-12-31

    A state-of-the-art Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting (NMC and A) System has been implemented and is fully operational at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) as of September 1994. The uranium enrichment facility is currently regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and is in the process of obtaining Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certification. Implementation of this system has resulted in a tremendous cost savings to the facility as well as improvements to the overall efficiency of the NMC and A department. This paper outlines the benefits of implementing a Personal Computer/Local Area Network (PC/LAN)-based system in hopes of attracting other facilities to explore and utilize its application at their sites.

  15. Chemomechanics of calcium leaching of cement-based materials at different scales : the role of CH-dissolution and C-S-H degradation on strength and durability performance of materials and structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heukamp, Franz H. (Franz Hoyte), 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Calcium leaching is a durability threat for cement-based materials employed in critical infrastructures, such as Nuclear Waste Storage Systems. This thesis presents a comprehensive study of the material and structural ...

  16. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, Andrew J. Page, Michael R.; Young, Justin R.; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris; Jacob, Jan; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar

    2014-12-15

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  17. Design of scaled electronic devices based on III-V materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lingquan

    2009-01-01

    superior III-V semiconductor material properties, namely theproperties and material versatility of the III-V semiconductormaterial properties, i.e. the electronic structure. Conventional treatment of semiconductor

  18. BaTiO? based materials for piezoelectric and electro-optic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avrahami, Ytshak, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are key to many modem technologies, in particular piezoelectric actuators and electro-optic modulators. BaTiO? is one of the most extensively studied ferroelectric materials. The use of BaTiO? for ...

  19. Introduction of a method for presenting health-based impacts of the emission from products, based on emission measurements of materials used in manufacturing of the products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming

    2013-11-15

    A method for presenting the health impact of emissions from furniture is introduced, which could be used in the context of environmental product declarations. The health impact is described by the negative indoor air quality potential, the carcinogenic potential, the mutagenic and reprotoxic potential, the allergenic potential, and the toxicological potential. An experimental study of emissions from four pieces of furniture is performed by testing both the materials used for production of the furniture and the complete piece of furniture, in order to compare the results gained by adding emissions of material with results gained from testing the finished piece of furniture. Calculating the emission from a product based on the emission from materials used in the manufacture of the product is a new idea. The relation between calculated results and measured results from the same products differ between the four pieces of furniture tested. Large differences between measured and calculated values are seen for leather products. More knowledge is needed to understand why these differences arise. Testing materials allows us to compare different suppliers of the same material. Four different foams and three different timber materials are tested, and the results vary between materials of the same type. If the manufacturer possesses this type of knowledge of the materials from the subcontractors it could be used as a selection criterion according to production of low emission products. -- Highlights: • A method for presenting health impact of emissions is introduced. • An experimental study of emissions from four pieces of furniture is performed. • Health impact is calculated based on sum of contribution from the materials used. • Calculated health impact is compared to health impact of the manufactured product. • The results show that health impact could be useful in product development and for presentation in EPDs.

  20. Image-Based Multiscale Modeling of Poroelastic Biological Materials with Application to Bones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Judy

    2012-01-01

    two-scale problems in geomechanics, Int J Numer Anal Methodsbeen initiated in geomechanics. Due to different subjects ofhas been extended from geomechanics to material science and

  1. Graphene-based Material Systems for Nanoelectronics and Energy Storage Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Shirui

    2012-01-01

    conductive paper for energy-storage devices" Proceedings ofChemical Capacitive Energy Storage" Advanced Materials 2011,conductive paper for energy-storage devices" Proceedings of

  2. Constraint-Based Routing Models for the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Steven K

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a historic programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing, tracking, and transportation risk analysis of radiological materials in the United States. In order to address these program goals, DOE has funded the development of several tools and related systems designed to provide insight to planners and other professionals handling radioactive materials shipments. These systems include the WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System) platform. WebTRAGIS is a browser-based routing application developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focused primarily on the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel from US nuclear reactors via railway, highway, or waterway. It is also used for the transport planning of low-level radiological waste to depositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. One particular feature of WebTRAGIS is its coupling with high-resolution population data from ORNL s LandScan project. This allows users to obtain highly accurate population count and density information for use in route planning and risk analysis. To perform the routing and risk analysis WebTRAGIS incorporates a basic routing model methodology, with the additional application of various constraints designed to mimic US Department of Transportation (DOT), DOE, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Aside from the routing models available in WebTRAGIS, the system relies on detailed or specialized modal networks for the route solutions. These include a highly detailed network model of the US railroad system, the inland and coastal waterways, and a specialized highway network that focuses on the US interstate system and the designated hazardous materials and Highway Route Controlled Quantity (HRCQ) -designated roadways. The route constraints in WebTRAGIS rely upon a series of attributes assigned to the various components of the different modal networks. Routes are determined via a constrained shortest-path Dijkstra algorithm that has an assigned impedance factor. The route constraints modify the various impedance weights to bias or prefer particular network characteristics as desired by the user. Both the basic route model and the constrained impedance function calculations are determined by a series of network characteristics and shipment types. The study examines solutions under various constraints modeled by WebTRAGIS including possible routes from select shut-down reactor sites in the US to specific locations in the US. For purposes of illustration, the designated destinations are Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. To the degree that routes express sameness or variety under constraints serves to illustrate either a) the determinism of particular transport modes by either configuration or regulatory compliance, and/or b) the variety of constrained routes that are regulation compliant but may not be operationally feasible.

  3. Process Simulation Role in the Development of New Alloys Based on Integrated Computational Material Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Roy, Shibayan [ORNL; Shyam, Amit [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To accelerate the introduction of new materials and components, the development of metal casting processes requires the teaming between different disciplines, as multi-physical phenomena have to be considered simultaneously for the process design and optimization of mechanical properties. The required models for physical phenomena as well as their validation status for metal casting are reviewed. The data on materials properties, model validation, and relevant microstructure for materials properties are highlighted. One vehicle to accelerate the development of new materials is through combined experimental-computational efforts. Integrated computational/experimental practices are reviewed; strengths and weaknesses are identified with respect to metal casting processes. Specifically, the examples are given for the knowledge base established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and computer models for predicting casting defects and microstructure distribution in aluminum alloy components.

  4. COMMUNICATION www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    that offer PC-like performance have accelerated the production of Li ion batteries. Such applications demand long battery life and high power generation, thus increasing the demand for alternative electrode. For example, vertically aligned conducting pathways, usually copper nanorods, were fabricated on the current

  5. COMMUNICATION www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    -powered nanosystems at a small scale.[1] Until now, various energies have been harvested, such as solar,[2] geothermal and effectively stored into an energy storage device such as a capacitor. The 3D-TENG takes full advantage* Harvesting new renewable energy from ambient environment has attracted lots of interest not only

  6. COMMUNICATION www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -oxide thin-film solar cell device architecture (ZnO:Al/a-ZTO/Cu2O). During the past decade, ALD has heterojunction thin-film solar cells.[1,2] Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is considered a promising Earth-abundant semiconductor for thin-film solar cells compatible with terawatt-level deployment.[3­5] However, the power

  7. An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartwig, Zachary S.; Barnard, Harold S.; Lanza, Richard C.; Sorbom, Brandon N.; Stahle, Peter W.; Whyte, Dennis G. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (?1 m), high-current (?1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields – in between plasma shots – to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ?5 ?m into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

  8. Influence of Cement Particle-Size Distribution on Early Age Autogenous Strains and Stresses in Cement-Based Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Influence of Cement Particle-Size Distribution on Early Age Autogenous Strains and Stresses in Cement-Based Materials Dale P. Bentz* Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute-Jochen Haecker* Wilhelm Dyckerhoff Institut, 65203 Wiesbaden, Germany The influence of cement particle

  9. Cement-based materials for stress sensing by dielectric measurement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Cement-based materials for stress sensing by dielectric measurement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung-sensing of stress by measurement of the relative dielectric constant (k) has been shown in cement pastes containing. Inferior sensing performance was observed in cement paste with carbon fibers of 15 mm diameter, although

  10. Int. Symposium on Mechanics and Materials, May 9-14, 2010, Greece CAD-Based Simulation of Gear hobbing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristomenis, Antoniadis

    31st Int. Symposium on Mechanics and Materials, May 9-14, 2010, Greece CAD-Based Simulation of Gear ABSTRACT Gear hobbing is a common method of manufacturing high precision involute gears. The thorough to produce helical and spur gears as they influence the cost of the manufacturing process and the quality

  11. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2007 1219 Design and Operation of a MEMS-Based Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    , and operation of a novel microelectromechanical-systems (MEMS)-based material testing system used for in situ systems that possess superior resolution and accuracy. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) offerJOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2007 1219 Design and Operation

  12. RECYCLING OF LATEX BASED PAINT AS POLYMER FEEDSTOCK MATERIALS Jennifer K. Lynch, Thomas J. Nosker, Robert Hamill, Richard L. Lehman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RECYCLING OF LATEX BASED PAINT AS POLYMER FEEDSTOCK MATERIALS Jennifer K. Lynch, Thomas J. Nosker investigates the recycling of used latex paints into non-paint products. Waste latex paint was collected, dried mechanical properties and thermal properties of paint/HDPE and paint/PMMA polymer blends were determined

  13. Refractory Materials based on Magnesia-Alumina Spinel for Improved Performance in Coal Gasification Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla

    2013-01-01

    As part of a larger project to develop novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels, a team composed of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., and academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology have developed new refractory materials and coating systems specifically for application in coal gasification environments. Materials were developed under this U.S. DOE funded project to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing MgO-Al2O3 spinel gunnable refractory compositions utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Work was conducted to develop and deploy these new materials and to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against attack of the refractory brick by the serviced environment. Additionally, a light-weight back-up refractory system was developed to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the efforts involved in the development of these materials, along with the laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials leading to relevant results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment though compositional and processing modifications.

  14. A pressure relaxation closure model for one-dimensional, two-material Lagrangian hydrodynamics based on the Riemann problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamm, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of development, Lagrangian hydrodynamics of strengthfree materials presents numerous open issues, even in one dimension. We focus on the problem of closing a system of equations for a two-material cell under the assumption of a single velocity model. There are several existing models and approaches, each possessing different levels of fidelity to the underlying physics and each exhibiting unique features in the computed solutions. We consider the case in which the change in heat in the constituent materials in the mixed cell is assumed equal. An instantaneous pressure equilibration model for a mixed cell can be cast as four equations in four unknowns, comprised of the updated values of the specific internal energy and the specific volume for each of the two materials in the mixed cell. The unique contribution of our approach is a physics-inspired, geometry-based model in which the updated values of the sub-cell, relaxing-toward-equilibrium constituent pressures are related to a local Riemann problem through an optimization principle. This approach couples the modeling problem of assigning sub-cell pressures to the physics associated with the local, dynamic evolution. We package our approach in the framework of a standard predictor-corrector time integration scheme. We evaluate our model using idealized, two material problems using either ideal-gas or stiffened-gas equations of state and compare these results to those computed with the method of Tipton and with corresponding pure-material calculations.

  15. Control method and system for use when growing thin-films on semiconductor-based materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A process and system for use during the growth of a thin film upon the surface of a substrate by exposing the substrate surface to vaporized material in a high vacuum (HV) facility involves the directing of an electron beam generally toward the surface of the substrate as the substrate is exposed to vaporized material so that electrons are diffracted from the substrate surface by the beam and the monitoring of the pattern of electrons diffracted from the substrate surface as vaporized material settles upon the substrate surface. When the monitored pattern achieves a condition indicative of the desired condition of the thin film being grown upon the substrate, the exposure of the substrate to the vaporized materials is shut off or otherwise adjusted. To facilitate the adjustment of the crystallographic orientation of the film relative to the electron beam, the system includes a mechanism for altering the orientation of the surface of the substrate relative to the electron beam.

  16. Evaluation on the thin-film phase change material-based technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Qiang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Two potential applications of thin film phase-change materials are considered, non-volatile electronic memories and MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) actuators. The markets for those two applications are fast growing ...

  17. The effects of aggregate gradation on moisture diffusivity in a cementious based material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szecsy, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Gravel), and the presence of fly ash (10% by cement weight or none). Also developed, is an experimental laboratory procedure which measures the moisture diffusivity of a cementious material. The method and procedure for measuring diffusivity developed...

  18. Gas adsorption and gas mixture separations using carborane-based MOF material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Bae, Youn-Sang; Snurr, Randall Q.; Spokoyny, Alexander M.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-06-29

    A method of separating a mixture of carbon dioxide and a hydrocarbon gas using a metal-organic framework (MOF) material having a three-dimensional carborane ligand structure.

  19. Interdigital dielectrometry based detection and identification of dangerous materials for security applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sears, Jason, 1978-

    2003-01-01

    Recent terrorist threats have increased the attention paid to searching airline passengers for dangerous and explosive materials. In particular, the possibility that terrorists might hide explosives in shoes has prompted ...

  20. The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode Material Using Aerosol Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Lin

    2013-01-01

    R.J. Brodd and A. Kozawa, Lithium-ion batteries: science andM. and O. Yamamoto, Lithium ion batteries: fundamentals andanode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemistry

  1. The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode Material Using Aerosol Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Lin

    2013-01-01

    of carbon nanotubes for lithium ion battery anode material.carbon composites for lithium-ion battery anodes. Journal ofYunfeng Lu, Chair Lithium ion battery (LIB) is one of the

  2. UNCORRECTED 2 Total Life Cycle-Based Materials Selection for Polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    -metal stamped/formed and thermoplastic 10 injection molding subcomponents are integrated into a singular life cycle (TLC) approach to the selection of 13 metallic and thermoplastic materials (as well

  3. High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Development of high-performance thermoelectric devices for vehicle waste heat recovery will include fundamental research to use abundant promising low-cost thermoelectric materials, thermal management and interfaces design, and metrology

  4. Evaluation of Biomimetic and Alloy-based Materials for Orthopedic Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guiza-Arguello, Viviana R.

    2013-07-17

    The basic principle of tissue engineering is the combination of appropriate cells with biomaterials under conditions that promote and lead to tissue formation. A tissue engineering scaffold is a material that supports cells for their growth...

  5. Piezoelectric-based in-situ damage detection of composite materials for structural health monitoring systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Seth Stovack, 1977-

    2002-01-01

    Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This thesis presents the conclusions of an analytical and experimental survey of candidate methods for in-situ damage ...

  6. Understanding and designing carbon-based thermoelectric materials with atomic-scale simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jeong Yun

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials, which can convert unused waste heat into useful electricity or vice versa, could play an important role in solving the current global energy challenge of providing sustainable and clean energy. ...

  7. Standard specification for boron-Based neutron absorbing material systems for use in nuclear spent fuel storage racks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines criteria for boron-based neutron absorbing material systems used in racks in a pool environment for storage of nuclear light water reactor (LWR) spent-fuel assemblies or disassembled components to maintain sub-criticality in the storage rack system. 1.2 Boron-based neutron absorbing material systems normally consist of metallic boron or a chemical compound containing boron (for example, boron carbide, B4C) supported by a matrix of aluminum, steel, or other materials. 1.3 In a boron-based absorber, neutron absorption occurs primarily by the boron-10 isotope that is present in natural boron to the extent of 18.3 ± 0.2 % by weight (depending upon the geological origin of the boron). Boron, enriched in boron-10 could also be used. 1.4 The materials systems described herein shall be functional – that is always be capable to maintain a B10 areal density such that subcriticality Keff design specification for the service...

  8. High frequency transformers and high Q factor inductors formed using epoxy-based magnetic polymer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Robert O. (Los Lunas, NM); Gunewardena, Shelton (Walnut, CA); Masi, James V. (Cape Elizabeth, ME)

    2007-11-27

    An electrical component in the form of an inductor or transformer is disclosed which includes one or more coils and a magnetic polymer material located near the coils or supporting the coils to provide an electromagnetic interaction therewith. The magnetic polymer material is preferably a cured magnetic epoxy which includes a mercaptan derivative having a ferromagnetic atom chemically bonded therein. The ferromagnetic atom can be either a transition metal or rare-earth atom.

  9. High frequency transformers and high Q factor inductors formed using epoxy-based magnetic polymer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Robert O.; Gunewardena, Shelton; Masi, James V.

    2005-03-29

    An electrical component in the form of an inductor or transformer is disclosed which includes one or more coils and a magnetic polymer material located near the coils or supporting the coils to provide an electromagnetic interaction therewith. The magnetic polymer material is preferably a cured magnetic epoxy which includes a mercaptan derivative having a ferromagnetic atom chemically bonded therein. The ferromagnetic atom can be either a transition metal or rare-earth atom.

  10. X-ray diffraction and EXAFS analysis of materials for lithium-based rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharkov, M. D., E-mail: mischar@mail.ioffe.ru; Boiko, M. E.; Bobyl, A. V.; Ershenko, E. M.; Terukov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Zubavichus, Y. V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    Lithium iron phosphate LiFePO{sub 4} (triphylite) and lithium titanate Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} are used as components of a number of active materials in modern rechargeable batteries. Samples of these materials are studied by X-ray diffraction and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Hypotheses about the phase composition of the analyzed samples are formulated.

  11. A highly stable zirconium-based metal-organic framework material with high surface area and gas storage capacities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutov, Oleksii V.; Bury, Wojciech; Gomez-Gualdron, Diego A.; Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Yildirim, Taner; Farha, Omar K.

    2014-08-14

    : 10.1002/chem.201xxxxxx ? Metal-organic frameworks A highly stable zirconium-based metal-organic framework material with high surface area and gas storage capacities Oleksii V. Gutov,†[a] Wojciech Bury,†[a,b] Diego A. Gomez-Gualdron,[c] Vaiva... these parameters is crucial for constructing materials with high-capacity gas uptake, as well as stability. However, most known MOFs are not sufficiently stable to allow their application for gas storage in the presence of water or acid.10 To overcome...

  12. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans - Implementing Sustainability: The Institutional-Behavioral Dimension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, Elizabeth L.; Sanquist, Tom; Wolfe, Amy K.; Diamond, Rick; Payne, Christopher; Dion, Jerry

    2013-06-01

    This document is part of a larger, programmatic effort to assist federal agencies in taking action and changing their institutions to achieve and maintain federal sustainability goals, while meeting their mission goals. FEMP is developing guidance for federal agency efforts to enable institutional behavior change for sustainability, and for making sustainability “business as usual.” The driving requirement for this change is Executive Order (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. FEMP emphasizes strategies for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy utilization as critical components of attaining sustainability, and promotes additional non-energy action pathways contained in EO 13514. This report contributes to the larger goal by laying out the conceptual and evidentiary underpinnings of guidance to federal agencies. Conceptual frameworks focus and organize the development of guidance. We outline a series of progressively refined conceptual frameworks, including a multi-layer approach, key steps in sustainability implementation, a process view of specific approaches to institutional change, the agency Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans (SSPPs), and concepts related to context-specific rules, roles and tools for sustainability. Additionally, we tap pertinent bodies of literature in drawing eight evidence-based principles for behavior change. These principles are important foundations upon which to build in selecting strategies to effect change in organizations. Taken together, this report presents a suite of components that inform the training materials, presentations, web site, and other products that provide guidance to federal agencies.

