National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for base load unit

  1. Cost Bases for Incentive Rates Applicable to Industrial Loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, C. N.

    1987-01-01

    ; they involve a depressed economy base in all or certain segments of the service area, a decrease in load, excess generation capacity, and an increase in base rates. An increase in rates may also be related to the commercial operation of a base load unit, i... utility has completely abandoned a pricing structure that is in any way related to cost. Some of the incentive rates are very short lived and reflect transient economic conditions while others tend to reflect long-term economic relationships...

  2. Reliability assessment of Indian Point Unit 3 containment structure under combined loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, H.; Shinozuka, M.; Kawakami, J.; Reich, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the current design criteria, the load combinations specified for design of concrete containment structures are in the deterministic format. However, by applying the probability-based reliability analysis method developed by BNL to the concrete containment structures designed according to the criteria, it is possible to evaluate the reliability levels implied in the current design criteria. For this purpose, the reliability analysis is applied to the Indian Point Unit No. 3 containment. The details of the containment structure such as the geometries and the rebar arrangements, etc., are taken from the working drawings and the Final Safety Analysis Report. Three kinds of loads are considered in the reliability analysis. They are, dead load, accidental pressure due to a large LOCA, and earthquake ground acceleration. This paper presents the reliability analysis results of the Indian Point Unit 3 containment subjected to all combinations of loads.

  3. The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan....

  4. "Load Management Systems for Component-based Middleware"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, John

    "Load Management Systems for Component-based Middleware" Octavian Ciuhandu, B.E. Masters Management Services Characteristics . . . . . 26 3.3.2 Load Management Services Classification . . . . . . 28 3.3.3 Load Management Services Requirements . . . . . 30 3.3.4 Load Management Services Components

  5. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  6. UNIT SELECTION ALGORITHM FOR JAPANESE SPEECH SYNTHESIS BASED ON BOTH PHONEME UNIT AND DIPHONE UNIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duh, Kevin

    UNIT SELECTION ALGORITHM FOR JAPANESE SPEECH SYNTHESIS BASED ON BOTH PHONEME UNIT AND DIPHONE UNIT ABSTRACT This paper proposes a novel unit selection algorithm for Japanese Text-To-Speech (TTS) systems, CV units are basic to con- catenative TTS systems for Japanese. However, speech syn- thesized with CV

  7. Lifeline-based Global Load Balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saraswat, Vijay A.; Kambadur, Prabhanjan; Kodali, Sreedhar; Grove, David; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram

    2011-02-12

    On shared-memory systems, Cilk-style work-stealing has been used to effectively parallelize irregular task-graph based applications such as Unbalanced Tree Search (UTS). There are two main difficulties in extending this approach to distributed memory. In the shared memory approach, thieves (nodes without work) constantly attempt to asynchronously steal work from randomly chosen victims until they find work. In distributed memory, thieves cannot autonomously steal work from a victim without disrupting its execution. When work is sparse, this results in performance degradation. In essence, a direct extension of traditional work-stealing to distributed memory violates the work-first principle underlying work-stealing. Further, thieves spend useless CPU cycles attacking victims that have no work, resulting in system inefficiencies in multi-programmed contexts. Second, it is non-trivial to detect active distributed termination (detect that programs at all nodes are looking for work, hence there is no work). This problem is well-studied and requires careful design for good performance. Unfortunately, in most existing languages/frameworks, application developers are forced to implement their own distributed termination detection. In this paper, we develop a simple set of ideas that allow work-stealing to be efficiently extended to distributed memory. First, we introduce lifeline graphs: low-degree, low diameter, fully connected directed graphs. Such graphs can be constructed from k-dimensional hypercubes. When a node is unable to find work after w unsuccessful steals, it quiesces after informing the outgoing edges in its lifeline graph. Quiescent nodes do not disturb other nodes. A quiesced node is reactivated when work arrives from a lifeline and itself shares this work with those of its incoming lifelines that are activated. Termination occurs precisely when computation at all nodes has quiesced. In a language such as X10, such passive distributed termination can be detected automatically using the finish construct -- no application code is necessary.

  8. Part-Load Performance Characterization and Energy Savings Potential of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2013-09-30

    In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technology Office (DOE’s BTO), with help from the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) members, developed a specification for high performance rooftop air-conditioning units (RTU Challenge) with capacity ranges between 10 and 20 tons (DOE 2013). Daikin’s Rebel for the first rooftop unit system that was recognized by DOE in May 2012 as meeting the RTU Challenge specifications. This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and its use with EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from use of Rebel compared to other standard options.

  9. Antenna unit and radio base station therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuwahara, Mikio; Doi, Nobukazu; Suzuki, Toshiro; Ishida, Yuji; Inoue, Takashi; Niida, Sumaru

    2007-04-10

    Phase and amplitude deviations, which are generated, for example, by cables connecting an array antenna of a CDMA base station and the base station, are calibrated in the baseband. The base station comprises: an antenna apparatus 1; couplers 2; an RF unit 3 that converts a receive signal to a baseband signal, converts a transmit signal to a radio frequency, and performs power control; an A/D converter 4 for converting a receive signal to a digital signal; a receive beam form unit 6 that multiplies the receive signal by semi-fixed weight; a despreader 7 for this signal input; a time-space demodulator 8 for demodulating user data; a despreader 9 for probe signal; a space modulator 14 for user data; a spreader 13 for user signal; a channel combiner 12; a Tx calibrater 11 for controlling calibration of a signal; a D/A converter 10; a unit 16 for calculation of correlation matrix for generating a probe signal used for controlling an Rx calibration system and a TX calibration system; a spreader 17 for probe signal; a power control unit 18; a D/A converter 19; an RF unit 20 for probe signal; an A/D converter 21 for signal from the couplers 2; and a despreader 22.

  10. Distributed Internet-based Load Altering Attacks against Smart Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    management, cost-efficient load protection. I. INTRODUCTION The recent advancements in smart grid systemsDistributed Internet-based Load Altering Attacks against Smart Power Grids Amir-Hamed Mohsenian distribution system. Keywords: Smart grid security, Internet-based load altering attacks, demand side

  11. Contract-Based Load Management in Federated Distributed Systems Magdalena Balazinska, Hari Balakrishnan, and Mike Stonebraker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contract-Based Load Management in Federated Distributed Systems Magdalena Balazinska, Hari://nms.lcs.mit.edu/projects/medusa/ Abstract This paper focuses on load management in loosely- coupled federated distributed systems. We in practice. Our load management mechanism is especially well- suited for distributed stream

  12. VIRTUAL TIME BASED DYNAMIC LOAD MANAGEMENT IN THE TIME WARP OPERATING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    VIRTUAL TIME BASED DYNAMIC LOAD MANAGEMENT IN THE TIME WARP OPERATING SYSTEM Peter L. Reiher Jet on parallel machines. Recently TWOS has been substantially improved by the addition of dynamic load management to processors. Because TWOS uses optimistic synchronization, existing load management theory, which tends

  13. A Modular QoS-enabled Load Management Framework for Component-Based Middleware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, John

    A Modular QoS-enabled Load Management Framework for Component-Based Middleware Octavian Ciuhandu,murphyj}@eeng.dcu.ie ABSTRACT We present a new QoS-enabled load management framework for component oriented middleware application. Keywords Load, distribution, QoS, platform, middleware, optimization, adaptation, management

  14. ContractBased Load Management in Federated Distributed Systems # Magdalena Balazinska, Hari Balakrishnan, and Mike Stonebraker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contract­Based Load Management in Federated Distributed Systems # Magdalena Balazinska, Hari://nms.lcs.mit.edu/projects/medusa/ Abstract This paper focuses on load management in loosely­ coupled federated distributed systems. We in practice. Our load management mechanism is especially well­ suited for distributed stream

  15. A Reflective QoS-enabled Load Management Framework for Component-Based Middleware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Reflective QoS-enabled Load Management Framework for Component-Based Middleware Octavian Ciuhandu,murphyj}@eeng.dcu.ie ABSTRACT A new reflective QoS-enabled load management framework for component oriented middleware in complexity for the load management problem. Adaptive middleware offers the possibility of modifying

  16. Neural network based short-term load forecasting using weather compensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, T.W.S.; Leung, C.T. [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Electronic Engineering] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Electronic Engineering

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents a novel technique for electric load forecasting based on neural weather compensation. The proposed method is a nonlinear generalization of Box and Jenkins approach for nonstationary time-series prediction. A weather compensation neural network is implemented for one-day ahead electric load forecasting. The weather compensation neural network can accurately predict the change of actual electric load consumption from the previous day. The results, based on Hong Kong Island historical load demand, indicate that this methodology is capable of providing a more accurate load forecast with a 0.9% reduction in forecast error.

  17. Session-Based Admission Control: A Mechanism for Peak Load Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Session-Based Admission Control: A Mechanism for Peak Load Management of Commercial Web Sites Ludmila Cherkasova and Peter Phaal AbstractĐIn this paper, we consider a new, session-based workload function, which adjusts itself accordingly to variations in traffic loads. Index TermsĐSession-based web

  18. Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing SwimmingMicrosoft Word1 2 - 2 0 1AERMOD-PRIME, Units 5,for 12

  19. Simulations of Lithium-Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Gd-Loaded Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowles, Christian C.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-10-31

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Lithium-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology Coincidence Counting for Gd-loaded Fuels at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the development of a lithium-based neutron coincidence counter for nondestructively assaying Gd loaded nuclear fuel. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of a lithium-based coincidence counter for the possible measurement of Gd-loaded nuclear fuel. A comparison of lithium-based simulations and UNCL-II simulations with and without Gd loaded fuel is provided. A lithium-based model, referred to as PLNS3A-R1, showed strong promise for assaying Gd loaded fuel.

  20. Transistor-based filter for inhibiting load noise from entering a power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taubman, Matthew S

    2013-07-02

    A transistor-based filter for inhibiting load noise from entering a power supply is disclosed. The filter includes a first transistor having an emitter coupled to a power supply, a collector coupled to a load, and a base. The filter also includes a first capacitor coupled between the base of the first transistor and a ground terminal. The filter further includes an impedance coupled between the base and a node between the collector and the load, or a second transistor and second capacitor. The impedance can be a resistor or an inductor.

  1. *jerlynch@umich.edu; phone 1 734 615 5290; http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/~jerlynch Local-based damage detection of cyclically loaded bridge piers using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    -based damage detection of cyclically loaded bridge piers using wireless sensing units Tsung-Chin Hou, Jerome P of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 ABSTRACT Concrete bridge piers are a common structural element employed in the design of bridges and elevated roadways. In order to ensure adequate behavior under earthquake

  2. A Comparison of Wind Turbine Load Statistics for Inflow Turbulence Fields based on Conventional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    A Comparison of Wind Turbine Load Statistics for Inflow Turbulence Fields based on Conventional for a utility-scale 5MW wind turbine. Load statistics, spectra, and time-frequency analysis representations utility-scale wind turbines. The present study takes on this question by making use of conventional

  3. Mitigation of Fatigue Loads Using Individual Pitch Control of Wind Turbines Based on FAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhe

    Mitigation of Fatigue Loads Using Individual Pitch Control of Wind Turbines Based on FAST Yunqian University, China jiz@seu.edu.cn Abstract-With the increase of wind turbine dimension and capacity, the wind turbine structures are subjected to prominent loads and fatigue which would reduce the lifetime of wind

  4. Load Sharing and Spacer Flexibility in Double Pane and Triple Pane Insulating Glass Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertens, Karl Phillip

    2015-03-25

    , is the initial gas space temper- ature measured in degrees Kelvin. To then find the current gas space pressure Pgs, insert the constant C into: Pgs = C ? Tgs/Vgs (5) where Tgs, is the current gas space temperature and Vgs, is the current gas space volume... the net loads that act on the outer plate by combining equations (1) and (5) to get: q1 = q0 + Pa ? C ? Tgs/Vgs (11) This equation can then be inserted into equation (9) and rearranged to find the load distribution factor n? for each iteration: n...

  5. Microsoft Word - UPDATE 5 - Units 1,2 + base load unit.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE SafetyofDepartment. " 21 ranDay:OCIO AuditUto: A Dispersionto:

  6. Aerosol loading in the Southeastern United States: reconciling surface and satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, B.

    We investigate the seasonality in aerosols over the Southeastern United States using observations from several satellite instruments (MODIS, MISR, CALIOP) and surface network sites (IMPROVE, SEARCH, AERONET). We find that ...

  7. Inorganic hazardous air pollutants before and after a limestone flue gas desulfurization system as a function of <10 micrometer particle sizes and unit load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.P.; Williams, W.A.; Flora, H.B. II [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Radian Corporation collected size-fractionated particulate samples from stack gas at a unit burning high sulfur coal with a venturi scrubber FGD system. Independent sample fractions were collected under high-load and low-load operating conditions and subjected to various techniques designed to measure the total composition and surface-extractable concentrations of selected trace elements. The relationships between unit load, particle-size distribution, total composition, and surface-extractable inorganic species are reported and compared to show the availability of trace elements relevant to potential health risks from flue gas particulate emissions.

  8. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gale, Allan R. (Allen Park, MI); Gritter, David J. (Racine, WI)

    1988-01-01

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition.

  9. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gale, A.R.; Gritter, D.J.

    1988-06-07

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor is disclosed which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition. 2 figs.

  10. Fibre optical measuring network based on quasi-distributed amplitude sensors for detecting deformation loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kul'chin, Yurii N; Kolchinskiy, V A; Kamenev, O T; Petrov, Yu S

    2013-02-28

    A new design of a sensitive element for a fibre optical sensor of deformation loads is proposed. A distributed fibre optical measuring network, aimed at determining both the load application point and the load mass, has been developed based on these elements. It is shown that neural network methods of data processing make it possible to combine quasi-distributed amplitude sensors of different types into a unified network. The results of the experimental study of a breadboard of a fibre optical measuring network are reported, which demonstrate successful reconstruction of the trajectory of a moving object (load) with a spatial resolution of 8 cm, as well as the load mass in the range of 1 - 10 kg with a sensitivity of 0.043 kg{sup -1}. (laser optics 2012)

  11. BUILDING A UNITED STATES DATA BASE: POPULATIONS AT RISK TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sacks, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    BUILDING A UNITED STATES DATA BASE: POPULATIONS AT RISK TOBUILDING A UNITED STATES DATA BASE: POPULATIONS AT RISK TOof an demographic integrated data base characteristics, air

  12. Model-Based Diagnostics for Air-Handling Units Salsbury and Diamond 1 ModelModel--Based Diagnostics for Air Handling UnitsBased Diagnostics for Air Handling Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Based Diagnostics for Air-Handling Units ­ Salsbury and Diamond 1 ModelModel--Based Diagnostics for Air Handling UnitsBased Diagnostics for Air Handling Units Tim Salsbury and Rick Diamond Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 Introduction In most large air-conditioned buildings, air-handling units

  13. A FIRST PRINCIPLES BASED METHOD FOR THE PREDICTION OF LOADING OVER FIXED AND ROTARY WING GEOMETRIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A FIRST PRINCIPLES BASED METHOD FOR THE PREDICTION OF LOADING OVER FIXED AND ROTARY WING GEOMETRIES Lakshmi N. Sankar and Mert Berkman School of Aerospace Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology-principles based techniques for the prediction of fixed and rotary wing wake geometry are described

  14. ControlBased Load Shedding in Data Stream Management Systems YiCheng Tu and Sunil Prabhakar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Yicheng

    Control­Based Load Shedding in Data Stream Management Systems Yi­Cheng Tu and Sunil Prabhakar}@cs.purdue.edu Abstract Load shedding has been widely used in data stream man­ agement systems (DSMSs) as a means strategies in determining the tim­ ing and magnitude of load shedding. In this paper, we argue

  15. Control-Based Load Shedding in Data Stream Management Systems Yi-Cheng Tu and Sunil Prabhakar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Yicheng

    Control-Based Load Shedding in Data Stream Management Systems Yi-Cheng Tu and Sunil Prabhakar Department of Computer Sciences, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA Abstract Load shedding has the time and magnitude of load shedding. In this paper, we argue that these strategies cannot effectively

  16. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  17. A Historical Perspective and Business Model for Load Response Aggregation Based on Priority Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    A Historical Perspective and Business Model for Load Response Aggregation Based on Priority Service technologies and experiments in the 1980's for implementing demand response. We argue that while new smart grid technologies are cheaper and provide more functionality the barrier to demand response implementation

  18. Wood stove use in the end-use load and consumer assessment program residential base sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeBaron, B.A.

    1988-11-01

    This report examines wood heating in the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) Residential Base Sample during the 1985/1986 heating season. The goals of this study were to assess the frequency of wood burning in homes having wood burning equipment and to estimate the quantity of electrical space heat displaced by it use. 15 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Wind Loads on Ground-Based Telescopes Douglas G. MacMynowskia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMynowski, Douglas G. - MacMynowski, Douglas G.

    distribution of wind disturbances are defined as a function of relevant design parameters, providing Introduction Design studies are underway for the next generation of large ground-based optical telescopes still lead to significant vibration1,2 . Estimates of the wind loads are required early in the design

  20. Market-Based Coordination of Thermostatically Controlled Loads Part I: A Mechanism Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    through realistic simulations. Index Terms--Mechanism design, demand response, market- based coordination, thermostatically controlled loads I. INTRODUCTION Demand response has attracted considerable research at- tention and reliability of the future smart grid. A natural way to achieve demand response is through various pricing

  1. Fuel Cell Distributed Power Package Unit: Fuel Processing Based On

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    have been metAll milestones have been met #12;4 Autothermal Cyclic Reforming for PEM Fuel Cell CH4 + H2Fuel Cell Distributed Power Package Unit: Fuel Processing Based On Autothermal Cyclic Reforming-2000) Bread-Board Fuel Processor Development DOE (2001-3) Integrated Fuel Processor Development CEC/ARB (2002

  2. Experimental Study on Geocell-Reinforced Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Bases under Static and Cyclic Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thakur, Jitendra Kumar

    2011-01-13

    .1.2 Standard Proctor compaction curve of subgrade 94 Figure 5.1.3 CBR versus moisture content curve of subgrade 95 Figure 5.2.1 Schematic diagram for the set up of cyclic plate load test 96 Figure 5.2.2 Cyclic loading wave 97 Figure 5.2.3 Geotextile... and coastal protection, airfields, railroads, subgrade improvement, and reinforcement to base courses of road sections etc. since the 1970s. Today, there are many types of geosynthetic products (e.g., geogrid, geotextile, geocell, geomembrane, geonet...

  3. Loading and Regeneration Analysis of a Diesel Particulate Filter with a Radio Frequency-Based Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sappok, Alex; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of diesel particulate filter (DPF) loading is critical for robust and efficient operation of the combined engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. Furthermore, upcoming on-board diagnostics regulations require on-board technologies to evaluate the status of the DPF. This work describes the application of radio frequency (RF) based sensing techniques to accurately measure DPF soot levels and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material. A 1.9L GM turbo diesel engine and a DPF with an RF-sensor were studied. Direct comparisons between the RF measurement and conventional pressure-based methods were made. Further analysis of the particulate matter loading rates was obtained with a mass-based soot emission measurement instrument (TEOM). Comparison with pressure drop measurements show the RF technique is unaffected by exhaust flow variations and exhibits a high degree of sensitivity to DPF soot loading and good dynamic response. Additional computational and experimental work further illustrates the spatial resolution of the RF measurements. Based on the experimental results, the RF technique shows significant promise for improving DPF control enabling optimization of the combined engine-aftertreatment system for improved fuel economy and extended DPF service life.

