National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for base year coal

  1. Coal operators prepare for a prosperous new year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-01-15

    Results are given of the Coal Age 2008 annual Forecast Survey of 17 coal mining executives which reinforces that 2008 could be a very good year. Coal operators are planning to invest in new equipment, development and new coal mine start-ups, based on a number of demand- and supply-side fundamentals. 71% of those surveyed thought coal production in 2008 would increase from 2007 levels and US exports are expected to climb due to the weak dollar. If the tax credit on synfuels expires on 31 December 2007 production of coal synfuel will likely cease. Asked about expensive planned purchases, companies answers ranged from $80,000 for an underground scoop to $500 m for a new mine installation. However, most producers admit they will not be able to operate at full capacity. 7 figs.

  2. Coal cars - the first three hundred years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin Robert Karig III

    2007-12-15

    This is the comprehensive study of the freight cars that conveyed coal across broad swaths of land that had been impassible before the invention of the steam engine. This volume traces the history and evolution of coal cars from their earliest use in England to the construction of major railways for the purpose of coal hauling and the end of the steam era on American railroads. In addition to contextualizing coal cars in the annals of industrial history, the book features extensive design specifications and drawings as well as a complete history of the various safety and mechanical innovations employed on these freight cars. It concludes with a photographic essay illustrating the development of the coal car over its first 300 years of use. 608 photos.

  3. An Overview of Coal based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Overview of Coal based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology September 2005. LFEE 2005-002 WP #12;#12;Table of Contents 1 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC.......................................................................... 17 2.1 Gasification

  4. Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments...

  5. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  6. About Armstrong Coal Company In just a few short years, Armstrong Coal has grown from a start-up

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    About Armstrong Coal Company In just a few short years, Armstrong Coal has grown from a start-up to one of the leading producers of steam coal in the Illinois Basin. The company specializes in providing custom-blended coal to meet the needs of electric power plants throughout the region. Controlling

  7. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-26

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Rheological properties of water-coal slurries based on brown coal in the presence of sodium lignosulfonates and alkali

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.P. Savitskii; A.S. Makarov; V.A. Zavgorodnii

    2009-07-01

    The effect of the oxidized surface of brown coal on the structural and rheological properties of water-coal slurries was found. The kinetics of structure formation processes in water-coal slurries based on as-received and oxidized brown coal was studied. The effect of lignosulfonate and alkali additives on the samples of brown coal was considered.

  9. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  10. Coal Power Systems strategic multi-year program plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), through the Coal and Power Systems (C and PS) program, funds research to advance the scientific knowledge needed to provide new and improved energy technologies; to eliminate any detrimental environmental effects of energy production and use; and to maintain US leadership in promoting the effective use of US power technologies on an international scale. Further, the C and PS program facilitates the effective deployment of these technologies to maximize their benefits to the Nation. The following Strategic Plan describes how the C and PS program intends to meet the challenges of the National Energy Strategy to: (1) enhance American's energy security; (2) improve the environmental acceptability of energy production and use; (3) increase the competitiveness and reliability of US energy systems; and (4) ensure a robust US energy future. It is a plan based on the consensus of experts and managers from FE's program offices and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  11. Seca Coal-Based Systems Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Alinger

    2008-05-31

    This report summarizes the progress made during the August 1, 2006 - May 31, 2008 award period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42614 for the U. S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled 'SECA Coal Based Systems'. The initial overall objective of this program was to design, develop, and demonstrate multi-MW integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plants with >50% overall efficiency from coal (HHV) to AC power. The focus of the program was to develop low-cost, high performance, modular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology to support coal gas IGFC power systems. After a detailed GE internal review of the SOFC technology, the program was de-scoped at GE's request. The primary objective of this program was then focused on developing a performance degradation mitigation path for high performing, cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). There were two initial major objectives in this program. These were: (1) Develop and optimize a design of a >100 MWe integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plant; (2) Resolve identified barrier issues concerning the long-term economic performance of SOFC. The program focused on designing and cost estimating the IGFC system and resolving technical and economic barrier issues relating to SOFC. In doing so, manufacturing options for SOFC cells were evaluated, options for constructing stacks based upon various cell configurations identified, and key performance characteristics were identified. Key factors affecting SOFC performance degradation for cells in contact with metallic interconnects were be studied and a fundamental understanding of associated mechanisms was developed using a fixed materials set. Experiments and modeling were carried out to identify key processes/steps affecting cell performance degradation under SOFC operating conditions. Interfacial microstructural and elemental changes were characterized, and their relationships to observed degradation identified. Mitigation strategies, including innovative coatings and bond layers, were developed, evaluated and down-selected to improve degradation rates. Focus was on microstructural stabilization and minimization of the ASR contribution from Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale growth and other interactions at electrode/interconnect interfaces evaluated during electrochemical testing and advanced microstructural characterization. Novel long-term and accelerated testing techniques were developed and conducted under standard operating conditions to demonstrate capability to meet targeted degradation rates.

  12. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  13. Evaluation of an enhanced gravity-based fine-coal circuit for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, M.K.; Samal, A.R.; Palit, A.

    2008-02-15

    One of the main objectives of this study was to evaluate a fine-coal cleaning circuit using an enhanced gravity separator specifically for a high sulfur coal application. The evaluation not only included testing of individual unit operations used for fine-coal classification, cleaning and dewatering, but also included testing of the complete circuit simultaneously. At a scale of nearly 2 t/h, two alternative circuits were evaluated to clean a minus 0.6-mm coal stream utilizing a 150-mm-diameter classifying cyclone, a linear screen having a projected surface area of 0.5 m{sup 2}, an enhanced gravity separator having a bowl diameter of 250 mm and a screen-bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 500 mm. The cleaning and dewatering components of both circuits were the same; however, one circuit used a classifying cyclone whereas the other used a linear screen as the classification device. An industrial size coal spiral was used to clean the 2- x 0.6-mm coal size fraction for each circuit to estimate the performance of a complete fine-coal circuit cleaning a minus 2-mm particle size coal stream. The 'linear screen + enhanced gravity separator + screen-bowl circuit' provided superior sulfur and ash-cleaning performance to the alternative circuit that used a classifying cyclone in place of the linear screen. Based on these test data, it was estimated that the use of the recommended circuit to treat 50 t/h of minus 2-mm size coal having feed ash and sulfur contents of 33.9% and 3.28%, respectively, may produce nearly 28.3 t/h of clean coal with product ash and sulfur contents of 9.15% and 1.61 %, respectively.

  14. Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H.

    2008-07-01

    We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. The International Coal Statistics Data Base operations guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The International Coal Statistics Data base (ICSD) is a micro- computer based system which contains informations related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase 3+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven, and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Operations Manual explains how to install the programs, how to obtain reports on coal trade, what systems requirements apply, and how to update the major data files. It also explains file naming conventions, what each file does, and the programming procedures used to make the system work. The Operations Manual explains how to make the system respond to customized queries. It is organized around the ICSD menu structure and describes what each selection will do. Sample reports and graphs generated from individual menu selection are provided to acquaint the user with the various types of output. 17 figs.

  16. Environmental Analysis of the Coal-based Power Production with Amine-based Carbon Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Energy Research, Fuel Cells (IEF-3) 2) Institute of Energy Research, Systems Analysis and Technology in the year of installation and in the ability and efficiency to capture CO2. The plants are characterized by the expected efficiency parameters for the year 2020: (1) Coal plant2005: pulverized coal power plant already

  17. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base Gregory D. Croft1 and Tad W the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production of this highest-rank coal. The pro- duction of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80

  18. SECA Coal-Based Systems - LGFCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goettler, Richard

    2014-01-31

    LGFCS is developing an integrated planar (IP) SOFC technology for mega-watt scale power generation including the potential for use in highly efficient, economically competitive central generation power plant facilities fuel by coal synthesis gas. This Department of Energy Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program has been aimed at achieving further cell and stack technical advancements and assessing the readiness of the LGFCS SOFC stack technology to be scaled to larger-scale demonstrations as a path to commercialization. Significant progress was achieved in reducing to practice a higher performance and lower cost cell technology, identifying and overcoming degradation mechanisms, confirming the structural capability of the porous substrate for reliability, maturing the strip design for improved flow to allow high fuel utilization operation while minimizing degradation mechanisms and obtaining full scale block testing at 19 kW under representative conditions for eventual product and meeting SECA degradation metrics. The SECA program has played a key role within the overall LGFCS development program in setting the foundation of the technology to justify the progression of the technology to the next level of technology readiness testing.

  19. SECA Coal-Based Systems - LGFCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goettler, Richard

    2013-08-01

    LGFCS is developing an integrated planar (IP) SOFC technology for mega-watt scale power generation including the potential for use in highly efficient, economically competitive central generation power plant facilities fuel by coal synthesis gas. This Department of Energy Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is aimed at achieving further cell and stack technical advancements and assessing the readiness of the LGFCS SOFC stack technology to be scaled to larger-scale demonstrations in subsequent phases. LGFCS is currently in Phase 2 of the program with the Phase 1 test carrying over for completion during Phase 2. Major technical results covering the initial Phase 2 budget period include: Metric Stack Testing: 1. The Phase I metric test is a ~7.6 kW block test (2 strips) in Canton that started in March 2012 and logged 2135 hours of testing prior to an event that required the test to be shutdown. The degradation rate through 2135 hours was 0.4%/1000 hours, well below the Phase I target of 2%/1000 hours and the Phase 2 target of 1.5%/1000 hours. 2. The initial Phase II metric test consisting of 5 strips (~19 kW) was started in May 2012. At the start of the test OCV was low and stack temperatures were out of range. Shutdown and inspection revealed localized structural damage to the strips. The strips were repaired and the test restarted October 11, 2012. 3. Root cause analysis of the Phase 1 and initial Phase 2 start-up failures concluded a localized short circuit across adjacent tubes/bundles caused localized heating and thermal stress fracture of substrates. Pre-reduction of strips rather than in-situ reduction within block test rigs now provides a critical quality check prior to block testing. The strip interconnect design has been modified to avoid short circuits. Stack Design: 1. Dense ceramic strip components were redesigned to achieve common components and a uniform design for all 12 bundles of a strip while meeting a flow uniformity of greater than 95% of the mean flow for all bundles. The prior design required unique bundle components and pressure drops specifications to achieve overall strip fuel flow uniformity. 2. Slow crack growth measurements in simulated fuel environments of the MgO-MgAl2O4 substrate by ORNL reveal favorable tolerance against slow crack growth. Evidence as well of a high stress intensity threshold below which crack growth would be avoided. These findings can have very positive implications on long-term structural reliability. More testing is required, including under actual reformate fuels, to gain a deeper understanding of such time dependent reliability mechanisms. 3. A next generation (Gen2) substrate from the LGFCS supplier has been qualified. The substrate incorporates cost reductions and quality improvements. Cell Developments: 1. Subscale testing of the epsilon technology under system relevant conditions surpassed 16,000 hours with a power degradation rate of <1%/1000 hours. Key degradation mechanisms have been identified: (1) MnOx accumulation near the cathode-electrolyte interface and cathode densification (2) metals migration across the anode-ACC bilayer and general microstructure coarsening at high temperatures and peak fuel utilizations and (3) metal migration into primary interconnect (lesser mechanism) 5 2. Alternate LSM cathodes show slightly lower ASR and lesser free MnOx and chromium contamination. Long-term durability screening of three alternate cathodes is being performed. 3. Single layer anodes show very significant improvement in microstructure stability after 5000 hours testing at aggressive conditions of 925C and bundle outlet, high utilization fuel. 4. New primary interconnect designs are being tested that achieve lower ASR. Modeling performed to further balance ASR and cost through optimized designs.

  20. The Phase Inversion-based Coal-CO2 Slurry (PHICCOS) Feeding System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Phase Inversion-based Coal-CO2 Slurry (PHICCOS) Feeding System: Design, Coupled Multiscale by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . David E. Hardt Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Studies #12;#12;The Phase Inversion-based Coal conveying of a solid feedstock like pulverized coal into a pressurized environment is a challenging task

  1. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Quarterly report, August 1, 1987--October 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements; Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is discussed.

  2. SECA Coal-Based Systems - FuelCell Energy, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayagh, Hossein

    2014-01-31

    The overall goal of this U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project is the development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive central generation power plant facilities fueled by coal synthesis gas (syngas). This program incorporates the following supporting objectives: • Reduce SOFC-based electrical power generation system cost to $700 or less (2007 dollars) for a greater than 100 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) power plant, exclusive of coal gasification and CO2 separation subsystem costs. • Achieve an overall IGFC power plant efficiency of at least 50%, from coal (higher heating value or HHV) to AC power (exclusive of CO2 compression power requirement). • Reduce the release of CO2 to the environment in an IGFC power plant to no more than 10% of the carbon in the syngas. • Increase SOFC stack reliability to achieve a design life of greater than 40,000 hours. At the inception of the project, the efforts were focused on research, design and testing of prototype planar SOFC power generators for stationary applications. FuelCell Energy, Inc. successfully completed the initial stage of the project by meeting the program metrics, culminating in delivery and testing of a 3 kW system at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Subsequently, the project was re-aligned into a three phase effort with the main goal to develop SOFC technology for application in coal-fueled power plants with >90% carbon capture. Phase I of the Coal-based efforts focused on cell and stack size scale-up with concurrent enhancement of performance, life, cost, and manufacturing characteristics. Also in Phase I, design and analysis of the baseline (greater than 100 MW) power plant system—including concept identification, system definition, and cost analysis—was conducted. Phase II efforts focused on development of a ?25 kW SOFC stack tower incorporating multiple stack building blocks of scaled-up cells, suitable for integration into a large-scale fuel cell power module. Activities in Phase II also included the development of the baseline system, factory cost estimate for the baseline plant’s power block, and conceptual design of a natural gas fueled sub-MW system to be used for testing and verification of the fuel cell stacks in a system environment. The specific objective for Phase III was the validation of the performance and robustness of stacks and scaled stack arrays suitable for use in large-scale power generation systems such as an IGFC with reliable, fail-safe operation being of paramount importance. The work culminated in the verification tests of a 60 kW SOFC stack module in a power plant facility. This final technical report summarizes the progress made during the project period. Significant progress was made in the areas of cell and stack technology development, stack module design, sub-scale module tests, Baseline Power Plant system development and Proof-of- Concept Module unit design. The development of this technology will significantly advance the nation’s energy security and independence interests while simultaneously addressing environmental concerns, including greenhouse gas emissions and water usage.

  3. A GIS-based Assessment of Coal-based Hydrogen Infrastructure Deployment in the State of Ohio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, J

    2009-01-01

    coal-based hydrogen production with CCS can signi?cantly reduce transportation-related CO 2 emissions at a relatively low infrastructure cost

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-BASED TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Sarma V. Pisupati; Chunshan Song; Ronald S. Wasco; Ronald T. Wincek; Xiaochun Xu; Alan W. Scaroni; Richard Hogg; Subhash Chander; M. Thaddeus Ityokumbul; Mark S. Klima; Peter T. Luckie; Adam Rose; Richard L. Gordon; Jeffrey Lazo; A. Michael Schaal

    2004-01-30

    The third phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for US Department of Defense (DOD) facilities was completed. The objectives of the project were to: decrease DOD's dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase III activities were focused on evaluating deeply-cleaned coals as fuels for industrial boilers and investigating emissions control strategies for providing ultra-low emissions when firing coal-based fuels. This was addressed by performing coal beneficiation and preparation studies, and bench- to demonstration-scale emissions reduction studies. In addition, economic studies were conducted focused on determining cost and market penetration, selection of incentives, and regional economic impacts of coal-based technologies.

  5. Development of a 5 kW Prototype Coal-Based Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Steven S.C.; Mirzababaei, Jelvehnaz; Rismanchian, Azadeh

    2014-01-20

    The University of Akron Fuel Cell Laboratory pioneered the development of a laboratory scale coal-based fuel cell, which allows the direct use of high sulfur content coal as fuel. The initial research and coal fuel cell technology development (“Coal-based Fuel Cell,” S. S. C. Chuang, PCT Int. Appl. 2006, i.e., European Patent Application, 35 pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO 2006028502 A2 20060316) have demonstrated that it is feasible to electrochemically oxidize carbon to CO2, producing electricity. The key innovative concept of this coal-based fuel cell technology is that carbon in coal can be converted through an electrochemical oxidation reaction into manageable carbon dioxide, efficiently generating electricity without involving coal gasification, reforming, and water-gas shift reaction. This study has demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of carbon can take place on the Ni anode surface and the CO and CO2 product produced can further react with carbon to initiate the secondary reaction. A carbon injection system was developed to inject the solid fuel without bringing air into the anode chamber; a fuel cell stack was developed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of the fuel cell stack. Further improvement of anode catalyst activity and durability is needed to bring this novel coal fuel cell to a highly efficient, super clean, multi-use electric generation technology, which promises to provide low cost electricity by expanding the utilization of U.S. coal supplies and relieving our dependence on foreign oil.

  6. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  7. Catalyst-free carbon nanotubes from coal-based material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, R.B.; Lal, C.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India)

    2007-01-01

    DC-Arc Discharge technique has been used to synthesize carbon nanotubes from super clean coal samples instead of graphite electrodes filled with metal catalysts. The adverse effect of the mineral matter present in coal may be, thus, avoided. The cathode deposits showed the presence of single walled carbon nanotubes as well, which are generally known to be formed only in presence of transition metal catalysts and lanthanides. The process also avoids the tedious purification treatments of carbon nanotubes by strong acids to get rid of metal catalysts produced as impurities along with nanotubes. Thus, coal may be refined and demineralized by an organorefining technique to obtain super clean coal, an ultra low ash coal which may be used for the production of carbon nanotubes. The residual coal obtained after the organorefining may be used as an energy source for raising steam for power generation. Thus, coal may afford its use as an inexpensive feedstock for the production of carbon nanotubes besides its conventional role as a fuel for power generation.