  13. Graphene-based structure, method of suspending graphene membrane, and method of depositing material onto graphene membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Meyer, Jannik Christian

    2013-04-02

    An embodiment of a method of suspending a graphene membrane across a gap in a support structure includes attaching graphene to a substrate. A pre-fabricated support structure having the gap is attached to the graphene. The graphene and the pre-fabricated support structure are then separated from the substrate which leaves the graphene membrane suspended across the gap in the pre-fabricated support structure. An embodiment of a method of depositing material includes placing a support structure having a graphene membrane suspended across a gap under vacuum. A precursor is adsorbed to a surface of the graphene membrane. A portion of the graphene membrane is exposed to a focused electron beam which deposits a material from the precursor onto the graphene membrane. An embodiment of a graphene-based structure includes a support structure having a gap, a graphene membrane suspended across the gap, and a material deposited in a pattern on the graphene membrane.

  14. Health care facility-based decontamination of victims exposed to chemical, biological, and radiological materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koenig, Kristi L MD

    2008-01-01

    radiological exposures may also present first to healthcare facilities.facility-based decontamination of victims exposed to chemical, biological, and radiologicalfacility-based decontamination of victims exposed to chemical, biological, and radiological

  15. Investigation of Spin-Based Phenomena in Candidate Spintronic Materials by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swartz, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Graphene for Spintronics . . . . . . . . . . .of Figures xii Spintronics Introduction . . . . . . . . . .254 xvii Chapter 1 Spintronics Introduction Spin-based

  16. Nickel-based superalloy operating temperature determination via analysis of gamma/gamma' microstructure and coating/base material interdiffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ham, Wendy D. (Wendy Decker)

    2005-01-01

    The average operating temperature of RENÉ N5® high pressure turbine blades was evaluated via [gamma]/[gamma]' microstructure and coating/base metal interdiffusion methods. The [gamma]' volume fraction was measured by point ...

  17. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pecharsky, Alexandra O. (Ames, IA); Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

    2006-10-03

    An alloy made of heat treated material represented by Gd.sub.5(Si.sub.xGe.sub.1-x).sub.4 where 0.47.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.56 that exhibits a magnetic entropy change (-.DELTA.S.sub.m) of at least 16 J/kg K, a magnetostriction of at least 2000 parts per million, and a magnetoresistance of at least 5 percent at a temperature of about 300K and below, and method of heat treating the material between 800 to 1600 degrees C. for a time to this end.

  18. Pitch-based carbon foam heat sink with phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing a carbon foam heat sink is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications. The foam is encased and filled with a phase change material to provide a very efficient heat sink device.

  19. Pitch-based carbon foam heat sink with phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A process for producing a carbon foam heat sink is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications. The foam is encased and filled with a phase change material to provide a very efficient heat sink device.

  20. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes: A molecular based approach for the synthesis of functional hybrid materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHEA,KENNETH J.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.

    2000-05-09

    Bridged polysilsesquioxanes (BPS) are a family of hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel polymerization of molecular building blocks that contain a variable organic component and at least two trifunctional silyl groups. The resulting xerogels and aerogels have physical and mechanical properties that are strongly influenced by the organic bridging group. This talk focuses on the synthesis of functional bridged polysilsesquioxanes. Incorporation of functional groups that respond to chemical, photochemical, or thermal stimuli can provide handles for modifying bulk morphology and/or provide function. These materials can find use as ion exchange media, chromatographic stationary phases, photoresists and high capacity selective chemical absorbents.

  1. A Pressure Relaxation Closure Model for One-Dimensional, Two-Material Lagrangian Hydrodynamics Based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shashkov, Mikhail

    A Pressure Relaxation Closure Model for One-Dimensional, Two-Material Lagrangian Hydrodynamics Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM USA Abstract. Despite decades of development, Lagrangian hydrodynamics of strength of assigning sub-cell pressures to the physics associ- ated with the local, dynamic evolution. We package our

  2. Micromechanics-based elastic model for functionally graded materials with particle interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    : particle­matrix zone and transition zone. In the particle­matrix zone, pair-wise interactions be- tween. Keywords: Functionally graded materials; Composites; Micromechanical modeling; Elastic behavior; Pair- functional tasks by virtue of spatially tailored micro- structures. For instance, in a ceramic/metal FGM

  3. CRADA (AL-C-2009-02) Final Report: Phase I. Lanthanum-based Start Materials for Hydride Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl; Schmidt, Frederick; Frerichs, A.E.; Ament, Katherine A.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of Phase I of this work is to focus on developing a La-based start material for making nickel-metal (lanthanum)-hydride batteries based on our carbothermic-silicon process. The goal is to develop a protocol for the manufacture of (La{sub 1-x}R{sub x})(Ni{sub 1-y}M{sub y})(Si{sub z}), where R is a rare earth metal and M is a non-rare earth metal, to be utilized as the negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries.

  4. ViVUD: Virtual Server Cluster based View-Upload Decoupling for Multi-Channel P2P Video Streaming Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yong

    churn and resource imbalance, the View-Upload Decoupling (VUD) [1] P2P streaming design decouples peer in extreme peer churn scenarios, such as flash-crowd. In this paper, we propose ViVUD, a Virtual Server issues due to channel churn and resource imbalance in ISO systems, it still suffers from the following

  5. Production of bio-based materials using photobioreactors with binary cultures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beliaev, Alex S; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Hill, Eric A; Fredrickson, Jim K

    2013-08-27

    A method, device and system for producing preselected products, (either finished products or preselected intermediary products) from biobased precursors or CO.sub.2 and/or bicarbonate. The principal features of the present invention include a method wherein a binary culture is incubated with a biobased precursor in a closed system to transform at least a portion of the biobased precursor to a preselected product. The present invention provides a method of cultivation that does not need sparging of a closed bioreactor to remove or add a gaseous byproduct or nutrient from a liquid medium. This improvement leads to significant savings in energy consumption and allows for the design of photobioreactors of any desired shape. The present invention also allows for the use of a variety of types of waste materials to be used as the organic starting material.

  6. Highly efficient organic multi-junction solar cells with a thiophene based donor material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meerheim, Rico Körner, Christian; Leo, Karl

    2014-08-11

    The efficiency of organic solar cells can be increased by serial stacked subcells even upon using the same absorber material. For the multi-junction devices presented here, we use the small molecule donor material DCV5T-Me. The subcell currents were matched by optical transfer matrix simulation, allowing an efficiency increase from 8.3% for a single junction up to 9.7% for a triple junction cell. The external quantum efficiency of the subcells, measured under appropriate light bias illumination, is spectrally shifted due to the microcavity of the complete stack, resulting in a broadband response and an increased cell current. The increase of the power conversion efficiency upon device stacking is even stronger for large area cells due to higher influence of the resistance of the indium tin oxide anode, emphasizing the advantage of multi-junction devices for large-area applications.

  7. Thermal treatment effects on charge storage performance of graphene-based materials for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Bhat, Vinay V; Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I

    2012-01-01

    Graphene materials were synthesized by reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets by hydrazine hydrate and then thermally treated in nitrogen to improve the surface area and their electrochemical performance as electrical double-layer capacitor electrodes. The structural and surface properties of the prepared reduced graphite oxide (RGO) were investigated using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption / desorption. RGO forms a continuous network of crumpled sheets, which consist of numerous few-layer and single-layer graphenes. Electrochemical studies were conducted by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The modified RGO materials showed enhanced electrochemical performance, with maximum specific capacitance of 96 F/g, energy density of 12.8 Wh/kg, and power density of 160 kW/kg. The results demonstrate that thermal treatment of RGO at selected conditions is a convenient and efficient method for improving specific capacitance, energy, and power density.

  8. High temperature ultrasonic gas flow sensor based on lead free piezoelectric material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krsmanovic, Dalibor

    2011-11-08

    ], and it is selected as the material of choice, having good abrasion resistance, desirable anti-corrosion properties and is cost effective for present application. This thesis begins with a broad literature review of current gas flow measurement technologies... are satisfied by flow meters with multiple ultrasonic measurement paths, typically supplied as a spool piece and used in custody transfer applications such as natural gas pipelines. With respect to flow metering in general, a substantial and key body of work...

  9. Field Testing of Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2013-03-01

    A test wall built with phase change material (PCM)-enhanced loose-fill cavity insulation was monitored for a period of about a year in the warm-humid climate of Charleston, South Carolina. The test wall was divided into various sections, one of which contained only loose-fill insulation and served as a control for comparing and evaluating the wall sections with the PCM-enhanced insulation. This report summarizes the findings of the field test.

  10. Mobile Pit verification system design based on passive special nuclear material verification in weapons storage facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, J. N.; Chin, M. R.; Sjoden, G. E.

    2013-07-01

    A mobile 'drive by' passive radiation detection system to be applied in special nuclear materials (SNM) storage facilities for validation and compliance purposes has been designed through the use of computational modeling and new radiation detection methods. This project was the result of work over a 1 year period to create optimal design specifications to include creation of 3D models using both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes to characterize the gamma and neutron leakage out each surface of SNM-bearing canisters. Results were compared and agreement was demonstrated between both models. Container leakages were then used to determine the expected reaction rates using transport theory in the detectors when placed at varying distances from the can. A 'typical' background signature was incorporated to determine the minimum signatures versus the probability of detection to evaluate moving source protocols with collimation. This established the criteria for verification of source presence and time gating at a given vehicle speed. New methods for the passive detection of SNM were employed and shown to give reliable identification of age and material for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapons grade plutonium (WGPu). The finalized 'Mobile Pit Verification System' (MPVS) design demonstrated that a 'drive-by' detection system, collimated and operating at nominally 2 mph, is capable of rapidly verifying each and every weapon pit stored in regularly spaced, shelved storage containers, using completely passive gamma and neutron signatures for HEU and WGPu. This system is ready for real evaluation to demonstrate passive total material accountability in storage facilities. (authors)

  11. Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Qingze, E-mail: qzzou@rci.rutgers.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Tan, Jun; Jiang, Wei [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the “writing” (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the “writing” speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 ?m in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be fabricated at a high speed of ?5 mm/s, with the line width and the line depth at ?95 nm and 2 nm, respectively. A fine pattern of the word “NANO” is also fabricated at the speed of ?5 mm/s.

  12. High-Heat Flux Testing of Irradiated Tungsten based Materials for Fusion Applications using Infrared Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans Jr, James O; Schaich, Charles Ross; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance Lewis; Byun, Thak Sang

    2014-01-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research has proved challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat flux testing facility based on water-wall Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) is now being used for materials and small component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12,000 C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, are currently in use. The first PAL system provides a maximum incident heat flux of 4.2 MW/m2 over an area of 9x12 cm2. The second PAL available at ORNL provides a maximum incident heat flux of 27 MW/m2 over an area of 1x10 cm2. The absorbed heat fluxes into a tungsten target for the two PALs are approximately 1.97 and 12.7 MW/m2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design of the new PAL facilities as well as the design and implementation of the Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interested, such as those for plasma facing components. Moreover, IMTS designs are underway to extend the testing of small mock-ups for assessing the combined heating and thermomechanical effects of cooled, irradiated components. For the testing of material coupons , the specimens are placed in a shallow recess within the molybdenum holder that is attached to a water-cooled copper alloy rod. As the measurement of the specimen temperature for PAL is historically challenging since traditional approaches of temperature measurement cannot be employed due to the infrared heating and proximity of the PAL reflector to the specimen that does not allow a direct line of site, experiments for temperature calibration are presented. Finally, results for the high-heat flux testing of tungsten-based materials using the PAL are presented. As a demonstration of the system, results will be shown of thermal fatigue and high-heat flux testing of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in the HFIR reactor to neutron dose consistent to ITER lifetime.

  13. Critical Material Parameters for Modeling Devices Made from an Epoxy-Based Shape Memory Polymer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erel, Veysel

    2014-06-17

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), simple tension, and planar tension experiments were used to investigate the behavior of an epoxy-based shape memory polymer (SMP) system. DSC results found the mixture had consistent ...

  14. Designing conjugated polymer-based functional materials via the incorporation of supramolecular complexities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwan, Phoebe Hoi-Ying, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    One of the major goals in molecule engineering is the creation of molecule- or polymer- based devices that mimic the integrated functions of their macroscopic (and often inorganic) counterparts. Because of their unique ...

  15. Engineering Al-based Thin Film Materials for Power Devices and Energy Storage Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perng, Ya-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    O Thin Films as a Solid Electrolyte for 3D Microbatteries,”Li 0.5 La 0.5 )TiO 3 solid electrolyte thin films grown byIonic conductivity in solid electrolytes based on lithium

  16. Mechanism-based Representative Volume Elements (RVEs) for Predicting Property Degradations in Multiphase Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin; Li, Dongsheng; Ryu, Seun; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2013-02-01

    Quantitative understanding of the evolving thermal-mechanical properties of a multi-phase material hinges upon the availability of quantitative statistically representative microstructure descriptions. Questions then arise as to whether a two-dimensional (2D) or a three-dimensional (3D) representative volume element (RVE) should be considered as the statistically representative microstructure. Although 3D models are more representative than 2D models in general, they are usually computationally expensive and difficult to be reconstructed. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of a 2D RVE in predicting the property degradations induced by different degradation mechanisms with the multiphase solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material as an example. Both 2D and 3D microstructure RVEs of the anodes are adopted to quantify the effects of two different degradation mechanisms: humidity-induced electrochemical degradation and phosphorus poisoning induced structural degradation. The predictions of the 2D model are then compared with the available experimental measurements and the results from the 3D model. It is found that the 2D model, limited by its inability of reproducing the realistic electrical percolation, is unable to accurately predict the degradation of thermo-electrical properties. On the other hand, for the phosphorus poisoning induced structural degradation, both 2D and 3D microstructures yield similar results, indicating that the 2D model is capable of providing computationally efficient yet accurate results for studying the structural degradation within the anodes.

  17. USING A RISK-BASED METHODOLOGY FOR THE TRANSFER OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL WITHIN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BOUNDARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B.; Watkins, R.; Loibl, M.

    2010-06-03

    Shipment of radioactive materials (RAM) is discussed in the Code of Federal Regulations in parts of both 49 CFR and 10 CFR. The regulations provide the requirements and rules necessary for the safe shipment of RAM across public highways, railways, waterways, and through the air. These shipments are sometimes referred to as in-commerce shipments. Shipments of RAM entirely within the boundaries of Department of Energy sites, such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), can be made using methodology allowing provisions to maintain equivalent safety while deviating from the regulations for in-commerce shipments. These onsite shipments are known as transfers at the SRS. These transfers must follow the requirements approved in a site-specific Transportation Safety Document (TSD). The TSD defines how the site will transfer materials so that they have equivalence to the regulations. These equivalences are documented in an Onsite Safety Assessment (OSA). The OSA can show how a particular packaging used onsite is equivalent to that which would be used for an in-commerce shipment. This is known as a deterministic approach. However, when a deterministic approach is not viable, the TSD allows for a risk-based OSA to be written. These risk-based assessments show that if a packaging does not provide the necessary safety to ensure that materials are not released (during normal or accident conditions) then the worst-case release of materials does not result in a dose consequence worse than that defined for the SRS. This paper will discuss recent challenges and successes using this methodology at the SRS.

  18. Powder-based synthesis of nanocrystalline material components for structural application. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilyuschenko, A.F.; Ivashko, V.S.; Okovity, V.A. [Powder Metallurgy Research Inst., Minsk (Belarus)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Hydroxiapate spray coatings and substrates for implant production as well as multilayered metal ceramic coatings from nanocrystalline materials are a subject of the investigation. The work aims at the improvement of quality of said objects. This study has investigated the processes of hydroxiapatite powder production. Sizes, shapes and relief of initial HA powder surface are analyzed using SEM and TEM. Modes of HA plasma spraying on a substrate from titanium and associated compositions of traditional and nanocrystalline structure are optimized. The quality of the sprayed samples are studied using X-ray phase analysis and metallographic analysis. The results of investigations of bioceramic coating spraying on titanium are theoretically generalized, taking into account obtained experimental data. The results of investigations of ion-beam technology are presented for spraying multilayered coatings consisting of alternating metal-ceramic layers of nanocrystalline structure.

  19. Base metal alloys with self-healing native conductive oxides for electrical contact materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    growth. Such coatings can be applied readily by electroplating but this adds significantly to the cost be ameliorated by the application of a noble metal coating to the contact sur- face, thereby inhibiting scale wear and fretting can compromise the integrity of the coating, expos- ing the bare base metal

  20. Application of Resonant Frequency Eddy Current Technique on a Shot-Peened Nickel-Based Engine-Grade Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Ray T.; Sathish, Shamachary; Boehnlein, Thomas R. [Structural Integrity Division, University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park Drive, Dayton, Ohio 45469-0120 (United States); Blodgett, Mark P. [Metals, Ceramics, and NDE Division, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2007-03-21

    The shot peening conditions of a nickel-based engine-grade material were evaluated using a novel eddy current measurement technique. With this technique, the shift of a resonant frequency was found to be dependent on variables which also affect conventional eddy current testing. The cable effect is another important variable, which is often neglected in a routine eddy current testing, is also discussed. Experimental results showed that at high frequencies, the shot peening conditions were easily distinguishable using this frequency shift technique.

  1. Electrosynthesis, Characterization, and Application of Novel Hybrid Materials Based on Carbon Nanotube-Polyaniline-Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Cui, Xiaoli

    2006-02-14

    Incorporating nanoclusters of nickel hexacyanoferrates (NiHCF) onto a porous polyaniline (PANI)?carbon nanotube (CNT) matrix provides a novel class of hybrid materials with a good ion exchange capacity, high stability, and a selectivity for caesium ions. The CNT-PANI-NiHCF nanocomposite films have been synthesized by electrodeposition step-by-step on glassy carbon electrodes and characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. CV and XPS investigations confirmed the formation of PANI and NiHCF on the surface of CNTs. The microscopy of NiHCF hybrid materials was characterized by SEM and TEM; the size of NiHCF particles is approximately 20 to 50 nm. The porous high surface area CNT matrix provides the high loading capacity for the deposition of NiHCF nanoparticles, while the PANI thin-film further stabilizes the nanoparticles. The selectivity for caesium ion adsorption of the hybrid materials was investigated. The high selectivity for caesium provides the base to develop a novel electrochemical ion exchange process for the treatment of nuclear wastes and radioactive-caesium contaminated waters.

  2. Characterization of New Cathode Materials using Synchrotron-based X-ray

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|Programs | DepartmentDepartmentChallengeSuccess Stories fromthe

  3. DOE Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit: Reports from the Breakout Sessions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigerators |Departmentof Energy1 Reports from the

  4. Iron-Based Amorphous-Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Development Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J; Saw, C; Haslem, J; Day, D; Hailey, P; Lian, T; Rebak, R; Perepezko, J; Payer, J; Branagan, D; Beardsley, B; D'Amato, A; Aprigliano, L

    2009-03-16

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal make this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of these iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional stainless steel and nickel-based materials, and are proving to have excellent wear properties, sufficient to warrant their use in earth excavation, drilling and tunnel boring applications. The observed corrosion resistance may enable applications of importance in industries such as: oil and gas production, refining, nuclear power generation, shipping, and others. Large areas have been successfully coated with these materials, with thicknesses of approximately one centimeter.