  4. Economic and Emissions Implications of Load-Based, Source-based and First-seller Emissions Trading Programs under California AB32

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yihsu; Liu, Andrew L.; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2008-01-01

    cates in a load-based emissions trading scheme. Technicaland First-seller Emissions Trading Programs under Californiaand First-seller Emissions Trading Programs under California

  5. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL] [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi] [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi] [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi] [Delphi

    2012-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

  6. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Developments of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi

    2012-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

  7. Analysis of an industrial cogeneration unit driven by a gas engine. Part 1: Experimental testing under full and part-load operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Lucia, M.; Lanfranchi, C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes and analyzes an industrial cogeneration plant driven by a gas fueled reciprocating engine installed in a textile factory. It presents the results of experimental testing conducted under full and part-load operating conditions, as well as first-law energy considerations. The experimental tests conducted on the cogeneration unit proved the validity of the plant design and also enabled evaluation of part-load performance, which is the most common operating mode in cogeneration plants in the small-size industries which typical of central Italy.

  8. On Assessing the Accuracy of Offshore Wind Turbine Reliability-Based Design Loads from the Environmental Contour Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    On Assessing the Accuracy of Offshore Wind Turbine Reliability-Based Design Loads from to derive design loads for an active stall-regulated offshore wind turbine. Two different Danish offshore contour method; wind turbine; offshore; reliability. INTRODUCTION Inverse reliability techniques

  9. Hybrid Rule-Based Example-Based MT: Feeding Apertium with Sub-sentential Translation Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Way, Andy

    Hybrid Rule-Based ­ Example-Based MT: Feeding Apertium with Sub-sentential Translation Units Felipe S´anchez-Mart´inez Mikel L. Forcada Andy Way Dept. Llenguatges i Sistemes Inform`atics Universitat University Dublin 9, Ireland {mforcada,away}@computing.dcu.ie Abstract This paper describes a hybrid machine

  10. Public Service Commission Authorization to Utilize an Alternative Method of Cost Recovery for Certain Base Load Generation (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Senate Bill 2793 authorizes the Public Service Commission (PSC) to utilize an alternative cost recovery for certain base load generation. The PSC is authorized to include in an electric...

  11. Estimates for Pu-239 loadings in burial ground culverts based on fast/slow neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winn, W.G.; Hochel, R.C.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Sigg, R.A.

    1989-08-15

    This report provides guideline estimates for Pu-239 mass loadings in selected burial ground culverts. The relatively high recorded Pu-239 contents of these culverts have been appraised as suspect relative to criticality concerns, because they were assayed only with the solid waste monitor (SWM) per gamma-ray counting. After 1985, subsequent waste was also assayed with the neutron coincidence counter (NCC), and a comparison of the assay methods showed that the NCC generally yielded higher assays than the SWM. These higher NCC readings signaled a need to conduct non-destructive/non-intrusive nuclear interrogations of these culverts, and a technical team conducted scoping measurements to illustrate potential assay methods based on neutron and/or gamma counting. A fast/slow neutron method has been developed to estimate the Pu-239 in the culverts. In addition, loading records include the SWM assays of all Pu-239 cuts of some of the culvert drums and these data are useful in estimating the corresponding NCC drum assays from NCC vs SWM data. Together, these methods yield predictions based on direct measurements and statistical inference.

  12. On Market-Based Coordination of Thermostatically Controlled Loads With User Preference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Sen; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents a market-based control framework to coordinate a group of autonomous Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCL) to achieve the system-level objectives with pricing incentives. The problem is formulated as maximizing the social welfare subject to feeder power constraint. It allows the coordinator to affect the aggregated power of a group of dynamical systems, and creates an interactive market where the users and the coordinator cooperatively determine the optimal energy allocation and energy price. The optimal pricing strategy is derived, which maximizes social welfare while respecting the feeder power constraint. The bidding strategy is also designed to compute the optimal price in real time (e.g., every 5 minutes) based on local device information. The coordination framework is validated with realistic simulations in GridLab-D. Extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach effectively maximizes the social welfare and decreases power congestion at key times.

  13. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, Saeed [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these options. Conclusions Natural gas utilization as the primary heat source for district heat production implies environmental complications beyond just the global warming impacts. Diffusing renewable energy sources for generating the base load district heat would reduce human toxicity, ecosystem quality degradation, global warming, and resource depletion compared to the case of natural gas. Reducing fossil fuel dependency in various stages of wood pellet production can remarkably reduce the upstream global warming impact of using wood pellets for district heat generation.

  14. 2007 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing and Communications (ICSPC 2007), 24-27 November 2007, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Enhanced Channel Assignment and Load Distribution in IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akl, Robert

    -27 November 2007, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Enhanced Channel Assignment and Load Distribution in IEEE 802 the performance of real-world networks of one AP and one interferer. Although they discussed heavily

  15. Assessment of LWR piping design loading based on plant operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svensson, P. O.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of this study has been to: (1) identify current Light Water Reactor (LWR) piping design load parameters, (2) identify significant actual LWR piping loads from plant operating experience, (3) perform a comparison of these two sets of data and determine the significance of any differences, and (4) make an evaluation of the load representation in current LWR piping design practice, in view of plant operating experience with respect to piping behavior and response to loading.

  16. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Community-based tree and forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS ROME, 2011 Community-based tree of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development

  17. Systems and methods for providing power to a load based upon a control strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A; Ransom, Ray M

    2013-12-24

    Systems and methods are provided for an electrical system. The electrical system includes a load, an interface configured to receive a voltage from a voltage source, and a controller configured to receive the voltage from the voltage source through the interface and to provide a voltage and current to the load. Wherein, when the controller is in a constant voltage mode, the controller provides a constant voltage to the load, when the controller is in a constant current mode, the controller provides a constant current to the load, and when the controller is in a constant power mode, the controller provides a constant power to the load.

  18. Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterka, J A; Derickson, R G

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

  19. Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Han, Junqiao; Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Asano, Hiroshi; Kiliccote, Sila

    2009-06-28

    This paper provides new regression models for demand reduction of Demand Response programs for the purpose of ex ante evaluation of the programs and screening for recruiting customer enrollment into the programs. The proposed regression models employ load sensitivity to outside air temperature and representative load pattern derived from cluster analysis of customer baseline load as explanatory variables. The proposed models examined their performances from the viewpoint of validity of explanatory variables and fitness of regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas and Electric Company's commercial and industrial customers who participated in the 2008 Critical Peak Pricing program including Manual and Automated Demand Response.

  20. Systems and methods for providing power to a load based upon a control strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perisic, Milun; Lawrence, Christopher P; Ransom, Ray M; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2014-11-04

    Systems and methods are provided for an electrical system. The electrical system, for example, includes a first load, an interface configured to receive a voltage from a voltage source, and a controller configured to receive the voltage through the interface and to provide a voltage and current to the first load. The controller may be further configured to, receive information on a second load electrically connected to the voltage source, determine an amount of reactive current to return to the voltage source such that a current drawn by the electrical system and the second load from the voltage source is substantially real, and provide the determined reactive current to the voltage source.

  1. An Edge-based Formulation for the Combined-Cycle Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Fan

    2014-10-01

    Oct 1, 2014 ... Based on various combinations of combustion turbines (CTs) and steam turbines (STs), the combined-cycle unit could work at different ...

  2. PEV-based Reactive Power Compensation for Wind DG Units: A Stackelberg Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    1 PEV-based Reactive Power Compensation for Wind DG Units: A Stackelberg Game Approach Chenye Wu, in particular wind power, in form of distributed generation (DG) units. However, one important challenge with wind DG units is to provide low-cost and fast-responding reactive power compensation of the wind

  3. Tool-Assisted Unit-Test Generation and Selection Based on Operational Abstractions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Tao

    Tool-Assisted Unit-Test Generation and Selection Based on Operational Abstractions Tao Xie1 of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 Abstract. Unit testing, a common step in software development, presents a chal- lenge. When produced manually, unit test suites are often insufficient to identify defects. The main

  4. A hardware-based approach to adaptive load-sharing on a local area network 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, Harikrishna M

    1994-01-01

    . This chip also aids a heavily-loaded processor in speeding up the process of finding a lightly-loaded partner on the network. The collisions on the Ethernet can be easily detected at the hardware level and thus by shifting the process of finding a lightly...

  5. Hash-based Proximity Clustering for Load Balancing in Heterogeneous DHT Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Cheng-Zhong

    of their physi- cal proximity information on the Internet. The supernodes form a self-organized and churn and ex- hibits strong resilience to the effect of churn. It also greatly reduces the overhead randomized load balancing algo- rithms for load reassignment in DHTs with churn. The algo- rithms treat all

  6. Micro-grid operation of inverter based distributed generation with voltage and frequency dependent loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeineldin, H. H.

    Distribution systems are experiencing increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG). One attractive option is to use the available DG capacity during utility outages by forming planned micro-grids. Load sharing ...

  7. Dynamic load balancing algorithm for molecular dynamics based on Voronoi cells domain decompositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattebert, J.-L.; Richards, D.F.; Glosli, J.N.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new algorithm for automatic parallel load balancing in classical molecular dynamics. It assumes a spatial domain decomposition of particles into Voronoi cells. It is a gradient method which attempts to minimize a cost function by displacing Voronoi sites associated with each processor/sub-domain along steepest descent directions. Excellent load balance has been obtained for quasi-2D and 3D practical applications, with up to 440·106 particles on 65,536 MPI tasks.

  8. ELEN$4511 POWER$SYSTEMS$ANALYSIS$FINALPROJECT! ! Electric!Vehicles!Charging!Load!Calculations!based!on! !

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    !shifting!role!into!full!play.! ! In!my!project,!starting!from!the!development!status!and!trends!of!electric!vehicles,! analyze!developing!countries'!electric!charging!load!calculation!methods!under!the!charging!mode,!and! calculate!and!analyze!developing!countries'!future!electric!vehicle!charging!load.! ! Also,!in!my!project!the!reliability!and!energy!efficiency!of!power!system,!to! build!the!electric!cars!charging!model,!to!develop!appropriate!charging!strategies! for!users!and!to

  9. Fuel Cell Based Auxiliary Power Unit for Refrigerated Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Market Transformation project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done in developing fuel-cell powered Transport Refrigeration Units for Reefer Trucks. It describes the progress that has been made by Nuvera and Plug Power as they develop and ultimately demonstrate this technology in real world application.

  10. ANUDlSiTM-40 Load Flow Analysis: Base Cases, Data, Diagrams,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    To simplify data collection requirements and illustrate key concepts, a representative power system in the United States - the Commonwealth Edison Company (ComEd) in northern...

  11. Characterization of an FFDM unit based on a-Se direct conversion detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanconelli, Nico

    Characterization of an FFDM unit based on a-Se direct conversion detector Achille Albanese1 of this paper is to investigate the properties of a clinical FFDM unit (Giotto - Image MD, IMS Italy µm. The direct conversion of X-rays into charge provides excellent imaging performance. In this work

  12. EXEMPLAR-BASED UNIT SELECTION FOR VOICE CONVERSION UTILIZING TEMPORAL INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virtanen, Tuomas

    EXEMPLAR-BASED UNIT SELECTION FOR VOICE CONVERSION UTILIZING TEMPORAL INFORMATION Zhizheng Wu1 methods. Index Terms-- Voice conversion, unit selection, multi-frame exemplar, temporal information 1 shown to play an important role in perception, most of the voice conversion ap- proaches assume

  13. Computer Control for IGBT Based Heat Load System with Rapid Response and Large Heat Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yangmin

    system. So it can acquire the satisfactory performance, what is more, the heat load system combined heat flux within very short time, but it needs a very complicated welding power supply, and meantime, heating coils, etc. There are three power amplifiers: linear amplifier, on-off amplifier, and pulse width

  14. {Control of Residential Load Management Networks Using Real Time Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, William Jerome

    2010-01-01

    modeling and control of load management. Further, withoutA profit-based load management using linear programming”.with applica- tions to load management assessment and load

  15. The Impact of a Metacognitive Reflection Component in a Problem-Based Learning Unit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seifert, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-16

    This mixed methods dissertation explores the impact of metacognitive support (reflective journal entries and a think-aloud exercise) in a PBL (problem-based learning) unit. While students are developing a solution for a ...

  16. Robust GPS-Based Timing for Phasor Measurement Units: A Position-Information-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Grace Xingxin

    . INTRODUCTION Invented in the 1980s, Phasor Measurement Units (PMU), also known as synchrophasors, are GPS based between measurements collected by SCADA and a PMU during disturbance in a power grid in Oklahoma [1]. GPS

  17. RESIDUAL PREDICTION BASED ON UNIT SELECTION David Sundermann1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Alan W

    RESIDUAL PREDICTION BASED ON UNIT SELECTION David S¨undermann1,2,3 , Harald H¨oge1 , Antonio Recently, we presented a study on residual prediction tech- niques that can be applied to voice conversion based on lin- ear transformation or hidden Markov model-based speech synthesis. Our voice conversion

  18. RESIDUAL PREDICTION BASED ON UNIT SELECTION David Sundermann1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suendermann, David

    RESIDUAL PREDICTION BASED ON UNIT SELECTION David S¨undermann1,2 , Harald H¨oge1 , Antonio tech- niques that can be applied to voice conversion based on lin- ear transformation or hidden Markov model-based speech synthesis. Our voice conversion experiments showed that none of the six compared

  19. Physics based model for online fault detection in autonomous cryogenic loading system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashani, Ali; Ponizhovskaya, Ekaterina; Luchinsky, Dmitry; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Patterson-Hine, Anna; Sass, Jared; Brown, Barbara

    2014-01-29

    We report the progress in the development of the chilldown model for a rapid cryogenic loading system developed at NASA-Kennedy Space Center. The nontrivial characteristic feature of the analyzed chilldown regime is its active control by dump valves. The two-phase flow model of the chilldown is approximated as one-dimensional homogeneous fluid flow with no slip condition for the interphase velocity. The model is built using commercial SINDA/FLUINT software. The results of numerical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental time traces. The obtained results pave the way to the application of the SINDA/FLUINT model as a verification tool for the design and algorithm development required for autonomous loading operation.

  20. ANUDlSiTM-40 Load Flow Analysis: Base Cases, Data, Diagrams, and Results

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministrationTechnicalTechnicalScience.govWSRC-MS-g8-00318ANUDlSiTM-40 Load Flow

  1. Improvement of load-following capacity based on the flame radiation intensity signal in a power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei Wang; Qunxing Huang; Dong Liu; Jianhua Yan; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2008-05-15

    The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue due to the increasing commercialization of the power market. In the traditional boiler control system, the feedback signals come from the variations of the steam pressure and the steam flow, which leads to a large time delay. Therefore, a new method for the boiler control system based on radiation intensity for improving the load-following capacity of a coal-fired power plant has been developed in this paper. The system is implemented by adding the radiation intensity of the flame to the existing boiler control system as a complement. The radiation intensity obtained by the sensor can directly reflect the input heat in the boiler, with a faster response and higher sensitivity. Field tests on a 300 MW coal-fired power plant reveal that the improved boiler control system increases the load-following capacity. At the same time, the steam pressure variations are smaller as compared with those of the existing control system. 14 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Appendix A-2 Appendix A: Units and Conversions TABLE A.2 International Definitions of the SI Base Unitsa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Appendix A-2 Appendix A: Units and Conversions TABLE A.2 International Definitions of the SI Base Candela cd #12;Appendix A-3Appendix A: Units and Conversions TABLE A.3 SI-Derived Units with Special Unitsa Unit of length (m) Meter is the length of the path traveled by light in vacuum during a time

  3. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  4. Applying Model-based Diagnosis to a Rapid Propellant Loading System Charlie Goodrich*. Sriram Narasimhan**, Matthew Daigle**, Walter Hatfield*, Robert Johnson*, Barbara Brown***

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daigle, Matthew

    Applying Model-based Diagnosis to a Rapid Propellant Loading System Charlie Goodrich*. Sriram.h.hatfield@nasa.gov,robert.g.johnson@nasa.gov), **University of California Santa Cruz USA (e-mail:sriram.narasimhan-1@nasa.gov, matthew

  5. TEXT-INDEPENDENT VOICE CONVERSION BASED ON UNIT SELECTION David Sundermann1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suendermann, David

    TEXT-INDEPENDENT VOICE CONVERSION BASED ON UNIT SELECTION David S¨undermann1,2,3 ,Harald H¨oge1@cs.rwth-aachen.de awb@cs.cmu.edu shri@sipi.usc.edu ABSTRACT So far, most of the voice conversion training procedures. In this pa- per, we present a new approach that applies unit selection to find corresponding time frames

  6. A Dynamic Water-filling Method for Real-Time HVAC Load Control Based on Model Predictive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Lin

    load potential. Existing work, such as [3], usually needs accurate long-term load and renewable energy between the fluctuation of non-renewable power generation and the limited demand response potential at users' side. By changing the elastic load w.r.t. both renewable energy generation and inelastic load

  7. Evaluation of Counter-Based Dynamic Load Balancing Schemes for Massive Contingency Analysis on Over 10,000 Cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Rice, Mark J.

    2012-12-27

    Contingency analysis studies are necessary to assess the impact of possible power system component failures. The results of the contingency analysis are used to ensure the grid reliability, and in power market operation for the feasibility test of market solutions. Currently, these studies are performed in real time based on the current operating conditions of the grid with a set of pre-selected contingency list, which might result in overlooking some critical contingencies caused by variable system status. To have a complete picture of a power grid, more contingencies need to be studied to improve grid reliability. High-performance computing techniques hold the promise of being able to perform the analysis for more contingency cases within a much shorter time frame. This paper evaluates the performance of counter-based dynamic load balancing schemes for a massive contingency analysis program on 10,000+ cores. One million N-2 contingency analysis cases with a Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model have been used to demonstrate the performance. The speedup of 3964 with 4096 cores and 7877 with 10240 cores are obtained. This paper reports the performance of the load balancing scheme with a single counter and two counters, describes disk I/O issues, and discusses other potential techniques for further improving the performance.

  8. Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W; Conklin, Jim

    2007-09-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the unique characteristics of high-temperature reactors (T>700 C) to produce electricity for premium electric markets whose demands can not be met by other types of nuclear reactors. It may also make the use of nuclear reactors economically feasible in smaller electrical grids, such as those found in many developing countries. The ability to rapidly vary power output can be used to stabilize electric grid performance-a particularly important need in small electrical grids.

  9. Environmental Assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies across the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), for the proposed granting of DOE permission of offloading activities to support the movement Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies (SGSAs) across the Savannah River Site (SRS). Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact. On the basis of the floodplain/wetlands assessment in the EA, DOE has determined that there is no practicable alternative to the proposed activities and that the proposed action has been designed to minimize potential harm to or within the floodplain of the SRS boat ramp. No wetlands on SRS would be affected by the proposed action.

  10. Geoecology: a county-level environmental data base for the conterminous United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, R.J.; Emerson, C.J.; Nungesser, M.K.

    1980-09-01

    The Geoecology Data Base represents a unique compilation of computerized environmental data for research and development needs. Environmental assessment and planning for energy development require rapid access to data at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. In the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have developed an integrated data base of diverse environmental resource information from extant sources. Data are stored at the county level of resolution for the conterminous United States with some data available for subcounty units within larger, more diverse eastern counties. The Geoecology Data Base contains selected data on terrain and soils, water resources, forestry, vegetation, agriculture, land use, wildlife, air quality, climate, natural areas, and endangered species. Basic files on human population are also included to complement the environmental files. Data are stored in metric-SI units. The Geoecology Data Base is currently fulfilling diverse ongoing research needs while it is being expanded and updated as needs and new data are identified. This report is both a documentation and a user's guide to the Geoecology Data Base. It describes the Data Base design, illustrates applications, provides examples of accessing the Data Base, and gives general information on the data set contents.

  11. United States-Philippines bases agreements: prospect for its renewal. Research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahimer, S.M.