  8. Laser-Based Mass Spectrometric Determination of Aggregation Numbers for Petroleum-and Coal-Derived Asphaltenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Laser-Based Mass Spectrometric Determination of Aggregation Numbers for Petroleum- and Coal: Petroleum- and coal-derived asphaltenes have been studied with three laser-based mass spectrometric of the most probable. In contrast, the nanoaggregates of coal asphaltenes are found to be smaller and more

  9. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Nuclear economics 2000: Deterministic and probabilistic projections of nuclear and coal electric power generation costs for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.A.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1987-06-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base-load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 2000. For the Midwest region a complete data set that specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results is supplied. When based on the reference set of input variables, the comparison of power generation costs is found to favor nuclear in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is most favored in the northeast and western regions where coal must be transported over long distances; however, coal-fired generation is most competitive in the north central region where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. In several regions small changes in the reference variables could cause either option to be preferred. The reference data set reflects the better of recent electric utility construction cost experience (BE) for nuclear plants. This study assumes as its reference case a stable regulatory environment and improved planning and construction practices, resulting in nuclear plants typically built at the present BE costs. Today's BE nuclear-plant capital investment cost model is then being used as a surrogate for projected costs for the next generation of light-water reactor plants. An alternative analysis based on today's median experience (ME) nuclear-plant construction cost experience is also included. In this case, coal is favored in all ten regions, implying that typical nuclear capital investment costs must improve for nuclear to be competitive.

  11. CORROSION OF IRON-BASE ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR AT 871 AND 982 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Bruce Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Chapter 1. A. B. C. D. E. Coal Processingand Coal Char iThe Energy Crisis Coal Processing . Corrosion .

  12. Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U-based technology. (a) Based on equal quantities of coal used to produce hydrogen and electricity 4 #12;Why Hydrogen From Coal? Huge U.S. coal reserves Hydrogen can be produced cleanly from coal Coal can provide

  13. Techno-Economic Analysis of Scalable Coal-Based Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Steven S. C.

    2014-08-31

    Researchers at The University of Akron (UA) have demonstrated the technical feasibility of a laboratory coal fuel cell that can economically convert high sulfur coal into electricity with near zero negative environmental impact. Scaling up this coal fuel cell technology to the megawatt scale for the nation’s electric power supply requires two key elements: (i) developing the manufacturing technology for the components of the coal-based fuel cell, and (ii) long term testing of a kW scale fuel cell pilot plant. This project was expected to develop a scalable coal fuel cell manufacturing process through testing, demonstrating the feasibility of building a large-scale coal fuel cell power plant. We have developed a reproducible tape casting technique for the mass production of the planner fuel cells. Low cost interconnect and cathode current collector material was identified and current collection was improved. In addition, this study has demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of carbon can take place on the Ni anode surface and the CO and CO2 product produced can further react with carbon to initiate the secondary reactions. One important secondary reaction is the reaction of carbon with CO2 to produce CO. We found CO and carbon can be electrochemically oxidized simultaneously inside of the anode porous structure and on the surface of anode for producing electricity. Since CH4 produced from coal during high temperature injection of coal into the anode chamber can cause severe deactivation of Ni-anode, we have studied how CH4 can interact with CO2 to produce in the anode chamber. CO produced was found able to inhibit coking and allow the rate of anode deactivation to be decreased. An injection system was developed to inject the solid carbon and coal fuels without bringing air into the anode chamber. Five planner fuel cells connected in a series configuration and tested. Extensive studies on the planner fuels and stack revealed that the planner fuel cell stack is not suitable for operation with carbon and coal fuels due to lack of mechanical strength and difficulty in sealing. We have developed scalable processes for manufacturing of process for planner and tubular cells. Our studies suggested that tubular cell stack could be the only option for scaling up the coal-based fuel cell. Although the direct feeding of coal into fuel cell can significantly simplify the fuel cell system, the durability of the fuel cell needs to be further improved before scaling up. We are developing a tubular fuel cell stack with a coal injection and a CO2 recycling unit.

  14. Smoking cessation among coal miners as predicted by baseline respiratory function and symptoms: a 5-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, R.G.; Hall, D.S.

    1985-03-01

    A prospective analysis was used to test whether respiratory impairment or the presence of respiratory symptoms predicts 5-year cigarette smoking cessation in a sample of 1,118 U.S. white, male, underground coal miners. Miners were examined in 1977 and re-examined in 1982 by NIOSH, and all miners with test abnormalities were so informed by letter. Respiratory impairment was measured by an index of airways obstruction combining the spirometric measures of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1). Bronchitis symptoms were measured by an index that combined chronic cough (3+ months/year) and chronic phlegm (3 + months/year). Among these coal miners, the presence of chronic respiratory symptoms initially was inversely associated with cigarette smoking cessation. Respiratory impairment, however, was positively associated with cigarette smoking cessation but did not reach statistical significance.

  15. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

  16. SSAB/MEFOS oxy-coal system -- 3 years of industrial experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wikstroem, J.O.; Skoeld, B.E. [MEFOS, Luleaa (Sweden); Kaersrud, K.

    1996-12-31

    SSAB, Swedish Steel AB, is the main steel producer in Sweden. MEFOS is a foundation for metallurgical research. The principals include 35 Nordic companies. SSAB and MEFOS have, in cooperation, developed a swirl type, coaxial, oxy-coal lance, that drastically improves the combustion of pulverized coal in the Blast Furnace tuyere and race way. The development was made through an extensive test work in a highly instrumented single tuyere on an industrial Blast Furnace. The technology has been in commercial use since early 1993, with excellent result.

  17. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Technical progress report, September 1995 - March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, the Phase I final report was completed. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included completing a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work continued on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filtering device will be used to demonstrate a smaller and more efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  18. Study on systems based on coal and natural gas for producing dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, L.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, D.J.; Li, Y.R.; Zhu, B.; Jin, Y.

    2009-04-15

    China is a coal-dependent country and will remain so for a long time. Dimethyl ether (DME), a potential substitute for liquid fuel, is a kind of clean diesel motor fuel. The production of DME from coal is meaningful and is studied in this article. Considering the C/H ratios of coal and natural gas (NG), the cofeed (coal and NG) system (CFS), which does not contain the water gas shift process, is studied. It can reduce CO{sub 2} emission and increase the conversion rate of carbon, producing more DME. The CFS is simulated and compared with the coal-based and NG-based systems with different recycling ratios. The part of the exhaust gas that is not recycled is burned, producing electricity. On the basis of the simulation results, the thermal efficiency, economic index, and CO{sub 2} emission ratio are calculated separately. The CFS with a 100% recycling ratio has the best comprehensive evaluation index, while the energy, economy, and environment were considered at the same time.

  19. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  20. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  1. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  2. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  3. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  4. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  5. Remote-sensing GIS based investigations of coal fires in northern China; global monitoring to support the estimation of CO2 emissions from spontaneous combustion of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the development of coal fires (Figure 1) are: (1) the type of coal. Its vulnerability to spontaneous combustionRemote-sensing GIS based investigations of coal fires in northern China; global monitoring to support the estimation of CO2 emissions from spontaneous combustion of coal Freek van der Meer, Paul van

  6. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  7. CORROSION OF IRON-BASE ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR AT 871 AND 982 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Bruce Abbott

    2011-01-01

    1973, Chapter 5. "Synthane Coal Gasification Pilot Plant, IIReactions jn Coal Gasification/Combination Atmosphen~s,"

  8. Documentation of the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herhal, A J; Britton, S G; Minnucci, C A

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the methodologies used to develop the 1979 Demonstrated Reserve Base (DRB) of coal. The main body of this report summarizes the methodological procedures used to develop each state reserve estimate. The appendices to the report provide a detailed description of the entire DRB process for each state.

  9. Field demonstration of coal combustion by-products based road sub-base in Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Mohanty, S.; Bryant, M.

    2006-07-01

    Development and demonstration of large-volume beneficial use applications for ponded fly ash are considered very important as a cost reduction strategy for the generation industry and value enhancement for the coal mining industry. One such application described is the road sub-base fo the Industry Access Truck Route in Meredosia, Illinois, which used approximately 77,000 cubic yard of compacted high loss-on-ignition (LOI) Class-F ponded fly ash. The Truck Route is a 24-feet wide road built on a 0 to 7 feet thick compacted fly ash sub-base. Illinois Department of Transportation estimated that the use of fly ash in this project saved more than $100,000 to the State of Illinois. Furthermore, natural resources in the form of relatively fertile soil were preserved by substituting fly ash for the available borrow in the area; quality agricultural topsoil is limited in the area. The article gives details of the project and reports favourable results on monitoring ground water quality. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Interest in coal chemistry intensifies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggin, J.

    1982-08-09

    Research on coal structure has increased greatly in recent years as the future role of coal as a source of gaseous and liquid fuels, as well as chemicals, becomes more apparent. This paper reviews in some detail work being carried out in the US, particularly in the laboratories of Mobil and Exxon, and in the universities. New ideas on the chemical and physical structure of coal are put forward, and a proposal for a new classification system based on the fundamental properties of the vitrinite macerals is introduced.

  11. The Market for Coal Based Electric Power Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week Day Year(activeInforum LIFTMEMS Technology|Roadmap

  12. INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, M.

    2010-01-01

    I.D I.D XBL 7111- 11389 g. s urn coal iurn REfERENCES 1. W.H. Wiser, Coal Catalysis, Proceedings of the EPRIC. Howard. Chern; (John Wil of Coal Utilization H. H. lowry.

  13. CORROSION OF IRON-BASE ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR AT 871 AND 982 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Bruce Abbott

    2011-01-01

    and Coal Char i The Energy Crisis Coal Processing .is in the middle of an energy crisis. not: conf.i.ncd to theand Coal Char A. The Energy Crisis The energy crisis is a

  14. INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, M.

    2010-01-01

    reactor containing solid coal, liquid organics, and melt. "use in converting coal to liquid or purified To begin9 thefor obtaining liquid products from coal which has been used

  15. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Natural Gas Coal 233 billion tonnes coal equivalent 97% total fossil fuel reserve base Reserves by location, quality,

  16. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  17. INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, M.

    2010-01-01

    t properties of the sodium hydroxide~treated coal with thoseproperties, discussed later, which may make them effective for coalproperties the on Behavior. phosphoric-acid-treated coal,

  18. The Phase Inversion-based Coal-CO? Slurry (PHICCOS) feeding system : design, coupled multiscale analysis, and technoeconomic assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botero, Cristina, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    The continuous conveying of a solid feedstock like pulverized coal into a pressurized environment is a challenging task required in multiple industrial processes. Plants based on pressurized, entrained-flow gasifiers (EFG) ...

  19. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  20. A GIS-based Assessment of Coal-based Hydrogen Infrastructure Deployment in the State of Ohio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, J

    2009-01-01

    electricity and CO 2 from coal with commercially readyHong B, Slatick E. Carbon dioxide emission factors for coal.EIA Quarterly Coal Report January–April 1994:1–8. 1994. DOE/

  1. A GIS-based Assessment of Coal-based Hydrogen Infrastructure Deployment in the State of Ohio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, J

    2009-01-01

    29], existing coal power plants [30], existing pipelinedensity. The existing coal power plants and pipeline rights-of each existing coal power plant larger than 100 MW e is

  2. Coal deposit characterization by gamma-gamma density/percent dry ash relationships 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, David Scott

    1984-01-01

    provides the capability of filling gaps in the data base which might otherwise result in a misinterpretation of the coal quality throughout the deposit. Geophysi cally-derived in situ coal quality parameters are not currently used as a basis upon which... (Ott, 1984). Tens of thousands of coal core samples analyzed over the past seven years have provided a computerized data base for the formulation of coal parameter interrelationships (Hoeft, et al. , 1983). Alabama lignite and Illinois bituminous...

  3. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  4. Coastal energy transportation study, phase ii, volume 1: a study of OCS onshore support bases and coal export terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cribbins, P.D.

    1981-08-01

    This study concentrates on siting alternatives for on-shore support bases for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas exploration and coal export terminals. Sixteen alternative OCS sites are described, and a parametric analysis is utilized to select the most promising sites. Site-specific recommendations regarding infrastructure requirements and transportation impacts are provided. Eleven alternative coal terminal sites are identified and assessed for their potential impacts.

  5. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    in the Czech setting, where coal is still com- monly used inwe found exposure to coal home heating and ETS increasewell studied, residential coal combustion in economically

  6. A GIS-based Assessment of Coal-based Hydrogen Infrastructure Deployment in the State of Ohio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, J

    2009-01-01

    6 Coal price (2005$) $1.29/MMBTU 93.8 kg CO 2 /MMBTU coal COsales $0.05/kWh price (2005$) Coal type Illinois no.coal-to- electricity ef?ciency is 37%, carbon capture is 91%, and the electricity price

  7. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  8. Savannah River Site Retires Coal-Fired D-Area Powerhouse after Nearly 60 Years of Service

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – The Savannah River Site (SRS) has shut down the massive, coal-powered D-Area powerhouse as the site turns to new, clean and highly efficient power generation technology.

  9. Advanced NMR-based techniques for pore structure analysis of coal. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.M.; Hua, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    During the 3 year term of the project, new methods have been developed for characterizing the pore structure of porous materials such as coals, carbons, and amorphous silica gels. In general, these techniques revolve around; (1) combining multiple techniques such as small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and adsorption of contrast-matched adsorbates or {sup 129}Xe NMR and thermoporometry (the change in freezing point with pore size), (2) combining adsorption isotherms over several pressure ranges to obtain a more complete description of pore filling, or (3) applying NMR ({sup 129}Xe, {sup 14}N{sub 2}, {sup 15}N{sub 2}) techniques with well-defined porous solids with pores in the large micropore size range (>1 nm).

  10. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  11. Basic properties of coals and other solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnett, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported here for the heats of immersion of samples of polyvinylpyridine and the following coals: Exxon Rawhide, Argonne Wyodak, Illinois {number sign}6, Pittsburgh {number sign}8 in solutions of twelve sulfonic and carboxylic acids and boron trichloride. Heats of immersion in the different types of acids vary considerably from one solid system to another and the simple solid base polyvinylpyridine is a poor model for the more complex coals. The coals show varying degrees of correlation with each other. An important feature of the second half of the year has been an extensive comparison of titrametric heats of reaction of the different acids with several coal liquids and the coals from which they were derived. 16 figs., 1 tab.

  12. SUBTASK 3.11 – PRODUCTION OF CBTL-BASED JET FUELS FROM BIOMASS-BASED FEEDSTOCKS AND MONTANA COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used interchangeably without any special requirements and thus provides a pathway to energy security to the U.S. military and the entire nation. This subtask was funded through the EERC–DOE Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26- 08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by Accelergy Corporation.

  13. KINETICS OF Mn-BASED SORBENTS FOR HOT COAL GAS DESULFURIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.J. BERNS; K.A. SADECKI; M.T. HEPWORTH

    1997-09-15

    Mixed manganese oxide sorbents have been investigated for high-temperature removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases. The sorbents were screened by thermodynamic equilibrium considerations for sulfidation. Preliminary experimental work using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated titania to be a superior substrate than alumina. Four formulations showing superior reactivity in a TGA were then tested in an ambient pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H 2 S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. Eight tests were conducted with each test consisting of five cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Sulfidation occurred at 600 o C using a simulated coal gas at an empty-bed space velocity of approximately 12,000 per hour. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H 2 S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent at 600 o C. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be essentially completely regenerated in an air/steam mixture at 750 o C with minimal sulfate formation. The leading formulation (designated C6-2) from the fixed-bed tests was then further tested under varying sorbent induration temperature, sulfidation temperature and superficial gas velocity. Four tests were conducted with each test consisting of four cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Results showed that the induration temperature of the sorbent and the reaction temperature greatly affected the H 2 S removal capacity of the sorbent while the superficial gas velocity between 1090 and 1635 cm/min had minimal affect on the sorbent's breakthrough capacity. Testing showed that the sorbent's strength was a strong function of the sorbent induration temperature. Sorbent also showed 30 to 53% loss of its strength over four cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. The former being sorbent indurated at 1115 o C and the prior being sorbent indurated at 1100 o C. A mathematical model was developed to describe the reaction of H 2 S with the mixed metal oxide in a fixed-bed reactor, where the individual pellets react according to the shrinking core model. The effective diffusivity within a single pellet was estimated by adjusting its value until a good match between the experimental and model H 2 S breakthrough curves was obtained. Predicted sorbent conversion at the conclusion of test FB3A compared well with experimental sulfur analysis.

  14. Documentation of the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States. Final report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herhal, A J; Britton, S G; Minnucci, C A

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the methodologies used to develop the 1979 Demonstrated Reserve Base (DRB) of coal. All primary source documents used to prepare the 1979 DRB were reviewed. Using the methodologies and documentation found in the 1979 DRB published report as a guide, each of the state-level published reserve estimates were re-derived. In those cases where the estimates could not be reproduced, EIA personnel from the Eastern and Western Energy Data Offices were consulted and the differences, for the most part, were resolved. Throughout this report an attempt was made to describe the information flow that was an integral part of the DRB development. Particular attention and emphasis was given to those instances where deviations from standard, published EIA procedures were used to derive the DRB estimates. The main body of this report summarizes the methodological procedures used to develop each state reserve estimate.