  5. Lightweight combustion residues-based structural materials for use in mines. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Zhang, Y.; Ghosh, A.K.; Palmer, S.R. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a 70--80 pcf, 2,500--3,000 psi-compressive-strength cellular concrete-type product from PCC fly ash, PCC bottom ash, and/or FBC spent bed ash alone or in suitable combination thereof. The developed combustion residue-based lightweight structural material will be used to replace wooden posts and crib members in underground mines. This report outlines the work completed in the first quarter of the project. The density gradient centrifuge (DGC) has been used to separate a power plant fly ash sample into fractions of different density. Each of the fly ash fractions obtained by DGC, an aliquot of the unseparated fly ash and an aliquot of a magnetic component of the fly ash, were digested in strong acids following the procedures outlined in ASTM 3050. Preliminary experiments have also been carried out to study the effect of mix proportions and curing regimes on the strength and density on the developed material. The DGC separation test reveals that most of the fly ash sample (approx. 90%) has a density above 1.9 g/cm{sup 3}. Indeed, nearly half of the sample has a density greater than 2.4 g/cm{sup 3}. Since only a very small amount of this fly ash has a reasonably low specific gravity, it appears unlikely at this time that enough low density material would be isolated to significantly enhance lightweight concrete production using fractionated material. A series of mixes have been made using fly ash, sodium silicate, cement, sand and water. Preliminary tests show that both cement and sodium silicate can be used as the binders to develop residues-based lightweight concrete. To date, compressive strength as high as 1,290 psi have been achieved with a density of 133 pcf, with 50 g of cement, 50 g of fly ash and 300 g of sand. Most of the work during the first quarter was done to understand the characteristics of the component materials.

  6. A full-spectral Bayesian reconstruction approach based on the material decomposition model applied in dual-energy computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, C.; Rodet, T.; Mohammad-Djafari, A.; Legoupil, S.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) makes it possible to get two fractions of basis materials without segmentation. One is the soft-tissue equivalent water fraction and the other is the hard-matter equivalent bone fraction. Practical DECT measurements are usually obtained with polychromatic x-ray beams. Existing reconstruction approaches based on linear forward models without counting the beam polychromaticity fail to estimate the correct decomposition fractions and result in beam-hardening artifacts (BHA). The existing BHA correction approaches either need to refer to calibration measurements or suffer from the noise amplification caused by the negative-log preprocessing and the ill-conditioned water and bone separation problem. To overcome these problems, statistical DECT reconstruction approaches based on nonlinear forward models counting the beam polychromaticity show great potential for giving accurate fraction images.Methods: This work proposes a full-spectral Bayesian reconstruction approach which allows the reconstruction of high quality fraction images from ordinary polychromatic measurements. This approach is based on a Gaussian noise model with unknown variance assigned directly to the projections without taking negative-log. Referring to Bayesian inferences, the decomposition fractions and observation variance are estimated by using the joint maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation method. Subject to an adaptive prior model assigned to the variance, the joint estimation problem is then simplified into a single estimation problem. It transforms the joint MAP estimation problem into a minimization problem with a nonquadratic cost function. To solve it, the use of a monotone conjugate gradient algorithm with suboptimal descent steps is proposed.Results: The performance of the proposed approach is analyzed with both simulated and experimental data. The results show that the proposed Bayesian approach is robust to noise and materials. It is also necessary to have the accurate spectrum information about the source-detector system. When dealing with experimental data, the spectrum can be predicted by a Monte Carlo simulator. For the materials between water and bone, less than 5% separation errors are observed on the estimated decomposition fractions.Conclusions: The proposed approach is a statistical reconstruction approach based on a nonlinear forward model counting the full beam polychromaticity and applied directly to the projections without taking negative-log. Compared to the approaches based on linear forward models and the BHA correction approaches, it has advantages in noise robustness and reconstruction accuracy.

  7. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office`s program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities.

  8. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office's program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities.

  9. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of VVER components, basing on LBB concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T. [CRISM Prometey, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-04-01

    The paper demonstrates an insufficiency of some requirements native Norms (when comparing them with the foreign requirements for the consideration of calculating situations): (1) leak before break (LBB); (2) short cracks; (3) preliminary loading (warm prestressing). In particular, the paper presents (1) Comparison of native and foreign normative requirements (PNAE G-7-002-86, Code ASME, BS 1515, KTA) on permissible stress levels and specifically on the estimation of crack initiation and propagation; (2) comparison of RF and USA Norms of pressure vessel material acceptance and also data of pressure vessel hydrotests; (3) comparison of Norms on the presence of defects (RF and USA) in NPP vessels, developments of defect schematization rules; foundation of a calculated defect (semi-axis correlation a/b) for pressure vessel and piping components: (4) sequence of defect estimation (growth of initial defects and critical crack sizes) proceeding from the concept LBB; (5) analysis of crack initiation and propagation conditions according to the acting Norms (including crack jumps); (6) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states of brittle an ductile fracture and elastic-plastic region as applied to calculating situation: (a) LBB and (b) short cracks; (7) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states with the consideration of static and cyclic loading (warm prestressing effect) of pressure vessel; estimation of the effect stability; (8) proposals on PNAE G-7-002-86 Norm corrections.

  10. Materials Science and Engineering B 117 (2005) 5361 Finite element analysis-based design of a fluid-flow control nano-valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    2005-01-01

    Materials Science and Engineering B 117 (2005) 53­61 Finite element analysis-based design A finite element method-based procedure is developed for the design of molecularly functionalized nano of a fluid-flow control nano-valve. The results obtained suggest that the finite element-based procedure

  11. A view-sequential 3D display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cossairt, Oliver S. (Oliver Strider), 1978-

    2003-01-01

    This thesis outlines the various techniques for creating electronic 3D displays and analyzes their commercial potential. The thesis argues for the use of view-sequential techniques in the design of 3D displays based on ...

  12. Materials and design bases issues in ASME Code Case N-47

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huddleston, R.L.; Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the design bases (principally ASME Code Case N-47) was conducted for design and operation of reactors at elevated temperatures where the time-dependent effects of creep, creep-fatigue, and creep ratcheting are significant. Areas where Code rules or regulatory guides may be lacking or inadequate to ensure the operation over the expected life cycles for the next-generation advanced high-temperature reactor systems, with designs to be certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have been identified as unresolved issues. Twenty-two unresolved issues were identified and brief scoping plans developed for resolving these issues.

  13. Carrier Multiplication in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Theoretical Screening of Candidate Materials Based on Band-Structure Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, J. W.; Franceschetti, A.; Zunger, A.

    2008-01-01

    Direct carrier multiplication (DCM) occurs when a highly excited electron-hole pair decays by transferring its excess energy to the electrons rather than to the lattice, possibly exciting additional electron-hole pairs. Atomistic electronic structure calculations have shown that DCM can be induced by electron-hole Coulomb interactions, in an impact-ionization-like process whose rate is proportional to the density of biexciton states {rho}{sub XX}. Here we introduce a DCM 'figure of merit' R{sub 2}(E) which is proportional to the ratio between the biexciton density of states {rho}{sub XX} and the single-exciton density of states {rho}{sub x}, restricted to single-exciton and biexciton states that are coupled by Coulomb interactions. Using R{sub 2}(E), we consider GaAs, InAs, InP, GaSb, InSb, CdSe, Ge, Si, and PbSe nanocrystals of different sizes. Although DCM can be affected by both quantum-confinement effects (reflecting the underly electronic structure of the confined dot-interior states) and surface effects, here we are interested to isolate the former. To this end the nanocrystal energy levels are obtained from the corresponding bulk band structure via the truncated crystal approximation. We find that PbSe, Si, GaAs, CdSe, and InP nanocrystals have larger DCM figure of merit than the other nanocrystals. Our calculations suggest that high DCM efficiency requires high degeneracy of the corresponding bulk band-edge states. Interestingly, by considering band structure effects we find that as the dot size increases the DCM critical energy E{sub 0} (the energy at which R{sub 2}(E) becomes {ge}1) is reduced, suggesting improved DCM. However, whether the normalized E{sub 0}/{var_epsilon}{sub g} increases or decreases as the dot size increases depends on dot material.

  14. Revision 12-10-99 13. Summary of Materials Considerations and Data Base (S.J. Zinkle, S. Majumdar and N.M.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    materials (ferritic-martensitic steel, V-4Cr-4Ti, and SiC/SiC composites), oxide dispersion strengthened project includes conventional materials (e.g., austenitic stainless steel), low-activation structural ferritic steel, conventional high temperature refractory alloys (Nb, Ta, Mo, W alloys), Ni-based super

  15. Commercialization of New Carbon Fiber Materials Based on Sustainable Resources for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberle, Cliff; Webb, Daniel C; Albers, Tracy; Chen, Chong

    2013-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and GrafTech International have collaborated to develop and demonstrate the performance of high temperature thermal insulation prototypes made from lignin-based carbon fibers. This project will potentially lead to the first commercial application of lignin-based carbon fibers (LBCF). The goal of the commercial application is to replace expensive, Chinese-sourced isotropic pitch carbon fibers with lower cost carbon fibers made from a domestically sourced, bio-derived (renewable) feedstock. LBCF can help recapture jobs that were previously exported to China while resolving a supply chain vulnerability and reducing the production cost for GrafTech s high temperature thermal insulation. The performance of the LBCF prototypes was measured and found to be comparable to that of the current commercial product. During production of the insulation prototypes, ORNL and GrafTech demonstrated lignin compounding/pelletization, fiber production, heat treatment, and compositing at scales far surpassing those previously demonstrated in LBCF R&D or production. A plan was developed for the commercialization of LBCF thermal insulation, with key milestones including qualification of multiple scalable lignin sources in 2013, tons-scale production and field testing by customers in 2014, and product launch as soon thereafter as production capabilities can be constructed and commissioned.

  16. Method for separating metal chelates from other materials based on solubilities in supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Workington, GB); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    2001-01-01

    A method for separating a desired metal or metalloi from impurities using a supercritical extraction process based on solubility differences between the components, as well as the ability to vary the solvent power of the supercritical fluid, is described. The use of adduct-forming agents, such as phosphorous-containing ligands, to separate metal or metalloid chelates in such processes is further disclosed. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones; phosphine oxides, such as trialkylphosphine oxides, triarylphosphine oxides and alkylarylphosphine oxides; phosphinic acids; carboxylic acids; phosphates, such as trialkylphosphates, triarylphosphates and alkylarylphosphates; crown ethers; dithiocarbamates; phosphine sulfides; phosphorothioic acids; thiophosphinic acids; halogenated analogs of these chelating agents; and mixtures of these chelating agents. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated.

  17. NEWS & VIEWS Glass dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    NEWS & VIEWS Glass dynamics Diverging views on glass transition Gregory B. mc.mckenna@ttu.edu T he glass transition is one of the most intriguing phenomena in the world of soft condensed matter. Despite decades of study, many aspects of the behaviour of glass-forming liquids remain elusive

  18. World Views From fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Views From fragmentation to integration Diederik Aerts Leo Apostel Bart De Moor Staf in 1994 by VUB Press: Brussels Internet edition by Clément Vidal and Alexander Riegler #12;World Views 2................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 The fragmentation of our world

  19. An in-situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science in magnetic fusion devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartwig, Zachary Seth

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-material interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices such as fuel retention, material erosion and redeposition, and material mixing present significant scientific and engineering challenges, particularly for the ...

  20. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; Sellmyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. The effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. The coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x?1.5). The maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5?MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2?MGOe forx=1.5. The smallest domain size with a relativelymore »short magnetic correlation length of 128?nm and largest root-mean-square phase shift?rmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. The optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  1. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. CaTiO.sub.3 Interfacial template structure on semiconductor-based material and the growth of electroceramic thin-films in the perovskite class

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney Allen (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick Joseph (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A structure including a film of a desired perovskite oxide which overlies and is fully commensurate with the material surface of a semiconductor-based substrate and an associated process for constructing the structure involves the build up of an interfacial template film of perovskite between the material surface and the desired perovskite film. The lattice parameters of the material surface and the perovskite of the template film are taken into account so that during the growth of the perovskite template film upon the material surface, the orientation of the perovskite of the template is rotated 45.degree. with respect to the orientation of the underlying material surface and thereby effects a transition in the lattice structure from fcc (of the semiconductor-based material) to the simple cubic lattice structure of perovskite while the fully commensurate periodicity between the perovskite template film and the underlying material surface is maintained. The film-growth techniques of the invention can be used to fabricate solid state electrical components wherein a perovskite film is built up upon a semiconductor-based material and the perovskite film is adapted to exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic or large dielectric properties during use of the component.

  3. Final Report of a CRADA Between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Ford Motor Company (CRADA No. PNNL/265): “Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon Adsorber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H.; Tran, Diana N.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Cheng, Yisun; Lupescu, Jason; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Lambert, Christine; McCabe, Robert W.

    2013-02-14

    Reducing NOx emissions and particulate matter (PM) are primary concerns for diesel vehicles required to meet current LEV II and future LEV III emission standards which require 90+% NOx conversion. Currently, urea SCR as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) are being used for emission control system components by Ford Motor Company for 2010 and beyond diesel vehicles. Because the use of this technology for vehicle applications is new, the relative lack of experience makes it especially challenging to satisfy durability requirements. Of particular concern is being able to realistically simulate actual field aging of the catalyst systems under laboratory conditions. This is necessary both as a rapid assessment tool for verifying improved performance and certifiability of new catalyst formulations, and to develop a good understanding of deactivation mechanisms that can be used to develop improved catalyst materials. In addition to NOx and PM, the hydrocarbon (HC) emission standards are expected to become much more stringent during the next few years. Meanwhile, the engine-out HC emissions are expected to increase and/or be more difficult to remove. Since HC can be removed only when the catalyst becomes warm enough for its oxidation, three-way catalyst (TWC) and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) formulations often contain proprietary zeolite materials to hold the HC produced during the cold start period until the catalyst reaches its operating temperature (e.g., >200°C). Unfortunately, much of trapped HC tends to be released before the catalyst reaches the operating temperature. Among materials effective for trapping HC during the catalyst warm-up period, siliceous zeolites are commonly used because of their high surface area and high stability under typical operating conditions. However, there has been little research on the physical properties of these materials related to the adsorption and release of various hydrocarbon species found in the engine exhaust. For these reasons, automakers and engine manufacturers have difficulty improving their catalytic converters for meeting the stringent HC emission standards. In this collaborative program, scientists and engineers in the Institute for Integrated Catalysis at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and at Ford Motor Company have investigated laboratory- and engine-aged SCR catalysts, containing mainly base metal zeolites. These studies are leading to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of SCR catalysts and improve the correlation between laboratory and engine aging, saving experimental time and cost. We have also studied materials effective for the temporary storage of HC species during the cold-start period. In particular, we have examined the adsorption and desorption of various HC species produced during the combustion with different fuels (e.g., gasoline, E85, diesel) over potential HC adsorber materials, and measured the kinetic parameters to update Ford’s HC adsorption model. Since this CRADA has now been completed, in this final report we will provide brief summaries of most of the work carried out on this CRADA over the last several years.

  4. High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding techniques for nanofabrication of high pattern density sub-20 nm features: A fundamental materials approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Samulski, Edward [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Lopez, Renee [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Ruiz, Ricardo [Hitachi; DeSimone, Joseph [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Described herein is the development and investigation of PFPE-based elastomers for high resolution replica molding applications. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface energies (<25 mN/m). Using practically relevant large area master templates, we show that the resolution of the molds is strongly dependant upon the elastomeric mold modulus. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nano-grating structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  5. NEWS AND VIEWS PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahler, D. Luke

    NEWS AND VIEWS PERSPECTIVE Niche diversification follows key innovation in Antarctic fish radiation Oxford Street, Cambridge MA 02138, USA Antarctic notothenioid fishes provide a fascinating evolu- tionary diversification has occurred repeatedly and in parallel. Keywords: community ecology, fish, macroevolution, phylo

  6. ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 21 (9), 512-517, 2009. Early-Age Properties of Cement-Based Materials: II. Influence of Water-to-Cement Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    potentially be major contributors to early-age cracking of cement-based materials (ACI 2008). This paper of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8615, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (301)975-5865, FAX: (301 Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8615, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (301)975-3175, E

  7. Nanostructured magnetic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Conference, Atlanta, GA (Nanostructured Magnetic Materials by Keith T. Chan Doctor ofinduced by a Si-based material occurs at a Si/Ni interface

  8. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin, M.A.; Pettit, F.; Meier, G.H.; Yanar, M.; Helminiak, M.; Chyu, M.; Siw, S.; Slaughter, W.S.; Karaivanov, V.; Kang, B.S.; Feng, C.; Tannebaum, J.M.; Chen, R.; Zhang, B.; Fu, T.; Richards, G.A,; Sidwell, T.G.; Straub, D.; Casleton, K.H.; Dogan, O.M.

    2008-07-01

    Hydrogen-fired and oxy-fueled land-based gas turbines currently target inlet operating temperatures of ?1425-1760°C (?2600-3200°F). In view of natural gas or syngas-fired engines, advancements in both materials, as well as aerothermal cooling configurations are anticipated prior to commercial operation. This paper reviews recent technical accomplishments resulting from NETL’s collaborative research efforts with the University of Pittsburgh and West Virginia University for future land-based gas turbine applications.

  9. Plant-based Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/OPerformancePi Day Pi Day Pi Day isPlanning for

  10. Big, Deep, and Smart Data in Energy Materials Research: Atomic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Big, Deep, and Smart Data in Energy Materials Research: Atomic View on Materials Functionalities Event Sponsor: Computing, Environment, and Life Sciences Seminar Start Date: Sep 22...

  11. High-Resolution PFPE-based Molding Techniques for Nanofabrication of High-Pattern Density, Sub-20 nm Features: A Fundamental Materials Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S.; Retterer, Scott; Lopez, Rene; Ruiz, Ricardo; Samulski, Edward T.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2010-04-14

    Several perfluoropolyether (PFPE)-based elastomers for high-resolution replica molding applications are explored. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface tension values (<25 mN/m). Using large area (>4 in.{sup 2}) master templates, we experimentally show the relationship between mold resolution and material properties such as modulus and surface tension for materials used in this study. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus PFPE tetramethacrylate (TMA) composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nanograting structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  12. Bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels: A molecular based approach for the preparation of porous hybrid organic-inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small, J.H.; Shea, K.J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Loy, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Bridged polysilsesquioxanes represent an interesting family of hybrid organic-inorganic composite materials. It has been shown that manipulation of the organic bridging component offers the potential for the synthesis of a variety of materials with a range of surface areas and porosities. In addition, incorporation of a heteroatom within the bridging organic component allows for further chemical transformation of the polysilsesquioxane material.