    1988-05-01

    Remarks on the problems and issues related to the United States-Philippines Bases Agreement and prospect for its renewal are included namely: analysis of the provisions of the new Philippine Constitution; ASEAN perspective on the bases; US policy on nuclear weapons and its interest and options; Philippine interests and priorities, including alternate plans to compensate for the possible withdrawal of the US from the Philippines; and then an assessment of the effects of these factors on the renewal of the Bases Agreement. There are difficulties and barriers to the renewal of the said Agreement posed by conflicting policies of both parties and also due to divergent views on priorities, constitutional processes of both countries, and time constraints for concluding an agreement. However there are options for the United States regarding the problem, depending upon the desired level of its presence in Asia/Pacific region and how central the Philippine bases are to US national security interests.

  12. Dependability evaluation of a GNSS and ECS based localisation unit for railway vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dependability evaluation of a GNSS and ECS based localisation unit for railway vehicles T on the combination of sensors such as a GNSS receiver and an Eddy Current Sensor, is studied. In this paper, we present a procedure and a model, which aims at evaluating the dependability of this system under local

  13. Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi; Nuzzo, Pierluigi; Iandola, Forrest; Kamgarpour, Maryam; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto; Tomlin, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Poweris to develop an optimal load management system based on thescheme where a high-level load management system receives as

  14. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  15. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, T.; Heffington, W. M.

    2009-01-01

    factors and operating hours of small and medium-sized industrial plants are analyzed to classify shift-work patterns and develop energy conservation diagnostic tools. This paper discusses two types of electric load factors for each shift... The purpose of this paper is to analyze operating hours of small and medium-sized manufacturing plants in the United States and develop ranges of load factors for use as diagnostic tools for effective energy management. Load factor is defined...

  16. Research on Short-term Load Forecasting of the Thermoelectric Boiler Based on a Dynamic RBF Neural Network 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, W.; Zou, P.; Yan, C.

    2006-01-01

    As thermal inertia is the key factor for the lag of thermoelectric utility regulation, it becomes very important to forecast its short-term load according to running parameters. In this paper, dynamic radial basis function ...

  17. Measurements and Units A large part of science is based upon the creation of mathematical models that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, William

    Measurements and Units A large part of science is based upon the creation of mathematical models, Second which measure length, mass, and time respectively. UNIT SYMBOL DESCRIPTION Meter m Measures length the mathematical description to the real world requires that there is a mutually agreed upon measurement system so

  18. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  19. Wide bandgap OPV polymers based on pyridinonedithiophene unit with efficiency >5%

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schneider, Alexander M.; Lu, Luyao; Manley, Eric F.; Zheng, Tianyue; Sharapov, Valerii; Xu, Tao; Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, Lin X.; Yu, Luping

    2015-06-04

    We report the properties of a new series of wide band gap photovoltaic polymers based on the N-alkyl 2-pyridone dithiophene (PDT) unit. These polymers are effective bulk heterojunction solar cell materials when blended with phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). They achieve power conversion efficiencies (up to 5.33%) high for polymers having such large bandgaps, ca. 2.0 eV (optical) and 2.5 eV (electrochemical). As a result, grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) reveals strong correlations between ?–? stacking distance and regularity, polymer backbone planarity, optical absorption maximum energy, and photovoltaic efficiency.

  20. Element partitioning in combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Element partitioning of waste-to-energy units by means of a substance flow analysis. ? A comparison between moving grate combustors and high temperature gasifiers. ? Classification of key elements according to their behavior during WtE processes. ? Slags and metals from waste gasifiers are completely and immediately recyclable. ? Potential reduction of amounts of solid residue to be sent to landfill disposal. - Abstract: A critical comparison between combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy systems needs a deep knowledge of the mass flows of materials and elements inside and throughout the units. The study collected and processed data from several moving grate conventional incinerators and high-temperature shaft gasifiers with direct melting, which are in operation worldwide. A material and substance flow analysis was then developed to systematically assess the flows and stocks of materials and elements within each waste-to-energy unit, by connecting the sources, pathways, and intermediate and final sinks of each species. The patterns of key elements, such as carbon, chloride and heavy metals, in the different solid and gaseous output streams of the two compared processes have been then defined. The combination of partitioning coefficients with the mass balances on atomic species and results of mineralogical characterization from recent literatures was used to estimate a composition of bottom ashes and slags from the two types of waste-to-energy technologies. The results also allow to quantify some of the performance parameters of the units and, in particular, the potential reduction of the amount of solid residues to be sent to final disposal.

  1. Risk-Based Ranking Experiences for Cold War Legacy Facilities in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, James G.

    2003-05-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of government agencies in the United States have faced increasing public scrutiny for their efforts to address the wide range of potential environmental issues related to Cold War legacies. Risk-based ranking was selected as a means of defining the relative importance of issues. Ambitious facility-wide risk-based ranking applications were undertaken. However, although facility-wide risk-based ranking efforts can build invaluable understanding of the potential issues related to Cold War legacies, conducting such efforts is difficult because of the potentially enormous scope and the potentially strong institutional barriers. The U.S. experience is that such efforts are worth undertaking to start building a knowledge base and infrastructure that are based on a thorough understanding of risk. In both the East and the West, the legacy of the Cold War includes a wide range of potential environmental issues associated with large industrial complexes of weapon production facilities. The responsible agencies or ministries are required to make decisions that could benefit greatly from information on the relative importance of these potential issues. Facility-wide risk-based ranking of potential health and environmental issues is one means to help these decision makers. The initial U.S. risk-based ranking applications described in this chapter were “ground-breaking” in that they defined new methodologies and approaches to meet the challenges. Many of these approaches fit the designation of a population-centred risk assessment. These U.S. activities parallel efforts that are just beginning for similar facilities in the countries of the former Soviet Union. As described below, conducting a facility-wide risk-based ranking has special challenges and potential pitfalls. Little guidance exists to conduct major risk-based rankings. For those considering undertaking such efforts, the material contained in this chapter should be useful background information.

  2. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater.

  3. Modeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    for the same data. Two methods are described for forecasting daily peak loads up to one week ahead through, including generator unit commitment, hydro-thermal coordination, short-term maintenance, fuel allocation forecasting accuracies. STLF forecasting covers the daily peak load, total daily energy, and daily load curve

  4. A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Material: Four turbine- based ventilators and nine conventional servo-valve compressed-gas ventilators were1 A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators Arnaud W. Thille,1 MD; Aissam Lyazidi,1 Biomed Eng MS; Jean-Christophe M

  5. Characterization of a clinical unit for digital radiography based on irradiation side sampling technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Bertolini, Marco; Nitrosi, Andrea; Burani, Aldo

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: A characterization of a clinical unit for digital radiography (FUJIFILM FDR D-EVO) is presented. This system is based on the irradiation side sampling (ISS) technology and can be equipped with two different scintillators: one traditional gadolinium-oxysulphide phosphor (GOS) and a needle structured cesium iodide (CsI) phosphor panel.Methods: The characterization was achieved in terms of response curve, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and psychophysical parameters (contrast-detail analysis with an automatic reading of CDRAD images). For both scintillation screens the authors accomplished the measurements with four standard beam conditions: RAQ3, RQA5, RQA7, and RQA9.Results: At the Nyquist frequency (3.33 lp/mm) the MTF is about 35% and 25% for CsI and GOS detectors, respectively. The CsI scintillator has better noise properties than the GOS screen in almost all the conditions. This is particularly true for low-energy beams, where the noise for the GOS system can go up to a factor 2 greater than that found for CsI. The DQE of the CsI detector reaches a peak of 60%, 60%, 58%, and 50% for the RQA3, RQA5, RQA7, and RQA9 beams, respectively, whereas for the GOS screen the maximum DQE is 40%, 44%, 44%, and 35%. The contrast-detail analysis confirms that in the majority of cases the CsI scintillator is able to provide improved outcomes to those obtained with the GOS screen.Conclusions: The limited diffusion of light produced by the ISS reading makes possible the achievement of very good spatial resolution. In fact, the MTF of the unit with the CsI panel is only slightly lower to that achieved with direct conversion detectors. The combination of very good spatial resolution, together with the good noise properties reached with the CsI screen, allows achieving DQE on average about 1.5 times greater than that obtained with GOS. In fact, the DQE of unit equipped with CsI is comparable to the best alternative methods available which are based on the same technology, and similar to others based on an a-Se direct conversion detectors.

  6. Price-Maker Economic Bidding in Two-Settlement Pool-Based Markets: The Case of Time-Shiftable Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    are found for the price and energy bids within a relatively short amount of computational time. A detailed bidding, price bids, energy bids, day-ahead market, real-time market, time-shiftable loads, demand to day-ahead market y Energy bid to real-time market p Price bid submitted to the day-ahead market

  7. Operable Unit 1 remedial investigation report, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmore, T.J.; Fruland, R.M.; Liikala, T.L.

    1994-06-01

    This remedial investigation report for operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Eielson Air Force Base presents data, calculations, and conclusions as to the nature and extent of surface and subsurface contamination at the eight source areas that make up OU-1. The information is based on the 1993 field investigation result and previous investigations. This report is the first in a set of three for OU-1. The other reports are the baseline risk assessment and feasibility study. The information in these reports will lead to a Record of Decision that will guide and conclude the environmental restoration effort for OU-1 at Eielson Air Force Base. The primary contaminants of concern include fuels and fuel-related contaminants (diesel; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; total petroleum hydrocarbon; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), maintenance-related solvents and cleaners (volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroothylene), polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The origins of contaminants of concern include leaks from storage tanks, drums and piping, and spills. Ongoing operations and past sitewide practices also contribute to contaminants of concern at OU-1 source areas. These include spraying mixed oil and solvent wastes on unpaved roads and aerial spraying of DDT.

  8. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Ozone Based Laundry Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Brian K.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg; Goetzler, W.; Sutherland, T. A.; Foley, K. J.

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of ozone laundry system installations at the Charleston Place Hotel in Charleston, South Carolina, and the Rogerson House assisted living facility in Boston, Massachusetts.

  9. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  10. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  11. Development and Mass Production of a Mixture of LAB- and DIN-based Gadolinium-loaded Liquid Scintillator for the NEOS Short-baseline Neutrino Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ba Ro Kim; Boyoung Han; Eun-ju Jeon; Kyung Kwang Joo; H. J. Kim; Hyunsoo Kim; Jinyu Kim; Yeongduk Kim; Youngju Ko; Jaison Lee; Jooyoung Lee; Moohyun Lee; Kyungju Ma; Yoomin Oh; Hyangkyu Park; Kang-soon Park; Kyungmin Seo; Gwang-Min Seon; Kim Siyeon

    2015-11-16

    A new experiment, which is called as NEOS (NEutrino Oscillation at Short baseline), is proposed on the site of Hanbit reactors at Yonggwang, South Korea, to investigate a reactor antineutrino anomaly. A homogeneous NEOS detector having a 1000-L target volume has been constructed and deployed at the tendon gallery ~25 m away from the reactor core. A linear alkylbenzene (LAB) is used as a main base solvent of the NEOS detector. Furthermore, a di-isopropylnaphthalene (DIN) is added to improve the light output and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) ability. The ratio of LAB to DIN is 90:10. PPO (3 g/L) and bis-MSB (30 mg/L) are dissolved to formulate the mixture of LAB- and DIN-based liquid scintillator (LS). Then, ~0.5% gadolinium (Gd) is loaded into the LS by using the solvent-solvent extraction technique. In this paper, we report the characteristics of Gd-loaded LS (GdLS) for the NEOS detector and the handling during mass production.

  12. Distribution-Based Clustering: Using Ecology To Refine the Operational Taxonomic Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preheim, Sarah Pacocha

    16S rRNA sequencing, commonly used to survey microbial communities, begins by grouping individual reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs). There are two major challenges in calling OTUs: identifying bacterial population ...

  13. Kalman-Filter Based Join Cost for Unit-Selection Speech Synthesis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vepa, Jithendra; King, Simon

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new method for computing join cost in unit-selection speech synthesis which uses a linear dynamical model (also known as a Kalman filter) to model line spectral frequency trajectories. The model uses an ...

  14. Predicting GIS-Based Spatially Distributed Unit-Hydrograph from Urban Development Scenarios. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kute, Abhijeet

    2007-11-27

    Spatially distributed Unit-Hydrograph model is implemented using a Geographical Information System (GIS) in this study to investigate the effects of how increasing impervious areas may influence surface runoff in urban ...

  15. A classifier-based target cost for unit selection speech synthesis trained on perceptual data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strom, Volker; King, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Our goal is to automatically learn a PERCEPTUALLY-optimal target cost function for a unit selection speech synthesiser. The approach we take here is to train a classifier on human perceptual judgements of synthetic speech. ...

  16. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector...

  17. Monitoring of Electrical End-Use Loads in Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, M.; Alereza, T.; Mort, D.

    1988-01-01

    custom-designed to facilitate collection and validation of the end-use load data. For example, the Load Profile Viewer is a PC-based software program for reviewing and validating the end-use load data....

  18. A microcomputer-based communication and data acquisition unit for coordinated control and monitoring of distribution system computer-based protective relays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halter, John Alan

    1981-01-01

    A MICROCOMPUTER-BASED COMMUNICATION AND DATA ACQUISITION UNIT FOR COORDINATED CONTROL AND MONITORING OP DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM COMPUTER-BASED PROTECTIVE RELAYS A Thesis by JOHN ALAN HALTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A... OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM COMPUTER-BASED PROTECTIVE RELAYS A Thesis by JOHN ALAN HALTER Approved as to style and cont nt by: Dr. B. D. Russell (Chairman of Committee) Q~ g )aN~K Dr. W. S. Kuklinski (Member) p~w Dr. J, H. Painter Dr. N. R. Strader (Member...

  19. Revising partial pre-orders with partial pre-orders: A unit-based revision framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Weiru

    ). However, in some real-world applications, a new input can be a partial pre-order where each unit by another partial pre-order (the new input) from a different per- spective, where the revision is conducted that characterizes the pro- cess of belief change in order to revise an agent's current beliefs to accommodate new

  20. Static Load Balancing using Non-Uniform Mesh Partitioning based on Ray Density Prediction for the Parallel Wavefront Construction Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alyabes, Abdullah Fahad

    2014-08-01

    USING NON-UNIFORM MESH PARTITIONING BASED ON RAY DENSITY PREDICTION FOR THE PARALLEL WAVEFRONT CONSTRUCTION METHOD A Thesis by ABDULLAH FAHAD ALYABES Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Construction Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.3 Parallel Wavefront Construction Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3.1 Wavefront Mesh Density Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3.2 Non-uniform Wavefront Mesh Partitioning...

  1. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard; Bravo, Richard; Yinger, Robert; Chassin, Dave; Huang, Henry; Lu, Ning; Hiskens, Ian; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  2. Land-Based Wind Potential Changes in the Southeastern United States (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, J. O.

    2013-09-01

    Recent advancements in utility-scale wind turbine technology and pricing have vastly increased the potential land area where turbines can be deployed in the United States. This presentation quantifies the new developable land potential (e.g., capacity curves), visually identifies new areas for possible development (e.g., new wind resource maps), and begins to address deployment barriers to wind in new areas for modern and future turbine technology.

  3. United States- Land Based and Offshore Annual Average Wind Speed at 100 Meters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Full-size, high resolution version of the 100-meter land-based and offshore wind speed resource map.

  4. Dimeric Drug Polymeric Nanoparticles with Exceptionally High Drug Loading and Quantitative Loading Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Jianjun

    Dimeric Drug Polymeric Nanoparticles with Exceptionally High Drug Loading and Quantitative LoadingChampaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education-molecule drugs in hydrophobic polymers or amphiphilic copolymers has been extensively used for preparing

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 29, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2014 2489 System of Systems Based Security-Constrained Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yong

    Security-Constrained Unit Commitment Incorporating Active Distribution Grids Amin Kargarian, Student Member--Active distribution grid, decentralized optimiza- tion, security-constrained unit commitment, system of systems of generating units. Number of studied period. Generation cost curve of unit . Commitment state of unit at time

  6. Dynamic Load Balancing on Single- and Multi-GPU Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Long; Villa, Oreste; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Gao, Guang R.

    2010-04-19

    The computational power provided by many-core graphics processing units (GPUs) has been exploited in many applications. The programming techniques supported and employed on these GPUs are not sufficient to address problems exhibiting irregular, and unbalanced workload. The problem is exacerbated when trying to effectively exploit multiple GPUs, which are commonly available in many modern systems. In this paper, we propose a task-based dynamic load-balancing solution for single- and multi-GPU systems. The solution allows load balancing at a finer granularity than what is supported in existing APIs such as NVIDIA’s CUDA. We evaluate our approach using both micro-benchmarks and a molecular dynamics application that exhibits significant load imbalance. Experimental results with a single-GPU configuration show that our fine-grained task solution can utilize the hardware more efficiently than the CUDA scheduler for unbalanced workload. On multi-GPU systems, our solution achieves near-linear speedup, load balance, and significant performance improvement over techniques based on standard CUDA APIs.

  7. Review of current Southern California edison load management programs and proposal for a new market-driven, mass-market, demand-response program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weller, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Commercial & Industrial (C&I) Load Management Programs A.on the Existing SCE Load Management System / Technology BaseSmall Commercial Load Management Programs A. Programs based

  8. Studentnumber:Name:Degree: Unit:Unit:Unit:Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Michael

    Studentnumber:Name:Degree: Semester: Semester: Unit:Unit:Unit:Unit: Unit:Unit:Unit:Unit: Year the Undergraduate Degree Course Rules. Have you included units that will lead to at least one degree-specific major that the units you choose in first year will lead to at least one degree-specific major. It is a requirement

  9. Documentation of the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herhal, A J; Britton, S G; Minnucci, C A

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the methodologies used to develop the 1979 Demonstrated Reserve Base (DRB) of coal. The main body of this report summarizes the methodological procedures used to develop each state reserve estimate. The appendices to the report provide a detailed description of the entire DRB process for each state.

  10. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, Jason S.; Grace, Robert C.; Rickerson, Wilson H.

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 897 AC Contingency Dispatch Based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yong

    on Security-Constrained Unit Commitment Yong Fu, Member, IEEE, Mohammad Shahidehpour, Fellow, IEEE, and Zuyi over a 24-h period is proposed based on security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) model. The SCUC model includes unit commitment, ac security-constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF), and load shedding

  12. Documentation of the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States. Final report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herhal, A J; Britton, S G; Minnucci, C A

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the methodologies used to develop the 1979 Demonstrated Reserve Base (DRB) of coal. All primary source documents used to prepare the 1979 DRB were reviewed. Using the methodologies and documentation found in the 1979 DRB published report as a guide, each of the state-level published reserve estimates were re-derived. In those cases where the estimates could not be reproduced, EIA personnel from the Eastern and Western Energy Data Offices were consulted and the differences, for the most part, were resolved. Throughout this report an attempt was made to describe the information flow that was an integral part of the DRB development. Particular attention and emphasis was given to those instances where deviations from standard, published EIA procedures were used to derive the DRB estimates. The main body of this report summarizes the methodological procedures used to develop each state reserve estimate.

  13. Load Management for Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konsevick, W. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    categories: Thermal Energy Storage, Communication and Load Control, Interconnection and Operation of Power Systems, and Selective Load Promotions. The endeavors of the utility industry and Ohio Edison Company in three of the four categories are described...