  15. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have both positive (+) and negative (-) impact as summarized below: (-) Coal-carbon is a melter reductant. If excess coal-carbon is present, the resulting melter feed may be too reducing, potentially shortening the melter life. During this study, the Reduction/Oxidation Potential (REDOX) of the melter could be controlled by varying the ratio of nitric and formic acid. (-) The addition of coal-carbon increases the amount of nitric acid added and decreases the amount of formic acid added to control melter REDOX. This means that the CPC with the FBSR product is much more oxidizing than current CPC processing. In this study, adequate formic acid was present in all experiments to reduce mercury and manganese, two of the main goals of CPC processing. (-) Coal-carbon will be oxidized to carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide in the melter. The addition of coal-carbon to the FBSR product will lead to approximately 55% higher offgas production from formate, nitrate and carbon due to the decomposition of the carbon at the maximum levels in this testing. Higher offgas production could lead to higher cold cap coverage or melter foaming which could decrease melt rate. No testing was performed to evaluate the impact of the higher melter offgas flow. (+) The hydrogen production is greatly reduced in testing with coal as less formic acid is added in CPC processing. In the high acid run without coal, the peak hydrogen generation was 15 times higher than in the high acid run with added coal-carbon. (+) Coal-carbon is a less problematic reducing agent than formic acid, since the content of both carbon and hydrogen are important in evaluating the flammability of the melter offgas. Processing with coal-carbon decreases the amount of formic acid added in the CPC, leading to a lower flammability risk in processing with coal-carbon compared to the current DWPF flowsheet. (+) The seven SB10 formulations which were tested during the bench-scale CPC demonstration were all determined to be within the off-gas flammability safety basis limits during the 9X/5X off-gas surge for normal bubbled melter

  16. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Knutson; Seyed Dastgheib; Yaning Yang; Ali Ashraf; Cole Duckworth; Priscilla Sinata; Ivan Sugiyono; Mark Shannon; Charles Werth

    2012-04-30

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter ($15 to $60 per 1000 gallons), with treatment costs accounting for 13 â?? 23% of the overall cost. Results from this project suggest that produced water is a potential large source of cooling water, but treatment and transportation costs for this water are large.

  17. INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, M.

    2010-01-01

    the coal by action of the melts, increasing the recovery ofcoal with an organic solvent (or mixture of solvents), solvent recovery,

  18. Data base for analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, November-January 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, A; Suhr, N H; Spackman, W; Painter, P C; Walker, P L; Given, P H

    1981-04-01

    The basic objectives of this program are, first, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals, and, second, to determine the nature of the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam. Multivariate statistical analyses applied to the Coal Data Base confirm a number of known trends for coal properties. In addition, nitrogen and some components of the ash analysis bear interesting relationships to rank. The macroscopic petrography of column samples of the Lower Kittanning seam reveals a significant difference between the sample from a marine-influenced environment and those from toward the margins of the basin where conditions were non-marine. The various methods of determining the amount and mineralogy of the inorganic fraction of coals are reviewed. General trends in seam thickness, ash, sulfur, volatile matter yield, and vitrinite reflectance of the Lower Kittanning seam of western Pennsylvania are presented. Controls of sedimentation are discussed in relation to the areal variability which has been observed. Differential subsidence and paleotopography appear to have played a major role during the deposition of the coal. The same controls may have maintained some influence upon the coalification process after deposition, especially along the eastern margin of the Lower Kittanning basin.

  19. Coal: the new black

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

    2008-03-15

    Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

  20. Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

    2012-06-29

    Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

  1. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  2. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  3. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  4. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 1, Technical report. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-15

    This program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium for Coal Water Mixture Technology and the U.S. Department of Energy. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I is nearly completed. During this reporting period, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, engineering designs and economics for retrofitting the Crane, Indiana boiler to fire coal-based fuels, and a 1,000-hour demonstration of dry, micronized coal were completed. In addition, a demonstration-scale micronized-coal water mixture (MCWM) preparation circuit was constructed and a 1,000-hour demonstration firing MCWM began. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations involved literature surveys of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, trace metals, volatile organic compounds, and fine particulate matter capture. In addition, vendors and engineering firms were contacted to identify the appropriate emissions technologies for the installation of commercial NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removal systems on the demonstration boiler. Information from the literature surveys and engineering firms will be used to identify, design, and install a control system(s). Work continued on the refinement and optimization of coal grinding and MCWM preparation procedures, and on the development of advanced processes for beneficiating high ash, high sulfur coals. Work also continued on determining the basic cost estimation of boiler retrofits, and evaluating environmental, regulatory, and regional economic impacts. In addition, the feasibility of technology adoption, and the public`s perception of the benefits and costs of coal usage was studied. A coal market analysis was completed. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, emissions reductions and economic analyses of coal use.

  5. The world price of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1994-01-01

    A significant increase in the seaborne trade for coal over the past twenty years has unified formerly separate coal markets into a world market in which prices move in tandem. Due to its large domestic market, the United ...

  6. Air pollution: Coal based power plants major culprit : HindustanTimes.com http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/5922_1646830,001500250000000... 1 of 2 3/10/2006 7:45 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Ramesh P.

    Air pollution: Coal based power plants major culprit : HindustanTimes.com http 1 Front » Story Air pollution: Coal based power plants major culprit HT Correspondent Kanpur, March that coal based thermal power plants are the main source for air pollution. The fact came to the fore during

  7. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  8. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  9. Recent advances in coal geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chyi, L.L. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Akron, Akron, OH (US)); Chou, C.-L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, 615 E. Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL (US))

    1990-01-01

    Chapters in this collection reflect the recent emphasis both on basic research in coal geochemistry and on applied aspects related to coal utilization. Geochemical research on peat and coal generates compositional data that are required for the following reasons. First, many studies in coal geology require chemical data to aid in interpretation for better understanding of the origin and evolution of peat and coal. Second, coal quality assessment is based largely on composition data, and these data generate useful insights into the geologic factors that control the quality of coal. Third, compositional data are needed for effective utilization of coal resources and to reflect the recent emphasis on both basic research in coal geochemistry and environmental aspects related to coal utilization.

  10. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  11. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    We use the AEO 2007 forecast of coal prices. This analysisforecast is available only until 2030; we project coal priceslevelized price of coal is based on EIA AEO 2007 forecast

  12. After 5 Years, NERSC's Franklin Retires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are some science highlights from five years in production: Refining and Designing Clean Coal Technology This is an image of predicted coal particle concentration in a coal gasifier...

  13. CORROSION OF IRON-BASE ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR AT 871 AND 982 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Bruce Abbott

    2011-01-01

    of Fe-Cr-Al Alloys in Coal Gasifier Environments," LBJ>7320,accelerated corrosion of gasifier components by oxygen andof the alloys composing the gasifier components. The role of

  14. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  15. 2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  16. 2008 Coal Age buyers guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  17. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-12-31

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  18. Pressurized chemical-looping combustion of coal with an iron ore-based oxygen carrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Rui; Song, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Shen, Laihong [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Song, Qilei [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Lu, Zuoji [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); GCL Engineering Limited, Zhujiang No. 1, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. Most of the previous investigations on CLC of solid fuels were conducted under atmospheric pressure. A pressurized CLC combined cycle (PCLC-CC) system is proposed as a promising coal combustion technology with potential higher system efficiency, higher fuel conversion, and lower cost for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In this study pressurized CLC of coal with Companhia Valedo Rio Doce (CVRD) iron ore was investigated in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. CVRD iron ore particles were exposed alternately to reduction by 0.4 g of Chinese Xuzhou bituminous coal gasified with 87.2% steam/N{sub 2} mixture and oxidation with 5% O{sub 2} in N{sub 2} at 970 C. The operating pressure was varied between 0.1 MPa and 0.6 MPa. First, control experiments of steam coal gasification over quartz sand were performed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are the major components of the gasification products, and the operating pressure influences the gas composition. Higher concentrations of CO{sub 2} and lower fractions of CO, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} during the reduction process with CVRD iron ore was achieved under higher pressures. The effects of pressure on the coal gasification rate in the presence of the oxygen carrier were different for pyrolysis and char gasification. The pressurized condition suppresses the initial coal pyrolysis process while it also enhances coal char gasification and reduction with iron ore in steam, and thus improves the overall reaction rate of CLC. The oxidation rates and variation of oxygen carrier conversion are higher at elevated pressures reflecting higher reduction level in the previous reduction period. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses show that particles become porous after experiments but maintain structure and size after several cycles. Agglomeration was not observed in this study. An EDX analysis demonstrates that there is very little coal ash deposited on the oxygen carrier particles but no appreciable crystalline phases change as verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Overall, the limited pressurized CLC experiments carried out in the present work suggest that PCLC of coal is promising and further investigations are necessary. (author)

  19. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Annual report, September 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Annual Topical Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/ alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. It includes the prior Quarterly Technical Reports which indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  20. Sibley station low-sulfur coal conversion program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupinskas, R.L. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Rembold, D.F. [Missouri Public Service, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1995-03-01

    After embarking on an upgrade project in 1986 that was designed to allow efficient and reliable operation of its coal-fired Sibley station through 2010, Missouri Public Service (MPS) faced the uncertainty of impending acid-rain legislation. To protect its investment in the Sibley Rebuild Program, the utility evaluated compliance options based on the emerging legislation and concluded that switching to low-sulfur coal offered the least-cost compliance approach. Compared to installing a scrubber, switching to a low-sulfur coal was also more straightforward, although not without challenges and complications. This paper reviews the Sibley low-sulfur coal conversion program. At Sibley, fuel switching was chosen only after numerous internal and external studies; it withstood late challenges from natural gas and allowance trading. Switching demanded additional equipment to blend Power River Basin coals and other coals, and demanded additional and upgraded protective equipment in the areas of fire protection, dust collection, and explosion prevention. In the year since the coal conversion project was completed the facility has operated reliably, the economic benefits of the lower cost Powder River Basin coals have been realized, and the station has also met the requirements of both phases of the acid rain legislation. Fuel switching at Sibley required a team approach and careful analysis. The coal conversion project also required attention and dedication by team members in order to minimize fuel costs while maintaining optimum plant efficiency and availability.

  1. Development of an On-Line Coal Washability Analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. L. Lin; G. H. Luttrell; G. T. Adel; Jan D. Miller

    1998-03-31

    Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and Cyprus-Amax Coal Company have joined with the University of Utah and agreed to undertake the development of a x-ray CT-based on-line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. The three-year project will cost $594,571, of which 33% ($194,575) will be cost-shared by the participants. The project will involve development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from three coal preparation plants. Each project participant brings special expertise to the project which is expected to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. Finally, it should be noted that the analyzer may prove to be a universal analyzer capable of providing not only washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

  2. Internet Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at America's Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2011-09-30

    In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.

  3. Coal liquefaction by base-catalyzed hydrolysis with CO.sub.2 capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiao, Xin

    2014-03-18

    The one-step hydrolysis of diverse biomaterials including coal, cellulose materials such as lumber and forestry waste, non-food crop waste, lignin, vegetable oils, animal fats and other source materials used for biofuels under mild processing conditions which results in the formation of a liquid fuel product along with the recovery of a high purity CO.sub.2 product is provided.

  4. Blackout: coal, climate and the last energy crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinberg, R. [Post Carbon Institute in California, CA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Coal fuels more than 30 per cent of UK electricity production, and about 50 per cent in the US, providing a significant portion of total energy output. China and India's recent ferocious economic growth has been based almost entirely on coal-generated electricity. Coal currently looks like a solution to many of our fast-growing energy problems. However, while coal advocates are urging us full steam ahead, the increasing reliance on this dirtiest of all fossil fuels has crucial implications for energy policy, pollution levels, the global climate, world economy and geopolitics. Drawbacks to a coal-based energy strategy include: Scarcity - new studies suggest that the peak of world coal production may actually be less than two decades away; Cost - the quality of produced coal is declining, while the expense of transportation is rising, leading to spiralling costs and increasing shortages; and, Climate impacts - our ability to deal with the historic challenge of climate change may hinge on reducing coal consumption in future years.

  5. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  6. Radiative properties of char, fly-ash, and soot particles in coal flames. Technical progress report, second year, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menguec, M.P.; Manickavasagam, S.; Govindan, R.; Ghosal, S.

    1995-04-01

    In large-scale coal-fired flames, radiative transfer is significant as a large portion of the energy generated during the char pyrolysis and soot oxidation is transferred to the surroundings by radiation (due to emission). The relatively cold gases and particles which are not burning yet are heated by this incoming energy (absorption), which may have originated not only from the immediate surroundings of the control volume of interest but the entire flame. It is obvious that if the emission and absorption of radiation in such a flame are not accounted for correctly, it is not possible to determine other underlying phenomena with accuracy, as the fundamental principle of conservation of energy would be violated. In order to consider the effect of radiation heat transfer in coal-fired furnaces, we have to (1) model the radiative transfer equation to satisfy the conservation of radiant energy principle; (2) use the correct radiative properties of combustion gases and particles; (3) account for the interaction of radiation with the flow and energy equations. The radiative properties for a participating medium of spherical particles can be expressed in terms of the spectral absorption, extinction, and scattering efficiencies and the phase function for a single particle, and can be calculated from the Lorenz-Mie theory. For small size particles, the expressions are based on the Rayleigh limit of Lorenz-Mie theory, and are significantly simpler. The details are readily available in the literature.

  7. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1993--March 27, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R.; Shepard, J.F.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R.; Chander, S.; Cho, H.; Ityokumbul, M.T.; Klima, M.S.

    1994-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. To achieve the objectives of the program, a team of researchers was assembled. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFS) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and precombustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phases I and II are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  8. Coal supply/demand, 1980 to 2000. Task 3. Resource applications industrialization system data base. Final review draft. [USA; forecasting 1980 to 2000; sector and regional analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, W.M.; Hasson, V.

    1980-10-10

    This report is a compilation of data and forecasts resulting from an analysis of the coal market and the factors influencing supply and demand. The analyses performed for the forecasts were made on an end-use-sector basis. The sectors analyzed are electric utility, industry demand for steam coal, industry demand for metallurgical coal, residential/commercial, coal demand for synfuel production, and exports. The purpose is to provide coal production and consumption forecasts that can be used to perform detailed, railroad company-specific coal transportation analyses. To make the data applicable for the subsequent transportation analyses, the forecasts have been made for each end-use sector on a regional basis. The supply regions are: Appalachia, East Interior, West Interior and Gulf, Northern Great Plains, and Mountain. The demand regions are the same as the nine Census Bureau regions. Coal production and consumption in the United States are projected to increase dramatically in the next 20 years due to increasing requirements for energy and the unavailability of other sources of energy to supply a substantial portion of this increase. Coal comprises 85 percent of the US recoverable fossil energy reserves and could be mined to supply the increasing energy demands of the US. The NTPSC study found that the additional traffic demands by 1985 may be met by the railways by the way of improved signalization, shorter block sections, centralized traffic control, and other modernization methods without providing for heavy line capacity works. But by 2000 the incremental traffic on some of the major corridors was projected to increase very significantly and is likely to call for special line capacity works involving heavy investment.

  9. Thermodynamic Properties Of Alkali Species In Coal Based Combined Cycle Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willenborg, W.; Wolf, K.J.; Fricke, C.; Moeller, M.; Prikhodovsky, A.; Hilpert, K.; Singheiser, L.

    2002-09-20

    The aim of this project is to support the development of a concept for a successful alkali removal. Two strategies are possible: optimizing the alkali retention potential of the coal ash slag in the combustion chamber and the liquid slag separators and separate alkali removal with solid sorbents (getters) at temperatures below 1450 C. Therefore in a first step the alkali partial pressure over coal ash slag should be determined in order to get information about the retention potential of the slag. The influence of additives on the retention potential of the slag should be investigated. The measurements should show if the alkali partial pressure over the slag is generally low enough in case of thermodynamic equilibrium. In case of too high alkali partial pressures a separate alkali removal is needed. Therefore in a second step commercial sorbent materials should be investigated concerning their sorption potential for alkalis. To get information about the influence of getter components on the sorption potential some mixtures of pure components, predicted by thermodynamic modeling to be most effective, should be investigated.

  10. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  11. MTCI advanced coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansour, M.N.; Chandran, R.R. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    MTCI is pursuing the development and commercialization of several advanced combustion and gasification systems based on pulse combustion technology. The systems include indirectly heated thermochemical reactor, atmospheric pressure pulse combustor, pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, direct coal-fired gas turbine pulse combustor island, and advanced concept second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustor island. Although the systems in toto are capable of processing lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coals in an efficient, economical and environmentally acceptable manner, each system is considered ideal for certain coal types. Brief descriptions of the systems, applications, selected test results and technology status are presented.

  12. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

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  1. Converting coal to liquid fuels. [US DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Liquid fuels play a vital role in the US economy. Oil represents about 40 percent of the energy consumed each year in this country. In many cases, it fills needs for which other energy forms cannot substitute efficiently or economically - in transportation, for example. Despite a current world-wide surplus of oil, conventional petroleum is a depletable resource. It inevitably will become harder and more expensive to extract. Already in the US, most of the cheap, easily reached oil has been found and extracted. Even under optimistic projections of new discoveries, domestic oil production, particularly in the lower 48 states, will most likely continue to drop. A future alternative to conventional petroleum could be liquid fuels made from coal. The technique is called coal liquefaction. From 1 to 3 barrels of oil can be made from each ton of coal. The basic technology is known; the major obstacles in the US have been the high costs of the synthetic oil and the risks of building large, multi-billion dollar first-of-a-kind plants. Yet, as natural petroleum becomes less plentiful and more expensive, oil made from abundant coal could someday become an increasingly important energy option. To prepare for that day, the US government is working with private industries and universities to establish a sound base of technical knowledge in coal liquefaction.

  2. Summary of coal export project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Through the international coal project and related activities, SSEB has called attention to the problems and potential of the US coal industry. The program has provided an excellent format for frank discussions on the problems facing US coal exports. Every effort must be made to promote coal and its role in the southern economy. Coal is enjoying its best years in the domestic market. While the export market is holding its own, there is increased competition in the world market from Australia, Columbia, China and, to a lesser extent, Russia. This is coming at a time when the US has enacted legislation and plans are underway to deepen ports. In addition there is concern that increased US coal and electricity imports are having a negative impact on coal production. These limiting factors suggest the US will remain the swing supplier of coal on the world market in the near future. This presents a challenge to the US coal and related industry to maintain the present market and seek new markets as well as devote research to new ways to use coal more cleanly and efficiently.