  13. Construction material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Antink, Allison L. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  14. In situ observation of nickel as an oxidizable electrode material for the solid-electrolyte-based resistive random access memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jun; Wu, Xing; Xu, Feng; Xu, Tao; Sun, Litao [SEU-FEI Nano-Pico Center, Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)] [SEU-FEI Nano-Pico Center, Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Liu, Qi; Xie, Hongwei; Long, Shibing; Lv, Hangbing; Li, Yingtao; Liu, Ming [Laboratory of Nano-fabrication and Novel Devices Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)] [Laboratory of Nano-fabrication and Novel Devices Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2013-02-04

    In this letter, we dynamically investigate the resistive switching characteristics and physical mechanism of the Ni/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt device. The device shows stable bipolar resistive switching behaviors after forming process, which is similar to the Ag/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt and Cu/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt devices. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observe in real time that several conductive filaments are formed across the ZrO{sub 2} layer between Ni and Pt electrodes after forming. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results confirm that Ni is the main composition of the conductive filaments. The ON-state resistance increases with increasing temperature, exhibiting the feature of metallic conduction. In addition, the calculated resistance temperature coefficient is equal to that of the 10-30 nm diameter Ni nanowire, further indicating that the nanoscale Ni conductive bridge is the physical origin of the observed conductive filaments. The resistive switching characteristics and the conductive filament's component of Ni/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt device are consistent with the characteristics of the typical solid-electrolyte-based resistive random access memory. Therefore, aside from Cu and Ag, Ni can also be used as an oxidizable electrode material for resistive random access memory applications.

  15. High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Iron-Based Amorphous-Metal Thermal-Spray Coatings: SAM HPCRM Program ? FY04 Annual Report ? Rev. 0 - DARPA DSO & DOE OCRWM Co-Sponsored Advanced Materials Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Wong, F; Ji, S; Day, S; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Weaver, D; Aprigliano, L; Kohler, L; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Wolejsza, T; Martin, F; Yang, N; Lucadamo, G; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Heuer, A; Ernst, F; Michal, G; Kahn, H; Lavernia, E

    2007-09-19

    The multi-institutional High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Team is cosponsored by the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Science Office (DSO) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and has developed new corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals that can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Corrosion costs the Department of Defense billions of dollars every year, with an immense quantity of material in various structures undergoing corrosion. For example, in addition to fluid and seawater piping, ballast tanks, and propulsions systems, approximately 345 million square feet of structure aboard naval ships and crafts require costly corrosion control measures. The use of advanced corrosion-resistant materials to prevent the continuous degradation of this massive surface area would be extremely beneficial. The Fe-based corrosion-resistant, amorphous-metal coatings under development may prove of importance for applications on ships. Such coatings could be used as an 'integral drip shield' on spent fuel containers, as well as protective coatings that could be applied over welds, thereby preventing exposure to environments that might cause stress corrosion cracking. In the future, such new high-performance iron-based materials could be substituted for more-expensive nickel-based alloys, thereby enabling a reduction in the $58-billion life cycle cost for the long-term storage of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel by tens of percent.

  16. MIT and Materials Industries MIT Industry Brief

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herr, Hugh

    -based materials, devices and systems to provide breakthrough capabilities for applications ranging from energy materials; magnetic materials and processes; biomaterials; and materials economics. The NECSTlab (Nano-Engineered · Materials Selection, Fabrication, Processing · Materials and Electronics, Photonics, Semiconductors

  17. Final Technical Report on DE-SC00002460 [Bimetallic or trimetallic materials with structural metal centers based on Mn, Fe or V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeuchi, Esther Sans; Takeuchi, Kenneth James; Marschilok, Amy Catherine

    2013-07-26

    Bimetallic or trimetallic materials with structural metal centers based on Mn, Fe or V were investigated under this project. These metal centers are the focus of this research as they have high earth abundance and have each shown success as cathode materials in lithium batteries. Silver ion, Ag{sup +}, was initially selected as the displacement material as reduction of this center should result in increased conductivity as Ag{sup 0} metal particles are formed in-situ upon electrochemical reduction. The in-situ formation of metal nanoparticles upon electrochemical reduction has been previously noted, and more recently, we have investigated the resulting increase in conductivity. Layered materials as well as materials with tunnel or channel type structures were selected. Layered materials are of interest as they can provide 2-dimensional ion mobility. Tunnel or channel structures are also of interest as they provide a rigid framework that should remain stable over many discharge/charge cycles. We describe some examples of materials we have synthesized that demonstrate promising electrochemistry.

  18. Addendum to material selection guidelines for geothermal energy-utilization systems. Part I. Extension of the field experience data base. Part II. Proceedings of the geothermal engineering and materials (GEM) program conference (San Diego, CA, 6-8 October 1982)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C.S.; Ellis, P.F. II

    1983-05-01

    The extension of the field experience data base includes the following: key corrosive species, updated field experiences, corrosion of secondary loop components or geothermal binary power plants, and suitability of conventional water-source heat pump evaporator materials for geothermal heat pump service. Twenty-four conference papers are included. Three were abstracted previously for EDB. Separate abstracts were prepared for twenty-one. (MHR)

  19. Journal of Materials Science, 2009. 44(6): p. 1560-1571 Whispering Gallery Mode-Based Micro-Optical Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    -Optical Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Materials Nguyen Quang Nguyen, Nikhil Gupta are based on using embedded sensors for structural health monitoring. However, embedded sensors can lead monitor the structural health and the ambient conditions, or are triggered by any of the parameters

  20. Preparation of novel carbon microfiber/carbon nanofiber-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jayant K.

    -based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator Ajit K. Sharma a , Prateek Khare a , Jayant with the web of carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers is developed as lithium (Li)-ion electrolyte battery acetate to produce polyvinyl alcohol gel, ball-milling of the surfactant dispersed carbon micro

  1. Influence of calcium content of biomass-based materials on simultaneous NOx and SO{sub 2} reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarma V. Pisupati; Sumeet Bhalla [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Mineral Engineering Department

    2008-04-01

    Pyrolysis products of biomass (bio-oils) have been shown to cause a reduction in NOx emissions when used as reburn fuels in combustion systems. When these bio-oils are processed with lime, calcium is ion-exchanged and the product is called BioLime. BioLime, when introduced into a combustion chamber, pyrolyzes and produces volatile products that reduce NOx emissions through reburn mechanisms. Simultaneously, calcium reacts with SO{sub 2} to form calcium sulfate and thus reduces SO{sub 2} emissions. This paper reports the characterization of composition and pyrolysis behavior of two BioLime products and the influence of feedstock on pyrolysis products. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and {sup 13}C-CP/MAS NMR techniques were used to study the composition of two biomass-based materials. The composition of the pyrolysis products of BioLime was determined in a laboratory scale flow reactor. The effect of BioLime composition on NOx and SO{sub 2} reduction performance was evaluated in a 146.5 kW pilot-scale, down fired combustor (DFC). The effect of pyrolysis gas composition on NOx reduction is discussed. The TGA weight loss curves of BioLime samples in an inert atmosphere showed two distinct peaks corresponding to the decomposition of light and heavy components of the BioLime and a third distinct peak corresponding to secondary thermal decomposition of char. The study also showed that BioLime sample with lower content of residual lignin derivatives and lower calcium content produced more volatile compounds upon pyrolysis in the combustor and achieved higher NOx reduction (15%). Higher yields of pyrolysis gases increased the NO reduction potential of BioLime through homogeneous gas phase reactions. Calcium in BioLime samples effectively reduced SO{sub 2} emissions (60-85%). 36 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. ENGINEERING MATERIALS GRADUATE PROGRAM Listing of Faculty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , including fuel cells and batteries; distortion in heat-treated #12;parts; novel materials synthesis methods deformation behaviour of materials with a view to optimizing manufacturing processes: emphasis on formability

  3. New Conducting and Electrically Switching Molecular Materials based on Main Group and Transition Metal Ions Bridged by TCNQ Derivatives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhongyue

    2013-05-24

    The field of molecular electronics has been under investigation by materials scientists for the last two decades, activity that has increased in recent years as their potential to be components in modern quantum computing ...

  4. Mining Views: Database Views for Data Mining Hendrik Blockeel #1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antwerpen, Universiteit

    Mining Views: Database Views for Data Mining Hendrik Blockeel #1 , Toon Calders 2 , Elisa Fromont adriana.prado}@ua.ac.be Abstract-- We present a system towards the integration of data mining mining views. We show that several types of patterns and models over the data, such as itemsets

  5. Materials Science & Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Materials Science & Engineering In this presentation the role of materials in power generation sector is about 20%, opportunities for materials-based technologies to improve energy efficiency (e Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). He is also the Director of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

  6. Holographic imaging of natural-fiber-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunch, Kyle J [Richland, WA; Tucker, Brian J [Pasco, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Kennewick, WA; McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Lechelt, Wayne M [West Richland, WA; Griffin, Jeffrey W [Kennewick, WA; Sheen, David M [Richland, WA

    2010-12-21

    The present invention includes methods and apparatuses for imaging material properties in natural-fiber-containing materials. In particular, the images can provide quantified measures of localized moisture content. Embodiments of the invention utilize an array of antennas and at least one transceiver to collect amplitude and phase data from radiation interacting with the natural-fiber-containing materials. The antennas and the transceivers are configured to transmit and receive electromagnetic radiation at one or more frequencies, which are between 50 MHz and 1 THz. A conveyance system passes the natural-fiber-containing materials through a field of view of the array of antennas. A computing device is configured to apply a synthetic imaging algorithm to construct a three-dimensional image of the natural-fiber-containing materials that provides a quantified measure of localized moisture content. The image and the quantified measure are both based on the amplitude data, the phase data, or both.

  7. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  8. Protective laser beam viewing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neil, George R.; Jordan, Kevin Carl

    2012-12-18

    A protective laser beam viewing system or device including a camera selectively sensitive to laser light wavelengths and a viewing screen receiving images from the laser sensitive camera. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the camera is worn on the head of the user or incorporated into a goggle-type viewing display so that it is always aimed at the area of viewing interest to the user and the viewing screen is incorporated into a video display worn as goggles over the eyes of the user.

  9. Enhanced reactivity of nanoenergetic materials: A first-principles molecular dynamics study based on divide-and-conquer density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    a stage for first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of thermite reaction at an Al/Fe2O3 interface experimental observation in thermite nanowire arrays. © 2009 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10 to drive nanofluidics.1,2 Most widely used energetic materials for device integration are thermites, which

  10. Materials Science and Engineering A 483484 (2008) 607610 Indentation creep study on a Zr-based bulk metallic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    2008-01-01

    to the formation of a quasicrystalline phase. Indentation creep tests were carried out isothermally at the same size quasicrystalline particles on the creep behavior is studied by indentation test. There are onlyMaterials Science and Engineering A 483­484 (2008) 607­610 Indentation creep study on a Zr

  11. Mountain View, California: Fiat Res Publica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tung, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Mountain View, California: Fiat Res Publica Gregory Tungundifferen­ tiated. In Mountain View, California (populationtoward San Francisco. Mountain View is avoiding a "just say

  12. False color viewing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  13. False color viewing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  14. False color viewing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  15. Plasmonic materials based on ZnO films and their potential for developing broadband middle-infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesim, Yunus E. Battal, Enes; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-07-15

    Noble metals such as gold and silver have been extensively used for plasmonic applications due to their ability to support plasmons, yet they suffer from high intrinsic losses. Alternative plasmonic materials that offer low loss and tunability are desired for a new generation of efficient and agile devices. In this paper, atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown ZnO is investigated as a candidate material for plasmonic applications. Optical constants of ZnO are investigated along with figures of merit pertaining to plasmonic waveguides. We show that ZnO can alleviate the trade-off between propagation length and mode confinement width owing to tunable dielectric properties. In order to demonstrate plasmonic resonances, we simulate a grating structure and computationally demonstrate an ultra-wide-band (4–15 ?m) infrared absorber.

  16. Investigation of a HA/PDLGA/Carbon Foam Material System for Orthopedic Fixation Plates Based on Time-Dependent Properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Douglas E.

    2010-01-14

    Page 1.1 Mechanical properties of bone and typical metallic and ceramic biomaterials [12] (as detailed by Ramakrishna et al. [13]) ............................. 4 1.1 Mechanical properties of typical bioresorbable polymers [14... The use of bioresorbable polymers, materials that degrade within the body and are resorbed through the body’s metabolic cycle, has been proposed for orthopedic applications since the advent of these polymers as a biomaterial[1]. Since the introduction...

  17. Chemical & Engineering Materials | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical and Engineering Materials SHARE Chemical and Engineering Materials Neutron-based research at SNS and HFIR in Chemical and Engineering Materials strives to understand the...

  18. Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

    2012-06-29

    Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

  19. Definition of Small Gram Quantity Contents for Type B Radioactive Material Transportation Packages: Activity-Based Content Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sitaraman, S; Kim, S; Biswas, D; Hafner, R; Anderson, B

    2010-10-27

    Since the 1960's, the Department of Transportation Specification (DOT Spec) 6M packages have been used extensively for transportation of Type B quantities of radioactive materials between Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, laboratories, and productions sites. However, due to the advancement of packaging technology, the aging of the 6M packages, and variability in the quality of the packages, the DOT implemented a phased elimination of the 6M specification packages (and other DOT Spec packages) in favor of packages certified to meet federal performance requirements. DOT issued the final rule in the Federal Register on October 1, 2004 requiring that use of the DOT Specification 6M be discontinued as of October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was the fact that the 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 71 (10 CFR 71). Therefore, materials that would have historically been shipped in 6M packages are being identified as contents in Type B (and sometimes Type A fissile) package applications and addenda that are to be certified under the requirements of 10 CFR 71. The requirements in 10 CFR 71 include that the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) must identify the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents (10 CFR 71.33(b)(1) and 10 CFR 71.33(b)(2)), and that the application (i.e., SARP submittal or SARP addendum) demonstrates that the external dose rate (due to the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents) on the surface of the packaging (i.e., package and contents) not exceed 200 mrem/hr (10 CFR 71.35(a), 10 CFR 71.47(a)). It has been proposed that a 'Small Gram Quantity' of radioactive material be defined, such that, when loaded in a transportation package, the dose rates at external points of an unshielded packaging not exceed the regulatory limits prescribed by 10 CFR 71 for non-exclusive shipments. The mass of each radioisotope presented in this paper is limited by the radiation dose rate on the external surface of the package, which per the regulatory limit should not exceed 200 mrem/hr. The results presented are a compendium of allowable masses of a variety of different isotopes (with varying impurity levels of beryllium in some of the actinide isotopes) that, when loaded in an unshielded packaging, do not result in an external dose rate on the surface of the package that exceeds 190 mrem/hr (190 mrem/hr was chosen to provide 5% conservatism relative to the regulatory limit). These mass limits define the term 'Small Gram Quantity' (SGQ) contents in the context of radioactive material transportation packages. The term SGQ is isotope-specific and pertains to contents in radioactive material transportation packages that do not require shielding and still satisfy the external dose rate requirements. Since these calculated mass limits are for contents without shielding, they are conservative for packaging materials that provide some limited shielding or if the contents are placed into a shielded package. The isotopes presented in this paper were chosen as the isotopes that Department of Energy (DOE) sites most likely need to ship. Other more rarely shipped isotopes, along with industrial and medical isotopes, are planned to be included in subsequent extensions of this work.

  20. Supplementary Materials to "Adaptive Output-Feedback Control for Relative Degree Two Systems Based on Closed-Loop Reference Models"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Zheng

    2015-09-14

    Abstract--- In this paper, a new adaptive output-feedback controller for multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) linear plant models with relative degree two is developed. The adaptive controller includes a baseline design based ...

  1. Multiscale Studies of the Formation and Stability of Surface-based Nanostructures, DOE Computational Materials Science Network - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einstein, Theodore L.

    2011-10-31

    Summary of work performed under DOE-CMSN/FG0205ER46227, Multiscale Studies of the Formation and Stability of Surface-based Nanostructures, listing publications, collaborations, and presentations.

  2. Vanadium oxide based nanostructured materials for catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of propane : effect of heterometallic centers on the catalyst performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, M. I.; Deb, S.; Aydemir, K.; Alwarthan, A. A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Miller, J. T.; Marshall, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic properties of a series of new class of catalysts materials-[Co{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42} (XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Co), [Fe{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Fe) (X = V, S) and [H{sub 6}Mn{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(VO{sub 4})].30H{sub 2}O for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane is studied. The open-framework nanostructures in these novel materials consist of three-dimensional arrays of {l_brace}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4}){r_brace} (X = V, S) clusters interconnected by {l_brace}-O-M-O-{r_brace} (M = Mn, Fe, Co) linkers. The effect of change in the heterometallic center M (M = Mn, Co, Fe) of the linkers on the catalyst performance was studied. The catalyst material with Co in the linker showed the best performance in terms of propane conversion and selectivity at 350 C. The material containing Fe was most active but least selective and Mn containing catalyst was least active. The catalysts were characterized by Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), BET surface area measurement, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. TPR results show that all three catalysts are easily reducible and therefore are active at relatively low temperature. In situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) studies revealed that the oxidation state of Co(II) remained unchanged up to 425 C (even after pretreatment). The reduction of Co(II) into metallic form starts at 425 C and this process is completed at 600 C.

  3. Material Misfits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Issues submit Material Misfits How well nanocomposite materials align at their interfaces determines what properties they have, opening broad new avenues of materials-science...

  4. Lead-based paint and lead-containing materials: The impact of recent EPA and OSHA regulations on maintenance and construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staker, R.D.; Scheffius, F.R.

    1998-07-01

    Over the past several years a number of new federal environmental, health, and safety regulations have been established which address various types of lead containing materials such as lead used in solder and lead-based paint. The regulations pertain to the use, removal, disposal, and handling of lead-containing materials during maintenance activities, renovation activities, and new construction. This paper will present a review of these new regulations, the impact on and applicability to maintenance and construction activities, and the risks to human health and environment. Examples will be used to illustrate the concepts discussed. This paper should be of particular interest to electric power senior managers, plant managers, environmental managers, and environmental staff.

  5. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture. Manufacturing Plan for Aminosilicone-based CO{sub 2} Absorption Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, Kirkland

    2013-02-01

    A commercially cost effective manufacturing plan was developed for GAP-1m, the aminosilicone-based part of the CO{sub 2} capture solvent described in DE-FE0007502, and the small-scale synthesis of GAP-1m was confirmed. The plan utilizes a current intermediate at SiVance LLC to supply the 2013-2015 needs for GE Global Research. Material from this process was supplied to GE Global Research for evaluation and creation of specifications. GE Global Research has since ordered larger quantities (60 liters) for the larger scale evaluations that start in first quarter, 2013. For GE’s much larger future commercial needs, an improved, more economical pathway to make the product was developed after significant laboratory and literature research. Suppliers were identified for all raw materials.

  6. Plan-view Trajectory Estimation with Dense Stereo Background Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darrell, T.

    2001-02-01

    In a known environment, objects may be tracked in multiple views using a set of back-ground models. Stereo-based models can be illumination-invariant, but often have undefined values which inevitably lead to foreground ...

  7. View dependent fluid dynamics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barran, Brian Arthur

    2006-08-16

    physically based rendering method known as photon mapping is used in conjunction with ray tracing to generate realistic images of water with caustics. These methods were implemented as a C++ application framework capable of simulating and rendering fluid in a...