  14. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  15. Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J

    2008-11-01

    This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby and Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed. Initial testing showed that the units respond very quickly. Problems with local power quality generated false low frequency signals which required testing to be stopped. This should not be a problem in actual operation since the frequency trip points will be staggered to generate a droop curve which mimics generator governor response. The actual trip frequencies will also be low enough to avoid power quality problems. The actual trip frequencies are too low to generate test events with sufficient regularity to complete testing in a reasonable amount of time. Frequency response testing will resume once the local power quality problem is fully understood and reasonable test frequency settings can be determined. Overall the preliminary testing was extremely successful. The hotel response capability matches the power system reliability need, being faster than generation response and inherently available when the power system is under the most stress (times of high system and hotel load). Periodic testing is scheduled throughout the winter and spring to characterize hotel response capability under a full range of conditions. More extensive testing will resume when summer outdoor temperatures are again high enough to fully test hotel response.

  16. Cropland carbon fluxes in the United States: increasing Geospatial Resolution of Inventory-Based Carbon Accounting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Hellwinckel, Chad M [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Nelson, Richard G [ORNL; De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel G [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Net annual soil carbon change, fossil fuel emissions from cropland production, and cropland net primary productivity were estimated and spatially distributed using land cover defined by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and by the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Spatially resolved estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) were developed. NEE represents net on-site vertical fluxes of carbon. NECB represents all on-site and off-site carbon fluxes associated with crop production. Estimates of cropland NEE using moderate resolution (~1km2) land cover data were generated for the conterminous US and compared with higher resolution (30m) estimates of NEE and with direct measurements of CO2 flux from croplands in Illinois and Nebraska. Estimates of NEE using the CDL (30m resolution) had a higher correlation with eddy covariance flux tower estimates compared with estimates of NEE using MODIS. Estimates of NECB are primarily driven by net soil carbon change, fossil-fuel emissions associated with crop production, and CO2 emissions from the application of agricultural lime. NEE and NECB for US croplands were -274 and 7 Tg C yr-1 for 2004, respectively. Use of moderate to high resolution satellite-based land cover data enables improved estimates of cropland carbon dynamics.

  17. Effect of K loadings on nitrate formation/decomposition and on NOx storage performance of K-based NOx storage-reduction catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhu, Haiyang; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-10-25

    We have investigated nitrate formation and decomposition processes, and measured NOx storage performance on Pt-K2O/Al2O3 catalysts as a function of potassium loading. After NO2 adsorption at room temperature, ionic and bidentate nitrates were observed by fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The ratio of the former to the latter species increased with increasing potassium loading up to 10 wt%, and then stayed almost constant with additional K, demonstrating a clear dependence of loading on the morphology of the K species. Although both K2O(10)/Al2O3 and K2O(20)/Al2O3 samples have similar nitrate species after NO2 adsorption, the latter has more thermally stable nitrate species as evidenced by FTIR and NO2 temperature programmed desorption (TPD) results. With regard to NOx storage performance, the temperature of maximum NOx uptake (Tmax) is 573 K up to a potassium loading of 10 wt%. As the potassium loading increases from 10 wt% to 20 wt%, Tmax shifted from 573 K to 723 K. Moreover, the amount of NO uptake (38 cm3 NOx/g catal) at Tmax increased more than three times, indicating that efficiency of K in storing NOx is enhanced significantly at higher temperature, in good agreement with the NO2 TPD and FTIR results. Thus, a combination of characterization and NOx storage performance results demonstrates an unexpected effect of potassium loading on nitrate formation and decomposition processes; results important for developing Pt-K2O/Al2O3 for potential applications as high temperature NOx storage-reduction catalysts.

  18. Best Buys and Unit Pricing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2000-02-02

    This guide explains how to determine a unit price--the cost of an item based on a specific unit such as pound or ounce. Unit pricing can be used to identify foods that are the most economical....

  19. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  20. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  1. HLW Glass Waste Loadings

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview Vitrification - general background Joule...

  2. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  3. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  4. Unit Testing Discussion C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Unit Testing Discussion C #12;Unit Test public Method is smallest unit of code Input/output transformation Test if the method does what it claims Not exactly black box testing #12;Test if (actual result Expected Computed Input #12;Functionality Computation ­ Easy to test Time based Asynchronous interaction

  5. Energy Use Savings for a Typical New Residential Dwelling Unit Based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2006 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) require a substantial improvement in energy efficiency compared to the 2006 IECC. This report averages the energy use savings for a typical new residential dwelling unit based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Results are reported by the eight climate zones in the IECC and for the national average.

  6. Short-Term Load Forecasting This paper discusses the state of the art in short-term load fore-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    spectrum of time intervals. In therange of seconds, when load variationsare small and random, the automatic by a number of generation control functions such as hydro scheduling, unit commitment, hydro-ther- mal present, functions such as fuel, hydro, and maintenance scheduling are performed to ensure that the load

  7. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  8. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Alkadi, Nasr E; Letto, Daryl; Johnson, Brandon; Dowling, Kevin; George, Raoule; Khan, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  9. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

  10. Modality Effects on Cognitive Load and Performance in High-Load Information Presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theune, Mariët

    INTRODUCTION Intelligent human-computer interfaces are often multimodal, i.e. the human-computer communications into the modality planning procedure for systems that support high-load human-computer interaction. Author Keywords-load information presenta- tion scenario. Mainly based on modality-related psychology theories, we selected five

  11. A loaded thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of the performance of a thermoacoustic engine driving a dissipative load are presented. The effect of the load can be explained qualitatively using a simple low-amplitude approximation and quantitatively by invoking a more accurate low-amplitude numerical solution. The heater power {ital @};DQ and hot-end temperature {ital T}{sub {ital H}} are found to be simple functions of the load impedance and the unloaded values of {ital @};DQ and {ital T}{sub {ital H}}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Acoustical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.

  12. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.

    2014-05-19

    The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.

  13. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  14. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  15. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Water Projects Generating Plants and Shiftable Generationfrom "base load" generating plants. ing" and saves energy.Cily flow PUfflj);ng - GeneratIng Plant San LUIS Reservo,,'

  16. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  17. Optimal Industrial Load Control in Smart Grid: A Case Study for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    the industry is a manufacturing unit (e.g., automotive, food, pulp-and-paper, chemicals, refining, and iron. In this paper, we investigate optimal load control for industrial load which involves several new and distinctOptimal Industrial Load Control in Smart Grid: A Case Study for Oil Refineries Armen Gholian, Hamed

  18. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2015-05-01

    With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment - thus facing penalties in system efficiency, comfort, and cost. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of multifamily buildings and single-family homes market needs. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services on hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data. CARB compiled and analyzed these data to see what the thermal load ranges are in various multifamily apartments and attached single-family home types (duplex and townhouse). In total, design loads from 941 dwellings from SWA's recent multifamily and attached single-family work across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic were analyzed. Information on the dwelling characteristics, design loads, and the specifications of installed mechanical equipment were analyzed to determine any trends that exist within the dataset.

  19. High-Bandwidth AFM-Based Rheology Reveals that Cartilage is Most Sensitive to High Loading Rates at Early Stages of Impairment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavakoli Nia, Hadi

    Utilizing a newly developed atomic-force-microscopy-based wide-frequency rheology system, we measured the dynamic nanomechanical behavior of normal and glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-depleted cartilage, the latter representing ...

  20. Boron loaded scintillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane William (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Brown, Gilbert Morris (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Maya, Leon (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Sloop, Jr., Frederick Victor (Oak Ridge, TN); Sloop, Jr., Frederick Victor [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-20

    A scintillating composition for detecting neutrons and other radiation comprises a phenyl containing silicone rubber with carborane units and at least one phosphor molecule. The carbonate units can either be a carborane molecule dispersed in the rubber with the aid of a compatibilization agent or can be covalently bound to the silicone.

  1. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  2. Unit Commitment Considering Generation Flexibility and Environmental Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.; Zhu, Yunhua; Lu, Ning; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-07-31

    This paper proposes a new framework for power system unit commitment process, which incorporates the generation flexibility requirements and environmental constraints into the existing unit commitment algorithm. The generation flexibility requirements are to address the uncertainties with large amount of intermittent resources as well as with load and traditional generators, which causes real-time balancing requirements to be variable and less predictable. The proposed flexibility requirements include capacity, ramp and ramp duration for both upward and downward balancing reserves. The environmental constraints include emission allowance for fossil fuel-based generators and ecological regulations for hydro power plants. Calculation of emission rates is formulated. Unit commitment under this new framework will be critical to the economic and reliable operation of the power grid and the minimization of its negative environmental impacts, especially when high penetration levels of intermittent resources are being approached, as required by the renewable portfolio standards in many states.

  3. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  4. Load Management Made Simple 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.

    1985-01-01

    Company have moved to a demand side or load management mode which seeks to influence customers to change electric usage patterns to more efficiently use available generating capacity. Since 1970, the TUEC system peak demand has more than doubled from about...

  5. 770 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 3, NO. 2, JUNE 2012 Residential Load Control: Distributed Scheduling and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    been termed demand response or load response, among others; see, e.g., [2], [3]. Residential loads have770 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 3, NO. 2, JUNE 2012 Residential Load Control: Distributed residential end-user has a base load, two types of adjustable loads, and pos- sibly a storage device

  6. United Biofuels Private Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Biofuels Private Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Biofuels Private Limited Place: Tamil Nadu, India Sector: Biomass Product: India-based owner and operator...

  7. Predicting the Response of Electricity Load to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Kalendra, Eric

    2015-07-28

    Our purpose is to develop a methodology to quantify the impact of climate change on electric loads in the United States. We perform simple linear regression, assisted by geospatial smoothing, on paired temperature and load time-series to estimate the heating- and coolinginduced sensitivity to temperature across 300 transmission zones and 16 seasonal and diurnal time periods. The estimated load sensitivities can be coupled with climate scenarios to quantify the potential impact of climate change on load, with a primary application being long-term electricity scenarios. The method allows regional and seasonal differences in climate and load response to be reflected in the electricity scenarios. While the immediate product of this analysis was designed to mesh with the spatial and temporal resolution of a specific electricity model to enable climate change scenarios and analysis with that model, we also propose that the process could be applied for other models and purposes.

  8. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  9. Geothermal Resource/Reservoir Investigations Based on Heat Flow and Thermal Gradient Data for the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. D. Blackwell; K. W. Wisian; M. C. Richards; J. L. Steele

    2000-04-01

    Several activities related to geothermal resources in the western United States are described in this report. A database of geothermal site-specific thermal gradient and heat flow results from individual exploration wells in the western US has been assembled. Extensive temperature gradient and heat flow exploration data from the active exploration of the 1970's and 1980's were collected, compiled, and synthesized, emphasizing previously unavailable company data. Examples of the use and applications of the database are described. The database and results are available on the world wide web. In this report numerical models are used to establish basic qualitative relationships between structure, heat input, and permeability distribution, and the resulting geothermal system. A series of steady state, two-dimensional numerical models evaluate the effect of permeability and structural variations on an idealized, generic Basin and Range geothermal system and the results are described.

  10. Nonsymmetric bent-core liquid crystals based on a 1,3,4-thiadiazole core unit and their nematic mesomorphism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seltmann, Jens; Marini, Alberto; Mennucci, Benedetta; Dey, Sonal; Kumar, Satyendra; Lehmann, Matthias

    2012-09-06

    The synthesis and thermotropic properties of novel V-shaped molecules having a central 1,3,4-thiadiazole core with a bend-angle of 160 degrees are reported. The compounds consist of a shape-persistent oligo(phenylene ethynylene) scaffold with lateral alkyloxy substituents. One of the terminal aromatic units possesses an alkoxy chain capped by an ethyl ester group while the second terminus is a pyridyl group. They exhibit enantiotropic nematic phases and are characterized by polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Results from conoscopy indicate a biaxial nature of the nematic phase near room temperature. DFT calculations of dipole moments and molecular polarizabilities are used to substantiate the experimental findings.

  11. Jet-engine-based units for cleaning transport media and thawing frozen soil at mining, metallurgical, and transportation facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khechuev, Y.D.

    2008-01-15

    In recent years, it has become much more difficult to deal with the adhesion and freezing of moist overburden or soil during mining and transport operations due to the increase in the volume of the various materials being mined and transported - coal, ore, fluxes, structural materials, etc. The most productive and effective methods to deal with the sticking and freezing of soil and rock are gas dynamic methods. These methods employ high-speed jets of hot gases from jet engines and can be 15-30 times more productive than mechanical methods and machinery. Proceeding on the basis of calculations, completed studies, and field tests, the Gortekhtrans Department of Research Institute for Problems of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (NIIKMA) has developed several highly efficient units that employ this technology.

  12. Buildings Stock Load Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

    2006-01-01

    , Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-9-4 Buildings Stock Load Control Ms H. Amrani Joutey Mr H. Vaezi-Nejad Mr B. Clemonçon Mr F.Rosenstein PHD student Research engineer Research... electricity consumption and curtail peak demand but in local form: building by building. Few developments are carried out for multi sites management. Multi sites management is essential in crisis and/or peak periods (large energy demand in particular during...

  13. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  14. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  15. Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Males, R.; Hassig, N.

    1981-01-01

    larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces...

  16. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a larger number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  17. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.; Peierls, R.F.

    1995-08-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a large number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  18. Recovery Act. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yi; Casey, Patrick; Du, Liang; He, Dawei

    2014-02-12

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)’s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel “smart power strip” to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects; An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing; A novel “Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle” prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution; and Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions, in particular, advanced power strips (APSs) was studied. The project evaluated the market potential for Smart Power Strips (SPSs) with load identification and the likely impact of a load identification feature on APS adoption and effectiveness. The project also identified other success factors required for widespread APS adoption and market acceptance. Even though the developed technology is applicable for both residential and commercial buildings, this project is focused on effective plug-in load control and management for commercial buildings, accomplished through effective load identification. The project has completed Smart Receptacle (SR) prototype development with integration of Load ID, Control/Management, WiFi communication, and Web Service. Twenty SR units were built, tested, and demonstrated in the Eaton lab; eight SR units were tested in the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) for one-month of field testing. Load ID algorithm testing for extended load sets was conducted within the Eaton facility and at local university campuses. This report is to summarize the major achievements, activities, and outcomes under the execution of the project.

  19. Development programs in the United States of America for the application of cement-based grouts in radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dole, L.R.; Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews seven cement-based waste form development programs at six of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These sites have developed a variety of processes that range from producing 25 mm (1 in.) diameter pellets in a glove box to producing 240 m (800 ft.) diameter grout sheets within the bedding planes of a deep shale formation. These successful applications of cement-based waste forms to the many radioactive waste streams from nuclear facilities bear witness to the flexibility and reliability of this class of materials. This paper also discusses the major issues regarding the application of cement-based waste forms to radioactive waste management problems. These issues are (1) leachability, (2) radiation stability, (3) thermal stability, (4) phase complexity of the matrix, and (5) effects of the waste stream composition. A cursory review of current research in each of these areas is given This paper also discusses future trends in cement-based waste form development and applications. 31 references, 11 figures.

  20. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  1. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L; Ford, Justin R; Spires, Shannon V; Goldsmith, Steven Y

    2015-11-05

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  2. DOE Awards Contract for WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cincinnati – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a competitive small business contract to Celeritex, LLC, (a Joint Venture between Project Services Group, LLC and DeNuke Contracting Services Inc.) of Suwanee, Georgia.

  3. WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Contract - 8-27-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02) nerg *4 o**ColoradoDOE Awards Contract

  4. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  5. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Daniel M. (Oliver Springs, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  6. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  7. Metal loading and reactivity of Zeolite Y 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sa?enz, Marc Gerard

    1988-01-01

    V) are transi- tion metal oxides or sulfides on an alumina support. These catalysts were not specifically developed for hydrodenitrogenaiion but were adopted from hydrocracking or hydrodesul- furization (HDS) processes. HDN is more difficult than HDS; thus... No. ;&778365, "Hydrocracking and Hydrodenitrogenation of Shale Oil" (7). The patent disclosed a class of catalysi. s based on large pore zeolites loaded v;ith transition metals. The zeolite based catalysts were preferred over the traditional alumina...

  8. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

    2011-05-01

    This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

  9. Distributional Analysis for Model Predictive Deferrable Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    for demand response. There are two major categories of demand response, direct load control (DLC) and price-based demand response. See [1] for a discussion of the contrasts between these approaches. In this paper we focus on direct load control with the goal of using demand response to reduce variations

  10. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. This study incorporates information on Pacific Northwest (PNW) regional retail loads, contract obligations, and contract resources. This loads and resources analysis simulates the operation of the power system in the PNW. The simulated hydro operation incorporates plant characteristics, streamflows, and non-power requirements from the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). Additional resource capability estimates were provided by BPA, PNW Federal agency, public agency, cooperative, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers furnished through annual PNUCC data submittals for 2005 and/or direct submittals to BPA. The 2006 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2006 White Book analysis updates the 2004 White Book. This analysis shows projections of the Federal system and region's yearly average annual energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2007-2016. The study also presents projections of Federal system and region expected 1-hour monthly peak demand, monthly energy demand, monthly 1-hour peak generating capability, and monthly energy generation for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. BPA is investigating a new approach in capacity planning depicting the monthly Federal system 120-hour peak generating capability and 120-hour peak surplus/deficit for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. This document analyzes the PNW's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency;

  11. Computational Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Stable Zirconium Building Units for Storage and Delivery of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Gualdron, DA; Gutov, OV; Krungleviciute, V; Borah, B; Mondloch, JE; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK; Snurr, RQ

    2014-10-14

    A metal organic framework (MOF) with high volumetric deliverable capacity for methane was synthesized after being identified by computational screening of 204 hypothetical MOF structures featuring (Zr6O4)(OH)(4)(CO2)(n) inorganic building blocks. The predicted MOF (NU-800) has an fcu topology in which zirconium nodes are connected via ditopic 1,4-benzenedipropynoic acid linkers. Based on our computer simulations, alkyne groups adjacent to the inorganic zirconium nodes provide more efficient methane packing around the nodes at high pressures. The high predicted gas uptake properties of this new MOF were confirmed by high-pressure isotherm measurements over a large temperature and pressure range. The measured methane deliverable capacity of NU-800 between 65 and 5.8 bar is 167 cc(STP)/cc (0.215 g/g), the highest among zirconium-based MOFs. High-pressure uptake values of H-2 and CO2 are also among the highest reported. These high gas uptake characteristics, along with the expected highly stable structure of NU-800, make it a promising material for gas storage applications.

  12. An unusual mono-substituted Keggin anion-chain based 3D framework with 24-membered macrocycles as linker units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang Haijun; Ma Huiyuan; Yu Yan; Yang Ming; Xun Ye; Liu Bo

    2012-02-15

    A new compound, [Cu{sup I}(H{sub 2}O)(Hbpp){sub 2}] Subset-Of {l_brace}[Cu{sup I}(bpp)]{sub 2}[PW{sub 11}Cu{sup II}O{sub 39}]{r_brace} (1) (bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In compound 1, the unusual -A-B-A-B- array mono-substituted Keggin anion-chains and 24-membered (Cubpp){sub 2} cation-macrocycles are linked together to form a (2, 4) connected 3D framework with channels of ca. 9.784 Multiplication-Sign 7.771 A{sup 2} along two directions, in which the [Cu(H{sub 2}O)(Hbpp){sub 2}] coordination fragments as guest components are trapped. The photocatalytic experiments of compound 1 were performed, which show a good catalytic activity of compound 1 for photodegradation of RhB. Furthermore, the IR, TGA and electrochemical properties of compound 1 were investigated. - Graphical abstract: An unusual example of mono-substituted Keggin anion-chain based hybrid compound that possesses a 3D structure has been synthesized, which offers a feasible route for synthesis of such compounds. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first example of -A-B-A-B- array mono-substituted Keggin chain is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An unusual three dimensional structure based mono-substituted Keggin anion-chains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalysis and electrochemical properties of the title compound were studied.