  3. SPINEL-BASED REFRACTORIES FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE IN COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology and refractory end users have developed novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels. The objective of this U.S. DOE funded project was to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing MgO-Al 2O3 spinel gunnable refractory compositions utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Materials have been developed specifically for coal gasification environments and work has been performed to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against attack of the refractory brick by the service environment and to develop a light-weight back-up refractory system to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the systematic development of these materials, laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials, and relevant results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment though compositional and processing modifications.

  4. Refractory Materials based on Magnesia-Alumina Spinel for Improved Performance in Coal Gasification Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla

    2013-01-01

    As part of a larger project to develop novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels, a team composed of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., and academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology have developed new refractory materials and coating systems specifically for application in coal gasification environments. Materials were developed under this U.S. DOE funded project to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing MgO-Al2O3 spinel gunnable refractory compositions utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Work was conducted to develop and deploy these new materials and to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against attack of the refractory brick by the serviced environment. Additionally, a light-weight back-up refractory system was developed to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the efforts involved in the development of these materials, along with the laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials leading to relevant results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment though compositional and processing modifications.

  5. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    coal home heating with all other heating sources. Directhomes were heated primarily by distant heating (heat from a remote sourcesources conducted in Teplice and Prachatice in the early 1990s showed that home heating

  6. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  7. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  8. YEAR

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  11. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS James Anthony AprilCOAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS James Anthony Wrathalla promising agent in coal-liquid desulfurization, assuming

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  20. A perspective on syngas from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rath, L.K.; Longanbach, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, has been produced from coal for more than 100 years. But today most syngas is produced from noncoal feedstocks, by catalytic steam reforming of natural gas and naphtha or partial oxidation of heavy hydrocarbons such as petroleum resid. Three types of syngas, characterized by their H{sub 2}/CO ratio, are needed. Low ratio, H{sub 2}/CO = 0.4-0.8, syngas can be used in recently developed processes such as the Liquid Phase Methanol synthesis and the Shell Fischer-Tropsch wax synthesis; moderate ratio, H{sub 2}/CO = 0.8-1.5, syngas is used in the Tennessee Eastman coal based synthesis of methanol and acetic anhydride; high ratio, H{sub 2}/CO = 1.8-2.5, syngas is used in traditional methanol synthesis and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis at Sasol. Different types of gasifiers are available for the production of syngas. These include Lurgi fixed-bed dry bottom and slagging gasifiers, agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifiers, single and two-stage entrained slurry feed gasifiers, and single-stage entrained dry feed gasifiers. The cost of syngas from subbituminous coal is shown to be relatively insensitive to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio produced and may soon be competitive with natural gas-based syngas in some parts of the country due to the increasing demand for and cost of natural gas. Recent in this paper, DOE sponsored research on three topics on the production of syngas from coal, coal gasifiers for the direct production of high hydrogen content syngas, advanced methods to separate hydrogen from syngas at elevated temperatures and biological conversion of coal to syngas, are also discussed.

  1. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Final technical report, October 1990--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Boakye, E.; Vittal, M. [and others

    1995-04-01

    This report described the synthesis of Molybdenum Sulfides in microemulsions by acidification of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate. Molybdenum Sulfides have been shown to be potential coal liquefaction catalysts. The importance of particle size, temperature effects, and coal surface chemistry to impregnation are discussed.

  2. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  3. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  4. Methodology and a preliminary data base for examining the health risks of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Bassioni, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    An analytical model was developed to assess and examine the health effects associated with the production of electricity from uranium and coal fuels. The model is based on a systematic methodology that is both simple and easy to check, and provides details about the various components of health risk. A preliminary set of data that is needed to calculate the health risks was gathered, normalized to the model facilities, and presented in a concise manner. Additional data will become available as a result of other evaluations of both fuel cycles, and they should be included in the data base. An iterative approach involving only a few steps is recommended for validating the model. After each validation step, the model is improved in the areas where new information or increased interest justifies such upgrading. Sensitivity analysis is proposed as the best method of using the model to its full potential. Detailed quantification of the risks associated with the two fuel cycles is not presented in this report. The evaluation of risks from producing electricity by these two methods can be completed only after several steps that address difficult social and technical questions. Preliminary quantitative assessment showed that several factors not considered in detail in previous studies are potentially important. 255 refs., 21 figs., 179 tabs.

  5. Coal Age buyers guide 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-15

    The buyers guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  6. Coal Age buyers guide 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-15

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  7. Coal Age buyers guide 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  8. YEAR

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  11. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  12. YEAR

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  15. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

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  16. Hydrocracking catalysts from coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farcasiu, M.; Petrosius, S.C.; Pladner, E. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Derbyshire, F.; Jagtoyen, M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1994-12-31

    In previous work at PETC it was shown that carbon blacks and carbonized polymers could be active and selective catalysts in hydrocracking reactions of interest for fossil fuels processing. Work at CAER for the production of various activated carbons from coals have shown that the properties of the materials could be varied if they are produced under different conditions. The authors will report work to optimize the catalytic properties of some coal based carbon materials prepared at CAER. One of the most promising materials for this purpose is obtained from an Illinois bituminous coal. The procedure hydroxide solution with coal and reacting in two stages; (1) heat treatment of the solution at 75 C under nitrogen for one hour followed by drying and (2) heat treatment at 400--1,100 C followed by leaching to remove KOH. The product was extensively characterized and its catalytic activity was measured. The catalytic activity of some of the materials is comparable with other, more expensive carbon materials. The catalysts have potential use in upgrading petroleum heavy ends and coal liquefaction.

  17. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Morgan C. (Upper Montclair, NJ); Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  18. Particulate control for low rank coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Touzel, R.McD.

    1993-12-31

    The power generating system in Victoria currently comprises a total capacity of 6650 MW. Eighty percent of this capacity consists of base load stations in the Latrobe Valley using brown coal. The Latrobe Valley brown coals have unique characteristics with high moisture content ranging from 58 percent to 70 percent and an ash content which is relatively low but very variable in nature. These and other factors associated with the coal have caused special problems in handling and combustion of the coal and the de-dusting of the boiler flue gases. In recent years, this has been the basis for the design parameters adopted for all the plants in the system. With respect to flue gas de-dusting, the SECV has carried out extensive laboratory studies to characterize the different ashes obtained from the Latrobe Valley brown coals, including precipitability and aerodynamic tests. It also carried out full-scale tests on operating plants and pilot tests have been conducted on inertial collectors, precipitators and bag filters. The Environmental Protection Authority of Victoria has established a particulate emission level of 0.150 grams/m{sup 3} n.t.p. dry for recent Latrobe Valley boilers. However, the mandated emission level takes into account wide variations in operating conditions, and the plants normally achieve much lower emission levels. The Latrobe Valley plants presently in operation include Yallourn W (2x350 MW + 2x375 MW), Morwell (170 MW total and briquette factory), Hazelwood (8x200 MW) and Loy Yang (4x500 MW). The Yalloum W boilers are supplied with coal from the Yalloum Open Cut, the Morwell and Hazelwood boilers from the Morwell Open Cut and Loy Yang boilers from the Loy Yang Open Cut. All boilers are pulverized coal fired (PCF) and incorporate special firing equipment to enable the as-mined wet coal to be fired directly into the furnaces. All boilers are fitted with electrostatic precipitators. The locations of the stations and open cuts are shown.

  19. Development of the Ultra-Clean Dry Cleanup Process for Coal-Based Syngases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newby, R.A.; Slimane, R.B.; Lau, F.S.; Jain, S.C.

    2002-09-20

    The Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) has proposed a novel scheme for polishing sulfur species, halides, and particulate from syngas to meet stringent cleaning requirements, the ''Ultra-Clean syngas polishing process.'' The overall development objective for this syngas polishing process is to economically achieve the most stringent cleanup requirements for sulfur species, halide species and particulate expected for chemical and fuel synthesis applications (total sulfur species < 60 ppbv, halides < 10 ppbv, and particulate < 0.1 ppmw). A Base Program was conducted to produce ground-work, laboratory test data and process evaluations for a conceptual feasibility assessment of this novel syngas cleaning process. Laboratory testing focused on the identification of suitable sulfur and halide sorbents and operating temperatures for the process. This small-scale laboratory testing was also performed to provide evidence of the capability of the process to reach its stringent syngas cleaning goals. Process evaluations were performed in the Base Program to identify process alternatives, to devise process flow schemes, and to estimate process material & energy balances, process performance, and process costs. While the work has focused on sulfur, halide, and particulate control, considerations of ammonia, and mercury control have also been included.

  20. Establishment and maintenance of a coal sample bank and data base: Final report, November 6, 1984--April 5, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, A.

    1988-01-01

    This program had as its objective the collection and maintenance of a suite of approximately 50 selected coal samples in order to provide high-quality coal samples and related compositional data to DOE contractors and grantees. The addition of four Alaskan coal samples brought the final number of coals in the Sample Bank to 54. A minimum of 25 1/2- to 1-pound samples were riffled from each sample in the DOE Sample Bank after appropriate compositing and homogenization. These formed the basic stock for distribution to users. Five of the afore-mentioned subsamples of each coal were selected at random for ash, sulfur and moisture determination as documentation of equivalency. Analytical results from these determinations showed acceptable variations in all cases. Sample Bank samples were characterized by 14 basic analytical procedures and tests, and the data computerized. A series of computer programs are available to facilitate inventory control within the Sample Bank and to provide a means of maintaining a continuous and searchable record of the distribution of samples. 9 refs., 9 tabs.

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  13. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    IISolvent Refining for Clean Coal Combustion,1I Walk, R. ,of Equipment (Percent of Clean Coal Produced) Year Type Jigs$1.50-$2.00 per ton of clean coal. In comparison, the cost

  14. Coal: Energy for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  15. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

  16. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    that own the scores of coal power plants whose coal ismillion tons in 2006. Coal power plants currently accountan electric generating coal power plant that would be built

  17. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  18. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic Feet)698 1.873 -Coal

  19. Coal River Mountain Redux Below is an update to the Coal River Mountain story that I described earlier in an e-mail, in an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Coal River Mountain Redux Below is an update to the Coal River Mountain story that I described billion gallons of toxic coal sludge located directly above Marsh Fork Elementary School. (No word yet on their campus a couple of years ago. Underground Appalachian coal mining is being replaced in recent years

  20. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  1. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate change mitigation. The possibility of a large coal gap suggests that Chinese and international policy makers should maximize institutional and financial support

  2. Eleventh annual international Pittsburgh coal conference proceedings: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, S.H.

    1994-12-31

    The conference presented over 300 papers in 39 separate sessions. These presentations are grouped into five topical areas: the technologies in pre- and post-utilization of coal; research and development in coal conversion; advanced coal combustion; environmental control technologies, and environmental policy issues related to coal use. The program has expanded its coverage in non-fuel use of coal. This is reflected in the three sessions on use of coal in the steel industry, and a sessions on carbon products and non-fuel coal applications. Volume 2 includes the following topics: Environmental systems and technologies/Environmental policy; Coal drying, dewatering and reconstitution; Coal cleaning technology; Slurry bed technology; Coal syngas, methanol, DME, olefins and oxygenates; Environmental issues in energy conversion technology; Applied coal geology; Use of coal in the steel industry; Recent developments in coal preparation; International coal gasification projects; Progress on Clean Coal projects; Retrofit air quality control technologies;Fluidized bed combustion; Commercialization of coal preparation technologies; Integrated gasification combined cycle program; the US Department of Energy`s Combustion 2000 program; and Environmental issues in coal utilization. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Clean coal. U.S.-China cooperation in energy security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, D.

    2008-05-15

    This work discusses how coal fits into the strategies of the USA and China to attain energy security while avoiding adverse environmental impacts. It begins by describing China's policy choices for clean coal, before discussing the implications of a clean coal strategy for China. The U.S. choices in a coal-based strategy of energy security is then covered. Finally, a joint US-China clean coal strategy, including the technology sharing option, is discussed.

  4. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  5. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  6. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  7. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. ); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. ); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. ); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. )

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  8. Statistical review of coal in Canada, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents an annual review of the coal industry, including production, exports and imports, and consumption. An overview is given, followed by more detailed statistical data for the current year and preceding decade (supply and demand, value and volume of supply by province, coal production by class or province, exports by destination, coal consumed in power generation by province, electrical energy production by fuel type, domestic demand for primary energy by type).

  9. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  10. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  11. Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry Feed for Pressurized Gasifiers: Slurry Preparation System Characterization and Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botero, Cristina

    Gasification-based plants with coal-CO[subscript 2] slurry feed are predicted to be more efficient than those with coal-water slurry feed. This is particularly true for high moisture, low rank coal such as lignite. ...

  12. THE EFFECT OF COAL CHAR ON THE CORROSION OF 304 SS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foerster, Thomas Friedrich Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    of Iron-Base Alloys by Coal Char at 87l D e and 982° e" (of Structural Materials in Coal Gasifier Atmospheres".of Structural Haterials in Coal Gasifier Atmospheres". UCLA,

  13. INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorighi, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Utah bituminous coal resulting from Soxhlet- type extractionThe extension of this type of study to coals of lower rank,base type solvent in dissolving subbituminous coal below the

  14. Imminence of peak in US coal production and overestimation of reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khare, Sanjay V.

    be produced at the current rate of consumption. This assumption is based on the large reported coal reserves fuels, coal, oil, and natural gas, it is coal that is the most carbon intensive (W. Moomaw, 2011). Due

  15. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingslag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coal liquefactionCoal (Ref. 46). COAL PREPARATION GASIFICATION 3 K·T GASI FI

  16. Multidecadal climate variability in Brazil's Nordeste during the last 3000 years based on speleothem isotope records

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuille, Mathias

    Multidecadal climate variability in Brazil's Nordeste during the last 3000 years based, precipitation record from north- eastern Brazil (hereafter referred to as `Nordeste') covering the last $3000 variability in Brazil's Nordeste during the last 3000 years based on speleothem isotope records, Geophys. Res

  17. Coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  18. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxide capture CS Seminars Calendar HomeNETLCareersCoal

  19. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

  20. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  1. Which route to coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nene, R.G.

    1981-11-01

    Two main methods for producing liquid fuels from coal are currently undergoing intensive evaluation. One, direct liquefaction (e.g., SRC-II, Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and H-Coal) produces liquid fuels directly from coal; the other, indirect liquefaction (e.g., Lurgi gasifier followed by Fischer-Tropsch, and Shell-Koppers gasifier followed by methanol synthesis and Mobil's MTG process) first gasifies coal and then converts the gaseous material into liquid products. This paper compares both routes basing its assessment on yields, thermal efficiencies, elemental balances, investment, complexity, and state of development. It is shown that direct liquefaction is more efficient and produces more product per investment dollar. Higher efficiency for direct liquefaction is verified bY stoichiometric and thermodynamic analysis. All approaches require about the same capital investment per unit of feed. Indirect liquefaction can be either more or less complex than direct liquefaction, depending upon the process. Direct liquefaction is least developed. 8 refs.

  2. Coal distribution, January--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-21

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data in this report are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275, Sections 5 and 13, as amended). This issue presents information for January through June 1991. Coal distribution data are shown (in Tables 1--34) by coal-producing Sate of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination. All data in this report were collected by the EIA on Form EIA-6, Coal Distribution Report.'' A copy of the form and the instructions for filing appear in Appendix B. All data in this report for 1991 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  3. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    the 3-year follow-up, pediatric nurses contacted families toor nurses abstracted medical data from birth and pediatric

  4. Modeling the resolution of inexpensive, novel non-seismic geophysical monitoring tools to monitor CO2 injection into coal beds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasperikova, E.

    2010-01-01

    Plasynski, S. , 2008, Advancing Coal-Based Power Generationto monitor CO 2 injection into Coal Beds as a part of theanalysis for CO 2 movement in coal beds was based on the

  5. Design procedures for coal mine tunnels. Open file report 1 Oct 79-31 Dec 82 (final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1983-03-31

    Although coal mine tunnels such as the main haulageways or roadways are the lifelines of coal mines, little attention has been paid to them in the United States in terms of preconstruction planning and design. This report summarizes the results of a 3-year research project aimed at improving the design procedures for coal mine tunnels. A new design approach was developed for this purpose and roof-support design charts were prepared for mine tunnels and their intersections. Analytical studies, 'base friction' model experiments, and in situ rock stress measurements were performed during this research.

  6. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  7. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  8. Table 15. Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988 1.996Deutsche Bank AG Weekly7,674a. Coal

  9. What are the Starting Points? Evaluating Base-Year Assumptions in the Asian Modeling Exercise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Waldhoff, Stephanie; Clarke, Leon E.; Fujimori, Shinichiro

    2012-12-01

    A common feature of model inter-comparison efforts is that the base year numbers for important parameters such as population and GDP can differ substantially across models. This paper explores the sources and implications of this variation in Asian countries across the models participating in the Asian Modeling Exercise (AME). Because the models do not all have a common base year, each team was required to provide data for 2005 for comparison purposes. This paper compares the year 2005 information for different models, noting the degree of variation in important parameters, including population, GDP, primary energy, electricity, and CO2 emissions. It then explores the difference in these key parameters across different sources of base-year information. The analysis confirms that the sources provide different values for many key parameters. This variation across data sources and additional reasons why models might provide different base-year numbers, including differences in regional definitions, differences in model base year, and differences in GDP transformation methodologies, are then discussed in the context of the AME scenarios. Finally, the paper explores the implications of base-year variation on long-term model results.