  8. Materials Science & Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Materials Science & Engineering New paradigms in the R&D of novel multifunctional oxide and nanocarbon thin films are providing the bases for new physics, new materials science and chemistry Laboratory (ANL) during the past fifteen years. Also, the applications of these materials for a new

  9. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smolik, Galen R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  10. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant, colossal magnetostriction and giant magnetoresistive materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Alexandra O. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

    2003-07-08

    Method of making an active magnetic refrigerant represented by Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4 alloy for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.0 comprising placing amounts of the commercially pure Gd, Si, and Ge charge components in a crucible, heating the charge contents under subambient pressure to a melting temperature of the alloy for a time sufficient to homogenize the alloy and oxidize carbon with oxygen present in the Gd charge component to reduce carbon, rapidly solidifying the alloy in the crucible, and heat treating the solidified alloy at a temperature below the melting temperature for a time effective to homogenize a microstructure of the solidified material, and then cooling sufficiently fast to prevent the eutectoid decomposition and improve magnetocaloric and/or the magnetostrictive and/or the magnetoresistive properties thereof.

  11. www.advhealthmat.de www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    -resolution electrocorticography,[6] multifunctional "epidermal" electronics for biopotential measurement,[18] and monitoring

  12. www.advmat.de www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    counterparts are hydro-power plants, wind farms, solar farms, and more recently, novel piezoelectric devices[1 as practical power sources. The design of the compact hybrid cell (CHC) was to convo- lute the roles played] for power generation from mechanical vibration.[2] Fully utilizing power sources such as light,[3­5] thermal

  13. 917wileyonlinelibrary.com www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the spatial location of performance-limiting recombination in CQD solar cells, and take steps to remedy reported interface loss mechanism in dye sensitized solar cells.[11­13] Recombination at absorber avenue to improving performance. CIGS[4,5] and organic photovoltaics[6,7] have both benefited from

  14. www.advmat.de www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    of even the longest-wavelength junction required in multi-junction cells. Their large Bohr exciton radius semiconductors. In parallel, low-cost, low-energy-consumption means of pro- ducing solar cells ­ often using important low cost. The present review focuses on emerging solar cell technologies that are: (1) solution

  15. Answering queries using materialized views with minimum size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chirkova, R; Li, C; Li, J

    2006-01-01

    Mehrotra. Execut- u u s ing SQL over encrypted data in theUrata. Answering complex SQL queries using automatic summaryconsider select-project-join SQL queries and their unions.

  16. www.advmat.de www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    and small, in the USA alone, accounts for nearly 750 billion kWh or, at an average price of $0.06 per kWh of millions of dollars and a reduction in CO2 emissions of nearly 2.2 million metric tons of carbon equivalent

  17. Adapting Materialized Views after Redefinitions \\Lambda Ashish Gupta y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    relations E (employees), W (works), and P (projects): E(Emp#;Name;Address; Age; Salary). W (Emp#; Proj AS SELECT Emp#, Proj#, Salary FROM E & W WHERE Salary ? 20000 AND Hours ? 20 The natural join between 1 might be specified graphically using a slider for the Salary attribute and another slider

  18. Achieving Scalability in OLAP Materialized View Selection Thomas P. Nadeau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Il-Yeol

    by bind style and quarter. Data warehouses have been engineered to answer queries of aggregation time to be grouped by DateID, Month, Quarter or Year. The fact table also contains measure attributes. Example star schema for a data warehouse A fact table in a data warehouse may contain many millions

  19. Achieving Scalability in OLAP Materialized View Selection (Extended Version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teorey, Toby J.

    and sell values of jobs, grouped by bind style and quarter. Data warehouses have been engineered to answer: The beast of burden Data warehouses are commonly organized with one large central fact table, and many, the Figure 1 schema allows time to be grouped by DateID, Month, Quarter or Year. The fact table also contains

  20. www.MaterialsViews.com www.advenergymat.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cincinnati, University of

    Solar Cells Using Coaxial Electrospinning Nanofibers consisting of the bulk heterojunction organic methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) are produced through a coaxial electrospinning process. While P3HT:PCBM blends electrospinning by selec- tively removing the PCL sheath with cyclopentanone (average diameter 120 ± 30 nm

  1. www.MaterialsViews.com www.advenergymat.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    toler- ance during electrode volume change. A high-rate capability for TiO2 and high cycling stability for SiNP electrodes are reported. Typically, the flexible TiO2 electrodes achieved a capacity of 76 mAh gA, Weinheim (1 of 10) 1400207wileyonlinelibrary.com A Three-Dimensionally Interconnected Carbon Nanotube

  2. www.advmat.de www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to additional versatility for related devices, such as electric field-controlled magnetic data storage.[6 Patterning of Bi2FeCrO6 Double Perovskite Nanostructures: Multiferroic at Room Temperature devices and extend the poten- tial of establishing nanoarchitecture concepts.[1,2] In this context

  3. www.advmat.de www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    , and Harry A. Atwater Light Absorption Enhancement in Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Whispering Gallery Modes Pasadena, CA 91125, USA E-mail: jgrandid@caltech.edu For thin-film solar cells, light absorption is usually a typical thin-film amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cell structure. The in-coupling element in this design

  4. Viewing Conditions and Chromatic Adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majumder, Aditi

    Linear nonlinear #12;2 Viewing field Self-luminous displays CRT, LCD Reflective media Painting Viewing: Adapting stimulus Subscript E: Equal energy illumination #12;13 Fairchild's model (1991) Inter channel brightness #12;6 11 Definition of Color Appearance Model so much description of color such as: wavelength

  5. Application of the base catalyzed decomposition process to treatment of PCB-contaminated insulation and other materials associated with US Navy vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Gano, S.R.

    1996-09-01

    The BCD process was applied to dechlorination of two types of PCB-contaminated materials generated from Navy vessel decommissioning activities at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard: insulation of wool felt impregnated with PCB, and PCB-containing paint chips/debris from removal of paint from metal surfaces. The BCD process is a two-stage, low-temperature chemical dehalogenation process. In Stage 1, the materials are mixed with sodium bicarbonate and heated to 350 C. The volatilized halogenated contaminants (eg, PCBs, dioxins, furans), which are collected in a small volume of particulates and granular activated carbon, are decomposed by the liquid-phase reaction (Stage 2) in a stirred-tank reactor, using a high-boiling-point hydrocarbon oil as the reaction medium, with addition of a hydrogen donor, a base (NaOH), and a catalyst. The tests showed that treating wool felt insulation and paint chip wastes with Stage 2 on a large scale is feasible, but compared with current disposal costs for PCB-contaminated materials, using Stage 2 would not be economical at this time. For paint chips generated from shot/sand blasting, the solid-phase BCD process (Stage 1) should be considered, if paint removal activities are accelerated in the future.

  6. Nuclear Materials: Reconsidering Wastes and Assets - 13193

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalske, T.A. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ('assets') to worthless ('wastes'). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as 'waste' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest. (authors)

  7. Optical properties of Eu{sup 2+}/Eu{sup 3+} mixed valence, silicon nitride based materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kate, Otmar M. ten, E-mail: o.m.tenkate@tudelft.nl [Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Vranken, Thomas [Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kolk, Erik van der [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Jansen, Antonius P.J.; Hintzen, Hubertus T. [Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-05-01

    Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3}, a mixed valence europium nitridosilicate, has been prepared via solid-state reaction synthesis and its oxidation behavior and optical properties have been determined. Furthermore, the stability of several isostructural compounds of the type M{sup 2+}L{sup 3+}SiN{sub 3} has been predicted by using the density functional theory calculations, and verified by the actual synthesis of CaLaSiN{sub 3}, CaEuSiN{sub 3} and EuLaSiN{sub 3}. The band gap of CaLaSiN{sub 3} was found around 3.2 eV giving the material its yellow color. Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3} on the other hand is black due to a combination of the 4f–5d absorption band of Eu{sup 2+} and the charge transfer band of Eu{sup 3+}. Thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopic study of Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3} revealed that oxidation of this compound in dry air takes place via a nitrogen retention complex. - Graphical abstract: Energy level scheme of Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3} showing the occupied N{sup 3?} 2p band (blue rectangle), unoccupied Eu{sup 2+} 5d band (white rectangle), occupied Eu{sup 2+} 4f ground states (filled red circles) and unoccupied Eu{sup 2+} ground states (open red circles). - Highlights: • Density functional theory calculations on the stability of M{sup 2+}L{sup 3+}SiN{sub 3} compounds. • Solid-state reaction synthesis of Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3}, CaLaSiN{sub 3}, EuLaSiN{sub 3} and CaEuSiN{sub 3}. • Determination of the Eu{sup 2+} 4f–5d and Eu{sup 3+} CT transitions in M{sup 2+}L{sup 3+}SiN{sub 3} compounds. • Oxidation of Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3} in dry air takes place via a nitrogen retention complex.

  8. Landscape viewing in metropolitan Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teas, Wendy Ann

    1990-01-01

    This thesis recognizes the importance of landscape viewing, especially as a solitary act of contemplation. It suggests the creation of a place from which to gaze upon a vast landscape. It postulates that an observation ...

  9. A Regulator's View of Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shanaman, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    of the total national electric generation. In view of the energy requirements of Pennsylvania's industry and the impact of increasing energy costs on employment the Commission directed its technical staff to investigate the potential for industrial cogeneration...

  10. Covetic Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Can re-melt, dilute, alloy... Fabrication of Covetic Materials - Nanocarbon Infusion 3 4 Technical Approach Unusual Characteristics of Covetic Materials ("covalent" &...

  11. Conversation View Outlook Web App User Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    Conversation View Outlook Web App User Guide Email conversations that include multiple replies and sent messages can be viewed simultaneously using Conversation View. In Exchange 2010 Outlook Web App

  12. HIGHWAY INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS AREA NEXT-GENERATION INFRASTRUCTURE MATERIALS VOLUME I - TECHNICAL PROPOSAL & MANAGEMENTENHANCEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH IRON-BASED AMORPHOUS-METAL AND CERAMIC COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-12-04

    The infrastructure for transportation in the United States allows for a high level of mobility and freight activity for the current population of 300 million residents, and several million business establishments. According to a Department of Transportation study, more than 230 million motor vehicles, ships, airplanes, and railroads cars were used on 6.4 million kilometers (4 million miles) of highways, railroads, airports, and waterways in 1998. Pipelines and storage tanks were considered to be part of this deteriorating infrastructure. The annual direct cost of corrosion in the infrastructure category was estimated to be approximately $22.6 billion in 1998. There were 583,000 bridges in the United States in 1998. Of this total, 200,000 bridges were steel, 235,000 were conventional reinforced concrete, 108,000 bridges were constructed using pre-stressed concrete, and the balance was made using other materials of construction. Approximately 15 percent of the bridges accounted for at this point in time were structurally deficient, primarily due to corrosion of steel and steel reinforcement. Iron-based amorphous metals, including SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been developed, and have very good corrosion resistance. These materials have been prepared as a melt-spun ribbons, as well as gas atomized powders and thermal-spray coatings. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stabilities of these materials were found to be comparable to that of more expensive high-performance alloys, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. These materials also performed very well in standard salt fog tests. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal made it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. These amorphous alloys appear to maintain their corrosion resistance up to the glass transition temperature. Visionary research is proposed to extend the application of corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous metal coatings, and variants of these coatings, to protection of the Nation's transportation infrastructure. Specific objectives of the proposed work are: (1) fabrication of appropriate test samples for evaluation of concept; (2) collection of production and test data for coated steel reinforcement bars, enabling systematic comparison of various coating options, based upon performance and economic considerations; and (3) construction and testing of concrete structures with coated steel reinforcement bars, thereby demonstrating the value of amorphous-metal coatings. The benefits of ceramic coatings as thermal barriers will also be addressed.

  13. material protection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Office of Weapons Material Protection http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsnonproliferationprogramofficesinternationalmaterialprotectionandcooperation-1

  14. Critical Materials:

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Extraction Separation Processes for Critical Materials in 30- 21 Stage Test Facility (Bruce Moyer) ......

  15. Materials Scientist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alternate Title(s):Materials Research Engineer; Metallurgical/Chemical Engineer; Product Development Manager;

  16. Wide field of view telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  17. Target Fabrication: A View from the Users

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyrala, George A.; Balkey, Matthew M.; Barnes, Cris W.; Batha, Steven H.; Christensen, Cindy R.; Cobble, James A.; Fincke, James; Keiter, Paul; Lanier, Nicholas; Paisley, Dennis; Sorem, Michael; Swift, Damian; Workman, Jonathan

    2004-03-15

    Targets are used for a variety of purposes, but ultimately we use them to validate codes that help us predict and understand new phenomena or effects. The sophistication and complexity of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets has increased in to match the advances made in modeling complex phenomena. The targets have changed from simple hohlraums, spherical geometries, and planar foils, to 3-dimensional geometries that require precision in construction, alignment, and metrology. Furthermore, material properties, such as surface morphologies and volume texture, have significant impact on the behavior of the targets and must be measured and controlled. In the following we will discuss how experimental physicists view targets and the influence that target construction has on interpreting the experimental results. We review a representative sampling of targets fabricated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that are used in different experiments in support of ICF and HEDP.

  18. TARGET FABRICATION: A VIEW FROM THE USERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyrala, George A.; Balkey, Matthew M.; Batha, Steven H.; Barnes, Cris W.; Christensen, Cindy; Cobble, James; Fincke, James; Keiter, Paul; Lanier, Nicholas; Paisley, Dennis; Sorem, Michael S.; Swift, Damian; Workman, Jonathan

    2003-07-18

    Targets are used for a variety of purposes, but ultimately we use them to validate codes that help us predict and understand new phenomena or effects. The sophistication and complexity of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets has increased in time to match the advances made in modeling complex phenomena. The targets have changed from simple hohlraums, spherical geometries, and planar foils, to 3-dimensional geometries that require precision in construction, alignment, and metrology. Furthermore, material properties, such as surface morphologies and volume texture, have significant impact on the behavior of the targets and must be measured and controlled. In the following we will discuss how experimental physicists view targets and the influence that target construction has on interpreting the experimental results. We review a representative sampling of targets fabricated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that are used in different experiments in support of ICF and HEDP.

  19. Analytical Study on Adhesively Bonded Joints Using Peeling Test and Symmetric Composite Models Based on Bernoulli-Euler and Timoshenko Beam Theories for Elastic and Viscoelastic Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Ying-Yu

    2012-02-14

    , ??????, ?????. The adherend material is aluminium, and the adhesive is an epoxy. The properties of these two materials are ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? [15]. 24 2.7.1 Loading Mode I In this case, the horizontal forces are not considered, and the solution...

  20. Input a journal Viewing Journals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    Journals Contents: Input a journal Viewing Journals Deleting a journal Entering jnl into different period Problems Input a journal 1 Login to Bluqube 2 Select 3 Enter relevant Doc type To select the number of journals you will processing & the total credit value 6 Click on 7 Enter brief description 8

  1. The Catalog View Feature dataset

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Catalog View Feature dataset Hydrography Geometric network HYDRO_NET Polygon feature class defines by FIPS 103, next six digits is a randomly assigned sequential number unique within a CatalogingSeep FCode 485 Water IntakeOutflow Resolution Resolution FCode 48500 Water IntakeOutflow FCode 487 Waterfall

  2. View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-02-28

    Feb 28, 2006 ... AMS 2000 Subject Classification: Primary: ... of free NSO solvers, a possible reason is the lack of a significant library of NSO test functions.

  3. Materials Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Database (TPMD) Aerospace Structural Metals Database (ASMD) Damage Tolerant Design Handbook (DTDH) Microelectronics Packaging Materials Database (MPMD) Structural Alloys...

  4. Views of the solar system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, C.

    1995-02-01

    Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

  5. Views of wireless network systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, William Frederick; Duggan, David Patrick

    2003-10-01

    Wireless networking is becoming a common element of industrial, corporate, and home networks. Commercial wireless network systems have become reliable, while the cost of these solutions has become more affordable than equivalent wired network solutions. The security risks of wireless systems are higher than wired and have not been studied in depth. This report starts to bring together information on wireless architectures and their connection to wired networks. We detail information contained on the many different views of a wireless network system. The method of using multiple views of a system to assist in the determination of vulnerabilities comes from the Information Design Assurance Red Team (IDART{trademark}) Methodology of system analysis developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  6. For current viewing resistor loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Gregory R. (Tijeras, NM); Hass, Jay B. (Lee's Summit, MO)

    2011-04-19

    The invention comprises a terminal unit for a flat cable comprising a BNC-PCB connector having a pin for electrically contacting one or more conducting elements of a flat cable, and a current viewing resistor having an opening through which the pin extends and having a resistor face that abuts a connector face of the BNC-PCB connector, wherein the device is a terminal unit for the flat cable.

  7. Rare?Earth?Free Permanent Magnets for Electrical Vehicle Motors and Wind Turbine Generators: Hexagonal Symmetry Based Materials Systems Mn?Bi and M?type Hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Yang-Ki; Haskew, Timothy; Myryasov, Oleg; Jin, Sungho; Berkowitz, Ami

    2014-06-05

    The research we conducted focuses on the rare-earth (RE)-free permanent magnet by modeling, simulating, and synthesizing exchange coupled two-phase (hard/soft) RE-free core-shell nano-structured magnet. The RE-free magnets are made of magnetically hard core materials (high anisotropy materials including Mn-Bi-X and M-type hexaferrite) coated by soft shell materials (high magnetization materials including Fe-Co or Co). Therefore, our research helps understand the exchange coupling conditions of the core/shell magnets, interface exchange behavior between core and shell materials, formation mechanism of core/shell structures, stability conditions of core and shell materials, etc.

  8. Effect of doping, microstructure, and CO{sub 2} on La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}}-based oxygen-transporting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klande, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.klande@pci.uni-hannover.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 3-3a, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Efimov, Konstantin [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 3-3a, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Cusenza, Salvatore; Becker, Klaus-Dieter [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 10, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Feldhoff, Armin [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 3-3a, D-30179 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Alkaline earth-free La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} based materials were synthesized by a sol-gel method and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques as well as oxygen permeation experiments. Effects of doping the nickel position with a variety of cations (Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ta, and Zr) were investigated with regards to oxygen flux and microstructure. Doping was always found to diminish the oxygen flux as compared to the reference composition. However, larger grains, which were achieved by longer annealing times at 1723 K have a minor negative impact on oxygen permeation flux in case of La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} and La{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 4+{delta}} system. Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that the iron-doped system exhibits a secondary phase, which was identified by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) as a higher Ruddlesden-Popper phase. In-situ XRD in an atmosphere containing 50 vol% CO{sub 2} and long-term oxygen permeation experiments using pure CO{sub 2} as the sweep gas revealed a high tolerance of the materials towards CO{sub 2}. - Graphical Abstract: The vibrational polished La{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 4+{delta}} membrane revealed formation of secondary phases, which were confirmed by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} systematically doped with different valent cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large grains have a negative impact on oxygen-permeation performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2}-stability proved by in-situ XRD in 50 vol% CO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constant long-term permeation in presence of CO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moessbauer and TEM reveal multiple phases in La{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 4+{delta}} system.

  9. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  10. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  11. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  12. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  13. material recovery

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    dispose of dangerous nuclear and radiological material, and detect and control the proliferation of related WMD technology and expertise.