  13. Economic Consequences of Alternative Solution Methods for Centralized Unit Commitment in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; O'Neill, Richard; Oren, Shmuel S

    2008-01-01

    based methods for unit commitment: Lagrangian relaxationand ef?ciency of unit commitment in competitive electricityPrice-based unit commitment: A case of Lagrangian relaxation

  14. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Scott A.; Thornton, Brian; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  15. A PBRN is a group of 15 to several hundred healthcare practices devoted primarily to the care of patients. These practices are united by a shared commitment to expand the science base of clinical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Bruce J.

    . The South Texas Psychiatric PBRN is a network of practicing psychiatrist who collaborate with UTHSCSA practice-based research comes of age in the United States. Annals of Family Medicine 3: S2-S4, 2005 2: Revisiting Practice-Based Research Networks as a platform for mental health services research. Adm Policy

  16. INVESTING IN NEW BASE LOAD GENERATING CAPACITY

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full Hydrocarbon Gas2 II NowIII IIUI

  17. Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted from prescribed fires in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burling, Ian; Yokelson, Robert J.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Wold, Cyle E.; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Reardon, James; Weise, David

    2011-12-07

    We measured the emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5) from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass burning emissions of glycolaldehyde, a possible precursor for aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol formation. We also measured the emissions of phenol, another aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Our data confirm previous suggestions that urban deposition can impact the NOx emission factors and thus subsequent plume chemistry. For two fires, we measured the emissions in the convective smoke plume from our airborne platform at the same time the unlofted residual smoldering combustion emissions were measured with our ground-based platform after the flame front passed through. The smoke from residual smoldering combustion was characterized by emission factors for hydrocarbon and oxygenated organic species that were up to ten times higher than in the lofted plume, including significant 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations which were not observed in the lofted plume. This should be considered in modeling the air quality impacts of smoke that disperses at ground level, and we show that the normally-ignored unlofted emissions can also significantly impact estimates of total emissions. Preliminary evidence of large emissions of monoterpenes was seen in the residual smoldering spectra, but we have not yet quantified these emissions. These data should lead to an improved capacity to model the impacts of biomass burning in similar ecosystems.

  18. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Lois

    2015-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  19. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  20. Review of current Southern California edison load management programs and proposal for a new market-driven, mass-market, demand-response program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weller, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    for emergency load management. e. Estimated Program Cost TheCommercial & Industrial (C&I) Load Management Programs A.on the Existing SCE Load Management System / Technology Base

  1. Electromagnetic fields in nonuniform disk-loaded waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayzatsky, M I

    2015-01-01

    On the base of general approach we obtain some results that can be useful in the process of tuning of nonunifrom disc-loaded waveguides. Our consideration has shown that simple values that characterize the detuning of the cells can be introduced only for the disc-loaded waveguide with parameters that change very slow. In general case it is needed to conduct full numerical simulation of specific disc-loaded waveguide and obtain all necessary coupling coefficients. After that one can start the tuning process on the base of bead-pull field distribution measurements.

  2. Loading Relativistic Maxwell Distributions in Particle Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ${\\approx}50\\%$ for generic cases and $100\\%$ for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  3. CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Rugh, J. P.; Rister, B. R.; Venson, T. S.

    2011-05-01

    In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs annually for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel per year. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling is primarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches. It is intended for rapid trade-off studies, technology impact estimation, and preliminary HVAC sizing design and to complement more detailed and expensive CAE tools by exploring and identifying regions of interest in the design space. This paper describes the CoolCalc tool, provides outdoor long-haul truck thermal testing results, shows validation using these test results, and discusses future applications of the tool.

  4. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD UNIRRADIATED FUEL PACKAGE SUBJECTED TO SEQUENTIAL LATERAL LOADS IN HYPOTHETICAL ACCIDENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, T

    2008-04-30

    Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) specified in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 part 71 (10CFR71). Testing is often limited by cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing by using simplified analytical methods. This paper presents a numerical technique for evaluating the dynamic responses of large fuel casks subjected to sequential HAC loading. A nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed for a Hanford Unirradiated Fuel Package (HUFP) [1] to evaluate the cumulative damage after the hypothetical accident Conditions of a 30-foot lateral drop followed by a 40-inch lateral puncture as specified in 10CFR71. The structural integrity of the containment vessel is justified based on the analytical results in comparison with the stress criteria, specified in the ASME Code, Section III, Appendix F [2], for Level D service loads. The analyzed cumulative damages caused by the sequential loading of a 30-foot lateral drop and a 40-inch lateral puncture are compared with the package test data. The analytical results are in good agreement with the test results.

  5. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  6. LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    , regression, artificial intelligence. 1. Introduction Accurate models for electric power load forecasting to make important decisions including decisions on pur- chasing and generating electric power, load for different operations within a utility company. The natures 269 #12;270 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS

  7. Load Management - A Better Way 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easley, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    of load management techniques which has enabled the company to shift well over 100,000 kilowatts of customer load from the on-peak period to the off-peak period in the last four to five years. This is helping delay the need for new plants and allows...

  8. GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 Fuel Load Modeling From Mensuration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of this study was to model a dead fuel load based on forest mensuration attributes from forest management from management programs are an efficient and low-cost alternative for estimating forest fuel loadsGENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 274 Fuel Load Modeling From Mensuration Attributes

  9. Autonomous Network Management Using Cooperative Learning for Network-Wide Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Autonomous Network Management Using Cooperative Learning for Network-Wide Load Balancing-wide load balance, we propose Autonomous Network management with Team learning based Self shortest paths while uncongested longer paths may be underutilized. To maintain network-wide load balancing

  10. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of InternationalExperience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for andexperiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in fiveelectricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordicmarket, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objectivein undertaking this review of international experience was to identifyspecific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads toeffectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hopethat this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S.and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments areneeded to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in allwholesale electricity markets.

  11. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, J.S.; Kankam, M.D.; Santiago, W.; Madi, F.J.

    1992-08-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  12. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  13. Unit and student details Unit code Unit title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

    Unit and student details Unit code Unit title If this is a group assignment, each student must submitted Has any part of this assessment been previously submitted as part of another unit/course? Yes not be copied. No part of this assignment has been previously submitted as part of another unit/course. I

  14. Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

    2012-08-01

    As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

  15. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Lower Cleanroom Roof Quick Load Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-11-17

    This engineering note documents calculations done to determine the margin of safety for the lower clean room roof. The analysis was done to give me a feeling of what the loads, stresses and capacity of the roof is prior to installation and installation work to be done for the helium refrigerator upgrade. The result of this quick look showed that the calculated loads produce stress values and loads at about half the allowables. Based on this result, I do not think that special precautions above personal judgement are required for the installation work.

  16. Unit Unit Desc Unit Unit Desc Program Program Desc OLD ACCOUNT FORMAT NEW ACCOUNT FORMAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unit Unit Desc Unit Unit Desc Program Program Desc OLD ACCOUNT FORMAT NEW ACCOUNT FORMAT 001113 AP Old O/S A/P NonResCk 0000 General 000000 General #12;Unit Unit Desc Unit Unit Desc Program Program

  17. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  18. Building load control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

  19. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  20. Demand Response: Load Management Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs V. Residential Discussion... Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off-peak period or from high-price periods...

  1. Unit code: MATH35021 Credit Rating: 10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidorov, Nikita

    . Assessment methods Other - 20% This is archived information. Please visit http.g. an underground oil pipe) is subjected to some loading on its outer surface. What is the stress distribution which://www.maths.manchester.ac.uk for current course unit information #12; Written exam - 80% Assessment Further Information Coursework

  2. Structural assessment of accident loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

  3. Comparison of Wind Power and Load Forecasting Error Distributions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Orwig, K.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of large amounts of variable and uncertain power sources, such as wind power, into the electricity grid presents a number of challenges for system operations. One issue involves the uncertainty associated with scheduling power that wind will supply in future timeframes. However, this is not an entirely new challenge; load is also variable and uncertain, and is strongly influenced by weather patterns. In this work we make a comparison between the day-ahead forecasting errors encountered in wind power forecasting and load forecasting. The study examines the distribution of errors from operational forecasting systems in two different Independent System Operator (ISO) regions for both wind power and load forecasts at the day-ahead timeframe. The day-ahead timescale is critical in power system operations because it serves the unit commitment function for slow-starting conventional generators.

  4. Join Cost for Unit Selection Speech Synthesis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vepa, Jithendra

    Undoubtedly, state-of-the-art unit selection-based concatenative speech systems produce very high quality synthetic speech. this is due to a large speech database containing many instances of each speech unit, with a varied ...

  5. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01

    De- velopment of a Simplified Cooling Load Design Tool forand C. Benedek. 2007. “Cooling airflow design calculationscalculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor

  6. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  7. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    controls on the load-side is growing. Driven by improved and widely available communications systems, load participation is becoming easier and more reliable; and there...

  8. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  9. Short-Term Load Forecasting Error Distributions and Implications for Renewable Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Load forecasting in the day-ahead timescale is a critical aspect of power system operations that is used in the unit commitment process. It is also an important factor in renewable energy integration studies, where the combination of load and wind or solar forecasting techniques create the net load uncertainty that must be managed by the economic dispatch process or with suitable reserves. An understanding of that load forecasting errors that may be expected in this process can lead to better decisions about the amount of reserves necessary to compensate errors. In this work, we performed a statistical analysis of the day-ahead (and two-day-ahead) load forecasting errors observed in two independent system operators for a one-year period. Comparisons were made with the normal distribution commonly assumed in power system operation simulations used for renewable power integration studies. Further analysis identified time periods when the load is more likely to be under- or overforecast.

  10. Aggregated Modeling of Thermostatic Loads in Demand Response: A Systems and Control Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Chassin, Forrest S.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-12-12

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid research and technologies being examined in recently undertaken demonstration projects. The behavior of load as it is affected by various load control strategies is important to understanding the degree to which different classes of end-use load can contribute to demand response programs at various times. This paper focuses on developing aggregated models for a homogeneous population of thermostatically controlled loads. The different types of loads considered in this paper include, but are not limited to, water heaters and HVAC units. The effects of demand response and user over-ride on the load population dynamics are investigated. The controllability of the developed lumped models is validated which forms the basis for designing different control strategies.

  11. UNITED STEELWORKERS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE:Administrationfollowing tableUNITED FERC

  12. United States

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedof EnergyMeeting - MarchUSPS:1 United States

  13. United States

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedof EnergyMeeting - MarchUSPS:1 United States7

  14. United States

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedof EnergyMeeting - MarchUSPS:1 United States78

  15. United States

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedof EnergyMeeting - MarchUSPS:1 United

  16. United States

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedof EnergyMeeting - MarchUSPS:1 UnitedDuke-4-E

  17. Development of an Online Expert Rule Based Automated fault Detection and Diagnostic (AFDD) Tool for Air Handling Units: Beta Test Results 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruton, K.; Coakley, D.; O'Donovan, P.; Keane, M.; O'Sullivan, D.

    2013-01-01

    Units (AHU) in HVAC systems to rectify faulty operation. Studies have also demonstrated that continuous commissioning of building systems for optimum efficiency can yield savings of an average of over 20% of total energy cost. Automated Fault Detection...

  18. Staying FIT: Efficient Load Shedding Techniques for Distributed Stream Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bottlenecks slow down processing and network transmission, and cause delayed outputs. Load management has been. Common load management techniques include adaptive load distribution, admis- sion control, and load

  19. Adaptive Load Forecasting Philip Anton de Saint-Aubain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Denmark Informatics and Mathematical Modelling Building 321, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark Phone +45 with renewable energy. Renewable energy in Denmark is mostly based on wind power which is a highly fluctuating mathematical models for the heat load. Based on district heating consumption data from four houses in a small

  20. Heat rate and maximum load capability improvements through cycle isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coons, K. [Coronado Generating Station, Saint Johns, AZ (United States); Dimmick, J.G. [Leak Detection Services, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Major improvements in maximum load capability and gross turbine heat rate were obtained at Salt River Project`s Coronado Unit 1, resulting from work done during the Spring 1993 overhaul. Corrected maximum load increased by 13.1 MW -- from 403.8 MW prior to the overhaul compared to 416.9 MW after the overhaul. Corrected gross turbine heat rate was reduced 270 BTU/kWH -- from 7,920 BTU/kWH before the overhaul to 7,650 BTU/kWH after the overhaul. Of the work done, the repair of leaking valves had the largest impact on cycle performance. The reduction of cycle leakage accounted for an increase of 9.9 MW in maximum load capability and a reduction to gross turbine heat rate of 190 BTU. Weekly maximum load tests, which started in August 1992 with the installation of an on-line monitoring system, show that maximum load had decreased approximately 4 MW during the six months prior to the overhaul. During this time there were no significant changes in HP or IP efficiencies, or any other directly-measured cycle parameters. Therefore, this degradation was attributed to cycle isolation valve leakage. Acoustic emission leak detection methods were used to identify leaking valves prior to the outage. Of the 138 valves tested for leakage, 31 valves had medium to very large leaks. Of these 31 leaking valves identified, 30 were repaired or replaced.

  1. Handbook of five methodologies for the assessment of load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report provides a summary description and evaluation of five methodologies that have been developed for the assessment of utility costs and benefits of load-management programs, including marginal-costing methodologies and an integrated set of utility-system planning and production costing models. Of the two basic methods, the first uses marginal-cost data to compute the cumulative reduction in utility-system costs realized in moving units of load from periods of high marginal cost to periods of low marginal cost. The present value of these cost savings may be compared directly with the costs of implementing the load-management program. The second method relies on an evaluation of future total-system costs. System planning and production-costing models are used to calculate the total fixed and variable costs of meeting baseline and alternative-load configurations. The difference between baseline system costs and the costs with load management may then be compared to the costs of implementing the program. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are summarized briefly.

  2. How loads affect coiled tubing life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, E.J. Inc., AK )

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue testing was performed on 1-3/4-in OD, 0.125 in. wall thickness (WT) coiled tubing using a standard coiled tubing unit (CTU) as shown in this paper. Testing was conducted under Prudhoe Bay, Alaska oil well, conditions to determine the effects of axial load, internal pressure and bending stress on the longevity, or usable running footage, that can be expected with larger diameter tubing. The CTU was rigged up in a standard configuration with injector head 50 ft off the ground, the worst case for bending on most currently available North Slope units. Internal pressure was supplied by a small triplex pump and the end of tubing was closed off with a fishing neck and bull plug. Weight, for the first four tests, was suspended from the coiled tubing by a special clamp. The tubing was cycled up and over the guide arch until a loss of internal coiled tubing pressure (CTP) occurred, or until the tubing became stuck in the stripper brass.

  3. Benefits of Industrial Boiler Control and Economic Load Allocation at AMOCO Chemicals, Decatur, Alabama 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, J.

    1998-01-01

    , it is considered by this solution. The global solution makes recommendations to advise the operator as to what the optimum loading is for all the boilers, including recommending adding or removing boilers from service, and changing the load on any base-loaded... as long as the soluti os remain valid, as defmed above. To achieve savings from the local soluti n optimization, the boiler loads must be altered fr~m the traditional, non-optimized loading strategy 0 a common plant master signal cascaded to all boil...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " 1Total U.S. includes all primary occupied housing units in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military...

  5. United States Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    Protect Your Family From Lead in Your Home United States Environmental Protection Agency United States Consumer Product Safety Commission United States Department of Housing and Urban Development

  6. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); De Marquis, Virginia K. (Tijeras, NM); Harris, Steven M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  7. Noise Load Management at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    Noise Load Management at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol T.R. Meerburg , R.J. Boucherie , M.J.A.L. van objective is to guarantee safety, efficiency, and protection of the environment, that includes noise load contributes to the noise load at these points. If the cumulative load in an aviation year at an enforce- ment

  8. Paper No. 2006-JSC-397 Agarwal Design Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical Extrapolation from Limited Field Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Paper No. 2006-JSC-397 Agarwal Design Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical a field measurement campaign. At the Blyth offshore wind farm in the United Kingdom, a 2MW wind turbine of variability in the parameters for load distribution is investigated. KEY WORDS: Offshore wind turbines

  9. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The renewable supply may comprise, for example, a photovoltaic power supply or a wind-based power supply.

  10. Prediction of crack propagation paths in the unit cell of SOFC stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joulaee, N.; Makradi, A.; Ahzi, Said; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Koeppel, Brian J.

    2009-08-01

    Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) stacks are multi-material layered systems with different thermo-mechanical properties. Due to their severe thermal loading, these layers have to meet high demands to preserve their mechanical integrity without initiation and propagation of fracture. Here, we focus on a typical unit cell of the stack which consists of positive electrode-electrolyte-negative electrode (PEN). Based on the mechanical properties of each layer and their interfaces, an energy criterion as a function of crack length is used for the prediction of possible crack extensions in the PEN. This criterion is a pure local criterion, independent of applied loads and geometry of the specimen. An analysis of the competition between crack deflections in the interfaces and crack penetration in layers is presented.

  11. Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @compute.dtu.dk www.compute.dtu.dk M.Sc.-2013-87 #12;Summary (English) The Danish power production coming from energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present Thesis

  12. Scaling the Web Load Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menascé, Daniel A.

    Scaling the Web Load Testing of Web Sites D evelopers typically measure a Web appli- cation on a Web site's IT infrastructure are a function of the site's expect- ed traffic. Ideally, you want, you shouldn't upgrade your Web servers if customers experience most delays in the database server

  13. Micromechanical Analysis of Geosynthetic-Soil Interaction Under Cyclic Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhandari, Anil

    2010-05-28

    OF PAPER 85 3.7 CALIBRATION OF GEOTEXTILE AND GEOGRID 87 CHAPTER FOUR 91 4 TRAPDOOR EXPERIMENT AND DEM SIMULATION 91 4.1 EQUIPMENT DESIGN AND TEST PROCEDURE 91 4.2 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 94 4.2.1 Unreinforced embankments 94 4.2.2 Reinforced embankments... CHAPTER SIX 160 6 BEHAVIOR OF GEOSYNTHETIC-REINFORCED BASES 160 6.1 GEOTEXTILE-REINFORCED BASE 160 6.1.1 Numerical sample preparation 162 6.1.2 Moving wheel load 164 6.1.3 Contact forces due to moving wheel load 165 6.1.4 Rut depths due to moving...

  14. Termination unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  15. Units for Promoter Measurement in Mammalian Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velten, Lars

    2009-10-21

    The purpose of this RFC is to provide units for the characterization of promoter strength for use in mammalian cells. RMPU is mRNA based and

  16. Small Units inside Large Units 8.1 Experimental units bigger than observational units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, R. A.

    Chapter 8 Small Units inside Large Units 8.1 Experimental units bigger than observational units 8, but it is individual people that are measured. In general, suppose that there are m experimental units, each of which consists of k observational units, and that there are t treatments, each of which is applied

  17. Design Method for the Heating/Cooling Coil in the AHU Based on Fuzzy Logic - Part Two: Design of the Minimum Heat-Exchanging Unit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Liang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Considering a heating/cooling coil with adjustable heat-exchange area, an unequal type is put forward in this paper. Aiming at the application of such heat exchanger in an air-handling unit, restriction conditions are given for the minimum heat...

  18. Breakeven Prices for Photovoltaics on Supermarkets in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Clark, N.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-03-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) breakeven price is the PV system price at which the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. This point is also called 'grid parity' and can be expressed as dollars per watt ($/W) of installed PV system capacity. Achieving the PV breakeven price depends on many factors, including the solar resource, local electricity prices, customer load profile, PV incentives, and financing. In the United States, where these factors vary substantially across regions, breakeven prices vary substantially across regions as well. In this study, we estimate current and future breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets in the United States. We also evaluate key drivers of current and future commercial PV breakeven prices by region. The results suggest that breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets vary significantly across the United States. Non-technical factors -- including electricity rates, rate structures, incentives, and the availability of system financing -- drive break-even prices more than technical factors like solar resource or system orientation. In 2020 (where we assume higher electricity prices and lower PV incentives), under base-case assumptions, we estimate that about 17% of supermarkets will be in utility territories where breakeven conditions exist at a PV system price of $3/W; this increases to 79% at $1.25/W (the DOE SunShot Initiative's commercial PV price target for 2020). These percentages increase to 26% and 91%, respectively, when rate structures favorable to PV are used.