  10. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  11. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan FebCubicFracking,MichiganThousand47,959.15 KeroseneCoal Glossary

  12. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan FebCubicFracking,MichiganThousand47,959.15 KeroseneCoal

  13. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual

  14. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual0

  15. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual00

  16. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual000

  17. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual0000

  18. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear

  19. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy Information

  20. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy Information1 U.S.

  1. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy Information1

  2. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy Information12

  3. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy

  4. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy

  5. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy0

  6. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy00

  7. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy000

  8. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy0001

  9. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy00011

  10. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S.

  11. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S.1 U.S.

  12. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S.1 U.S.2 U.S.

  13. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. During this quarter, analyses were completed on 65 process samples from representative periods of HRI Run POC-2 in which coal, coal/plastics, and coal/rubber were the feedstocks. A sample of the oil phase of the oil/water separator from HRI Run POC-1 was analyzed to determine the types and concentrations of phenolic compounds. Chemical analyses and microautoclave tests were performed to monitor the oxidation and measure the reactivity of the standard coal (Old Ben Mine No. 1) which has been used for the last six years to determine solvent quality of process oils analyzed in this and previous DOE contracts.

  14. Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the...

  15. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  16. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    is produced via coal gasification, then, depending on thenot be amenable to coal gasification and, thus, Eastern coalto represent a coal-to- hydrogen gasification process that

  17. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    transportation component of coal price should also increase;investment. Coal costs and prices are functions of a numberTable 15: Coal Supply, Disposition, and Prices”, http://

  18. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    increase in rail coal transportation costs in the future? (Ythus, the cost of coal transportation via unit trains ischance of the cost of coal transportation increasing are

  19. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Meyer

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energyâ??s Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process â?? High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  20. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  1. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  2. Improvements in Measuring Sorption-Induced Strain and Permeability in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2008-10-01

    Total worldwide CBM in-place reserves estimates are between 3500 Tcf and 9500 Tcf. Unminable coal beds have been recommended as good CO2 sequestration sites as the world prepares to sequester large amounts of greenhouse gases. In the U.S., these coal seams have the capacity to adsorb and sequester roughly 50 years of CO2 emissions from all the U.S. coal-fired power plants at today’s output rates. The amount and type of gas ad-sorbed in coal has a strong impact on the permeability of the coal seam. An improved mixed gas adsorption iso-therm model based on the extended-Langmuir theory is discussed and is applied to mixed gas sorption-induced strain based on pure gas strain data and a parameter accounting for gas-gas interactions that is independent of the coal substrate. Advantages and disadvantages of using freestanding versus constrained samples for sorption-induced strain measurements are also discussed. A permeability equation used to model laboratory was found to be very accurate when sorption-induced strain was small, but less accurate with higher strain gases.

  3. Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock and a valuable economic resource. During the Pennsylvanian Period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock and a valuable economic resource. During the Pennsylvanian of years produced the bituminous coals currently found in southwestern Indiana. Bituminous coals in Indiana currently ranks as the seventh-largest coal-producing state in the nation and has an estimated 17.57 billion

  4. Thesis No: 1 Microprocessor Based Automated Arrythmia Monitoring System Cneyt Gemiciolu Year: 1984

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thesis No: 1 Microprocessor Based Automated Arrythmia Monitoring System Cüneyt Gemiciolu Year: 1984 therapy applied to the patient. In this thesis a microcomputer based system which analyses information to the cardiologist as well as being less expensive than other methods. Thesis No: 2 Biotelemetry

  5. Toward zero emissions from coal in China Robert H. Williams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is oxygen-blown (O2­blown) gasification to generate synthesis gas from coal. This technology is used is a strong candidate for becoming the "third" clean energy carrier for China. Evolving a coal-based energyToward zero emissions from coal in China Robert H. Williams Princeton Environmental Institute, Room

  6. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    Railroads”, Conference on the Future of Coal, U.S. SenateFuture Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Costone at that! -ii- Future Impacts of Coal Distribution

  7. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller

    2006-09-29

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting period (i.e., 10/01/05-09/30/06), is attached. At the annual funding meeting held in November 2004, eleven projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2005. Three additional projects were selected for funding during the April 2005 tutorial/funding meeting. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on July 1, 2005. Of these fourteen 2005 projects, eleven have been completed and the final reports are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2005 and the council selected five projects for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2006, except for one that started October 1, 2006.

  8. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council selected eleven projects for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2005. Three additional projects were selected for funding during the April 2005 tutorial/funding meeting. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on July 1, 2005.

  9. Performance and risks of advanced pulverized-coal plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalbandian, H.

    2009-07-01

    This article is based on an in-depth report of the same title published by the IEA Clean Coal Centre, CCC/135 (see Coal Abstracts entry Sep 2008 00535). It discusses the commercial, developmental and future status of pulverized fuel power plants including subcritical supercritical and ultra supercritical systems of pulverized coal combustion, the most widely used technology in coal-fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Coal feed lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, I. Irving (Fairview Park, OH)

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  11. Coal: An energy bridge to the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Susan J.

    2006-09-29

    For years, coal drove the transportation business in this country and it may be poised for a comeback when it comes to moving people and things. A hundred years ago, steam engines burned tons of coal as they pulled trains across the country. Now researchers are looking at converting that coal to liquid fuel that would fill up our gas tanks and move our cars and trucks. The technology already exists to transform coal into a liquid fuel. In fact, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and engineers have researched forms of coal and hydrocarbon gasification on and off for more than 30 years. But oil has never sustained a high enough price to kick start a coal-to-liquid fuel industry. That may be changing now. In addition to high crude oil prices, experts agree worldwide petroleum resources won’t last forever, and hydrocarbon resources like coal may be the only resource available, at a large enough scale, to off-set oil consumption, in the near term.

  12. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  13. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1994--September 27, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1995-04-14

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. Activities this reporting period included performing coal beneficiation/preparation studies, conducting combustion performance evaluations, preparing retrofit engineering designs, determining retrofit economics, and installing a micronized coal-water mixture (MCWM) circuit.

  14. Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

    2007-09-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  17. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  18. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  19. Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , materials left after combustion of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean-coal technology combustors and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. This paper describes various coal combustion products produced (FGD) products from pulverized coal and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. Over 70% of the CCPs

  20. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  1. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, John L. (Skokie, IL); Scott, Robert G. (Westmont, IL); Studier, Martin H. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  2. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C.; Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W.; Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R.

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  3. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  4. Secretary Chu Announces Simulation-Based Engineering User Center...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of CCS within 10 years. "Today's announcement represents a major step forward in the fight to reduce carbon emissions from coal-based power plants," said Secretary Chu. "This...

  5. Competitive interstate taxation of western coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolstad, C.D.; Wolak, F.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential market power of western states in setting coal severance taxes. An attempt to determine the emphasis placed by the western states on the development of their coal resources is also made. Three market structures are analyzed. One involves a western regional cartel, setting taxes collectively. The other cases are noncooperative tax equilibria with Montana and Wyoming competing against each other. We study the effects on these equilibria of changes in each region's relative emphasis on development of coal resources vs tax revenue. The welfare impacts of these tax setting policies are also addressed. The analysis is based on an activity analysis of US coal markets. The results show that the taxes associated with the noncooperative competitive tax equilibria are close to present tax levels. Additionally, we conclude that western states currently are quite efficient extractors of economic rent from coal produced within their boundaries, in terms of welfare loss per dollar of tax revenue collected. 2 figures.

  6. Controlling Energy Costs with Coal Conversion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadowski, R. S.; von Hippel, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    ~~~==~~tt~~~Fe:,edwater FD Blower Figure 6 For the eight years of its existence, WEI's fluid bed emphasis has been on the industrial burning of coal. Fluidized bed burning of coal offers the industrial user a means of burning our cheapest and most...:======9\\===::::? times that of the ash flow in a lower velocity system and of course such systems require a considerable amount of electrical power. Finally, circulating beds have to date had limited experience burning coal. Many (if not all) require support fuel...

  7. Testing of FMI's Coal Upgrading Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijay Sethi

    2009-03-21

    WRI and FMI have collaborated to develop and test a novel coal upgrading technology. Proprietary coal upgrading technology is a fluidized bed-based continuous process which allows high through-puts, reducing the coal processing costs. Processing is carried out under controlled oxidizing conditions at mild enough conditions that compared to other coal upgrading technologies; the produced water is not as difficult to treat. All the energy required for coal drying and upgrading is derived from the coal itself. Under the auspices of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program, Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40323, a nominal 400 lbs/hour PDU was constructed and operated. Over the course of this project, several low-rank coals were successfully tested in the PDU. In all cases, a higher Btu, low moisture content, stable product was produced and subsequently analyzed. Stack emissions were monitored and produced water samples were analyzed. Product stability was established by performing moisture readsorption testing. Product pyrophobicity was demonstrated by instrumenting a coal pile.

  8. Coal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  9. Table 13. Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price toStocks 2009CubicAnalysisYear Jana. Coal Coal Production,

  10. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    coal type mining. Production by coal type Since 1980, China maximizedthe production shares of coal types, the shares of different

  11. High-pressure gasification of Montana subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, A.; Bryan, B.; Rehmat, A.

    1991-01-01

    A data base for the fluidized-bed gasification of different coals at elevated pressures has been developed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with different ranks of coal at pressures up to 450 psig and at temperatures dictated by the individual coals. Adequate data have been obtained to characterize the effect of pressure on the gasification of Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite. The results obtained with Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal are presented here. This program was funded by the Gas Research Institute. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    power plant pulverized coal power plant v Advanced Coal WindMW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equippedMW coal gasification, combined cycle power plant equipped

  13. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: • Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. • Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. • CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  14. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, May-July 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Alan; Suhr, N. H.; Spackman, W.; Painter, P. C.; Walker, P. L.; Given, P. H.

    1980-10-01

    The basic objectives of this new program are, firstly, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals and macerals, and, secondly, to determine the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam imposed by varying environmental conditions at the time of coal formation. Thirty-four coal samples were collected during the quarter from Pennsylvania and Illinois. To date, 54 vitrinite concentrates have been hand picked and will be studied by a range of physical and chemical techniques. One hundred and forty coal samples and 53 printouts of coal data were provided on request to the coal research community. The Lower Kittanning seam has been selected for the study of the variability in chemical, petrographic, mineralogic, fluid, and conversion properties of a single seam. A description of the structural and stratigraphic settings of the important coal seam as they relate to this investigation is given. Bivariate plots of data from the Lower Kittanning seam are presented. The fluid temperature range as measured with the Gieseler plastometer reaches a maximum at a reflectance of 1.10 to 1.15% and carbon content of 87 to 88% dmmf. Liquefaction conversion in a tubing-bomb reactor with tetralin shows a linear decrease with rank (reflectance). The problems associated with the application Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to the characterization of coal structure are critically discussed. The micropore surface areas and micropore volumes of three selected coals and a vitrinite concentrate, as measured from uptake of CO/sub 2/ at 25/sup 0/C, increased with decreasing particle size. Work on measurements of apparent densities and uptake of methanol and water is in progress.

  15. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  16. Coal-by-Rail: A Business-as-Usual Reference Case | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal-by-Rail: A Business-as-Usual Reference Case Title Coal-by-Rail: A Business-as-Usual Reference Case Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2015 Authors Mintz, MM, Saricks,...

  17. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  18. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 2, Appendices. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-15

    This semiannual progress report contains the following appendices: description of the 1,000 lb steam/h watertube research boiler; the Pennsylvania CGE model; Phase II, subtask 3.9 coal market analysis; the CGE model; and sector definition.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of interactions between Ni-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) anodes and trace species in a survey of coal syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Martinez; Kirk Gerdes; Randall Gemmen; James Postona

    2010-03-20

    A thermodynamic analysis was conducted to characterize the effects of trace contaminants in syngas derived from coal gasification on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. The effluents from 15 different gasification facilities were considered to assess the impact of fuel composition on anode susceptibility to contamination. For each syngas case, the study considers the magnitude of contaminant exposure resulting from operation of a warm gas cleanup unit at two different temperatures and operation of a nickel-based SOFC at three different temperatures. Contaminant elements arsenic (As), phosphorous (P), and antimony (Sb) are predicted to be present in warm gas cleanup effluent and will interact with the nickel (Ni) components of a SOFC anode. Phosphorous is the trace element found in the largest concentration of the three contaminants and is potentially the most detrimental. Poisoning was found to depend on the composition of the syngas as well as system operating conditions. Results for all trace elements tended to show invariance with cleanup operating temperature, but results were sensitive to syngas bulk composition. Synthesis gas with high steam content tended to resist poisoning.

  20. Coal-log pipeline system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  1. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

  2. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    Council (NCC), 2006, “Coal: America’s Energy Future”, VolumeCan Coal Deliver? America’s Coal Potential & Limits”, Studycoal generating units currently in operation throughout North America (

  3. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    5 Figure 1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating units (GED, 2006a)of an electric generating coal power plant that would be

  4. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    than those of other coal types, depending on the location oftrue that different coal types (in terms of heating values,= installed capacity of i-type coal plants [GW]; HR i = heat

  5. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  6. Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

  7. Balancing coal pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earley, D.; Kirkenir, B.

    2009-11-15

    Balancing coal flow to the burners to optimise combustion by using real-time measurement systems (such as microwave mass measurement) is discussed. 3 figs.

  8. Coal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy Secretary Moniz Visits Clean Coal Facility in Mississippi On Friday, Nov. 8, 2013, Secretary Moniz and international...

  9. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  10. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Data For: 2001 Next Release Date: October 2003 U. S. Coal-Producing Districts...

  11. Integrated Sensing and Controls for Coal Gasification - Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aditya Kumar

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive systems approach to integrated design of sensing and control systems for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, using advanced model-based techniques. In particular, this program is focused on the model-based sensing and control system design for the core gasification section of an IGCC plant. The overall approach consists of (i) developing a first-principles physics-based dynamic model of the gasification section, (ii) performing model-reduction where needed to derive low-order models suitable for controls analysis and design, (iii) developing a sensing system solution combining online sensors with model-based estimation for important process variables not measured directly, and (iv) optimizing the steady-state and transient operation of the plant for normal operation as well as for startup using model predictive controls (MPC). Initially, available process unit models were implemented in a common platform using Matlab/Simulink{reg_sign}, and appropriate model reduction and model updates were performed to obtain the overall gasification section dynamic model. Also, a set of sensor packages were developed through extensive lab testing and implemented in the Tampa Electric Company IGCC plant at Polk power station in 2009, to measure temperature and strain in the radiant syngas cooler (RSC). Plant operation data was also used to validate the overall gasification section model. The overall dynamic model was then used to develop a sensing solution including a set of online sensors coupled with model-based estimation using nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF). Its performance in terms of estimating key unmeasured variables like gasifier temperature, carbon conversion, etc., was studied through extensive simulations in the presence sensing errors (noise and bias) and modeling errors (e.g. unknown gasifier kinetics, RSC fouling). In parallel, an MPC solution was initially developed using ideal sensing to optimize the plant operation during startup pre-heating as well as steady state and transient operation under normal high-pressure conditions, e.g. part-load, base-load, load transition and fuel changes. The MPC simulation studies showed significant improvements both for startup pre-heating and for normal operation. Finally, the EKF and MPC solutions were coupled to achieve the integrated sensing and control solution and its performance was studied through extensive steady state and transient simulations in the presence of sensor and modeling errors. The results of each task in the program and overall conclusions are summarized in this final report.

  12. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1995-12-01

    Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal with particular reference to the coals from the Illinois Basin. Although this research is not yet completed the results to date support the following conclusions: (1) based on the results of computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in their injection properties with a variety of other bituminous coals, although the replacement ratio improves with increasing rank; (2) based on the results of petrographic analysis of material collected from an active blast furnace, it is clear the coal derived char is entering into the raceway of the blast furnace; (3) the results of reactivity experiments on a variety of coal chars at a variety of reaction temperatures show that lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois basin, yield chars with significantly higher reactivities in both air and CO{sub 2} than chars from higher rank Appalachian coals and blast furnace coke. These results indicate that the chars from the lower rank coals should have a superior burnout rate in the tuyere and should survive in the raceway environment for a shorter time. These coals, therefore, will have important advantages at high rates of injection that may overcome their slightly lower replacement rates.

  13. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

  14. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline FuelMetallic ores and concentrates Coal Crude Petroleum Gasoline and aviation turbine fuel

  15. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost· Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

  16. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

  17. Picobubble enhanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Y.J.; Liu, J.T.; Yu, S.; Tao, D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range beyond which the flotation efficiency drops drastically. It is now known that the low flotation recovery of particles in the finest size fractions is mainly due to a low probability of bubble-particle collision while the main reason for poor coarse particle flotation recovery is the high probability of detachment. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles in a wide range of size by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. They are characterized by a size distribution that is mostly below 1 {mu}m and adhere preferentially to the hydrophobic surfaces. The presence of picobubbles increases the probability of collision and attachment and decreases the probability of detachment, thus enhancing flotation recovery. Experimental results with the Coalberg seam coal in West Virginia, U.S.A. have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 2 in. column flotation increased fine coal recovery by 10-30%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. Picobubbles also acted as a secondary collector and reduced the collector dosage by one third to one half.