  14. Shape Anchors for Data-Driven Multi-view Reconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Jianxiong

    We present a data-driven method for building dense 3D reconstructions using a combination of recognition and multi-view cues. Our approach is based on the idea that there are image patches that are so distinctive that we ...

  15. The Equal Weight View, Agreement, and Commutativity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckler, Rose

    2011-11-23

    This paper investigates Elga’s (2007) Equal Weight View (EWV) and its consequences when understood as a view requiring epistemic peers to ‘split the difference’ following disagreement. The traditional disagreement debate ...

  16. View from the Bridge | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    View from the Bridge View from the Bridge This presentation gives an overview of Caterpillar's R&D focus on advanced diesel engines and exhaust aftertreatment. deer08utley.pdf...

  17. California's Energy Future - The View to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Summit on America’s Energy Future (2008), http://www.natural gas. California’s Energy Future - The View to 2050supply California’ s Energy Future - The View to 2050 and

  18. Novel Materials for HIgh Efficiency White Phosphorescent OLED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Thompson

    2008-03-31

    Our program was a materials intensive one, based on preparing new materials for phosphorescent based white organic LEDs (WOLEDs). Each of the principal projects are summarized.

  19. Cermet materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-12-23

    A self-cleaning porous cermet material, filter and system utilizing the same may be used in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The porous cermet filter may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The porous filter may also be electrically conductive so that a current may be passed therethrough to heat the filter during use. Further, a heating element may be incorporated into the porous cermet filter during manufacture. This heating element can be coated with a ceramic material to electrically insulate the heating element. An external heating element may also be provided to heat the cermet filter during use.

  20. Composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchens, Stacy A. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Solihull, GB); Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  1. TotalView Training 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar FuelTechnologyTel:FebruaryEIA's Today8Topo II: AnUsersTotalView

  2. ISSN 2167-5163 View Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldschmidt, Michel

    ISSN 2167-5163 View Publications View Author/Related Publications View Reviews Refine Search Co: 180085 Earliest Indexed Publication: 1970 Total Publications: 176 Total Author/Related Publications: 189 Chen Publications (by number in area) Associative rings and algebras Dynamical systems and ergodic

  3. Construction Material And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Antink, Allison L. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2006-02-21

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic. The ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  4. Materials of Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  5. Optical amplifier operating at 1.3 microns useful for telecommunications and based on dysprosium-doped metal chloride host materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Beach, R.J.

    1997-12-02

    Dysprosium-doped metal chloride materials offer laser properties advantageous for use as optical amplifiers in the 1.3 {micro}m telecommunications fiber optic network. The upper laser level is characterized by a millisecond lifetime, the host material possesses a moderately low refractive index, and the gain peak occurs near 1.31 {micro}m. Related halide materials, including bromides and iodides, are also useful. The Dy{sup 3+}-doped metal chlorides can be pumped with laser diodes and yield 1.3 {micro}m signal gain levels significantly beyond those currently available. 9 figs.

  6. Optical amplifier operating at 1.3 microns useful for telecommunications and based on dysprosium-doped metal chloride host materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, Ralph H. (San Ramon, CA); Schaffers, Kathleen I. (Pleasanton, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Dysprosium-doped metal chloride materials offer laser properties advantageous for use as optical amplifiers in the 1.3 .mu.m telecommunications fiber optic network. The upper laser level is characterized by a millisecond lifetime, the host material possesses a moderately low refractive index, and the gain peak occurs near 1.31 .mu.m. Related halide materials, including bromides and iodides, are also useful. The Dy.sup.3+ -doped metal chlorides can be pumped with laser diodes and yield 1.3 .mu.m signal gain levels significantly beyond those currently available.

  7. Rare-Earth-Free Nanostructure Magnets: Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnets for Electric Vehicle Motors and Wind Turbine Generators: Hexagonal Symmetry Based Materials Systems Mn-Bi and M-type Hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The University of Alabama is developing new iron- and manganese-based composite materials for use in the electric motors of EVs and renewable power generators that will demonstrate magnetic properties superior to today’s best rare-earth-based magnets. Rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to make their electric motors smaller and more powerful. The University of Alabama has the potential to improve upon the performance of current state-of-the-art rare-earth-based magnets using low-cost and more abundant materials such as manganese and iron. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate improved performance in a full-size prototype magnet at reduced cost.

  8. On the fracture toughness of advanced materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Launey, Maximilien E.

    2009-01-01

    brittle materials, such as zirconia-based ceramics, thatpartially-stabilized zirconia, [9,10] the 2 to 4% dilation

  9. LIFE Materials: Topical Assessment Report for LIFE Volume 1 TOPIC: Solid First Wall and Structural Components TASK: Radiation Effects on First Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caro, A

    2008-11-26

    This report consists of the following chapters: CHAPTER A: LIFE Requirements for Materials. Part 1: The structure of the First Wall--Basic requirements; A qualitative view of the challenge; The candidate materials; and Base-line material's properties. CHAPTER B: Summary of Existing Knowledge--Brief historical introduction; Design window; The temperature window; Evolution of the design window with damage; Damage calculations; He and H production; Swelling resistance; Incubation dose for swelling; Design criterion No. 1, Strength; Design criterion No. 2, Corrosion resistance; Design criterion No. 3, Creep resistance; Design criterion No. 4, Radiation induced embrittlement; and Conclusions. CHAPTER C: Identification of Gaps in Knowledge & Vulnerabilities. CHAPTER D: Strategy and Future Work.

  10. Materials Dynamics Laboratory (RIKEN SPring-8 Center) Alfred Baron Strangeness Nuclear Physics Laboratory (RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science) Emiko Hiyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukai, Tomoki

    Materials Dynamics Laboratory (RIKEN SPring-8 Center) Alfred Baron Strangeness Nuclear Physics Laboratory Shigehiro Nagataki RNA Biology Laboratory Shinichi Nakagawa Theoretical Nuclear Physics Laboratory Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory Seiji Yunoki Associate Chief Scientist Labs (Alphabetical order

  11. Invariant mechanical properties of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-H-S) in cement-based materials : instrumented nanoindentation and microporomechanical modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constantinides, Georgios, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Random porous solids such as bone and geomaterials exhibit a multiphase composite nature, characterized by water-filled pores of nm- to m-scale diameter. The natural synthesis and operating environments of such materials ...

  12. Development of accelerator based spatially resolved ion beam analysis techniques for the study of plasma materials interactions in magnetic fusion devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, Harold Salvadore

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-material interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices pose significant scientific and engineering challenges for the development of steady-state fusion power reactors. Understanding PMI is crucial for the develpment ...

  13. MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. BISHOP

    2000-09-01

    This project developed and supported a technology base in nonequilibrium phenomena underpinning fundamental issues in condensed matter and materials science, and applied this technology to selected problems. In this way the increasingly sophisticated synthesis and characterization available for classes of complex electronic and structural materials provided a testbed for nonlinear science, while nonlinear and nonequilibrium techniques helped advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of material microstructure, their evolution, fundamental to macroscopic functionalities. The project focused on overlapping areas of emerging thrusts and programs in the Los Alamos materials community for which nonlinear and nonequilibrium approaches will have decisive roles and where productive teamwork among elements of modeling, simulations, synthesis, characterization and applications could be anticipated--particularly multiscale and nonequilibrium phenomena, and complex matter in and between fields of soft, hard and biomimetic materials. Principal topics were: (i) Complex organic and inorganic electronic materials, including hard, soft and biomimetic materials, self-assembly processes and photophysics; (ii) Microstructure and evolution in multiscale and hierarchical materials, including dynamic fracture and friction, dislocation and large-scale deformation, metastability, and inhomogeneity; and (iii) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases and phase transformations, emphasizing competing interactions, frustration, landscapes, glassy and stochastic dynamics, and energy focusing.

  14. Deposition temperature dependence of material and Si surface passivation properties of O{sub 3}-based atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based films and stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordihn, Stefan, E-mail: s.bordihn2@q-cells.com [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands and Hanwha Q CELLS GmbH, Sonnenallee 17-21, 06766 Bitterfeld-Wolfen (Germany); Mertens, Verena; Müller, Jörg W. [Hanwha Q CELLS GmbH, Sonnenallee 17-21, 06766 Bitterfeld-Wolfen (Germany); Kessels, W. M. M., E-mail: w.m.m.kessels@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15

    The material composition and the Si surface passivation of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films prepared by atomic layer deposition using Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} and O{sub 3} as precursors were investigated for deposition temperatures (T{sub Dep}) between 200?°C and 500?°C. The growth per cycle decreased with increasing deposition temperature due to a lower Al deposition rate. In contrast the material composition was hardly affected except for the hydrogen concentration, which decreased from [H]?=?3 at. % at 200?°C to [H]?based films and stacks over a wide range of conditions when the combination of deposition temperature and annealing or firing temperature is carefully chosen.

  15. AMIS Training Material 1 Institutional Research and Planning October 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    AMIS Training Material 1 Institutional Research and Planning October 2012 University of Nebraska Panel" #12;AMIS Training Material 2 Institutional Research and Planning October 2012 University of Nebraska-Lincoln Page 2 of 9 Change View by: "Category" to "Small Icons" #12;AMIS Training Material 3

  16. Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Valentino

    2014-04-17

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  17. Complex Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cooper, Valentino

    2014-05-23

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  18. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Pag...

  19. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  20. LEARNING TO COMBINE DECISIONS FROM MULTIPLE MAMMOGRAPHY VIEWS Alan Joseph Bekker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberger, Jacob

    describe a two-step classification method that is based on a view-level decision, implemented by a logistic model. Our method was evaluated on a standardized digital database for screening mammography (DDSM views. Index Terms-- Mammography, Microcalcifications, Computer-aided diagnosis 1. INTRODUCTION

  1. You are here: Home / News / 3D view of 1D nanostructures More services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    create tool to put the lid on solar power fluctuations Variability law for solar panels News 3D view of 1You are here: Home / News / 3D view of 1D nanostructures Share More services Related Links of nanogenerators based on GaN nanowires, for powering of self-powered nanodevices. This story is reprinted from

  2. USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest.

  3. Better Buildings Network View | March 2015 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Better Buildings Network View | March 2015 Better Buildings Network View | March 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's...

  4. Design of materials Configurations for enhanced phononic and electronic properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    2006-01-01

    composite: (a), (b) micrographs showing top and cross-sectional view of magnetically aligned conductive polymer; (composite: (a), (b) micrographs showing top and cross- sectional view of magnetically aligned conductive polymer; (conductive particles in nonconductive matrix materials such as elastomeric or adhesive polymers. These composites

  5. Cookoff of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gross, R.J.; Schmitt, R.G.

    1998-09-01

    An overview of cookoff modeling at Sandia National Laboratories is presented aimed at assessing the violence of reaction following cookoff of confined energetic materials. During cookoff, the response of energetic materials is known to involve coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical processes which induce thermal damage to the energetic material prior to the onset of ignition. These damaged states enhance shock sensitivity and lead to conditions favoring self-supported accelerated combustion. Thus, the level of violence depends on the competition between pressure buildup and stress release due to the loss of confinement. To model these complex processes, finite element-based analysis capabilities are being developed which can resolve coupled heat transfer with chemistry, quasi-static structural mechanics and dynamic response. Numerical simulations that assess the level of violence demonstrate the importance of determining material damage in pre- and post-ignition cookoff events.

  6. MaRIE: An experimental facility concept revolutionizing materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Materials Science(36) Word Cloud More Like This Full Text File size NAView Full Text View Full Text DOI: 10.2172...

  7. Hardfacing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID)

    2012-01-17

    A method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of boron, carbon, silicon and phosphorus. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  8. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fission And Nuclear Technologies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Stellite Alloys 12 and 712 Mickalonis, J.I. (2000) 50 Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements Olander, D.R. (1976) 49 Materials and design bases issues in...

  9. The goal of this research is to exploit the advantageous properties of ordered mesoporous carbon-based materials for applications of electrodes for energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    treatments and electrode materials for disposable biosensors. By using electrochemical measurements, ordered when it was used to measure glucose level in whole rabbit blood. Subsequently, mesoporous carbonThe goal of this research is to exploit the advantageous properties of ordered mesoporous carbon

  10. MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT 1981

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01

    Steel Work in Progress C. Magnetic Materials Precipitation Hardening Sm-Co Base Permanent Magnets Annealing

  11. High Performance Builder Spotlight: Clifton View Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Clifton View Homes’s remodel of a 1962 rambler, on Whidbey Island in Washington State, cut energy costs by two-thirds.

  12. Materials compatibility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-04-01

    Objectives are to enable development and implementation of codes and standards for H{sub 2} containment components: (1) Evaluate data on mechanical properties of materials in H{sub 2} gas - Technical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials; (2) Generate new benchmark data on high-priority materials - Pressure vessel steels, stainless steels; and (3) Establish procedures for reliable materials testing - Sustained-load cracking, fatigue crack propagation. Summary of this presentation are: (1) Completed measurement of cracking thresholds (K{sub TH}) for Ni-Cr-Mo pressure vessel steels in high-pressure H{sub 2} gas - K{sub TH} measurements required in ASME Article KD-10 (2) Crack arrest test methods appear to yield non-conservative results compared to crack initiation test methods - (a) Proposal to insert crack initiation test methods in Article KD-10 will be presented to ASME Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks, and (b) Crack initiation methods require test apparatus designed for dynamic loading of specimens in H{sub 2} gas; and (3) Demonstrated ability to measure fatigue crack growth of pressure vessel steels in high-pressure H{sub 2} gas - (a) Fatigue crack growth data in H{sub 2} required in ASME Article KD-10, and (b) Test apparatus is one of few in U.S. or abroad for measuring fatigue crack growth in >100 MPa H{sub 2} gas.

  13. Transmission System Expansion Plans in View Point of Deterministic, Probabilistic and Security Reliability Criteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transmission System Expansion Plans in View Point of Deterministic, Probabilistic and Security reliability criterion, probabilistic reliability criterion and security criterion based on N- contingency control system as well as reasonable strength of grid originally. Because investment for power system

  14. Rainbow: MultiXQuery Optimization Using Materialized Xin Zhang, Katica Dimitrova, Ling Wang, Maged El Sayed, Brian Murphy, Bradford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainbow: Multi­XQuery Optimization Using Materialized XML Views Xin Zhang, Katica Dimitrova, Ling) XQuery optimization by query rewriting to use materialized views, (3) Per­ forming multiple query optimization by merging multiple XML queries (XATs) into one global access plan to decide upon materi

  15. In situ soft XAS study on nickel-based layered cathode material at elevated temperatures: A novel approach to study thermal stability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yoon, Won -Sub; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Haas, Otto; Muhammad, Shoaib; Kim, Hyunchul; Lee, Wontae; Kim, Donghwi; Fischer, Daniel A.; Jaye, Cherno; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; et al

    2014-10-29

    Tracking thermally induced reactions has always been challenging for electrode materials of electrochemical battery systems. Traditionally, a variety of calorimetric techniques and in situ XRD at elevated temperatures has been used to evaluate the thermal stability of electrode materials. These techniques are capable of providing variations in heat capacity, mass and average bulk composition of materials only. Herein, we report investigation of thermal characteristics of Li0.33Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 by using in situ soft XAS measurements in combination with XRD. Fluorescence yield and partial electron yield measurements are used simultaneously to obtain element selective surface and bulk information. Fluorescence yield measurements reveal nomore »energy change of the absorption peak and thus no valence state change in the bulk. However, electron yield measurements indicate that NiO-type rock salt structure is formed at the surface at temperatures above 200°C while no evidence for a surface reaction near Co sites in investigated temperature range is found. These results clearly show that in situ soft XAS can give a unique understanding of the role of each element in the structural transformation under thermal abuse offering a useful guidance in developing new battery system with improved safety performance.« less

  16. In situ soft XAS study on nickel-based layered cathode material at elevated temperatures: A novel approach to study thermal stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Won -Sub; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Haas, Otto; Muhammad, Shoaib; Kim, Hyunchul; Lee, Wontae; Kim, Donghwi; Fischer, Daniel A.; Jaye, Cherno; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Nam, Kyung -Wan

    2014-10-29

    Tracking thermally induced reactions has always been challenging for electrode materials of electrochemical battery systems. Traditionally, a variety of calorimetric techniques and in situ XRD at elevated temperatures has been used to evaluate the thermal stability of electrode materials. These techniques are capable of providing variations in heat capacity, mass and average bulk composition of materials only. Herein, we report investigation of thermal characteristics of Li0.33Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 by using in situ soft XAS measurements in combination with XRD. Fluorescence yield and partial electron yield measurements are used simultaneously to obtain element selective surface and bulk information. Fluorescence yield measurements reveal no energy change of the absorption peak and thus no valence state change in the bulk. However, electron yield measurements indicate that NiO-type rock salt structure is formed at the surface at temperatures above 200°C while no evidence for a surface reaction near Co sites in investigated temperature range is found. These results clearly show that in situ soft XAS can give a unique understanding of the role of each element in the structural transformation under thermal abuse offering a useful guidance in developing new battery system with improved safety performance.

  17. Toto the Robot Figure 1. Toto, front view. Figure 2. Toto, rear view.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    Toto the Robot Figure 1. Toto, front view. Figure 2. Toto, rear view. Toto the Robot was created so a robot, helps account for his lack of verbal charm. Second, some younger children may recognize in Toto

  18. Modeling thermal/chemical/mechanical response of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gross, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of modeling at Sandia National Laboratories is presented which describes coupled thermal, chemical and mechanical response of energetic materials. This modeling addresses cookoff scenarios for safety assessment studies in systems containing energetic materials. Foundation work is discussed which establishes a method for incorporating chemistry and mechanics into multidimensional analysis. Finite element analysis offers the capabilities to simultaneously resolve reactive heat transfer and structural mechanics in complex geometries. Nonlinear conduction heat transfer, with multiple step finite-rate chemistry, is resolved using a thermal finite element code. Rate equations are solved element-by-element using a modified matrix-free stiff solver This finite element software was developed for the simulation of systems requiring large numbers of finite elements. An iterative implicit scheme, based on the conjugate gradient method, is used and a hemi-cube algorithm is employed for the determination of view factors in surface-to-surface radiation transfer The critical link between the reactive heat transfer and mechanics is the introduction of an appropriate constitutive material model providing a stress-strain relationship for quasi-static mechanics analysis. This model is formally derived from bubble nucleation theory, and parameter variations of critical model parameters indicate that a small degree of decomposition leads to significant mechanical response. Coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical analysis is presented which simulates experiments designed to probe cookoff thermal-mechanical response of energetic materials.