  19. 3-50 A classroom is to be air-conditioned using window air-conditioning units. The cooling load is due to people, lights, and heat transfer through the walls and the windows. The number of 5-kW window air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    3-19 3-50 A classroom is to be air-conditioned using window air-conditioning units. The cooling.17 3-51 The lighting energy consumption of a storage room is to be reduced by installing motion sensors lamps)(60 W/lamp )(3285 hours/year) = 4730 kWh/year Cost Savings = (Energy Savings)(Unit cost of energy

  20. Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Xie, YuLong; Leung, Lai R.; Correia, James; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Paget, Maria L.

    2008-09-30

    This report presents a multi-disciplinary modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. Our results have shown that by the mid-century, building yearly energy consumption and peak load will increase in the Southwest. Moreover, the peak load months will spread out to not only the summer months but also spring and autumn months. The Pacific Northwest will experience more hot days in the summer months. The penetration of the air conditioning (a/c) system in this area is likely to increase significantly over the years. As a result, some locations in the Pacific Northwest may be shifted from winter peaking to summer peaking. Overall, the Western U.S. grid may see more simultaneous peaks across the North and South in summer months. Increased cooling load will result in a significant increase in the motor load, which consumes more reactive power and requires stronger voltage support from the grid. This study suggests an increasing need for the industry to implement new technology to increase the efficiency of temperature-sensitive loads and apply proper protection and control to prevent possible adverse impacts of a/c motor loads.

  1. A general formula for non-cohesive bed load sediment transport Benoi^t Camenen), Magnus Larson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    A general formula for non-cohesive bed load sediment transport Benoi^t Camenen), Magnus Larson 2004; accepted 29 October 2004 Abstract A bed load transport formula for non-cohesive sediment, based, oscillatory flows, and combined steady and oscillatory flows. The bed load formula introduced in this study

  2. For current viewing resistor loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Gregory R. (Tijeras, NM); Hass, Jay B. (Lee's Summit, MO)

    2011-04-19

    The invention comprises a terminal unit for a flat cable comprising a BNC-PCB connector having a pin for electrically contacting one or more conducting elements of a flat cable, and a current viewing resistor having an opening through which the pin extends and having a resistor face that abuts a connector face of the BNC-PCB connector, wherein the device is a terminal unit for the flat cable.

  3. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  4. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  5. Load Forecast For use in Resource Adequacy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    forecast of 4) Calculate Hourly Load Allocation Factor s for each day for 2019 For use in RA analysis as a function ofthe load for electricity in the region as a function of cyclical, weather and economic variables

  6. Residential Load Management Program and Pilot 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haverlah, D.; Riordon, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1986 LCRA embarked on residential load management to control peak summer loads. At that time, LCRA was considered a summer peaking utility, and residential air conditioning and water heating systems were selected for control. The program...

  7. NITROGEN LOADINGS FROM SEPTIC SYSTEMS IN THE LOWER FRASER BASIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waste Management Zone" (AMZ) as defined in the "Agricultural Inventory of the Lower Fraser Valley Data the data base (acquired from the B.C. Assessment Authority in 1993) in the Ministry of Health report#12;NITROGEN LOADINGS FROM SEPTIC SYSTEMS IN THE LOWER FRASER BASIN DOE FRAP 1997-25 Prepared for

  8. Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks using Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toumpis, Stavros

    Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks using Kirchhoff's Voltage Law Stavros Toumpis Electrical balancing in wireless networks with a single class of traffic, focusing our attention on an important example, i.e., Wireless Sensor Networks. The analysis is based on the Wireless Minimum Cost Problem

  9. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  10. Wind induced torsional loads on structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    -level crosswind loading on a square cross-section building. Reinhold et al.4 instrumented a building model

  11. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  12. United Nations Programme on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    United Nations Programme on Space Applications UNITED NATIONS UNITED NATIONS OFFICE FOR OUTER SPACE, Sputnik 1. Soon after that event, the Member States of the United Nations declared that space should and natural resources management. At the first United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses

  13. Entanglement Storage Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Caneva; T. Calarco; S. Montangero

    2012-09-27

    We introduce a protocol based on optimal control to drive many body quantum systems into long-lived entangled states, protected from decoherence by big energy gaps, without requiring any apriori knowledge of the system. With this approach it is possible to implement scalable entanglement-storage units. We test the protocol in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model, a prototype many-body quantum system that describes different experimental setups, and in the ordered Ising chain, a model representing a possible implementation of a quantum bus.

  14. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  15. Instantaneous Offloading of Transient Web Server Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instantaneous Offloading of Transient Web Server Load Vsevolod V. Panteleenko and Vincent W. Freeh A modern web-hosting site is designed to handle load that is sometimes an order of magnitude greater than and performance study of the web booster architecture, which reduces web server load during peak periods. A web

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings With"...

  17. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range symposium dealing with this subject in the western United States, the papers presented address current ........................................................................................................................................ 1 Annosus Root Disease in Europe and the Southeastern United States: Occurrence, Research

  18. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Forest Experiment Station research unit in New Hampshirein 1957, where he studied problemsof regenerationandthinning research unit at Warren, Pennsylvania, where he headed a program of research on problems related

  19. Unit 35 - Raster Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unit 35, CC in GIS; Peuquet, Donna

    1990-01-01

    in GIS - 1990 Page 8 Unit 35 - Raster Storage GIS to whichNCGIA Core Curriculum in GIS - 1990 Page 9 Unit 35 - RasterStorage UNIT 35 IMAGES NCGIA Core Curriculum in GIS - 1990

  20. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  1. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  2. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  3. INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    May 27-30, 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR12048 May 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FORfor increases in the building cooling load resulting from

  4. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-01-01

    of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

  5. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Development Commission. Load Management in California. Staffon the Challenge of Load Management, Conservation Paper No.for Electric Utility Load Management. New York, New York:

  6. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  7. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General assigned to the Station's research unit studying the regeneration of California forests

  8. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture MIX: A Computer Program to Evaluate Forest Service, a research entomologist, is in charge of the unit developing improved technology for integrated management

  9. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General Programs: A Review of Cognitive and Behavioral Studies Introduction Recent wildfires in the Western United

  10. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range to the Chaparral Prescribed Fire Research Unit, headquartered at Riverside, California. Publisher: Pacific

  11. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General is a Research Ecologist at the Station's Timber Management/Wildlife Habitat Interactions Unit, Redwood Sciences

  12. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General scientist with the Station's Wildland Recreation and Urban Cultures Research Unit, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive

  13. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    A United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station General, land management, carbon sequestration, carbon markets, United States. #12;ii Executive Summary

  14. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Intermountain Research Station General acrossthe United States provide estimates of the amount of erosion reductionon forest roadsfrom

  15. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    94701 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range of California, Berkeley, and a cooperator with the Research Unit. #12;Acknowledgments We especially acknowledge

  16. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range to the Station's chaparral and related ecosystems research unit, with headquarters at Riverside, California. He

  17. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of California Oaks: A Bibliography Agriculture Forest Service Pacific forester in the Station's Forest Regeneration Research Unit, at Redding, California. He holds bachelor

  18. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Changlu

    United States Department of Agriculture Rural Business- Cooperative Service Research Report 157, concentration, globalization, agency theory Cooperatives in a Changing Global Food System United States

  19. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General is a supervisory research entomologist in the Station's Regeneration Insect Research Unit in Berkeley. W. WAYNE

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE An experimental study of flow fields and wind loads on gable-roof

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Hui

    RESEARCH ARTICLE An experimental study of flow fields and wind loads on gable-roof building models the resultant wind loads acting on low-rise, gable-roof buildings induced by violent microburst-like winds State University. Two gable-roof building models with the same base plan and mean roof height

  1. LOAD PROFILING IN DISTRIBUTED REALTIME SYSTEMS \\Lambda ``One Size Doesn't Fit All''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Using load profiling, the system attempts to distribute the load amongst its nodes so as to maximize the chances of finding a node that would satisfy the computational needs of incoming real­time tasks engineering based on a solid, analytical foundation for real­time resource management. Examples include

  2. 168 / JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING / FEBRUARY 2001 GUST LOADING FACTOR: NEW MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    )]. It should be pointed out that the Australian Standard (1989) and the ACI standard (1988) use the GLF and standards around the world. In this scheme, the equivalent static wind loading used for design is equal and standards. Currently, the ESWL in building codes is estimated based on the ``gust load- ing factor'' (GLF

  3. AIAA-2004-0502 A COMPARISON OF WIND TURBINE DESIGN LOADS IN DIFFERENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    wind speed. For wind turbine generator systems, a similar reliability-based design format is employedAIAA-2004-0502 1 A COMPARISON OF WIND TURBINE DESIGN LOADS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS USING INVERSE, Austin, TX 78712 ABSTRACT* The influence of turbulence conditions on the design loads for wind turbines

  4. Quantification of Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics in the Conterminous United States Combining a Process-Based Biogeochemical Model and MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Min; Zhuang, Qianlai; Cook, David R.; Coulter, Richard L.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Scott, Russell L.; Munger, J. W.; Bible, Ken

    2011-09-21

    Satellite remote sensing provides continuous temporal and spatial information of terrestrial 24 ecosystems. Using these remote sensing data and eddy flux measurements and biogeochemical 25 models, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), should provide a more adequate 26 quantification of carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use Moderate Resolution 27 Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Land Surface Water Index 28 (LSWI) and carbon flux data of AmeriFlux to conduct such a study. We first modify the gross primary 29 production (GPP) modeling in TEM by incorporating EVI and LSWI to account for the effects of the 30 changes of canopy photosynthetic capacity, phenology and water stress. Second, we parameterize and 31 verify the new version of TEM with eddy flux data. We then apply the model to the conterminous 32 United States over the period 2000-2005 at a 0.05o ×0.05o spatial resolution. We find that the new 33 version of TEM generally captured the expected temporal and spatial patterns of regional carbon 34 dynamics. We estimate that regional GPP is between 7.02 and 7.78 Pg C yr-1 and net primary 35 production (NPP) ranges from 3.81 to 4.38 Pg C yr-1 and net ecosystem production (NEP) varies 36 within 0.08-0.73 Pg C yr-1 over the period 2000-2005 for the conterminous United States. The 37 uncertainty due to parameterization is 0.34, 0.65 and 0.18 Pg C yr-1 for the regional estimates of GPP, 38 NPP and NEP, respectively. The effects of extreme climate and disturbances such as severe drought in 39 2002 and destructive Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were captured by the model. Our study provides a 40 new independent and more adequate measure of carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, 41 which will benefit studies of carbon-climate feedback and facilitate policy-making of carbon 42 management and climate.

  5. Quantification of terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the conterminous United States combining a process-based biogeochemical model and MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Min; Zhuang, Qianlai; Cook, D.; Coulter, Richard L.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Scott, Russell L.; Munger, J. W.; Bible, Ken

    2011-08-31

    Satellite remote sensing provides continuous temporal and spatial information of terrestrial ecosystems. Using these remote sensing data and eddy flux measurements and biogeochemical models, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), should provide a more adequate quantification of carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) and carbon flux data of AmeriFlux to conduct such a study. We first modify the gross primary production (GPP) modeling in TEM by incorporating EVI and LSWI to account for the effects of the changes of canopy photosynthetic capacity, phenology and water stress. Second, we parameterize and verify the new version of TEM with eddy flux data. We then apply the model to the conterminous United States over the period 2000-2005 at a 0.05-0.05 spatial resolution. We find that the new version of TEM made improvement over the previous version and generally captured the expected temporal and spatial patterns of regional carbon dynamics. We estimate that regional GPP is between 7.02 and 7.78 PgC yr{sup -1} and net primary production (NPP) ranges from 3.81 to 4.38 Pg Cyr{sup -1} and net ecosystem production (NEP) varies within 0.08- 0.73 PgC yr{sup -1} over the period 2000-2005 for the conterminous United States. The uncertainty due to parameterization is 0.34, 0.65 and 0.18 PgC yr{sup -1} for the regional estimates of GPP, NPP and NEP, respectively. The effects of extreme climate and disturbances such as severe drought in 2002 and destructive Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were captured by the model. Our study provides a new independent and more adequate measure of carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, which will benefit studies of carbon-climate feedback and facilitate policy-making of carbon management and climate.

  6. Estimation of Seismic Load Demand for a Wind Turbine in the Time Domain: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowell, I.; Elgamal, A.; Uang, C.; Jonkman, J.

    2010-03-01

    Turbines installed in seismically active regions such as the Pacific Rim or the Mediterranean must consider loads induced by base shaking from an earthquake. To account for this earthquake risk, current International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) certification requirements provide a simplified method for calculating seismic loads which is intended to be conservative. Through the addition of capabilities, it is now possible to simulate earthquake loading of a wind turbine in conjunction other load sources such as wind and control system behavior using the FAST code. This paper presents a comparison of three earthquake loading scenarios of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine: idling; continued operation through an earthquake; and an emergency shutdown initiated by an earthquake. Using a set of 22 earthquake records, simulations are conducted for each load case. A summary of the resulting tower moment demand is presented to assess the influence of operational state on the resulting structural demand.

  7. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  8. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Act, when high stream flows, wind generation, and insufficient load combine to endanger fish protected under Federal environmental law. Complainants challenge Bonneville's...

  9. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning process and offers suggestions as to how the technical and institutional issues could have been resolved faster through early adoption of some of the core principles of sound EDSS design.

  10. Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2009-02-14

    Radiative forcing induced by soot on snow is a major anthropogenic forcing affecting the global climate. However, it is uncertain how the soot-induced snow albedo perturbation affects regional snowpack and the hydrological cycle. In this study we simulated the deposition of soot aerosol on snow and investigated the resulting impact on snowpack and the surface water budget in the western United States. A yearlong simulation was performed using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) to determine an annual budget of soot deposition, followed by two regional climate simulations using WRF in meteorology-only mode, with and without the soot-induced snow albedo perturbations. The chemistry simulation shows large spatial variability in soot deposition that reflects the localized emissions and the influence of the complex terrain. The soot-induced snow albedo perturbations increase the net solar radiation flux at the surface during late winter to early spring, increase the surface air temperature, reduce snow water equivalent amount, and lead to reduced snow accumulation and less spring snowmelt. These effects are stronger over the central Rockies and southern Alberta, where soot deposition and snowpack overlap the most. The indirect forcing of soot accelerates snowmelt and alters stream flows, including a trend toward earlier melt dates in the western United States. The soot-induced albedo reduction initiates a positive feedback process whereby dirty snow absorbs more solar radiation, heating the surface and warming the air. This warming causes reduced snow depth and fraction, which further reduces the regional surface albedo for the snow covered regions. Our simulations indicate that the change of maximum snow albedo induced by soot on snow contributes to 60% of the net albedo reduction over the central Rockies. Snowpack reduction accounts for the additional 40%.

  11. Long-run Implications of a Forest-based Carbon Sequestration Policy on the United States Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Modeling Approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monge, Juan

    2012-10-19

    The economic impacts of a government-funded, forest-based sequestration program were analyzed under two different payment schemes. The impacts were obtained by developing a regional, static CGE model built to accommodate a modified IMPLAN SAM for a...

  12. The development of an approximate dynamic analysis of insulating glass units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sequeira, Miguel Angel

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to develop an approximate dynamic analysis of sealed insulating glass (IG) units subject to uniform blast loads, the formulation of which will be incorporated into a computer program that will ...

  13. A Partial Load Model for a Local Combined Heat and Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Partial Load Model for a Local Combined Heat and Power Plant Camilla Schaumburg not limited to) waste, bio gas, and straw but a large majority are fuelled by natural gas [10]. They often and the gas-fired units are particularly characterised by their rapid commitment ability. In this paper

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of Load Management for Electricity End Users 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The planning, design and implementation of load management is complex and expensive. The results of a load management program are subject to numerous uncertainties related to load characteristics, power cost savings, load management costs...

  15. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  16. Commercial Building Loads Providing Ancillary Services in PJM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, Jason; Kiliccote, Sila; Boch, Jim; Chen, Jonathan; Nawy, Robert

    2014-06-27

    The adoption of low carbon energy technologies such as variable renewable energy and electric vehicles, coupled with the efficacy of energy efficiency to reduce traditional base load has increased the uncertainty inherent in the net load shape. Handling this variability with slower, traditional resources leads to inefficient system dispatch, and in some cases may compromise reliability. Grid operators are looking to future energy technologies, such as automated demand response (DR), to provide capacity-based reliability services as the need for these services increase. While DR resources are expected to have the flexibility characteristics operators are looking for, demonstrations are necessary to build confidence in their capabilities. Additionally, building owners are uncertain of the monetary value and operational burden of providing these services. To address this, the present study demonstrates the ability of demand response resources providing two ancillary services in the PJM territory, synchronous reserve and regulation, using an OpenADR 2.0b signaling architecture. The loads under control include HVAC and lighting at a big box retail store and variable frequency fan loads. The study examines performance characteristics of the resource: the speed of response, communications latencies in the architecture, and accuracy of response. It also examines the frequency and duration of events and the value in the marketplace which can be used to examine if the opportunity is sufficient to entice building owners to participate.

  17. A Parallel Rolling Horizon Scheme for Large Scale Security Constrained Unit Commitment Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    Independent Power Producers (IPP), Loads bid from Load Service Entities (LSE) and Security Constraints set with Wind Power Generation Eugene Feinberg Department of Applied Math and Statistics Stony Brook University: eyuan@ams.sunysb.edu Abstract--The Unit Commitment Problem (UCP) is an im- portant category of power

  18. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  19. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  20. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Publications Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops Load Participation...

  1. A Comparative Study of Stochastic Unit Commitment and Security-Constrained Unit Commitment Using High Performance Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    A Comparative Study of Stochastic Unit Commitment and Security-Constrained Unit Commitment Using unit commitment and a hybrid approach of scenario-based security-constrained commitment. Parallel posed in the context of unit commitment by Takriti and Birge [2] as an approach for mitigating demand

  2. Summary of Time Period-Based and Other Approximation Methods for Determining the Capacity Value of Wind and Solar in the United States: September 2010 - February 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2012-03-01

    This paper updates previous work that describes time period-based and other approximation methods for estimating the capacity value of wind power and extends it to include solar power. The paper summarizes various methods presented in utility integrated resource plans, regional transmission organization methodologies, regional stakeholder initiatives, regulatory proceedings, and academic and industry studies. Time period-based approximation methods typically measure the contribution of a wind or solar plant at the time of system peak - sometimes over a period of months or the average of multiple years.

  3. End of FY10 report - used fuel disposition technical bases and lessons learned : legal and regulatory framework for high-level waste disposition in the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Blink, James A.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Perry, Frank; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Carter, Joe; Nutt, Mark; Cotton, Tom

    2010-09-01

    This report examines the current policy, legal, and regulatory framework pertaining to used nuclear fuel and high level waste management in the United States. The goal is to identify potential changes that if made could add flexibility and possibly improve the chances of successfully implementing technical aspects of a nuclear waste policy. Experience suggests that the regulatory framework should be established prior to initiating future repository development. Concerning specifics of the regulatory framework, reasonable expectation as the standard of proof was successfully implemented and could be retained in the future; yet, the current classification system for radioactive waste, including hazardous constituents, warrants reexamination. Whether or not consideration of multiple sites are considered simultaneously in the future, inclusion of mechanisms such as deliberate use of performance assessment to manage site characterization would be wise. Because of experience gained here and abroad, diversity of geologic media is not particularly necessary as a criterion in site selection guidelines for multiple sites. Stepwise development of the repository program that includes flexibility also warrants serious consideration. Furthermore, integration of the waste management system from storage, transportation, and disposition, should be examined and would be facilitated by integration of the legal and regulatory framework. Finally, in order to enhance acceptability of future repository development, the national policy should be cognizant of those policy and technical attributes that enhance initial acceptance, and those policy and technical attributes that maintain and broaden credibility.