  18. An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. for Mining Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

  19. Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

  20. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    10%. These two properties can be used to classify coals forsulfur in the coal to be burned. Other properties, such as

  1. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  2. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, D.F. [SIMTECHE, Half Moon Bay, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  3. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  4. Catalytic Unmixed Combustion of Coal with Zero Pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Rizeq; Parag Kulkarni; Raul Subia; Wei Wei

    2005-12-01

    GE Global Research is developing an innovative energy-based technology for coal combustion with high efficiency and near-zero pollution. This Unmixed Combustion of coal (UMC-Coal) technology simultaneously converts coal, steam and air into two separate streams of high pressure CO{sub 2}-rich gas for sequestration, and high-temperature, high-pressure vitiated air for producing electricity in gas turbine expanders. The UMC process utilizes an oxygen transfer material (OTM) and eliminates the need for an air separation unit (ASU) and a CO{sub 2} separation unit as compared to conventional gasification based processes. This is the final report for the two-year DOE-funded program (DE-FC26-03NT41842) on this technology that ended in September 30, 2005. The UMC technology development program encompassed lab- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UMC concept. The chemical feasibility of the individual UMC steps was established via lab-scale testing. A pilot plant, designed in a related DOE funded program (DE-FC26-00FT40974), was reconstructed and operated to demonstrate the chemistry of UMC process in a pilot-scale system. The risks associated with this promising technology including cost, lifetime and durability OTM and the impact of contaminants on turbine performance are currently being addressed in detail in a related ongoing DOE funded program (DE-FC26-00FT40974, Phase II). Results obtained to date suggest that this technology has the potential to economically meet future efficiency and environmental performance goals.

  5. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  6. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Tonawanda, NY); Smol, Robert (East Patchogue, NY); Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY); Naphtali, Leonard M. (Washington, DC)

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  7. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  8. Coal. [Great Plains Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The status of various research projects related to coal is considered: gasification (approximately 30 processes) and in-situ gasification. Methanol production, retrofitting internal combustion engines to stratified charge engines, methanation (Conoco), direct reduction of iron ores, water resources, etc. Approximately 200 specific projects related to coal are considered with respect to present status. (LTN)

  9. DOE Award Results in Several Patents, Potential Increased Coal Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A $13 million cooperative effort with the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) over the past seven years has resulted in the successful demonstration of a novel technology that addresses a problem plaguing coal operators and environmentalists alike: separating fine coal particles from water and their ultimate use as a significant energy resource.

  10. Coal in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Additional Entry Points in the Academic Year: Key Principles (Academic and Business) for Campus-Based Programmes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenaway, Alan

    Additional Entry Points in the Academic Year: Key Principles (Academic and Business) for Campus-Based Programmes The Key Principles (Academic and Business) for Additional Entry points in the Academic Year operates on the basis of a two-semester academic year with a main, formal entry point in September

  12. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec's coal gasification facility. Destec's plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

  13. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

    1992-11-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec`s coal gasification facility. Destec`s plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

  14. Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development; Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollis, Rebecca

    2013-03-31

    Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in 2005 to study and develop a competing technology for use in future fossil-fueled power generation facilities that could operate with near zero emissions. CES’s background in oxy-fuel (O-F) rocket technology lead to the award of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42645, “Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development,” where CES was to first evaluate the potential of these O-F power cycles, then develop the detailed design of a commercial-scale O-F combustor for use in these clean burning fossil-fueled plants. Throughout the studies, CES found that in order to operate at competitive cycle efficiencies a high-temperature intermediate pressure turbine was required. This led to an extension of the Agreement for, “Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications” where CES was to also develop an intermediate-pressure O-F turbine (OFT) that could be deployed in O-F industrial plants that capture and sequester >99% of produced CO2, at competitive cycle efficiencies using diverse fuels. The following report details CES’ activities from October 2005 through March 2013, to evaluate O-F power cycles, develop and validate detailed designs of O-F combustors (main and reheat), and to design, manufacture, and test a commercial-scale OFT, under the three-phase Cooperative Agreement.

  15. Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

    2009-06-30

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown disposal. Membrane treatment (nanofiltration or reverse osmosis) can be employed to reduce TDS and sulfate concentrations to acceptable levels for reuse of the blowdown in the cooling systems as makeup water.

  16. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  17. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

    2001-04-30

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would suffer from low throughput capacities and high maintenance requirements. In general, surface area-based separators (e.g., shaking tables, magnetic drum separator, electrodynamic separator, etc.) have lower throughput capacities than volume-based separators (e.g., flotation cell, dense-medium bath, cyclones, etc.) by an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the electrodes of the laboratory unit need to be cleaned frequently, creating a high maintenance requirement if it is scaled-up to a commercial unit. The bench-scale continuous TES unit developed at NETL, on the other hand, separates positively and negatively charged particles by splitting the gaseous stream containing these particles in an electric field by means of a flow splitter, so that the oppositely charged particles can be directed into different compartments. This device is fundamentally different from the laboratory unit in that the former is a surface area-based separator, while the latter is a volume-based separator. The bench-scale unit is referred to as an entrained flow separator by the in-house researchers at NETL. Thus, the entrained flow TES unit is a significant improvement over the laboratory unit with regard to throughput capacity. In the present work, the entrained flow separator concept will be utilized for developing a proof-of concept (POC) separator that can be scaled-up to commercial size units. To accomplish this, it is necessary to develop a bench-scale separator that can achieve high Btu recoveries while maintaining the high degree of separation efficiencies. It is the objective of the present investigation to develop an efficient separator by studying the mechanisms of triboelectrification and investigating better ways of separating the charged particles. An important criterion for developing efficient separators is that they not only provide high separation efficiencies but also have high throughput capacities, which are essential ingredients for successful commercialization.

  18. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    coal are least expensive when produced from the Powder River Basin region, where cheaper surface mining

  19. A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Imparied Water As Cooling Water in Coal-based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasbir Gill

    2010-08-30

    Nalco Company is partnering with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in this project to jointly develop advanced scale control technologies that will provide cost-effective solutions for coal-based power plants to operate recirculating cooling water systems at high cycles using impaired waters. The overall approach is to use combinations of novel membrane separations and scale inhibitor technologies that will work synergistically, with membrane separations reducing the scaling potential of the cooling water and scale inhibitors extending the safe operating range of the cooling water system. The project started on March 31, 2006 and ended in August 30, 2010. The project was a multiyear, multi-phase project with laboratory research and development as well as a small pilot-scale field demonstration. In Phase 1 (Technical Targets and Proof of Concept), the objectives were to establish quantitative technical targets and develop calcite and silica scale inhibitor chemistries for high stress conditions. Additional Phase I work included bench-scale testing to determine the feasibility of two membrane separation technologies (electrodialysis ED and electrode-ionization EDI) for scale minimization. In Phase 2 (Technology Development and Integration), the objectives were to develop additional novel scale inhibitor chemistries, develop selected separation processes, and optimize the integration of the technology components at the laboratory scale. Phase 3 (Technology Validation) validated the integrated system's performance with a pilot-scale demonstration. During Phase 1, Initial evaluations of impaired water characteristics focused on produced waters and reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents. Literature and new data were collected and evaluated. Characteristics of produced waters vary significantly from one site to another, whereas reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents have relatively more uniform characteristics. Assessment to date confirmed that calcite and silica/silicate are two common potential cycle-limiting minerals for using impaired waters. For produced waters, barium sulfate and calcium sulfate are two additional potential cycle-limiting minerals. For reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents, calcium phosphate scaling can be an issue, especially in the co-presence of high silica. Computational assessment, using a vast amount of Nalco's field data from coal fired power plants, showed that the limited use and reuse of impaired waters is due to the formation of deposit caused by the presence of iron, high hardness, high silica and high alkalinity in the water. Appropriate and cost-effective inhibitors were identified and developed - LL99B0 for calcite and gypsum inhibition and TX-15060 for silica inhibition. Nalco's existing dispersants HSP-1 and HSP-2 has excellent efficacy for dispersing Fe and Mn. ED and EDI were bench-scale tested by the CRADA partner Argonne National Laboratory for hardness, alkalinity and silica removal from synthetic make-up water and then cycled cooling water. Both systems showed low power consumption and 98-99% salt removal, however, the EDI system required 25-30% less power for silica removal. For Phase 2, the EDI system's performance was optimized and the length of time between clean-in-place (CIP) increased by varying the wafer composition and membrane configuration. The enhanced EDI system could remove 88% of the hardness and 99% of the alkalinity with a processing flux of 19.2 gal/hr/m{sup 2} and a power consumption of 0.54 kWh/100 gal water. Bench tests to screen alternative silica/silicate scale inhibitor chemistries have begun. The silica/silicate control approaches using chemical inhibitors include inhibition of silicic acid polymerization and dispersion of silica/silicate crystals. Tests were conducted with an initial silica concentration of 290-300 mg/L as SiO{sub 2} at pH 7 and room temperature. A proprietary new chemistry was found to be promising, compared with a current commercial product commonly used for silica/silicate control. Additional pilot cooling tower testing confirmed

  20. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  1. Consensus Coal Production Forecast for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 2009-2030 Prepared for the West Virginia Summary 1 Recent Developments 2 Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 10 Risks References 27 #12;W.Va. Consensus Coal Forecast Update 2009 iii List of Tables 1. W.Va. Coal Production

  2. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

    1989-10-30

    A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

  3. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  4. Clean coal today

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1990-01-01

    This is the first issue of the Clean Coal Today publication. Each issue will provide project status reports, feature articles about certain projects and highlight key events concerning the US Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Projects described in this publication include: Colorado-Ute Electric Association Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project at Nucla, Colorado; Babcock and Wilcox coolside and limestone injection multistage burner process (dry sorbent injection); Coal Tech's Advanced Cyclone Combustor Project; and the TIDD pressurized fluidized bed combustor combined cycle facility in Brilliant, Ohio. The status of other projects is included.

  5. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  6. The Coal Transportation Rate Database

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (Million CubicThe Coal

  7. Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa.E.DRAFT0, 19977,

  8. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stock, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new base catalyzed C-alkylation reaction that employs a mixture of n-butyllithium and potassium t-butoxide in refluxing heptane to produce coal anions that are subsequently treated with n-alkyl halides at 0{degree}C has been developed. Almost quantitative pyridine solubilization was achieved by C-octylation of a Lower Kittanning coal, PSOC 1197. C-Octylation was less successful for the solubilization of bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal, APCSP 3, and subbituminous Wyodak coal, APCSP 2, which gave 35 and 33% soluble material, respectively. Their O-methyl derivatives yielded 43 and 20% soluble material in the same reaction. The observations are in accord with the concept of Ouchi and his associates that higher rank coals, although more aromatic in character, have a lower degree of polymerization than low rank coals. Relatively mild chemical reactions, such as Calkylation, that lead to modest changes in molecular dimensions, can disrupt intermolecular forces and accomplish solubilization.

  9. Projects of the year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, T.

    2007-01-15

    The Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Florida was the site of Power Engineering magazine's 2006 Projects of the Year Awards Banquet, which kicked-off the Power-Gen International conference and exhibition. The Best Coal-fired Project was awarded to Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association Inc., owner of Springenville Unit 3. This is a 400 MW pulverized coal plant in Springeville, AZ, sited with two existing coal-fired units. Designed to fire Powder River Basin coal, it has low NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction for NOx control, dry flue gas desulfurization for SO{sub 2} control and a pulse jet baghouse for particulate control. It has a seven-stage feedwater heater and condensers to ensure maximum performance. Progress Energy-Carolinas' Asheville Power Station FGD and SCR Project was awarded the 2006 coal-fired Project Honorable Mention. This plant in Skyland, NC was required to significantly reduce NOx emissions. When completed, the improvements will reduce NOx by 93% compared to 1996 levels and SO{sub 2} by 93% compared to 2001 levels. Awards for best gas-fired, nuclear, and renewable/sustainable energy projects are recorded. The Sasyadko Coal-Mine Methane Cogeneration Plant near Donezk, Ukraine, was given the 2006 Honorable Mention for Best Renewable/Sustainable Energy Project. In November 2004, Ukraine was among 14 nations to launch the Methane to Markets partnership. The award-winning plant is fuelled by methane released during coal extraction. It generates 42 MW of power. 4 photos.

  10. Emissions mitigation of blended coals through systems optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Labbe [IOM Invensys Operations Management (United States)

    2009-10-15

    For coal fired power stations, such as those located in the US, that have installed NOx and SOx emissions abatement equipment substantial carbon dioxide reduction could be achieved by shifting from pure PRB coal to blended coals with local bituminous coal. Don Labbe explains how. The article is based on a presentation at Power-Gen Asia 2009, which takes place 7-9 October in Bangkok, Thailand and an ISA POWID 2009 paper (19th Annual Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controlls and Instrumentation Conference, Chicago, Illinois, May 2009). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  11. SECA Coal-Based Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Pierre

    2010-09-01

    This report documents the results of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42613 between Siemens Energy and the U.S. Department of Energy for the period October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2010. The Phase I POCD8R0 stack test was successfully completed as it operated for approximately 5,300 hrs and achieved all test objectives. The stack test article contained twenty-four 75 cm active length Delta8 scandia-stabilized zirconia cells. Maximum power was approximately 10 kWe and the SOFC generator demonstrated an availability factor of 85% at 50% power or greater. The Phase II POCD8R1 stack test operated for approximately 410 hrs before being aborted due to a sudden decrease in voltage accompanied by a rapid increase in temperature. The POCD8R1 test article contained forty-eight 100 cm active length Delta8 scandia-stabilized zirconia cells arranged in an array of six bundles, with each bundle containing eight cells. Cell development activities resulted in an approximate 100% improvement in cell power at 900°C. Cell manufacturing process improvements led to manufacturing yields of greater than 40% for the Delta8 cells. Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm were successfully manufactured as were cells with a seamless closed end. A pressurized cell test article was assembled, installed into the pressurized test facility and limited pressurized testing conducted. Open circuit voltage tests were performed at one and three atmospheres at 950°C were in agreement wi th the theoretical increase in the Nernst potential. Failed guard heaters precluded further testing. The SOFC analytical basis for the baseline system was validated with experimental data. Two system configurations that utilize a pressurized SOFC design with separated anode and cathode streams were analyzed. System efficiencies greater than 60% were predicted when integrating the separated anode and cathode stream module configuration with a high efficiency catalytic gasifier.

  12. SECA Coal-Based Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierre, Joseph

    2010-09-10

    This report documents the results of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42613 between Siemens Energy and the U.S. Department of Energy for the period October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2010. The Phase I POCD8R0 stack test was successfully completed as it operated for approximately 5,300 hrs and achieved all test objectives. The stack test article contained twenty-four 75 cm active length Delta8 scandiastabilized zirconia cells. Maximum power was approximately 10 kWe and the SOFC generator demonstrated an availability factor of 85% at 50% power or greater. The Phase II POCD8R1 stack test operated for approximately 410 hrs before being aborted due to a sudden decrease in voltage accompanied by a rapid increase in temperature. The POCD8R1 test article contained forty-eight 100 cm active length Delta8 scandiastabilized zirconia cells arranged in an array of six bundles, with each bundle containing eight cells. Cell development activities resulted in an approximate 100% improvement in cell power at 900°C. Cell manufacturing process improvements led to manufacturing yields of greater than 40% for the Delta8 cells. Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm were successfully manufactured as were cells with a seamless closed end. A pressurized cell test article was assembled, installed into the pressurized test facility and limited pressurized testing conducted. Open circuit voltage tests were performed at one and three atmospheres at 950°C were in agreement with the theoretical increase in the Nernst potential. Failed guard heaters precluded further testing. The SOFC analytical basis for the baseline system was validated with experimental data. Two system configurations that utilize a pressurized SOFC design with separated anode and cathode streams were analyzed. System efficiencies greater than 60% were predicted when integrating the separated anode and cathode stream module configuration with a high efficiency catalytic gasifier.

  13. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolker, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Palmer, C.A.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Lighty, J.; Veranth, J.; Helble, J.J.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Ames, M.R.; Finkelman, R.; Mamani-Paco, M.; Sterling, R.; Mroczkowsky, S.J.; Panagiotou, T.; Seames, W.

    1999-05-10

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environ-mental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 January 1999 to 31 March 1999. During this period, a full Program Review Meeting was held at the University of Arizona. At this meeting, the progress of each group was reviewed, plans for the following 9 month period were discussed, and action items (principally associated with the transfer of samples and reports among the various investigators) were identified.

  14. PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

  15. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, G.P.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  16. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Ronzio, N.J.; Smit, F.J.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the results of process and cost refinement studies for the manufacture of ultra-clean coal-slurry fuel for direct-fired gas turbines. The work was performed as an extension to an earlier contract in which AMAX R and D supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines program. A conceptual design study and cost estimate supplied to METC at that time indicated that a combined physical and chemical cleaning process could produce ultra-clean fuel at a competitive price. Laboratory and pilot plant studies performed for the contract extension further defined the process conditions and operating and capital costs to prepare coals containing from 0.2 to 1.0% ash as slurry fuels. A base-case fuel containing coal cleaned to 0.5% ash in a 1000 cp slurry containing 55% coal was $4.16 per million Btu when produced in quantities required to fuel a 500 MW gas-turbine generating station. Coal slurry fuel production costs as low as $3.66 per million Btu were projected for coals cleaned to 1.0% ash. 12 refs., 23 figs., 63 tabs.

  17. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  18. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  19. Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A public utility may not use clean coal technology at a new or existing electric generating facility without first applying for and obtaining from the Utility Regulatory Commission a certificate...

  20. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  1. JEDI II: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Coal, Naural...

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    new coal, gas, or wind plant: * Year of installation * Size of the project * Location * Cost (kW) * Any other site-specific information The more information the user provides,...

  2. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  3. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  4. WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings of the Conference on Coal Feeding Systems, HeldWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equipment", proposalWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equi pment". The

  5. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    mines in China lowers the coal recovery rate and increasesthat China’s average coal recovery rate is 30% nationallyimproved aggregate coal recovery rates and local- scale

  6. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,”12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal

  7. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic29 Figure 9. Sensitivity to Coal

  8. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol.1, Issue 4 (July 2015) Archived Editions: Coal...