  19. An Ontology Design Pattern for Material Transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitzler, Pascal

    this pattern with STODP will facilitate understanding of a complete manufacturing process from raw material, transportation of materials to a building structure, initial manufactur- ing building materials, in renovation- struction material manufacture localities as linked open data. Such a knowledge base would facilitate

  20. MyRED Mobiles Student Views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    tap on Shopping Cart, then select term. Tap on Class Search to find courses to place in your shoppingMyRED Mobiles Student Views Mar 2014 Page 1 Login/Sign-in Enter your MyRED /TrueYou credentials. Tap on any Term bar to view a schedule for the selected term. Home Screen/Main Menu Class Schedule

  1. MyRED Mobile Student Views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    tap on Shopping Cart, then select term. Tap on Class Search to find courses to place in your shoppingMyRED Mobile Student Views Mar 2014 Page 1 Login/Sign-in Enter your MyRED /TrueYou credentials. Tap on any Term bar to view a schedule for the selected term. Home Screen/Main Menu Class Schedule Screen Tap

  2. Container for radioactive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fields, S.R.

    1984-05-30

    A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

  3. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

  4. Electrochromic materials, devices and process of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J. (Oakland, CA)

    2003-11-11

    Thin films of transition metal compositions formed with magnesium that are metals, alloys, hydrides or mixtures of alloys, metals and/or hydrides exhibit reversible color changes on application of electric current or hydrogen. Thin films of these materials are suitable for optical switching elements, thin film displays, sun roofs, rear-view mirrors and architectural glass.

  5. Thermodynamic estimation: Ionic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glasser, Leslie, E-mail: l.glasser@curtin.edu.au

    2013-10-15

    Thermodynamics establishes equilibrium relations among thermodynamic parameters (“properties”) and delineates the effects of variation of the thermodynamic functions (typically temperature and pressure) on those parameters. However, classical thermodynamics does not provide values for the necessary thermodynamic properties, which must be established by extra-thermodynamic means such as experiment, theoretical calculation, or empirical estimation. While many values may be found in the numerous collected tables in the literature, these are necessarily incomplete because either the experimental measurements have not been made or the materials may be hypothetical. The current paper presents a number of simple and relible estimation methods for thermodynamic properties, principally for ionic materials. The results may also be used as a check for obvious errors in published values. The estimation methods described are typically based on addition of properties of individual ions, or sums of properties of neutral ion groups (such as “double” salts, in the Simple Salt Approximation), or based upon correlations such as with formula unit volumes (Volume-Based Thermodynamics). - Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic properties of ionic materials may be readily estimated by summation of the properties of individual ions, by summation of the properties of ‘double salts’, and by correlation with formula volume. Such estimates may fill gaps in the literature, and may also be used as checks of published values. This simplicity arises from exploitation of the fact that repulsive energy terms are of short range and very similar across materials, while coulombic interactions provide a very large component of the attractive energy in ionic systems. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Estimation methods for thermodynamic properties of ionic materials are introduced. • Methods are based on summation of single ions, multiple salts, and correlations. • Heat capacity, entropy, lattice energy, enthalpy, Gibbs energy values are available.

  6. Groundwater Modeling in ArcView: by integrating ArcView, MODFLOW and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengupta, Raja

    Groundwater Modeling in ArcView: by integrating ArcView, MODFLOW and MODPATH Abstract Modeling. This paper addresses groundwater modeling which is one of the many entities in environmental modeling in ArcView 3.2a. The objective was to create an integrated system where a user could do groundwater

  7. Elevated Temperature Materials for Power Generation and Propulsion The energy industry is designing higher-efficiency land-based turbines for natural gas-fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    higher-efficiency land-based turbines for natural gas-fired power generation systems. The high inlet is significant for modeling cyclic deformation in directionally solidified and single crystal turbine blades

  8. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    R.G.B and J.A.E. ). Keywords: biomass · carboxylic acids ·10.1002/cssc.201000111 A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis ofaro- matic compounds from biomass resources could provide a

  9. Materials at LANL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Antoinette J

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the physics, chemistry, and metallurgy of materials has been a primary focus of Los Alamos National Laboratory since its inception. In the early 1940s, very little was known or understood about plutonium, uranium, or their alloys. In addition, several new ionic, polymeric, and energetic materials with unique properties were needed in the development of nuclear weapons. As the Laboratory has evolved, and as missions in threat reduction, defense, energy, and meeting other emerging national challenges have been added, the role of materials science has expanded with the need for continued improvement in our understanding of the structure and properties of materials and in our ability to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. Materials science and engineering continues to be central to this Laboratory's success, and the materials capability truly spans the entire laboratory - touching upon numerous divisions and directorates and estimated to include >1/3 of the lab's technical staff. In 2006, Los Alamos and LANS LLC began to redefine our future, building upon the laboratory's established strengths and promoted by strongly interdependent science, technology and engineering capabilities. Eight Grand Challenges for Science were set forth as a technical framework for bridging across capabilities. Two of these grand challenges, Fundamental Understanding of Materials and Superconductivity and Actinide Science. were clearly materials-centric and were led out of our organizations. The complexity of these scientific thrusts was fleshed out through workshops involving cross-disciplinary teams. These teams refined the grand challenge concepts into actionable descriptions to be used as guidance for decisions like our LDRD strategic investment strategies and as the organizing basis for our external review process. In 2008, the Laboratory published 'Building the Future of Los Alamos. The Premier National Security Science Laboratory,' LA-UR-08-1541. This document introduced three strategic thrusts that crosscut the Grand Challenges and define future laboratory directions and facilities: (1) Information Science and Technology enabl ing integrative and predictive science; (2) Experimental science focused on materials for the future; and (3) Fundamental forensic science for nuclear, biological, and chemical threats. The next step for the Materials Capability was to develop a strategic plan for the second thrust, Materials for the Future. within the context of a capabilities-based Laboratory. This work has involved extending our 2006-2007 Grand Challenge workshops, integrating materials fundamental challenges into the MaRIE definition, and capitalizing on the emerging materials-centric national security missions. Strategic planning workshops with broad leadership and staff participation continued to hone our scientific directions and reinforce our strength through interdependence. By the Fall of 2008, these workshops promoted our primary strength as the delivery of Predictive Performance in applications where Extreme Environments dominate and where the discovery of Emergent Phenomena is a critical. These planning efforts were put into action through the development of our FY10 LDRD Strategic Investment Plan where the Materials Category was defined to incorporate three central thrusts: Prediction and Control of Performance, Extreme Environments and Emergent Phenomena. As with all strategic planning, much of the benefit is in the dialogue and cross-fertilization of ideas that occurs during the process. By winter of 2008/09, there was much agreement on the evolving focus for the Materials Strategy, but there was some lingering doubt over Prediction and Control of Performance as one of the three central thrusts, because it overarches all we do and is, truly, the end goal for materials science and engineering. Therefore, we elevated this thrust within the overarching vision/mission and introduce the concept of Defects and Interfaces as a central thrust that had previously been implied but not clearly articulated.

  10. Research on polycrystalline thin-film submodules based on CuInSe{sub 2} materials. Annual subcontract report, 1 November 1991--31 December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arya, R.; Fogleboch, J.; Lommasson, T.; Podlesny, R.; Russell, L.; Skibo, S.; Wiedeman, S.; Rothwarf, A.; Birkmire, R. [Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (United States). Thin Film Div.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a 3-year, cost-shared research program at Solarex to develop all pertinent processes and technologies required to achieve the goal of 12% CIS submodule (with areas > 900 cm{sup 2}). The work is focused on four tasks: (1) window layers, contacts, substrate; (2) CIS absorber layer; (3) device structure; and (4) submodule design and encapsulation. Each task addresses (1) basic material improvements, (2) fabrication and characterization of CIS solar cells, and (3) scale up of processes to large-area substrates.

  11. SHORT PROGRAMS Materials By Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    techniques including 3D printing, self-assembly, microfluidics and other technologies. We will distribute and analyze material samples designed based on multiscale simulations and manufactured using 3D printing

  12. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  13. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  14. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  15. Casting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  16. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProtonAbout Us HanfordReference Materials Reference

  17. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProtonAbout Us HanfordReference Materials

  18. Electrochemistry A Mesoporous/Crystalline Composite Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    as the Anode in Lithium-Ion Batteries** Eunjin Kim, Dongyeon Son, Tae-Gon Kim, Jaephil Cho,* Byungwoo Park for graphite,[1] many studies on Sn-based materials for use as anode materials have been performed.[2

  19. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

  20. An Astrophysical View of Earth-Based Metabolic Biosignature Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, Sara

    Microbial life on Earth uses a wide range of chemical and energetic resources from diverse habitats. An outcome of this microbial diversity is an extensive and varied list of metabolic byproducts. We review key points of ...

  1. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01

    synthesis of inorganic semiconductor-based nanostructured materials;inorganic materials. 16,35,62?72 In the synthesis, we begin

  2. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 609 2000 Materials Research Society Preparation of Microcrystalline Silicon Based Solar Cells at High i-layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    the efficiencies of the multi-junction devices. The µc-Si cells do not significantly degrade (-light absorbing structures in multi-junction cell with blue-green light absorbing a-Si:H top cells would lead of Microcrystalline Silicon Based Solar Cells at High i-layer Deposition Rates Using a Gas Jet Technique S.J. Jones

  3. "Rapid Pattern Based Powder Sintering Technique and Related Shrinkage Control," Jack Zhou and Z. He, Journal of Materials and Design, Vol. 19, pp. 241-248, 1998.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Jack

    "Rapid Pattern Based Powder Sintering Technique and Related Shrinkage Control," Jack Zhou and Z. He TECHNIQUE AND RELATED SHRINKAGE CONTROL Jack G. Zhou and Zongyan He Department of Mechanical Engineering by the authors. It is an integration of three techniques: rapid prototyping, lost wax casting and powder

  4. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  5. Materials Science & Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Materials Science & Engineering The development of new high-performance materials for energy Use of Advanced Characterization Techniques for Materials Development in Energy and Transportation and composition of materials at higher spatial resolution, with greater efficiency, and on real materials

  6. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Alex King

    2013-06-05

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  7. Rank Quantization Mountain View, CA, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    Rank Quantization Ravi Kumar Google Mountain View, CA, USA ravi.k53@gmail.com Ronny Lempel Yahoo and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post

  8. A Utility View of Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    Energy conservation, as viewed by the utility companies, is of real concern due to the energy situation and recent national energy legislation. The conversion programs of the electric utilities, particularly those in the southwestern part of the U...

  9. California's Energy Future - The View to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    View to 2050 Laser Fusion Energy a Potential Game Changerworld leader in laser fusion energy—a potential game changera Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant would be

  10. TotalView Parallel Debugger at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The performance of the GUI can be greatly improved if used in conjunction with free NX software. The TotalView documentation web page is a good resource for learning more...

  11. JOBAID-VIEWING AN EMPLOYEE MATRIX (SUPERVISOR)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this job aid is to guide supervisor users through the step-by-step process of viewing an employee matrix within SuccessFactors Learning.

  12. Incorporating video into Google Mobile Street View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Christina (Christina E.)

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Street View is a compelling application but suffers from significant latency problems, especially in limited bandwidth circumstances. Currently, the application uses static images to display street level information. ...

  13. A common-view disciplined oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardi, Michael A.; Dahlen, Aaron P.

    2010-05-15

    This paper describes a common-view disciplined oscillator (CVDO) that locks to a reference time scale through the use of common-view global positioning system (GPS) satellite measurements. The CVDO employs a proportional-integral-derivative controller that obtains near real-time common-view GPS measurements from the internet and provides steering corrections to a local oscillator. A CVDO can be locked to any time scale that makes real-time common-view data available and can serve as a high-accuracy, self-calibrating frequency and time standard. Measurement results are presented where a CVDO is locked to UTC(NIST), the coordinated universal time scale maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado.

  14. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials? Hazardous materials are chemicals, accidentally spilled, or released. In addition to laboratory chemicals, hazardous materials may include common not involve highly toxic or noxious hazardous materials, a fire, or an injury requiring medical attention

  15. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials? Hazardous materials are chemicals I do if there is a small spill in the area and personnel trained in Hazardous Material clean up, or there is a small spill where personnel trained in Hazardous Material clean up or an appropriate spill kit

  16. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials? Hazardous materials are chemicals I do if there is a small spill in the area and personnel trained in Hazardous Material clean up spill where personnel trained in Hazardous Material clean up or an appropriate spill kit

  17. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS What are hazardous materials? Hazardous materials are chemicals I do if there is a small spill in the area and personnel trained in Hazardous Material clean up personnel trained in Hazardous Material clean up or an appropriate spill kit is not available? Call 561

  18. A New Family of Scintillating Cerium Halide Based Materials: CeX3 ROH compounds containing Planes, Chains and Tetradecanuclear Rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughn, Shae Anne [University of South Carolina; Chakoumakos, Bryan C [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad [University of South Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we communicate the synthesis and structural characterization of the next generation of potential cerium-based scintillators. Three intriguing structural motifs have been achieved through the use of various alcohols, wherein BuOH and PrOH lead to 1-D chains of tetradecanuclear rings, isoBuOH leads to 2-D parquet patterned sheets of tetradecanuclear rings and secBuOH leads to a zig-zag 1-D chain.

  19. Supercapacitors specialities - Materials review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obreja, Vasile V. N.

    2014-06-16

    The electrode material is a key component for supercapacitor cell performance. As it is known, performance comparison of commercial available batteries and supercapacitors reveals significantly lower energy storage capability for supercapacitor devices. The energy density of commercial supercapacitor cells is limited to 10 Wh/kg whereas that of common lead acid batteries reaches 35-40 Wh/kg. For lithium ion batteries a value higher than 100 Wh/kg is easily available. Nevertheless, supercapacitors also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors have other advantages in comparison with batteries. As a consequence, many efforts have been made in the last years to increase the storage energy density of electrochemical capacitors. A lot of results from published work (research and review papers, patents and reports) are available at this time. The purpose of this review is a presentation of the progress to date for the use of new materials and approaches for supercapacitor electrodes, with focus on the energy storage capability for practical applications. Many reported results refer to nanostructured carbon based materials and the related composites, used for the manufacture of experimental electrodes. A specific capacitance and a specific energy are seldom revealed as the main result of the performed investigation. Thus for nanoprous (activated) carbon based electrodes a specific capacitance up to 200-220 F/g is mentioned for organic electrolyte, whereas for aqueous electrolyte, the value is limited to 400-500 F/g. Significant contribution to specific capacitance is possible from fast faradaic reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface in addition to the electric double layer effect. The corresponding energy density is limited to 30-50 Wh/kg for organic electrolyte and to 12-17 Wh/kg for aqueous electrolyte. However such performance indicators are given only for the carbon material used in electrodes. For a supercapacitor cell, where two electrodes and also other materials for cell assembling and packaging are used, the above mentioned values have to be divided by a factor higher than four. As a consequence, the specific energy of a prototype cell, hardly could exceed 10 Wh/kg because of difficulties with the existing manufacturing technology. Graphene based materials and carbon nanotubes and different composites have been used in many experiments reported in the last years. Nevertheless in spite of the outstanding properties of these materials, significant increase of the specific capacitance or of the specific energy in comparison with activated or nanoporous carbon is not achieved. Use of redox materials as metal oxides or conducting polymers in combination with different nanostructured carbon materials (nanocomposite electrodes) has been found to contribute to further increase of the specific capacitance or of the specific energy. Nevertheless, few results are reported for practical cells with such materials. Many results are reported only for a three electrode system and significant difference is possible when the electrode is used in a practical supercapacitor cell. Further improvement in the electrode manufacture and more experiments with supercapacitor cells with the known electrochemical storage materials are required. Device prototypes and commercial products with an energy density towards 15-20 Wh/kg could be realized. These may be a milestone for further supercapacitor device research and development, to narrow the storage energy gap between batteries and supercapacitors.

  20. Structural and optoelectronic properties of hybrid bulk-heterojunction materials based on conjugated small molecules and mesostructured TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phan, Hung [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Jahnke, Justin P.; Chmelka, Bradley F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen, E-mail: quyen@chem.ucsb.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-06-09

    Improved hybrid bulk-heterojunction materials was fabricated by spin-casting a benchmark conjugated small molecule, namely, 3,6-bis(5-(benzofuran-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl) pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione (DPP(TBFu){sub 2}), into mesostructured TiO{sub 2}. Due to both a reduced molecular size and less hydrophobic nature of the conjugated molecules (relative to conjugated polymers), homogeneous and improved infiltration into the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} are achieved without the need for pre-treatment of the TiO{sub 2}. Remarkably, this small molecule can realize loadings of up to 25% of the total pore volume—2.5× the typical loadings achieved for conjugated polymers. The small molecule loading was determined using dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy and absorption spectroscopy. Further characterization such as charge transfer and nanoscale conducting atomic force microscopy helps to demonstrate the promise and viability of small molecule donors for hybrid optoelectronic devices.

  1. Burnup estimation of fuel sourcing radioactive material based on monitored Cs and Pu isotopic activity ratios in Fukushima N. P. S. accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ando, Y.

    2012-07-01

    After the severe core damage of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station, radioactive material leaked from the reactor buildings. As part of monitoring of radioactivity in the site, measurements of radioactivity in soils at three fixed points have been performed for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs with gamma-ray spectrometry and for Pu, Pu, and {sup 240}Pu with {alpha}-ray spectrometry. Correlations of radioactivity ratios of {sup 134}Cs to {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 238}Pu to the sum of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu with fuel burnup were studied by using theoretical burnup calculations and measurements on isotopic inventories, and compared with the Cs and Pu radioactivity rations in the soils. The comparison indicated that the burnup of the fuel sourcing the radioactivity was from 18 to 38 GWd/t, which corresponded to that of the fuel in the highest power and, therefore, the highest decay heat in operating high-burnup fueled BWR cores. (authors)

  2. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 36 (2001) 2851 2863 A crystal plasticity materials constitutive model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    2001-01-01

    JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 36 (2001) 2851­ 2863 A crystal plasticity materials constitutive model using a three-dimensional, isothermal, rate-dependent, large-strain, crystal-plasticity based materials in the crystal-plasticity materials constitutive relations are assessed using the available experimental

  3. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  4. High Throughput Materials Characterization John M. Gregoire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    White Paper for Establishing a User Facility for Synchrotron-based High Throughput Materials Characterization John M. Gregoire 1 , Matthew J. Kramer 2 , Apurva Mehta 3 1 Joint...

  5. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  6. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  7. Hubble's View of Transiting Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Charbonneau

    2004-10-27

    The Hubble Space Telescope is uniquely able to study planets that are observed to transit their parent stars. The extremely stable platform afforded by an orbiting spacecraft, free from the contaminating effects of the Earth's atmosphere, enables HST to conduct ultra-high precision photometry and spectroscopy of known transiting extrasolar planet systems. Among HST's list of successful observations of the first such system, HD 209458, are (1) the first detection of the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet, (2) the determination that gas is escaping from the planet, and (3) a search for Earth-sized satellites and circumplanetary rings. Numerous wide-field, ground-based transit surveys are poised to uncover a gaggle of new worlds for which HST may undertake similar studies, such as the newly-discovered planet TrES-1. With regard to the future of Hubble, it must be noted that it is the only observatory in existence capable of confirming transits of Earth-like planets that may be detected by NASA's Kepler mission. Kepler could reveal Earth-like transits by the year 2010, but without a servicing mission it is very unlikely that HST would still be in operation.

  8. Materials Science & Tech Division | Advanced Materials | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applied materials science and technology. One key component of the division is a strong Basic Energy Sciences (BES) portfolio that pushes the frontiers of materials theory,...