  4. NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    GA­A23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG OCTOBER 1999 #12;DISCLAIMER Government or any agency thereof. #12;GA­A23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG by General Atomics IR&D Funds GA PROJECT 4437 OCTOBER 1999 #12;C.P.C. WONG NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK

  5. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  6. Power System Dynamics as Primal-Dual Algorithm for Optimal Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    in the Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communica- tions, Tainan City, Taiwan- based load control does not require communication to a centralized grid operator, and is thus suitable for

  7. A Control Scheme of Enhanced Reliability for Multiple Chiller Plants Using Mergerd Building Cooling Load Measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, S.; Sun, Y.; Huang, G.; Zhu, N.

    2008-01-01

    the cooling load using chiller models based on the instantaneous chiller electrical power input and condition measured variables. The control performance of the proposed scheme is validated in this paper....

  8. Formulation of Prediction Algorithms for Management of Commercial and Industrial Energy Loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrester, R. J.; Wepfer, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    to adjust control strategies to minimize overall energy costs. This paper describes the formulation of statistically-based energy load prediction algorithms. For many such applications multiple linear regression analysis is appropriate. Examination...

  9. History of Load Participation in ERCOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    Presentation on demand integration by ERCOT for a DOE Workshop. Covers history of load participation in ERCOT from 2002 to present.

  10. Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in Switzerland (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Decentralized customerlevel under frequency...

  11. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan; O'Malley, Mark; Ma, Ookie; Cappers, Peter; Corbus, Dave; Kiliccote, Sila; Onar, Omer; Starke, Michael; Steinberg, Dan

    2011-10-25

    Developing load participation in ancillary services to the electric grid. Challenges: coordination among multiple entities, targeted R&D for market conditions and regulatory and policy environments.

  12. Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.

  13. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    of individual appliances. For off-grid applications, solarinappropriate load for an off-grid solar system. Increasedsolar systems in general, and off-grid solar systems in

  14. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  15. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  16. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-11-06

    Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads and FCLC systems. Research is needed to understand the predictability of FCLC which is related to the perceived value of the DR from the facility manager or home owner's perspective.

  17. Unit commitment for combined heat and power production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unit commitment for combined heat and power production Using Tabu Search Gauti Kjartan Gíslason, heuristic, combinatorial optimization, load dis- patch, Tabu Search, combined heat and power. 3 #12; 4 List of abbreviations #15; B&B: Branch and Bound #15; CHP: Combined Heat and Power #15; CO: Combinatorial optimization

  18. Development of Supported Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Unitized regenerative fuel cells URFCs are promising energy storage systems for uninterrupted power supplies, solar-powered air- craft, satellites and micro-spacecraft, and certain terrestrial vehicles. They are also potentially useful for load leveling of distributed power generation from sources such as wind

  19. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torcellini, Paul; Bonnema, Eric; Sheppy, Michael; Pless, Shanti

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  20. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurement Analysis and Feed-Forward Blade Pitch Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines: January 2010--January 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunne, F.; Simley, E.; Pao, L.Y.

    2011-10-01

    This report examines the accuracy of measurements that rely on Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to wind turbine feed-forward control systems and discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feed-forward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. The first half of this report examines the accuracy of different measurement scenarios that rely on coherent continuous-wave or pulsed Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to feed-forward control. In particular, the impacts of measurement range and angular offset from the wind direction are studied for various wind conditions. A realistic case involving a scanning LIDAR unit mounted in the spinner of a wind turbine is studied in depth with emphasis on choices for scan radius and preview distance. The effects of turbulence parameters on measurement accuracy are studied as well. Continuous-wave and pulsed LIDAR models based on typical commercially available units were used in the studies present in this report. The second half of this report discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Combined feedback/feed-forward blade pitch control is compared to industry standard feedback control when simulated in realistic turbulent above-rated winds. The feed-forward controllers are designed to reduce fatigue loads, increasing turbine lifetime and therefore reducing the cost of energy. Three feed-forward designs are studied: non-causal series expansion, Preview Control, and optimized FIR filter. The input to the feed-forward controller is a measurement of incoming wind speeds that could be provided by LIDAR. Non-causal series expansion and Preview Control methods reduce blade root loads but increase tower bending in simulation results. The optimized FIR filter reduces loads overall, keeps pitch rates low, and maintains rotor speed regulation and power capture, while using imperfect wind measurements provided by the spinning continuous-wave LIDAR model.

  1. Electric Drive Vehicle Climate Control Load Reduction | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25,EVtheEnergy Climate Control Load

  2. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, S.R.

    1990-03-20

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

  3. Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genčve, Université de

    Electricity consumption is constantly evolving due to changes in people habits, technological innovations1 Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting JANUARY 23, 2015 Yannig Goude, Vincent at University Paris-Sud 11 Orsay. His research interests are electricity load forecasting, more generally time

  4. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Steven R. (49 Williams Ave., West Valley, NY 14171)

    1990-01-01

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

  5. Harmonic Load Pull of High-Power Microwave Devices using Fundamental-Only Load Pull Tuners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    Harmonic Load Pull of High-Power Microwave Devices using Fundamental-Only Load Pull Tuners John-frequency load pull tuners. Harmonic impedance control at the virtual drain is accomplished through the use the dramatic impact of varying 2nd harmonic termination. A 3rd harmonic termination is added to satisfy

  6. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  7. Generator Response to Load Variation The below table summarizes the way that load variation is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 Generator Response to Load Variation The below table summarizes the way that load variation is allocated to generators in a power system. In these notes, we derive the proximity effect, the inertial, constant impedance loads, and the network reduced to generator internal nodes. This expression was: { }00

  8. An Overview of Marine Biodiversity in United States Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Dalton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew; Sandifer, Paul A.; Sedberry, George R.; Tunnell, John W. Jr.; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E.; Broduer, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G.; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S.; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolf, Nicholas

    2010-08-02

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records...

  9. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture DESIGN: A Program to Create Data Forest Service Entry Research Work Unit at the Station's Forest Fire Laboratory, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507

  10. United Sates Environmental Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James D.

    United Sates Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water (4305) EPA/823/B/95/003 August 1995 QUAL2E Windows Interface User's Guide #12;QUAL2E Windows Interface User's Guide United States

  11. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General Observatory in Stinson Beach, Calif. Thomas E. Martin is Assistant Unit Leader--Wildlife at the U.S. Fish

  12. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range, objectives, and targets and specific work plans for the field units--the National Forests and their Ranger

  13. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station Research, and export from 1997 to 2010, for main world regions and the United States. Detailed tables by country

  14. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Peelflc Southwest Forest and Range that are expressed in tems familim to the user. Theboard footand cubic footare mdiriond units of measure, altlnough

  15. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station Research Paper-Central United States (Monserud and Ek 1977; Monserud 1987). This model was used within the framework of FOREST

  16. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station for the Station's Wildland Recreation and the Urban Culture Research Work Unit, located at the Forest Fire

  17. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops million acres of barley were harvested in the United States (U.S.) during 1996. After reaching a peak

  18. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station Research, import, and export from 1997 to 2010, for main world regions and the United States. Detailed tables

  19. Equilibrium Configurations of Cantilever under Terminal Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milan Batista

    2013-03-27

    The paper provides an exact analytical solution for equilibrium configurations of cantilever rod subject to inclined force and torque acting on its free end. The solution is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions and illustrated by several numerical examples and several graphical presentations of shapes of deformed cantilever. Possible forms of cantilever underlying elastica are discussed in details and various simple formulas are given for calculation of characteristic dimensions of elastica. For the case when cantilever is subject only to applied force four load conditions are discussed: follower load problem, load determination problem, conservative load problem and rotational load problem. For all the cases the formulas or effective procedure for solution is given.

  20. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estimated UseofWaterintheUnitedStatesin2005 Trends in estimated water use in the United States.L., Hutson, S.S., Linsey, K.S., Lovelace, J.K., and Maupin, M.A., 2009, Estimated use of water in the United

  1. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range unit investigating measurement and analysis techniques for management planning, with headquarters in Berkeley, Calif. ELLIOT L. AMIDON is now assigned to the Station's unit at Arcata, Calif., that is studying

  2. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Intermountain Research Station Research Research Station's Riparian-Stream Ecology and Management Research Work Unit at Boise, ID. He re- ceived with the Intermountain Research Station's Riparian-Stream Ecology and Man- agement Research Work Unit at the Forestry

  3. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station General Estimates for Forest Types of the United States James E. Smith Linda S. Heath Kenneth E. Skog Richard A forest types within 10 regions of the United States. Separate tables were developed for afforestation

  4. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical #12;- TH ,a geneticist, is assigned to the Station's research unit dyin etics of western forest trees, with headquarters in Berkeley, Berkeley. PAUL D. cal technician with the genetics research unit, isa forestry gra California, Berkeley

  5. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Craig

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Intermountain Research Station Ogden, UT. He was project leader of the fire fundamentals research work unit from 1966 until 1979 and is currently project leader of the fire behavior research work unit at the fire sciences laboratory. RALPH A

  6. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liebhold, Andrew

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station Research Paper of the Eastern United States have been devastated by invasive pests. We used existing data to predict-quarter in total host density. Gypsy moth occupies only 23 percent of its potential range in the Eastern United

  7. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Thomas J. Mills Frederick W. Bratten #12;The Authors: are with the Station's research unit studying fire J. MILLS, a forest economist, is in charge of the unit. He earned degrees at Michigan State

  8. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General,000 xylem resin samples of pine (Pinus) species and hybrids--largely from the western United States locations in the eastern and southern United States. Cover Image: Chapter 6, Figure 6-2. #12;Xylem

  9. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range ecosystemsresearch unit located in Riverside. California. PAUL H. DUNN was project leader at that time and is now project leader of the atmospheric deposition research unit in Riverside. Calif. SUSAN C. BARRO

  10. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Proceedings of the Agriculture Pacific Southwest Symposium on Social of Agriculture; 96 p. The growing demand for recreation at the wildland-urban interface throughout the United and the Urban Culture Research Unit headquartered at the Forest Fire Laboratory, 4955 Canyon Crest Dr

  11. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station http. Arbaugh is a statistician with the Station's Atmospheric Deposition Effects Research Unit at Riverside and associate professor with the National Park Service Cooperative Park Studies Unit, College of Forest

  12. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holberton, Rebecca L.

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station General Technical Report NE-318 Atlas of Climate Change Effects in 150 Bird Species of the Eastern United States Service 359 Main Road Delaware, OH 43015 USA #12;United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service

  13. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station Research Paper NE-722 James E. Smith Linda S. Heath A Model of Forest Floor Carbon Mass for United States Forest contiguous United States. Manuscript received for publication 22 April 2002 #12;A Model of Forest Floor

  14. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Southern Research Station General Technical United States. In: Rauscher, H. Michael, and Kurt Johnsen, eds. Southern forest science: past, present Trends in the Southern United States Robert A. Mickler, James E. Smith, and Linda S. Heath1 Abstract

  15. UNITED STATES PARTMENT OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNITED STATES PARTMENT OF lMMERCE J8l1CATION SEATTLE, WA IOVEMBER 1973 FISHERY FACTS-6 U. S of foreign fishing off United States coastal waters, and the aevelopment and enforce- ment of international;ABSTRACT Dungeness crabs, Cancer magister, occur in the inshore waters of t he west coast of the United

  16. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station General reported in USDA Forest Service surveys for forests of the conterminous United States. Developed for use estimates are provided for regional tree-mass totals using summary forest statistics for the United States

  17. United States Nuclear Regulatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission United States Department of Energy United States.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Washington, DC 20555-0001 E-mail: DISTRIBUTION@nrc.gov Facsimile: 301; and Commission papers and their attachments. NRC publications in the NUREG series, NRC regulations, and Title 10

  18. The Macroscopic Cortical Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    The Macroscopic Brain Will Penny Cortical Unit Neural Mass Model Cell Populations Differential Will Penny 21st April 2011 #12;The Macroscopic Brain Will Penny Cortical Unit Neural Mass Model Cell as formulated in David et al. (2006). #12;The Macroscopic Brain Will Penny Cortical Unit Neural Mass Model Cell

  19. United States Patent [19] Church et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, George M.

    United States Patent [19] Church et al. [54] CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL POLYMER MOLECULES BASED 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 US005795782A [11] Patent Number: [45] Date of Patent: 5,795,782 Aug. 18, 1998 Boulanger et al

  20. Camenen, B., and Larson, M. 2007. A Total Load Formula for the Nearshore. Proceedings Coastal Sediments '07 Conference, ASCE Press, Reston, VA, 56-67.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Sediments '07 Conference, ASCE Press, Reston, VA, 56-67. A TOTAL LOAD FORMULA FOR THE NEARSHORE Benoit.larson@tvr.lth.se Abstract: A total load sediment transport formula based on recent studies on the bed load and suspended qualify and quantify the current-related and wave-related sediment transport. It appeared

  1. Experimental buckling investigation of ring-stiffened cyclindrical shells under unsymmetrical axial loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, W.E.; Bennett, J.G.; Babcock, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    Six steel shells having nuclear containment-like features were fabricated and loaded to failure with an offset axial load. The shells of R/t = 500 buckled plastically. Four of the shells had reinforced circular cutouts. These penetrations were sized to cut no ring-stiffener, a single, two- or three-ring stiffeners. Reinforcing and framing around the penetrations were based upon the area-replacement rule of the applicable portion of the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and were of a design to simulate actual practice for nuclear steel containments. Prior to testing, imperfections were measured and strain gages were applied to determine information on load distribution at the ends of the cylinder and strain fields at areas likely to buckle. Buckling loads were determined for an axial load applied with an eccentricity of R/2 where R is the cylinder radius.

  2. Real power regulation for the utility power grid via responsive loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Timothy J [Knoxville, TN; Kirby, Brendan J [Knoxville, TN; Kisner, Roger A

    2009-05-19

    A system for dynamically managing an electrical power system that determines measures of performance and control criteria for the electric power system, collects at least one automatic generation control (AGC) input parameter to at least one AGC module and at least one automatic load control (ALC) input parameter to at least one ALC module, calculates AGC control signals and loads as resources (LAR) control signals in response to said measures of performance and control criteria, propagates AGC control signals to power generating units in response to control logic in AGC modules, and propagates LAR control signals to at least one LAR in response to control logic in ALC modules.

  3. Lithium Loaded Glass Fiber Neutron Detector Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-11-12

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of the lithium-loaded glass fibers option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a small system manufactured by Nucsafe (Oak Ridge, TN).

  4. Economic Consequences of Alternative Solution Methods for Centralized Unit Commitment in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; O'Neill, Richard; Oren, Shmuel S

    2008-01-01

    will typically also have ancillary ser- vice requirements,single type of load-based ancillary service requirement. Touniform hourly energy and ancillary ser- vice prices with

  5. UTILITY-SCALE SOLAR LOAD CONTROL Richard Perez, ASRC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    was initially devised to function with user-sited PV installations to maximize demand reduction. An efficient load reduction (middle). By shedding load in response to PV output and load requirements the SLC load control (DLC) enhancement. The aggregate of direct load controlled customers constitute a reliable

  6. Unit 51 - GIS Application Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unit 51, CC in GIS; Cowen, David; Ferguson, Warren

    1990-01-01

    51 - GIS APPLICATION AREAS UNIT 51 - GIS APPLICATION AREAS1990 Page 1 Unit 51 - GIS Application Areas Computers inyour students. UNIT 51 - GIS APPLICATION AREAS Compiled with

  7. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  8. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    communications in the substation Example Costs: Instrument115-kV “B” Substations SVC Unit Cost ($ Millions) Total115-kV “B” Substations SVC Unit Cost ($ Millions) Total SVC

  9. Subjective Evaluation of Join Cost and Smoothing Methods for Unit Selection Speech Synthesis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vepa, Jithendra; King, Simon

    2005-01-01

    In unit selection-based concatenative speech synthesis, join cost (also known as concatenation cost), which measures how well two units can be joined together, is one of the main criteria for selecting appropriate units ...

  10. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.

    1994-04-26

    A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  11. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); Iton, Lennox E. (Downers Grove, IL); Pasterczyk, James W. (Westmont, IL); Winterer, Markus (Westmont, IL); Krause, Theodore R. (Lisle, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  12. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.

    1997-02-04

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.

  13. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    model.   3.0 PV System Modeling Issues When modeling the PV systems in the electric  power electric grid.   4.0 Load Composition Data Tool 4.1. Introduction A power system model 

  14. Impact of load type on microgrid stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monnin, Jared P

    2012-01-01

    Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...

  15. Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DETERMINING ELECTRIC MOTOR LOAD AND EFFICIENCY Most likely your operation's motors account for a large part of your monthly electric bill. Far too often motors are mismatched-or...

  16. Largest Ice-Bank Promotes Load Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brarmann, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    conservation measures were incorporated in the design of the new research facility, the ice-bank system has been the most cost-effective of the load management projects at Union Oil....

  17. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much disturbances is that modeling the voltage sensitivity of the load is far more important than the  frequency 

  18. Radiation load to the SNAP CCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov

    2003-08-14

    Results of an express Monte Carlo analysis with the MARS14 code of radiation load to the CCD optical detectors in the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) mission presented for realistic radiation environment over the satellite orbit.

  19. Harmonic approaches to non-intrusive load diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Ashley E. (Ashley Eliot)

    2008-01-01

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) is a system that monitors, records and processes voltage and current measurements to establish the operating characteristics of individual loads on a load center from a single aggregate ...

  20. A three phase load flow algorithm for Shipboard Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina-Calder?on, M?onica M

    2003-01-01

    -Seidel and/or Newton Raphson techniques, were primarily developed for transmission system analysis. Distribution load flow analysis must incorporate its unique characteristics such as unbalanced loads, distributed loads, radial network structure, and one...

  1. Steady state load models for power system analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cresswell, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The last full review of load models used for power system studies occurred in the 1980s. Since then, new types of loads have been introduced and system load mix has changed considerably. The examples of newly introduced ...

  2. Designing and Testing Contols to Mitigate Dynamic Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A.D.; Stol, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is designing, implementing, and testing advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads of wind turbines. These control designs are based on a linear model of the turbine that is generated by specialized modeling software. In this paper, we show the design and simulation testing of a control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads using advanced state-space control design methods.

  3. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ..............................................................................2 Solid Waste Management .........................................................................3 ....................................................................................4 Solid Waste ManagementUnited States Department of Returns on InvestmentsAgriculture Forest Service in Management Sciences

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Structural and Geographic Characteristics of U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)"...

  5. Load cell having strain gauges of arbitrary location

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-13

    A load cell utilizes a plurality of strain gauges mounted upon the load cell body such that there are six independent load-strain relations. Load is determined by applying the inverse of a load-strain sensitivity matrix to a measured strain vector. The sensitivity matrix is determined by performing a multivariate regression technique on a set of known loads correlated to the resulting strains. Temperature compensation is achieved by configuring the strain gauges as co-located orthogonal pairs.

  6. Sandia Energy - Phasor Measurement Units

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Units Home Stationary Power Safety, Security & Resilience of Energy Infrastructure Grid Modernization Cyber Security for Electric Infrastructure Phasor Measurement Units...

  7. Load requirements for maintaining structural integrity of Hanford single-shell tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JULYK, L.J.