  9. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    19 3.4. Coking coal for iron & steels FOB export value for coking coal was relatively stables FOB export value for coking coal significantly increased

  10. Production and screening of carbon products precursors from coal. Quarterly technical progress report and key personnel staffing report No. 6, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The main goal of this program is to demonstrate the utility of coal extracts from the West Virginia University (WVU) extraction process as suitable base raw materials for the carbon products encompassed by the Carbon Products Consortium (CPC) team. This quarterly report covers activities during the period from April 1, 1996 through June 30, 1996. The first year of the project ended in February, 1996; however, the WVU research effort has continued on a no-cost extension of the original contract. Samples have been supplied to CPC participants so they could conduct their portions of the project as contracted through ORNL. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: project planning and administration; consortium administration and reporting; coal extraction; technical/economic evaluation of WVU extraction process; and technology transfer. Previous work has shown that the WVU coal extraction process coupled with hydrotreatment, does have the potential for producing suitable base raw materials for carbon products. Current effort, therefore, involved the screening and evaluation of extracts produced by the WVU Group and recommending appropriate materials for scaleup for subsequent evaluation by Consortium Team members. As part of this program, the activation of the coal extraction residues was investigated for the purpose of producing a useful active carbon. A further task, which was started towards the end of the program, was to fabricate a small graphite artifact using Coke derived from coal extract as the filler and the coal extract itself as a binder. The results of these studies are summarized in this report.

  11. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main tasks for this reporting period were to correlate well logs and refine coal property maps, evaluate methane content and gas composition of Wilcox Group coals, and initiate discussions concerning collection of additional, essential data with Anadarko. To assess the volume of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered and volume of methane that can be produced in the vicinity of the proposed Sam Seymour sequestration site, we used approximately 200 additional wells logs from Anadarko Petroleum Corp. to correlate and map coal properties of the 3 coal-bearing intervals of Wilcox group. Among the maps we are making are maps of the number of coal beds, number of coal beds greater than 5 ft thick, and cumulative coal thickness for each coal interval. This stratigraphic analysis validates the presence of abundant coal for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of Sam Seymour power plant. A typical wellbore in this region may penetrate 20 to 40 coal beds with cumulative coal thickness between 80 and 110 ft. Gas desorption analyses of approximately 75 coal samples from the 3 Wilcox coal intervals indicate that average methane content of Wilcox coals in this area ranges between 216 and 276 scf/t, basinward of the freshwater boundary indicated on a regional hydrologic map. Vitrinite reflectance data indicate that Wilcox coals are thermally immature for gas generation in this area. Minor amounts of biogenic gas may be present, basinward of the freshwater line, but we infer that most of the Wilcox coalbed gas in the deep coal beds is migrated thermogenic gas. Analysis based on limited data suggest that sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed gas recovery should be located basinward of the Wilcox freshwater contour, where methane content is high and the freshwater aquifer can be avoided.

  12. Coal waste materials applications in Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niel, E.M.M.G.

    1997-12-31

    European countries have built up a tradition of coal burning activities. It is a well known fact that in the past twenty five years economic and technological growth was accompanied by more awareness for the protection of the environment. Therefore, increasing attention was paid to emission of hazardous gases, dust disposal and the proper reuse of coal residues. Both government and industry were searching for reasonable solutions to fight the rising environmental threats. It is noticed that the utilization situation in the different European countries varies considerably due to different historical, geographic and economic conditions. Nevertheless about 45% of the nearly 60 million tonnes of coal combustion by-products produced in European power plants are utilized, mainly in construction, civil engineering and the mining industry. In all European countries where electric energy is provided by coal fired power plants three parties are involved: (1) the power plants, as producers and owners of the coal fly ashes; (2) the consumers, which use the ashes in building products and construction; and (3) the government, mainly in watching over environmental and health aspects. This paper describes the use of fly ash in cements and concretes in European countries and the regulations on the use of fly ash.

  13. Energy 42 (2012) 486-496 Thermoeconomic operation optimization of a coal-fired power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    optimization of a coal-fired power plant Jie Xiong a, Haibo Zhao a.*, Chao Zhang a, Chuguang Zheng a, Peter B. Luh b aState Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion. Huazhong University ofSdence and Technology. Wuhan optimization on a 300 MW coal-fired power plant located in Yiyang (Hunan Province, China) is accomplished based

  14. LOW-COST, HIGH-PERFORMANCE MATERIALS USING ILLINOIS COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    conventional and clean coal technologies. This project was primarily directed toward developing concrete technologies. Based on these properties, two sources of both conventional and clean coal ashes were selected technology for high-volume applications of Illinois coal combustion by-products generated by using both

  15. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  16. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  17. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  18. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  19. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

  20. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  1. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" © CEP Aug. 78. Feed

  2. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/this operational mode, the gasifiers and other parts of the

  3. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    pollution. With coal and liquid transport fuel deficits in26 3.6. Coal-to-liquids and coal-to-70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60

  4. BPA 20-year power subscription Q. Should DSIs receive cost-based power from BPA after 2006? If so, how

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the flexibility to purchase from whatever option offers the best price and reliability. § Q. Should power fromBPA 20-year power subscription § Q. Should DSIs receive cost-based power from BPA after 2006? If so, how much? § A. DSI's should not receive firm, cost-based federal power from BPA after 2006. BPA

  5. Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James D.

    Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal? a. Coal Washing- Crushing coal then mixing it with a liquid to allow the impurities to settle. b burning coal altogether. With integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems, steam and hot

  6. Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

    2008-10-15

    Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

  7. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    application of new clean coal technologies with near zeroapplication of new clean coal technologies with near zero

  8. Slagging retrofit pulsed coal combustor: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A concept for a novel form of slagging retrofit pulsed coal combustor was tested in the laboratory. The combustor is based on controlled use of a form of high pressure amplitude combustion instability. The approach adopted was to resolve, in single pulse experiments, the basic technical issues arising in the development of the combustor. In a cold flow device, the issues of coal spatial distribution were addressed and a combustor and solids disperser configuration was developed to give uniform coal distribution in the combustor. Single pulse ignition experiments were conducted to determine the pressure rise in combustor, pressure rise-decay times, and coal conversion a function of various operating variables. Coal injection, flame propagation, and blowdown times leading to potential combustor size reduction of three times over steady flow combustors were demonstrated. The results give high pressure exhaust leading to potentially improved downstream heat transfer and reduced boiler size. Finally, zero-, one-, and two-dimensional mathematical models were developed in support of the experiments and also to provide design capability. 11 refs., 43 figs.

  9. Coal remains a hot commodity for Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bram, L.

    2006-02-15

    Based largely on analyses by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics in late 2005 and early 2006, the article looks at the recent and near future export market for Australian coal. Demand in Asia is growing; European demand remains steady. Developments existing and new mines in Queensland are summarised in the article. 3 tabs.

  10. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  11. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibility Mode Cluster CompatibilityCoal Markets

  12. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  13. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  14. Dry cleaning of Turkish coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

  15. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  16. (Basic properties of coals and other solids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25

    This report discusses basic properties of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Properties of coal liquids are also investigated. Heats of immersion in strong acids are found for Pittsburgh {number sign}8, Illinois {number sign}6, and Wyodak coals. Production of coal liquids by distillation is discussed. Heats of titration of coal liquids and coal slurries are reported. (VC)

  17. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  18. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  19. Coal Research FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibility Mode Cluster CompatibilityCoal Markets ReleaseCoal

  20. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  1. Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict environmental requirements. DOE provided $117,327,000 of the total project cost of $282,300,000, or 41.6 percent. Construction for the demonstration project was started in May 1995, and completed in November 1997. Operations were initiated in January 1998, and completed in December 1999. The evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from the AIDEA's Final Report (Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, 2001), as well as other references cited.

  2. CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    1 CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Request for Proposals Date of Issue: February 16, 2015 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of 2009. The mission of the CCCU is to enable environmentally benign and sustainable use of coal, both

  3. CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

  4. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  5. Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

    2006-12-22

    The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The extruder is special because all of its auger surface and the internal barrier surface are covered with the membranes allowing water to drain and solid particles retained. It is believed that there are four mechanisms working together in the dewatering process. They are hydrophilic diffusion flow, pressure flow, agitation and air purging. Hydrophilic diffusion flow is effective with hydrophilic membrane. Pressure flow is due to the difference of hydraulic pressure between the two sides of the membrane. Agitation is provided by the rotation of the auger. Purging is achieved with the air blow from the near bottom of the extruder, which is in vertical direction.

  6. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN); Hamilton, Choo Y. (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  7. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Thomas

    2012-01-26

    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  8. Multi-variable optimization of pressurized oxy-coal combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zebian, Hussam

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous multi-variable gradient-based optimization with multi-start is performed on a 300 MWe wet-recycling pressurized oxy-coal combustion process with carbon capture and sequestration. The model accounts for realistic ...

  9. The suitability of coal gasification in India's energy sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Lori Allison

    2006-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), an advanced coal-based power generation technology, may be an important technology to help India meet its future power needs. It has the potential to provide higher generating ...

  10. Modeling the structure of coal water slurry (CWS) sprays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prithiviraj, Manikandan

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes a model of coal water slurry (CWS) sprays and presents new experimental data for CWS viscosities. The model is based on the aerodynamic theory of spray atomization which has been successfully used ...

  11. Options for Near-Term Phaseout of CO2 Emissions from Coal Use in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Options for Near-Term Phaseout of CO2 Emissions from Coal Use in the United States P U S H K E R options for phasing out coal emissions in the United States by 2030. We focus on coal for physical science research in the past few years: The "safe" long-term level of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs

  12. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  13. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  14. The recycling of the coal fly ash in glass production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erol, M.M.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.

    2006-09-15

    The recycling of fly ash obtained from the combustion of coal in thermal power plant has been studied. Coal fly ash was vitrified by melting at 1773 K for 5 hours without any additives. The properties of glasses produced from coal fly ash were investigated by means of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. DTA study indicated that there was only one endothermic peak at 1003 K corresponding to the glass transition temperature. XRD analysis showed the amorphous state of the glass sample produced from coal fly ash. SEM investigations revealed that the coal fly ash based glass sample had smooth surface. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the glass sample were also determined. Recycling of coal fly ash by using vitrification technique resulted to a glass material that had good mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that the heavy metals of Pb, Cr, Zn and Mn were successfully immobilized into the glass. It can be said that glass sample obtained by the recycling of coal fly ash can be taken as a non-hazardous material. Overall, results indicated that the vitrification technique is an effective way for the stabilization and recycling of coal fly ash.

  15. The leaching characteristics of selenium from coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, T.; Wang, J.; Burken, J.G.; Ban, H.; Ladwig, K.

    2007-11-15

    The leaching characteristics of selenium from several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes under different pH conditions were investigated using batch methods. Results indicated that pH had a significant effect on selenium leaching from bituminous coal ash. The minimum selenium leaching occurred in the pH range between 3 and 4, while the maximum selenium leaching occurred at pH 12. The release of selenium from subbituminous coal ashes was very low for the entire experimental pH range, possibly due to the high content of calcium which can form hydration or precipitation products as a sink for selenium. The adsorption results for different selenium species indicated that Se(VI) was hardly adsorbable on either bituminous coal ashes or subbitumminous coal ashes at any pH. However, Se(I) was highly adsorbed by bituminous coal ashes under acidic pH conditions and was mostly removed by subbitumminous coal ashes across the entire pH range. This result suggests that the majority of selenium released from the tested fly ashes was Se(IV). A speciation-based model was developed to simulate the adsorption of Se(IV) on bituminous coal fly ash, and the pH-independent adsorption constants of HSeO{sup 3-} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} were determined. The modeling approach is useful for understanding and predicting the release process of selenium from fly ash.

  16. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  17. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?˘ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?˘ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?˘ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?˘ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  18. Overview of Contaminant Removal From Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne, A.W.; Alvin, M.A.; Granite, E.; Pennline, H.W.; Siriwardane, R.V.; Keairns, D.; Newby, R.A.

    2007-11-01

    Gasification is an important strategy for increasing the utilization of abundant domestic coal reserves. DOE envisions increased use of gasification in the United States during the next 20 years. As such, the DOE Gasification Technologies Program, including the FutureGen initiative, will strive to approach a near-zero emissions goal, with respect to multiple pollutants, such as sulfur, mercury, and nitrogen oxides. Since nearly one-third of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are produced by coal-powered generation facilities, conventional coal-burning power plants, and advanced power generation plants, such as IGCC, present opportunities in which carbon can be removed and then permanently stored.
    Gas cleaning systems for IGCC power generation facilities have been effectively demonstrated and used in commercial operations for many years. These systems can reduce sulfur, mercury, and other contaminants in synthesis gas produced by gasifiers to the lowest level achievable in coal-based energy systems. Currently, DOE Fossil Energy's goals set for 2010 direct completion of R&D for advanced gasification combined cycle technology to produce electricity from coal at 45–50% plant efficiency. By 2012, completion of R&D to integrate this technology with carbon dioxide separation, capture, and sequestration into a zero-emissions configuration is targeted with a goal to provide electricity with less than a 10% increase in cost of electricity. By 2020, goals are set to develop zero-emissions plants that are fuel-flexible and capable of multi-product output and thermal efficiencies of over 60% with coal. These objectives dictate that it is essential to not only reduce contaminant emissions into the generated synthesis gas, but also to increase the process or system operating temperature to that of humid gas cleaning criteria conditions (150 to 370 °C), thus reducing the energy penalties that currently exist as a result of lowering process temperatures (?40 to 38 °C) with subsequent reheat to the required higher temperatures.
    From a historical perspective, the evolution of advanced syngas cleaning systems applied in IGCC and chemical and fuel synthesis plants has followed a path of configuring a series of individual cleaning steps, one for each syngas contaminant, each step controlled to its individual temperature and sorbent and catalyst needs. As the number of syngas contaminants of interest has increased (particulates, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, halides such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, alkali metals, metal carbonyls, mercury, arsenic, selenium, and cadmium) and the degree of syngas cleaning has become more severe, the potential feasibility of advanced humid gas cleaning has diminished. A focus on multi-contaminant syngas cleaning is needed to enhance the potential cost savings, and performance of humid gas cleaning will focus on multi-contaminant syngas cleaning. Groups of several syngas contaminants to be removed simultaneously need to be considered, resulting in significant gas cleaning system intensification. Intensified, multi-contaminant cleaning processes need to be devised and their potential performance characteristics understood through small-scale testing, conceptual design evaluation, and scale-up assessment with integration into the power generation system. Results of a 1-year study undertaken by DOE/NETL are presented to define improved power plant configurations and technology for advanced multi-contaminant cleanup options.

  19. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Advanced progress concepts for direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.; Derbyshire, F.; Givens, E.

    1995-09-01

    Given the low cost of petroleum crude, direct coal liquefaction is still not an economically viable process. The DOE objectives are to further reduce the cost of coal liquefaction to a more competitive level. In this project the primary focus is on the use of low-rank coal feedstocks. A particular strength is the use of process-derived liquids rather than model compound solvents. The original concepts are illustrated in Figure 1, where they are shown on a schematic of the Wilsonville pilot plant operation. Wilsonville operating data have been used to define a base case scenario using run {number_sign}263J, and Wilsonville process materials have been used in experimental work. The CAER has investigated: low severity CO pretreatment of coal for oxygen rejection, increasing coal reactivity and mg inhibiting the propensity for regressive reactions; the application of more active. Low-cost Fe and Mo dispersed catalysts; and the possible use of fluid coking for solids rejection and to generate an overhead product for recycle. CONSOL has investigated: oil agglomeration for coal ash rejection, for the possible rejection of ash in the recycled resid, and for catalyst addition and recovery; and distillate dewaxing to remove naphthenes and paraffins, and to generate an improved quality feed for recycle distillate hydrogenation. At Sandia, research has been concerned with the production of active hydrogen donor distillate solvent fractions produced by the hydrogenation of dewaxed distillates and by fluid coking via low severity reaction with H{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2}O mixtures using hydrous metal oxide and other catalysts.

  1. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  2. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  3. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  4. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  5. Clean coal preparation using the Liquids From Coal (LFC) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klugh, D.M.; Marquardt, M.M.; Hoften, S.A. van [SGI International, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    With an abundance of coal located in the Pacific Rim region, many economies offer excellent opportunities for the application of clean coal technologies. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) Mild Gasification Process is a clean coal technology that can greatly enhance both the economical and environmental use of coal in this area. Indonesia, with its large population and emerging industrial infrastructure, has exhibited one of the fastest growth rates of electrical power consumption in Asia. This paper demonstrates the economic and environmental advantages of the LFC Process as it applies to coals in the Pacific Rim. These advantages are assessed from the results of a technical feasibility study of coal from the Tanjung Enim Region of Indonesia. While Tanjung Enim provides an example of added value and increased lifetime of an existing resource with some environmental benefits, other examples illustrate the excellent opportunity for upgrading coals for export into the Pacific Rim Steaming Coal Trade. These upgraded coals are expected to be very competitive in cost and are expected to be environmentally attractive.

  6. Coal within a revised energy perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darmstadter, J. [Resources for the Future (RFF), Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-07-15

    The author considers the use of coal within a revised energy perspective, focusing on the factors that will drive which fuels are used to generate electricity going forward. He looks at the world markets for fossil fuels and the difficulties of predicting oil and natural gas supply and prices, as demonstrated by the variability in projections from one year to another in the EIA's Annual Energy Outlook. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  7. With a broad-based increase in home prices over a year, the U.S. housing sector has

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    With a broad-based increase in home prices over a year, the U.S. housing sector has started to show product manufacturing sector and rise in delivered prices of major timber products, stumpage prices were up-to their capacity. The average statewide pine sawlog price was slightly lower than the last

  8. The foul side of 'clean coal'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.

    2009-02-15

    As power plants face new air pollution control, ash piles and their environmental threats are poised to grow. Recent studies have shown that carcinogens and other contaminants in piles of waste ash from coal-fired power plants can leach into water supplies at concentrations exceeding drinking water standards. Last year an ash dam broke at the 55-year old power plant in Kingston, TN, destroying homes and rising doubts about clean coal. Despite the huge amounts of ash generated in the USA (131 mtons per year) no federal regulations control the fate of ash from coal-fired plants. 56% of this is not used in products such as concrete. The EPA has found proof of water contamination from many operating ash sites which are wet impoundments, ponds or reservoirs of some sort. Several member of Congress have show support for new ash-handling requirements and an inventory of waste sites. Meanwhile, the Kingston disaster may well drive utilities to consider dry handling. 3 photos.