  9. MaterialsMaterials Doped ceria-based supports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    catalysts therefore, is a critical path in the development of processors for jet fuels and their eventual fuels (JP-8, Jet-A, etc.), the level of which is typically in the range 0.3-1%. If left uncaptured dopants in ceria support. For a given catalyst, support 2 demonstrates higher activity and gives higher

  10. Quasi 2D Materials: Raman Nanometrology and Thermal Management Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahil, Khan Mohammad Farhan

    2012-01-01

    Based Thermal Interface Materials for the Next GenerationA), Applications and Materials 208, 1, 144-146 (2011). M. Z.A) Applications and Materials 208, 1, 144-146 (2011). M. Z.

  11. Dumping Dirty Diesels: The View From the Bridge | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dumping Dirty Diesels: The View From the Bridge Dumping Dirty Diesels: The View From the Bridge 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters...

  12. Advanced Materials Manufacturing | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Manufacturing New materials drive the development of innovative products. Building upon a rich history in materials science, ORNL is discovering and developing...

  13. Materials Project: A Materials Genome Approach

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ceder, Gerbrand [MIT; Persson, Kristin [LBNL

    Technological innovation - faster computers, more efficient solar cells, more compact energy storage - is often enabled by materials advances. Yet, it takes an average of 18 years to move new materials discoveries from lab to market. This is largely because materials designers operate with very little information and must painstakingly tweak new materials in the lab. Computational materials science is now powerful enough that it can predict many properties of materials before those materials are ever synthesized in the lab. By scaling materials computations over supercomputing clusters, this project has computed some properties of over 80,000 materials and screened 25,000 of these for Li-ion batteries. The computations predicted several new battery materials which were made and tested in the lab and are now being patented. By computing properties of all known materials, the Materials Project aims to remove guesswork from materials design in a variety of applications. Experimental research can be targeted to the most promising compounds from computational data sets. Researchers will be able to data-mine scientific trends in materials properties. By providing materials researchers with the information they need to design better, the Materials Project aims to accelerate innovation in materials research.[copied from http://materialsproject.org/about] You will be asked to register to be granted free, full access.

  14. UK Irradiated Materials Archive Steve Roberts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UK Irradiated Materials Archive Steve Roberts University of Oxford MRF meeting ­ CCFE - 7th July 2015 #12;UK Irradiated Materials Archive Background · Establishment of National Nuclear User Facility exposure · Materials well suited for use in future university-based research programmes #12;UK Irradiated

  15. Measurements using tangentially viewing bolometers on TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, C.E.; Schivell, J.; Budny, R.; Ellis R.A. III; Goldston, R.J.; McCune, D.; Medley, S.S.; Scott, S.D.; Towner, H.H.; Wieland, R.M.; and others

    1988-08-01

    Co- and counter-viewing bolometers aimed along a common tangency chord are being used to study power losses due to charge exchange (CX) of fast ions in neutral beam injection (NBI) heated TFTR plasmas. For unidirectional injection, tangential bolometers oriented to view CX loss of circulating fast ions detect losses from the thermal target plasma (impurity radiation and CX) plus power due to the fast ion CX loss, whereas bolometers oppositely directed measure only the target plasma contribution. The difference between the two signals is a measure of the fast ion CX loss. Additional information is obtained by comparing the tangential bolometer signals with those of perpendicularly viewing bolometer monitors and arrays. The measurements are compared to results of the TRANSP code analysis.

  16. Fields of View for Environmental Radioactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    The gamma component of air radiation dose rates is a function of the amount and spread of radioactive nuclides in the environment. These radionuclides can be natural or anthropogenic in origin. The field of view describes the area of radionuclides on, or below, the ground that is responsible for determining the air dose rate, and hence correspondingly the external radiation exposure. This work describes Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations for the field of view under a variety of situations. Presented first are results for natural 40K and thorium and uranium series radionuclides distributed homogeneously within the ground. Results are then described for atmospheric radioactive caesium fallout, such as from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Various stages of fallout evolution are considered through the depth distribution of 134Cs and 137Cs in soil. The fields of view for the natural radionuclides and radiocaesium are different. This can affect the responses of radiation monitors to th...

  17. Comparative computational study of lithium and sodium insertion in van der Waals and covalent tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) -based crystals as promising materials for organic lithium and sodium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yingqian

    2015-01-01

    We present a comparative ab initio study of Li and Na insertion in molecular (van der Waals) crystals of TCNE (tetracyanoethylene) as well as in covalent Li/Na-TCNE crystals. We confirm the structure of previously synthesized (covalent) Li-TCNE crystal as well as predict the existence of its Na-TCNE analogue. In the molecular/covalent TCNE crystals, insertion sites are identified with the binding energy of Li and Na up to 2.7/1.8 and 2.6/1.8 eV stronger than Li and Na cohesive energy, respectively, in dilute concentrations. Up to 5.5/2.5 and 3/2 Li and Na atoms per TCNE unit can be inserted in the molecular/covalent crystals, respectively, while preserving the structure, with maximum voltages, respectively, 3.5/2.2 and 3.3/2.7 V. Significantly, up to capacity of 418 mAh g-1 for both Li and Na in the molecular crystal and 198 mAh g-1 for Li and 177 mAh g-1 for Na in the covalent crystal, the insertion of Li and Na would not lead to reactions with common electrolytes. Tetracyanoethylene-based molecular and cova...

  18. Fundamental Materials Research and Advanced Process Development for Thin-Film CIS-Based Photovoltaics: Final Technical Report, 2 October 2001 - 30 September 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, T. J.; Li, S. S.; Crisalle, O. D.; Craciun, V.

    2006-09-01

    The objectives for this thin-film copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) solar cell project cover the following areas: Develop and characterize buffer layers for CIS-based solar cell; grow and characterize chemical-bath deposition of Znx Cd1-xS buffer layers grown on CIGS absorbers; study effects of buffer-layer processing on CIGS thin films characterized by the dual-beam optical modulation technique; grow epitaxial CuInSe2 at high temperature; study the defect structure of CGS by photoluminescence spectroscopy; investigate deep-level defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by deep-level transient spectroscopy; conduct thermodynamic modeling of the isothermal 500 C section of the Cu-In-Se system using a defect model; form alpha-CuInSe2 by rapid thermal processing of a stacked binary compound bilayer; investigate pulsed non-melt laser annealing on the film properties and performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells; and conduct device modeling and simulation of CIGS solar cells.

  19. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  20. Advanced Materials | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Specific Binding ORNL discovery holds potential for separations, sensors, batteries, biotech and more Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials Advanced Materials |...

  1. nature nanotechnology | VOL 5 | AUGUST 2010 | www.nature.com/naturenanotechnology 559 news & views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yong P.

    for electronic applications. Although some initial experiments used nickel7 , copper later emerged as the best. Materials based on nanowires, carbon nanotubes and graphene have been previously studied

  2. Composite material dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a composite material containing a mix of dosimeter material powder and a polymer powder wherein the polymer is transparent to the photon emission of the dosimeter material powder. By mixing dosimeter material powder with polymer powder, less dosimeter material is needed compared to a monolithic dosimeter material chip. Interrogation is done with excitation by visible light.

  3. Method for forming materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, Karen S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  4. Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon AdsorberMaterials Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based...

  5. BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use, your discounts, and much more! Blue View VisionSM Insight University of California Student Health Insurance Plan (UC SHIP) 2014/15 Your Blue View Vision Insight network Blue View Vision Insight offers you

  6. BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use, your discounts, and much more! Blue View Vision InsightSM University of California Student Health Insurance Plan (UC SHIP) 2012/13 Your Blue View Vision Insight Network Blue View Vision Insight offers you

  7. BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use, your discounts, and much more! Blue View Vision InsightSM University of California Student Health Insurance Plan (UC SHIP) 2013/14 Your Blue View Vision Insight Network Blue View Vision Insight offers you

  8. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  9. Wave Propagation in Multiferroic Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Scott Macklin

    2013-01-01

    Waves in Magnetoelectric Materials . . . Need forApplication of Multiferroic Materials to Receive AntennaMaterials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  10. Corroborating Information from Disagreeing Views Alban Galland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyen, Laurent

    variety of information and viewpoints from individual Web sources that have different degree sources, many sources will continue to list outdated information if a person has switched jobsCorroborating Information from Disagreeing Views Alban Galland INRIA Saclay ­ Île-de-France LSV ENS

  11. A VIEW OF MATHEMATICS Alain CONNES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connes, Alain

    A VIEW OF MATHEMATICS Alain CONNES Mathematics is the backbone of modern science and a remarkably e#cient source of new concepts and tools to understand the ``reality'' in which we participate. It plays a basic role in the great new theories of physics of the XXth century such as general relativity, and quantum

  12. Longer View The Road Less Driven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    Longer View The Road Less Driven Susan Handy I n September 2005, Hurricane Katrina slammed into New.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2005a), a level unseen in inflation-adjusted terms even at the peak of the late 1970s energy crisis (DOE, 2005b). Shortages in the gasoline supply occurred temporarily in many parts

  13. Accelerated Volumetric Reconstruction From Uncalibrated Camera Views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whelan, Paul F.

    Accelerated Volumetric Reconstruction From Uncalibrated Camera Views Felicia Brisc, M.S. Ph. D-calibration 11 2.1.2 Bundle Adjustment 13 2.2 Volumetric Reconstruction ................................................. 14 2.2.1 Volumetric Intersection ........................................... 15 2.2.2 Voxel Carving

  14. Tech report WECS-2002-10: View-dependent Texture Maps Cindy M. Grimm William D. Smart John F. Hughes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimm, Cindy

    Tech report WECS-2002-10: View-dependent Texture Maps£ Cindy M. Grimm William D. Smart John F describes work designed to bridge the gap between image-based rendering and the traditional rendered

  15. FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings Evaluation of Corrosion Reistance FY05 HPCRM Annual Report # Rev. 1DOE-DARPA Co-Sponsored Advanced Materials Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Haslam, J J; Day, S D

    2007-09-19

    New corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals have been identified from published data or developed through combinatorial synthesis, and tested to determine their relative corrosion resistance. Many of these materials can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in some very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Two Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to, or better than that of Ni-based Alloy C-22, based on breakdown potential and corrosion rate. Both Cr and Mo provide corrosion resistance, B enables glass formation, and Y lowers critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM1651 has yttrium added, and has a nominal critical cooling rate of only 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X7 (similar to SAM2X5) has no yttrium, and a relatively high critical cooling rate of 610 Kelvin per second. Both amorphous metal formulations have strengths and weaknesses. SAM1651 (yttrium added) has a low critical cooling rate (CCR), which enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous thermal spray coating. Unfortunately, it is relatively difficult to atomize, with powders being irregular in shape. This causes the powder to be difficult to pneumatically convey during thermal spray deposition. Gas atomized SAM1651 powder has required cryogenic milling to eliminate irregularities that make flow difficult. SAM2X5 (no yttrium) has a high critical cooling rate, which has caused problems associated with devitrification. SAM2X5 can be gas atomized to produce spherical powders of SAM2X5, which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer or inhibitor. Comparable metallic alloys such as SAM2X5 and SAM1651 may also experience crevice corrosion under sufficiently harsh conditions. Accelerated crevice corrosion tests are now being conducted to intentionally induce crevice corrosion, and to determine those environmental conditions where such localized attack occurs. Such materials are extremely hard, and provide enhanced resistance to abrasion and gouges (stress risers) from backfill operations, and possibly even tunnel boring. The hardness of Type 316L Stainless Steel is approximately 150 VHN, that of Alloy C-22 is approximately 250 VHN, and that of HVOF SAM2X5 ranges from 1100-1300 VHN. These new materials provide a viable coating option for repository engineers. SAM2X5 and SAM1651 coatings can be applied with thermal spray processes without any significant loss of corrosion resistance. Both Alloy C-22 and Type 316L stainless lose their resistance to corrosion during thermal spraying. Containers for the transportation, storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) with corrosion resistant coatings are envisioned. For example, an enhanced multi-purpose container (MPC) could be made with such coatings, leveraging existing experience in the fabrication of such containers. These coating materials could be used to protect the final closure weld on SNF/HLW disposal containers, eliminate need for stress mitigation. Integral drip shield could be produced by directly spraying it onto the disposal container, thereby eliminating the need for an expensive titanium drip shield. In specific areas where crevice corrosion is anticipated, such as the contact point between the disposal container and pallet, HVOF coatings could be used to buildup thickness, thereby selectively adding corrosion life where it is needed. Both SAM2X5 & SAM1651 have high boron content which enable them to absorb neutrons and therefore be used for criticality control in baskets. Alloy C-22 and 316L have no neutron absorber, and cannot be used for such functions. Borated stainless steel and G

  16. Advances in the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted granular material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ] In a plan view image of a granular material, as the geometric projection of a 3D surface onto a 2D plane on the structure of well-sorted natural granular material (sediment), new methods are described for automated granular material. The principal objective here is to provide simple optical techniques for the non

  17. Blackboard Collaborate Materials License

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frantz, Kyle J.

    Reference Guide Blackboard Collaborate Mobile Web Conferencing is designed for active learners who are on the go. Session attendees can participate in web conferencing sessions from an iPhone, iPod Touch or iPad. Available Web Conferencing Functions Viewing the Whiteboard Viewing a shared Access to Breakout Rooms

  18. Transporting particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldred, Derek Leslie (North Hollywood, CA); Rader, Jeffrey A. (North Hollywood, CA); Saunders, Timothy W. (North Hollywood, CA)

    2011-08-30

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  19. Having trouble viewing this email? Click here to view online Engineering eNews

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    of Service Award Nominations Due View More Events Research News Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization News Chancellor Mark S. Wrighton's announcement on the establishment of the Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization

  20. Having trouble viewing this email? Click here to view online Engineering eNews

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Washington University Research to Advance Clean Coal Technology The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization to research clean coal technology, making St. Louis the nation's center for clean coal research. View Photos

  1. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, Richard W. (Hinsdale, IL); Nieman, G. William (Evanston, IL); Weertman, Julia R. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  2. Carbon-based Materials for Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice, Lynn Margaret

    2012-01-01

    composites for lithium ion battery electrodes produced bymust be improved: The lithium ion battery is the current

  3. Dielectric characterization of unstabilized aggregate base materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guthrie, William Spencer

    1999-01-01

    Measurements. Moisture-Density Test Results . Effect of Temperature on Moisture Ingress . . . . . Frost Heave Measurements . . Effect of Moisture on Strength. Page . . . . 21 . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . 45 . . . . . 47 . . . . 50 5-5 Dielectric..., the increased moisture content can reduce the strength of the soil as mentioned earlier. For sustained freezing temperatures, if the road bed has a high moisture content or access to free moisture, high suction properties can lead to significant frost action...

  4. Carbon-based Materials for Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice, Lynn Margaret

    2012-01-01

    by chemical crosslinking and aerogel fabrication. Theseunder exploration, including aerogels, xerogels, fibers,activating cresol-formaldehyde aerogels, Zhu et. al created

  5. Carbon-based Materials for Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice, Lynn Margaret

    2012-01-01

    G. Luo, W. Qian and F. Wei, Carbon, 18. Q. Zhang, G. Xu, J.Wang, W. Qian and F. Wei, Carbon, 2009, 47, 538 1. Z. Chen,Frackowiak, E. and Béguin, F. Carbon 39, 937-950 (2001) 13.

  6. Carbon-based Materials for Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rice, Lynn Margaret

    2012-01-01

    and formation of some solid–electrolyte interface. 3-30–326 initial cycles due to solid–electrolyte-interface (SEI)

  7. Flexible hydrogel-based functional composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08

    A composite having a flexible hydrogel polymer formed by mixing an organic phase with an inorganic composition, the organic phase selected from the group consisting of a hydrogel monomer, a crosslinker, a radical initiator, and/or a solvent. A polymerization mixture is formed and polymerized into a desired shape and size.

  8. Thermo-Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic-Viscodamage-Healing Modeling of Bituminous Materials: Theory and Computation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darabi Konartakhteh, Masoud

    2012-10-19

    for bituminous materials and asphalt mixes. The developed thermodynamic-based framework is general and can be applied for constitutive modeling of different materials such as bituminous materials, soft materials, polymers, and biomaterials. This framework...

  9. A View of the Cardiovascular Device Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cisneros, Daniel Aaron

    2013-04-26

    -1 A VIEW OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICE INDUSTRY A Record of Study by DANIEL AARON CISNEROS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR... OF ENGINEERING Approved by: Chair of Committee, James E. Moore Committee Members, John C. Criscione Fred Clubb Richard H. Lester William Altman Andreas Gute Coordinator, College of Engineering, Robin Autenrieth May 2013 Major Subject...

  10. Lake View Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformation

  11. In the Investigation of New Materials/Structures and Their Applications in Energy Storage/Conversion Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Xing

    2014-01-01

    of New Materials/Structures and Their Applications in Energyof New Materials/Structures and Their Applications in Energynew family of silicide based anode materials for high energy

  12. Three-dimensional multimodal imaging and analysis of biphasic microstructure in a Ti-Ni-Sn thermoelectric material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jason E; Echlin, McLean P; Lenthe, William C; Seshadri, Ram; Pollock, Tresa M

    2015-01-01

    microstructure in a Ti–Ni–Sn thermoelectric material Jasonsolid-state option. Thermoelectric materials, which convertin biphasic hH- based thermoelectric materials. This work

  13. Department of Materials Science &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Developing Leaders of Innovation Department of Materials Science & Engineering #12;At the University of Virginia, students in materials science, engineering physics and engineering science choose to tackle compelling issues in materials science and engineering or engineering science

  14. Sandia Energy - Materials Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Chemistry Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Clean FuelsPower Materials Chemistry Materials ChemistryAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:42:21+00:00...

  15. Transporting Hazardous Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transporting Hazardous Materials The procedures given below apply to all materials that are considered to be hazardous by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Consult your...

  16. Institute for Materials Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Education Center About Us Conferences and Workshops Advanced Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Materials Workshop Quantum and Dirac Materials for Energy...

  17. Materials Physics and Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MPA Materials Physics and Applications We develop new technologies that solve pressing national energy and security challenges by exploring and exploiting materials and their...

  18. Maotai 3.0: Automatic Detection of View Access in VOPP K. Leung and Z. Huang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Zhiyi

    ) model. VOPP is a shared-memory-based, data-centric model that uses "views" to bundle mutual exclusion is designed to eliminate data race [4, 5]. VOPP is a data-centric model, where shared data objects other data-centric models [8], VOPP bundles mutual exclusion and data access together and therefore

  19. Early View (EV): 1-EV Nice weather for bettongs: using weather events, not climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    distribution using temporally matched observations of the species with weather data (includ- ing extremeEarly View (EV): 1-EV Nice weather for bettongs: using weather events, not climate means applications of species distribution models (SDM) are typically static, in that they are based on correlations

  20. NEWS & VIEWS nature physics | VOL 2 | JULY 2006 | www.nature.com/naturephysics 445

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    . In tokamak-based fusion plasmas, reconnection occurs as a result of plasma instabilities and hampers magnetic confinement. It influences the dayside dynamics of the Earth's magnetosphere and the magnetic substormsNEWS & VIEWS nature physics | VOL 2 | JULY 2006 | www.nature.com/naturephysics 445 MAGNETIC