  9. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  10. Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and use and will help propel technologies for future advanced coal power systems.

  11. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  12. Alaska coal gasification feasibility studies - Healy coal-to-liquids plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Van Bibber; Charles Thomas; Robert Chaney

    2007-07-15

    The Alaska Coal Gasification Feasibility Study entailed a two-phase analysis of the prospects for greater use of Alaska's abundant coal resources in industrial applications. Phase 1, Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study (Report DOE/NETL 2006/1248) assessed the feasibility of using gasification technology to convert the Agrium fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska, from natural gas to coal feedstock. The Phase 1 analysis evaluated coals from the Beluga field near Anchorage and from the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, both of which are low in sulfur and high in moisture. This study expands the results of Phase 1 by evaluating a similar sized gasification facility at the Usibelli Coal mine to supply Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids to central Alaska. The plant considered in this study is small (14,640 barrels per day, bbl/d) compared to the recommended commercial size of 50,000 bbl/d for coal-to-liquid plants. The coal supply requirements for the Phase 1 analysis, four million tons per year, were assumed for the Phase 2 analysis to match the probable capacity of the Usibelli mining operations. Alaska refineries are of sufficient size to use all of the product, eliminating the need for F-T exports out of the state. The plant could produce marketable by-products such as sulfur as well as electric power. Slag would be used as backfill at the mine site and CO{sub 2} could be vented, captured or used for enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The unexpected curtailment of oil production from Prudhoe Bay in August 2006 highlighted the dependency of Alaskan refineries (with the exception of the Tesoro facility in Nikiski) on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude. If the flow of oil from the North Slope declines, these refineries may not be able to meet the in-state needs for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Additional reliable sources of essential fuel products would be beneficial. 36 refs., 14 figs., 29 tabs., 3 apps.

  13. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  14. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  15. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

  16. Coal surface structure and thermodynamics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, J.W.; Wernett, P.C.; Glass, A.S.; Quay, D.; Roberts, J.

    1994-05-01

    Coals surfaces were studied using static surface adsorption measurements, low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS), inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and a new {sup 13}C NMR relaxation technique. A comparison of surface areas determined by hydrocarbon gas adsorption and LAXS led to the twin conclusions that the hydrocarbons had to diffuse through the solid to reach isolated pores and that the coal pores do not form interconnected networks, but are largely isolated. This conclusion was confirmed when IGC data for small hydrocarbons showed no discontinuities in their size dependence as usually observed with porous solids. IGC is capable of providing adsorption thermodynamics of gases on coal surfaces. The interactions of non-polar molecules and coal surfaces are directly proportioned to the gas molecular polarizability. For bases, the adsorption enthalpy is equal to the polarizability interaction plus the heat of hydrogen bond formation with phenol. Amphoteric molecules have more complex interactions. Mineral matter can have highly specific effects on surface interactions, but with most of the molecules studied is not an important factor.

  17. Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted...

  18. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  20. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This is accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results were compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory’s monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by the USEPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions provides critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  1. Environmental development plan: coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This Environmental Development plan (EDP) examines environmental concerns that are being evaluated for the technologies in DOE's Coal Liquefaction Program. It identifies the actions that are planned or underway to resolve these concerns while the technologies are being developed. Research is scheduled on the evaluation and mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This EDP updates the FY 1977 Coal Liquefaction Program EDP. Chapter II describes the DOE Coal Liquefaction Program and focuses on the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), H-Coal, and Exxon donor solvent (EDS) processes because of their relatively advanced R and D stages. The major unresolved environmental concerns associated with the coal liquefaction subactivities and projects are summarized. The concerns were identified in the 1977 EDP's and research was scheduled to lead to the resolution of the concerns. Much of this research is currently underway. The status of ongoing and planned research is shown in Table 4-1.

  2. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  3. Coal companies hope to receive carbon credits for methane reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-09-30

    Each year, underground coal mining in the USA liberates 2.4 million tonnes of coal mine methane (CMM), of which less than 30% is recovered and used. One barrier to CMM recovery is cost. Drainage, collection, and utilization systems are complex and expensive to install. Two coal mines have improved the cost equation, however, by signing on to earn money for CMM emissions they are keeping out of the atmosphere. Jim Walter Resources and PinnOak Resources have joined a voluntary greenhouse gas reduction trading program called the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) to turn their avoided emissions into carbon credits. The example they set may encourage other coal mining companies to follow suit, and may bring new projects on the line that would otherwise have not gone forward. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Coal reserves in the United States and around the world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubert, K.; Masudi, H.

    1995-03-01

    There is an urgent need to examine the role that coal might play in meeting world energy needs during the next 20 years. Oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) can no longer be relied upon to provide expanding supplies of energy, even with rapidly rising prices. Neither can nuclear energy be planned on for rapid expansion worldwide until present uncertainties about it are resolved. Yet, the world`s energy needs will continue to grow, even with vigorous energy conservation programs and with optimistic rates of expansion in the use of solar energy. Coal already supplies 25% of the world`s energy, its reserves are vast, and it is relatively inexpensive. This study, with the aid of reports from the World Coal Study (WOCOL) examines the needs for coal on a global scale, its availability past and present, and its future prospects.

  5. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: catalog of bituminous coals and site selection. Appendix A. National coal resource data system: Ecoal, Wcoal, and Bmalyt. Final report, Phase I. [Bituminous coal; by state; coal seam depth and thickness; identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-31

    Appendix A is a catalog of the bituminous coal in 29 states of the contiguous United States which contain identified bituminous coal resources.

  6. Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Ralph W. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Patton, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophillic tailings.

  7. Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, David S. (Palo Alto, CA); Blessing, James E. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

  8. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

  9. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  10. The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

    1983-01-01

    THE FUEL IS FED FROM THE HOPPER INTO THE TOP OF THE GASIFIER RETORT THROUGH AN AUTOMATIC COAL FEEDER SYSTEM. COAL FROM THE (100 TON) TOP BUNKERS FLOWS THROUGH A STEEL INLET COMPARTMENT INTO A CAST IRON ROTARY DRUM FEEDER. THE 21" I.D. DRUM HAS A 60...? OPENING THROUGH WHICH IT RECEIVES APPROXIMATELY 6 CU. FT. (300 LBS) OF COAL FROM THE BUNKER. LIP SEALS ARE LOCATED AT THE EDGE OF THE OPENINGS TO CUTOFF THE COAL COLUMN AS THE DRUM ROTATES. A KNIFE GATE VALVE IS LOCATED BENEATH THE DRUM TO SEAL...

  11. JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

    2009-03-28

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members. Special projects provide an opportunity for non-CARRC members to sponsor specific research or technology transfer consistent with CARRC goals. This report covers CARRC activities from January 2007 through March 2009. These activities have been reported in CARRC Annual Reports and in member meetings over the past 2 years. CARRC continues to work with industry and various government agencies with its research, development, demonstration, and promotional activities nearing completion at the time of submission of this report. CARRC expects to continue its service to the coal ash industry in 2009 and beyond to work toward the common goal of advancing coal ash utilization by solving CCP-related technical issues and promoting the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable management of these complex and changing materials.

  12. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the projects funded did not meet their original goals, the overall objectives of the CPCPC were completed as many new applications for coal-derived feedstocks have been researched. Future research in many of these areas is necessary before implementation into industry.

  13. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1992-08-01

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin and lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degrees}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. In this quarterly report, overall mass balances on experiments conducted with tetralin, coal, lignin and coal-lignin mixture are reported. Overall mass recoveries of 95--99% of the total mass charged to the reactor were obtained. A number of experiments were conducted on coal, lignin and coal-lignin depolymerization. A careful statistical analysis of the data shows that coal depolymerization is enhanced by 10.4%, due to the lignin addition. The liquids obtained are being examined for their elemental composition, and molecular weight determination by size exclusion chromatography. The stability of the liquid products is being examined in various environments. The gaseous product analyses show that the major gases produced during the course of depolymerization are CO, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2}. When coal and lignin are reacted together, the amount of CO and CH{sub 4}produced respectively 12% and 38% greater than the corresponding amount of gases calculated, based on the weighted average of values obtained for coal and lignin alone. The data obtained show that lignin addition to coal is synergistic in that not only is the extent of coal depolymerization increased, but the gas produced contains higher concentrations of more desirable gaseous products.

  14. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycleconsists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification, combined cycleless expensive in a coal gasification, combined cycle power

  15. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  16. WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    of a three-body type, involving coal particles (sizes of hin dry coal feeders wi11 be predominantly type involvingabrasion of a two-body type. Coal crushing and mi 11ing

  17. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  18. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    unit water requirement of coal-fired electricity generationin electricity demand. Coal-fired power generation accounted12, the absolute amount of coal-fired capacity grew at an

  19. Volatile coal prices reflect supply, demand uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.

    2004-12-15

    Coal mine owners and investors say that supply and demand are now finally in balance. But coal consumers find that both spot tonnage and new contract coal come at a much higher price.

  20. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be economically competitive with current processes, and yet be environmentally friendly as well. The solvent extraction process developed uses mild hydrogenation of low cost oils to create powerful solvents that can dissolve the organic portion of coal. The insoluble portion, consisting mainly of mineral matter and fixed carbon, is removed via centrifugation or filtration, leaving a liquid solution of coal chemicals and solvent. This solution can be further refined via distillation to meet specifications for products such as synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and fibers. The most economical process recycles 85% of the solvent, which itself is obtained as a low-cost byproduct from industrial processes such as coal tar or petroleum refining. Alternatively, processes have been developed that can recycle 100% of the solvent, avoiding any need for products derived from petroleum or coal tar.

  1. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32Elements)Grossc. Real73 Table

  2. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32Elements)Grossc. Real73

  3. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32Elements)Grossc. Real73and Foreign

  4. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December 2008

  5. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December 2008

  6. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December

  7. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December3Q 2009

  8. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December3Q 20093Q

  9. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December3Q

  10. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December3Q4Q 2009

  11. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment of Energyof the CleanClient education istheCoalFocuses

  12. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table272/SPipelineNatural Gas Energy MarketsCoal

  13. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product:7a. Space Heatingreports Coal

  14. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand

  15. Utility Generation and Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes the state's support and incentives for the development of new energy production and generating facilities implementing advanced clean coal technology, such as coal...

  16. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    s ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. Ifgrowth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustiondependence. 4.4.1. Carbon dioxide emissions Coal is China’s

  17. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic21 Figure 6. Comparison of ACWH and CCGT-Wind

  18. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    materials (6%), delivered heating (district heating) (6%),coal growth. As district heating expands with urbanizationzone, coal use for district heating will depend on the

  19. DOE's Advanced Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (DOE's) advanced coal research, development, and demonstration program to develop low-carbon emission coal technologies. Introduction Fossil fuel resources represent a tremendous...

  20. SciTech Connect: "clean coal"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clean coal" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "clean coal" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  1. Automated control for coal handling operations at Bethlehem Steel, Burns Harbor Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zendzian, T.N. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Chesterton, IN (United States). Burns Harbor Div.

    1997-12-31

    The Burns Harbor coal handling operation processes 7,200 tons of coal per day to supply two 82 oven, six meter batteries. The operations in coal handling are subdivided into three separate sections: the coal field and stacker reclaimer operation, the crushing and storage of coal, and the coal blending operation. In 1996 a supervisory system was developed and installed to fully automate all the operations and equipment in the coal handling unit, add additional instrumentation and logic controls to prevent coal contamination, and improve data collection and logging. The supervisory system is operated from a computer based workstation and is based on a distributed control philosophy utilizing programmable logic controllers, set point controllers, and man-machine interface displays. The previous control system for the coal handling operation consisted of a switchboard from which an operator controller the set up and running of the conveyor systems and equipment to stack, reclaim, and blend coal. The new supervisory system was installed in parallel with the original control system to safeguard continued operation during the system installation and commissioning. The original system still exists and can be operated in even of failure of the supervisory system.

  2. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled ``Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,`` describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  3. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharucha, N. [Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  4. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  5. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-03-15

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall objective, the following goals were established for the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Project: Provide sufficient quantity of products for full-scale test burns; Develop data for the design of future commercial plants; Demonstrate plant and process performance; Provide capital and O&M cost data; and Support future LFC{trademark} technology licensing efforts. Each of these goals has been met and exceeded. The plant has been in operation for nearly 5 years, during which the LFC{trademark} process has been demonstrated and refined. Fuels were made, successfully burned, and a commercial-scale plant is now under contract for design and construction.

  6. Development of a Software System to Facilitate Implementation of Coal and Wood Co-Fired Bilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalakrishnan, B.; Gump, C. D.; Gupta, D. P.; Chaudhari, S.

    2013-01-01

    Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has improved significantly over the years. The term "co-firing", when used by members of the biomass or utility communities, has come to mean mixing a modest amount of clean, dry sawdust with coal and burning...

  7. Graphic values for some organic constituents of beneficiated coal samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlenberger, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    The first objective of this one-year project is to obtain analytical data on a series of fractions of coal sample IBC-101 of widely varying ash content obtained via a froth flotation physical coal cleaning process. Froth flotation is the fractionation technique to be used rather than float/sink testing as in the Stansfield-Sutherland method because (1) most of the data in our files which were used in the development of these techniques were froth flotation tests and (2) as a way of showing that the fractionating is as effective by one technique as the other, so long as no chemical changes are effected. Analytical values will be obtained in the Coal Analysis Laboratory for moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, total carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, total sulfur, sulfate sulfur, organic sulfur, and calorific value. The next objective will be to plot the various values of each of the analyzed species versus its corresponding ash values to obtain x/y plots for each as a function of ash. From the resulting curves, it should be possible to calculate for coal sample IBC-101 a precise measure of its mineral matter content, its dry or moist ,mineral-matter-free calorific value as used in determining the rank of the coal sample, calculate organic sulfur values corresponding to each ash value in cases where the relationship is linear, and possibly find other analyzed values which have a direct correlation with the mineral matter content of the coal.

  8. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, Robert E. (Fairview, PA); Basic, Steven L. (Hornell, NY); Smith, Russel M. (North East, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  9. Digital image processing applications in the ignition and combustion of char/coal particles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharbat, Esam Tawfiq

    1992-01-01

    fully vaporize or a plastic which fully pyrolyzes (e. g, PMMA) ignite homogeneously. Coal, like many polymers, is partially gasifying. Thus, coal could be classified as a charring solid. Volatile matter, flammability of the volatile and transport from... RECOMMENDATIONS . 184 REFERENCES Page 185 APPENDIX A LENS SELECTION CRITERIA 188 B EXPERIMENTAL DATA 191 VITA 199 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Isolated Candle Mass Variation with Time 2 Physical and Chemical Analysis of Coal 72 3 Base Case...

  10. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  11. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in Alabama emit approximately 31 MMst (2.4 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} annually. The total sequestration capacity of the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway at 350 psi is about 189 MMst (14.9 Tcf), which is equivalent to 6.1 years of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal-fired power plants. Applying the geologic screening model indicates that significant parts of the coalbed methane fairway are not accessible because of fault zones, coal mines, coal reserves, and formation water with TDS content less than 3,000 mg/L. Excluding these areas leaves a sequestration potential of 60 MMst (4.7 Tcf), which is equivalent to 1.9 years of emissions. Therefore, if about10 percent of the flue gas stream from nearby power plants is dedicated to enhanced coalbed methane recovery, a meaningful reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions can be realized for nearly two decades. If the fresh-water restriction were removed for the purposes of CO{sub 2} sequestration, an additional 10 MMst (0.9 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} could feasibly be sequestered. The amount of unswept coalbed methane in the fairway is estimated to be 1.49 Tcf at a pressure of 50 psi. Applying the screening model results in an accessible unswept gas resource of 0.44 Tcf. Removal of the fresh-water restriction would elevate this number to 0.57 Tcf. If a recovery factor of 80 percent can be realized, then enhanced recovery activities can result in an 18 percent expansion of coalbed methane reserves in the Black Warrior basin.

  12. Coal Technology '80. Volume 5. Synthetic fuels from coal. Volume 6. Industrial/utility applications for coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The 3rd international coal utilization exhibition and conference Coal Technology '80 was held at the Astrohall, Houston, Texas, November 18-20, 1980. Volume 5 deals with coal gasification and coal liquefaction. Volume 6 deals with fluidized-bed combustion of coal, cogeneration and combined-cycle power plants, coal-fuel oil mixtures (COM), chemical feedstocks via coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Thirty-six papers have been entered individually into EDB and seven also into ERA; three had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  13. Coal gasification vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  14. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  15. 2011 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference Pittsburgh, PA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Sequestration in Unmineable Coal with Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: The Marshall County Project James E conducted in Marshall County, West Virginia, USA, to evaluate enhanced coal bed methane recovery2011 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference Pittsburgh, PA September 12 ­ 15, 2011 CO2

  16. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  17. Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macalady, Jenn

    Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane Dariusz Strapo´c,1, Maria Mastalerz,2 Katherine, biodegradation Abstract Microbial methane accumulations have been discovered in multiple coal- bearing basins low-maturity coals with predominantly microbial methane gas or uplifted coals containing older

  18. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Healy, Francis E. (Massapequa, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY)

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  19. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    China Primary Energy Consumption, 1980-2007 Primary Energy Consumption (mtce) hydro & nuclear coal natural gas

  20. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.