    1999-09-22

    This document provides structural load requirements and their basis for maintaining the structural integrity of the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities. The requirements are based on a review of previous requirements and their basis documents as well as load histories with particular emphasis on the proposed lead transfer feed tanks for the privatized vitrification plant.

  8. Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger waste packages. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management...

  9. Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Lighting and Other Electric Loads...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting and Other Electric Loads Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Lighting and Other Electric Loads Compact fluorescent, light-emitting diode, and energy-saving incandescent light...

  10. Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beam Loading by Distributed...

  11. Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes This presentation was given at the...

  12. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  13. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    have been relaxed as third party load aggregators have developed and installed lower-cost communications equipment. These load aggregators targeted customers with small...

  14. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  15. Locality Aware Dynamic Load Management for Massively Multiplayer Games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amza, Cristiana

    Locality Aware Dynamic Load Management for Massively Multiplayer Games Jin Chen Department with a dynamic load management algorithm enables us to better handle transient crowding by adaptively dispersing

  16. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

  17. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading...

  18. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  19. Natural units and the vector space of physical values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ansmann, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    We explore the mathematical foundations of the vector space of physical dimensions introduced in A. Maksymowicz, Am. J. Phys. 44, 1976, and extend this formalism to the vector space of physical values. As different unit systems correspond to different bases of this vector space, our formalism may find use for introducing the concept of natural units and transforming physical values between unit systems.

  20. Plug Load Energy Analysis: The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuertes, Gwen; Schiavon, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Energy performance of LEED® for new construction buildings,The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification Gwen FuertesGreen Building Council for LEED certification. The study

  1. Associative list processing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  2. FISHERY STATISTICS UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1972 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 66 Prepared by STATISTICS;ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The data in this edition of "Fishery Statistics of the United States" were collected in co- operation with the various States and tabulated by the staff of the Statistics and Market News Division

  3. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, Lauren (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Skolnik, Edward G. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Marchionini, Brian (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  4. Better Bonded Ethernet Load Balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabler, Jason

    2006-09-29

    When a High Performance Storage System's mover shuttles large amounts of data to storage over a single Ethernet device that single channel can rapidly become saturated. Using Linux Ethernet channel bonding to address this and similar situations was not, until now, a viable solution. The various modes in which channel bonding could be configured always offered some benefit but only under strict conditions or at a system resource cost that was greater than the benefit gained by using channel bonding. Newer bonding modes designed by various networking hardware companies, helpful in such networking scenarios, were already present in their own switches. However, Linux-based systems were unable to take advantage of those new modes as they had not yet been implemented in the Linux kernel bonding driver. So, except for basic fault tolerance, Linux channel bonding could not positively combine separate Ethernet devices to provide the necessary bandwidth.

  5. United States Deparirnenl of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    differencebe- tween predicted and measured loadings signifi- cantly different from zero. For the forest types do not pro- duce as much residue as older stands, but amounts generated and values at risk usually. But stands left untreated or inade- quately treated could be lost to wild- fire or pests. The forest manager

  6. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  7. Power Dispatch and Load Control with Generation Uncertainty Pedram Samadi, Shahab Bahrami, Vincent W.S. Wong, and Robert Schober

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    and demand. We formulate an optimization problem to jointly minimize the generation cost and discomfort cost there is no control over the load, our proposed algorithm reduces the generation cost by better matching it possible for inverters, which act as an interface between the photovoltaic (PV) units and the grid

  8. Abstract--In this paper, we present a new approach for very short term electricity load demand forecasting. In particular,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koprinska, Irena

    . Electricity market operators and participants use load forecasting for many reasons such as to make unit of the national electricity market, as its market operator NEMMCO must issue every 5 minutes the production this information as the basis for any re-bids of the capacity they wish to bring to the market. In this paper, we

  9. Wet-sand impulse loading of metallic plates and corrugated core sandwich panels J.J. Rimoli a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Wet-sand impulse loading of metallic plates and corrugated core sandwich panels J.J. Rimoli a , B the mechanical response of edge-clamped sandwich panels subject to the impact of explosively driven wet sand of wet sand placed at different standoff distances. Monolithic plates of the same alloy and mass per unit

  10. The Bases Are Loaded: American Indians and American Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meland, Carter; Bauerkemper, Joseph; Howe, LeAnne; Stark, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    with the perspectives of American Indian studies. In general, as Nikhil Pal Singh notes, current cultural discourse "counterposes multiculturalism and universalism as principal, opposed terms in the culture wars."6 Singh elaborates that this oppo sition "determines... with the perspectives of American Indian studies. In general, as Nikhil Pal Singh notes, current cultural discourse "counterposes multiculturalism and universalism as principal, opposed terms in the culture wars."6 Singh elaborates that this oppo sition "determines...

  11. Nonlinear beam-based vibration energy harvesters and load cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kluger, Jocelyn Maxine

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies a novel nonlinear spring mechanism that is comprised of a cantilever wrapping around a curved surface as it deflects. Static force versus displacement tests and dynamic "initial displacement" tests ...

  12. A load shedding scheme for inverter based microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojeda, Alejandro P

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, penetration of microgrids containing distributed generation (DG) sources has increased in grid distribution systems. This requires the stable operation of microgrids when connected to the distribution ...

  13. Balancing traffic load in path-based multicast communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Dubai, A.Y.; Ould-Khaoua, M.

    Al-Dubai,A.Y. Ould-Khaoua,M. Mackenzie,L.M. Journal of Future Generation Computer Systems, to appear Elsevier Science

  14. On balancing traffic load in path-based multicast communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Dubai, A.Y.; Ould-Khaoua, M.

    Al-Dubai,A.Y. Ould-Khaoua,M. Mackenzie,L.M. El-Zayyat,K. Proc. International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (SPECTS'2003), Montreal, Canada, July 20 - 24, 2003 pp 533-540 Society for Computer Simulation

  15. The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When 5% lubrication oil is added to diesel fuel in a small engine test, ash increases linearly and at the back of a filter, the amount depending on the differences in substrate and wash-coat type.

  16. Improved Load Plan Design Through Integer Programming Based ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-12-21

    feasible solution, and the search for an improving solution is performed by solving ..... We model freight which enters the linehaul network at terminal u1 on day d1 as entering the ..... Set TERMS = array of top 25% of terminals with respect to Fd.

  17. On Market-Based Coordination of Thermostatically Controlled Loads...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and the coordinator cooperatively determine the optimal energy allocation and energy price. The optimal pricing strategy is derived, which maximizes social welfare while...

  18. Enhanced transmission modulation based on dielectric metasurfaces loaded with graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argyropoulos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    We present a hybrid graphene dielectric metasurface design to achieve strong tunable and modulated transmission at near-infrared (near-IR) frequencies. The proposed device is constituted by periodic pairs of asymmetric silicon nanobars placed over a silica substrate. An one-atom-thick graphene sheet is positioned between the nanobars and the substrate. The in-plane electromagnetic fields are highly localized and enhanced with this all-dielectric metasurface due to its zero Ohmic losses at near-IR wavelengths. They strongly interact with graphene and couple to its properties. Sharp Fano transmission is obtained at the resonant frequency of this hybrid all-dielectric metasurface configuration due to the cancelation of the electric and magnetic dipole responses at this frequency point. The properties of the graphene monolayer flake can be adjusted by tuning its Fermi energy or chemical potential, leading to different doping levels and, equivalently, material parameters. As a result, the Q factor and the Fano res...

  19. Load-Based (LB) CRAC (rates/adjustments)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E CChinaC L S C O NLiving WithLiz

  20. A Rolling Horizon Framework for Intermodal Loading Assignment to Improve Fuel Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    based on empirical data show significant aerodynamic efficiency benefits from these optimization models to counterbalance the effect of uncertainty. Appropriate weights are determined by simulations based on real data between Chicago and Los Angeles (LA). About 80% of the IM trains on this route are loaded or unloaded only

  1. Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement Abstract Wind turbines (WT) are normally designed for a service life (SL) of 20 years. In Germany, over safety. 1 Introduction A wind turbine (WT) is normally designed, tested and certified for a design life

  2. A study conducted on laterally loaded cylindrical footings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koch, Kenneth Joseph

    1968-01-01

    studies have also been used to analyze the resistance (g) to overturning. R. C. Rutledge developed a nomograph that can be used to find the depth of embedment necessary to withstand applied loads. The chart is based on the results of a series of full... as compared to the diameters of concrete footings of comparable depth. Full-scale test results have also been reported by F. E. Behn( and by Nelson, Nahoney and Fryrear 10) Theory by Reese L. C. Reese studied the ultimate resistance againsr. a rigid (11...

  3. The Unit Coordinator Handbook About the Unit Coordinator Handbook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mucina, Ladislav

    1 The Unit Coordinator Handbook About the Unit Coordinator Handbook This Handbook will assist you in fulfilling your responsibilities as a Unit Coordinator and has been developed with input from Unit staff, however, more resources are available at the Unit Coordinator website: http

  4. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    and data acquisition (SCADA), phasor  measurement units (and data acquisition (SCADA) measurements are more readily Monitoring Device Options SCADA PMU PPSM DFR Relay Power

  5. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    to Questionnaire on PMU Installation and Maintenance. ”Monitoring Device Options SCADA PMU PPSM DFR Relay PowerInterest Energy Research  PMU    Phasor Measurement Unit 

  6. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  7. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lobitz, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  8. Enhanced Magnetic Trap Loading for Atomic Strontium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, D S; Pisenti, N C; Campbell, G K

    2015-01-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). This is achieved by adding a depumping laser tuned to the 3P1 to 3S1 (688-nm) transition. The depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65 % for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30 % for the fermionic isotope of strontium. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, intensity, and beam size. To understand the results, we develop a one-dimensional rate equation model of the system, which is in good agreement with the data. We discuss the use of other transitions in strontium for accelerated trap loading and the application of the technique to other alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  9. PARAMETRIC MODELS FOR ESTIMATING WIND TURBINE FATIGUE LOADS FOR DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    1 PARAMETRIC MODELS FOR ESTIMATING WIND TURBINE FATIGUE LOADS FOR DESIGN Lance Manuel1 Paul S-4020 ABSTRACT International standards for wind turbine certification depend on finding long-term fatigue load loads. #12;2 INTRODUCTION Design constraints for wind turbine structures fall into either extreme load

  10. AIAA-2001-0044 Extreme Load Estimation for Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AIAA-2001-0044 Extreme Load Estimation for Wind Turbines: Issues and Opportunities for Improved design load estimation procedures for wind turbines often do not accurately treat the statistical nature of loads. Current practice for wind turbine load analysis is reviewed. The authors

  11. United States Conservation Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    United States Shorebird Conservation Plan M A N O M E T C E N T E R F O R C O N S E R V A T I O N T I O N #12;United States Shorebird Conservation Plan Council Organizations #12;1 U n i t e d S t a t e s S h o r e b i r d C o n s e r v a t i o n P l a n 2 0 0 1 The United States Shorebird

  12. Wind/Wave Misalignment in the Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barj, L.; Stewart, S.; Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-02-01

    Wind resources far from the shore and in deeper seas have encouraged the offshore wind industry to look into floating platforms. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is developing a new technical specification for the design of floating offshore wind turbines that extends existing design standards for land-based and fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. The work summarized in this paper supports the development of best practices and simulation requirements in the loads analysis of floating offshore wind turbines by examining the impact of wind/wave misalignment on the system loads under normal operation. Simulations of the OC3-Hywind floating offshore wind turbine system under a wide range of wind speeds, significant wave heights, peak-spectral periods and wind/wave misalignments have been carried out with the aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool FAST [4]. The extreme and fatigue loads have been calculated for all the simulations. The extreme and fatigue loading as a function of wind/wave misalignment have been represented as load roses and a directional binning sensitivity study has been carried out. This study focused on identifying the number and type of wind/wave misalignment simulations needed to accurately capture the extreme and fatigue loads of the system in all possible metocean conditions considered, and for a down-selected set identified as the generic US East Coast site. For this axisymmetric platform, perpendicular wind and waves play an important role in the support structure and including these cases in the design loads analysis can improve the estimation of extreme and fatigue loads. However, most structural locations see their highest extreme and fatigue loads with aligned wind and waves. These results are specific to the spar type platform, but it is expected that the results presented here will be similar to other floating platforms.

  13. The effect of anthropogenic development on sediment loading to bays on St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCreery, Helen F

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of anthropogenic development on sediment delivery rates to bays on St. John, U.S.V.I., I developed a sediment loading prediction model. Based on the modified universal soil loss equation, this ...

  14. Unit Clause: Summary Benny Applebaum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, Benny

    Unit Clause: Summary Benny Applebaum Tel-Aviv University Spring Semester, 2012 #12;Unit Clause: Reminder Unit Clause Input: chosen uniformly from F3(n, rn). 1 If there exists unit clause (Forced step) pick at random unit clause { i} and satisfy it 2 Otherwise, (Free step) pick a random literal i

  15. Mapping critical levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide for crops, forests and natural vegetation in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenbaum, B.J.; Strickland, T.C.; McDowell, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution abatement strategies for controlling nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone emissions in the United States focus on a 'Standards-based' approach. This approach places limits on air pollution by maintaining a baseline value for air quality, no matter what the ecosystem can or cannot withstand. In the paper, the authors present example critical levels maps for the conterminous U.S. developed using the 'effects-based' mapping approach as defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Task Force on Mapping. The approach emphasizes the pollution level or load capacity an ecosystem can accommodate before degradation occurs, and allows for analysis of cumulative effects. They present the first stage of an analysis that reports the distribution of exceedances of critical levels for NO2, SO3, and O3 in sensitive forest, crop, and natural vegetation ecosystems in the contiguous United States. They conclude that extrapolation to surrounding geographic areas requires the analysis of diverse and compounding factors that preclude simple extrapolation methods. (Copyright (c) 1994 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before...

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Household Demographics of U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Air Conditioning in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  20. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Fuels Used and End Uses in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  1. Voltage verification unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA)

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  2. Associative list processing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy and Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). 3Use of heating equipment for another housing unit also includes the use of...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy and Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). 3Housing units are classified as urban or rural using definitions created by...

  5. Automatically clustering similar units for unit selection in speech synthesis. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Alan W; Taylor, Paul A

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for synthesizing speech by concatenating sub-word units from a database of labelled speech. A large unit inventory is created by automatically clustering units of the same phone class ...

  6. The Modeling of a Standalone Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2006-10-27

    In this research, a Simulink model of a standalone vehicular solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) auxiliary power unit (APU) is developed. The SOFC APU model consists of three major components: a controller model; a power electronics system model; and an SOFC plant model, including an SOFC stack module; two heat exchanger modules; and a combustor module. This paper discusses the development of the nonlinear dynamic models for the SOFC stacks, the heat exchangers and the combustors. When coupling with a controller model and a power electronic circuit model, the developed SOFC plant model is able to model the thermal dynamics and the electrochemical dynamics inside the SOFC APU components as well as the transient responses to the electric loading changes. It has been shown that having such a model for the SOFC APU will benefit design engineers to adjust design parameters to optimize the performance. The modeling results of the heat-up stage of an SOFC APU and the output voltage response to a sudden load change are presented in the paper. The fuel flow regulation based on fuel utilization is also briefly discussed.

  7. Distributed Frequency-Preserving Optimal Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wierman, Adam

    Distributed Frequency-Preserving Optimal Load Control Enrique Mallada Steven H. Low California prices to incentivize the users to adapt their consumption to the true cost of generation at the time to accept more readily a stochastically fluctuating energy source, such as wind or solar generation

  8. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  9. DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Dionisio

    DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal Associate Professor Department of Civil: A technique to localize damage in structures that can be treated as linear in the pre and post-damage state is presented. Central to the approach is the computation of a set of vectors, designated as Damage Locating

  10. Exploiting Emerging Data for Enhanced Load Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Data for Enhanced Load Modeling Final Project Report Project Team Santiago Grijalva, Project Leader information about this project, contact Santiago Grijalva Van Leer E284 Georgia Tech 777 Atlantic Dr. N.W. E Kleitsch, American Transmission Company · Naim Logic, Salt River Project · Art Mander, Tri-State G

  11. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop was held October 25-26, 2011, in Washington, DC. This U.S. Department of Energy workshop was attended by members of the electric power industry, researchers, and policy makers. The results of the workshop informed the Demand Response and Energy Storage Study.

  12. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  13. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The study establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. The study presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, and serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.

  14. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  15. Conventional regression models Unlabelled units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCullagh, Peter

    Conventional regression models Unlabelled units Consequences Sampling bias in logistic models Peter effects #12;Conventional regression models Unlabelled units Consequences Outline 1 Conventional regression models Gaussian models Binary regression model Properties of conventional models 2 Unlabelled units Point

  16. Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    9, CCTP; Dodson, Rustin

    1998-01-01

    UNIT 9: SPATIAL DATA CONVERSION Written by Rustin Dodson,Programs Page 1 Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion freezingPrograms Page 2 Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion Export USGS

  17. Smard Grid Software Applications for Distribution Network Load Forecasting Eugene A. Feinberg, Jun Fei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    of the distribution network. Keywords: load forecasting, feeder, transformer, load pocket, SmartGrid I. INTRODUCTION

  18. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  19. Temperature Evolution and Oxide Growth in Waterwall Tubes of Supercritical Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Unocic, Kinga A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the failures in some waterwall tubes of supercritical steam boilers, an analysis is required to estimate the temperature of the waterwall tubes and the oxide growth in these tubes. A review on the thermophysical properties of oxide grown in waterwall tubes was conducted. Specimens of waterwall tubes associated with thermal fatigue cracking were obtained and microstructural analyses, using metallographic and electron-optical techniques such as SEM and electron-probe microanalysis, were performed. A computer model is being developed to estimate the maximum temperature in waterwall tubes by considering several phenomena that take place in supercritical units. The comprehensive model includes the following boiler operation features and phenomena: oxide growth, distribution of the heat flux on the waterwall tube as a function of height distance, variation of steam flow rate due to load variation, variation of heat flux due to load variation, and variation of the heat transfer coefficient with steam conditions and furnace heat flux. The model will handle the transition subcritical-to-supercritical and will account for the heat transfer deterioration phenomena in tubes. The tube regions with deteriorated heat transfer regimes will be identified. The temperatures of steam, metal, and oxide will be obtained as a function of the height distance in the boiler. The mixing effects of the steam from different waterwall tubes and subsequent fluid dynamics effects on the heat transfer will be considered. The new model will enable the prediction of the maximum metal temperature for realistic boiler operation schedule, which include transitions from full-to-low loads. Based on the estimated data for the steam temperature, metal temperature, and oxide thickness, regions of the waterwall tubes that are exposed to the most severe conditions will be identified.

  20. Case Study: The Effective Use of an Extensive Logical rule Based Data Analytics Approach in Establishing Root Cause of Performance Issues in Widespread Deployments of Unitary Space Air Conditioning Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brady, N.

    2013-01-01

    Today a significant percentage of office spaces are air conditioned using widely deployed unitary systems, either Fan Coil Units (FCU) or Variable Air Volume (VAV) boxes, to achieve high degrees of air conditioned zonal control. However establishing...

  1. Ancillary-service details: regulation, load following, and generator response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine empirically these intrahour and interhour load changes and the responses of a utility`s generating resources to those load changes. We analyze data, primarily from one control area, to see how it maintains ACE close to zero in an effort to meet the A1 and A2 criteria. Overall, we estimate that load following costs US electric utilities over one billion dollars a year. We first test alternative ways to identify trends over multihour periods using both regression analysis and rolling averages. Then, we consider several metrics for intrahour load following. Next we examine characteristics of load following for different time-averaging periods and compare the dynamics of loads and load following generation across these time periods. Finally, we consider the contribution of each load to the total load following requirements of the control area.

  2. Solving Unit Commitment by a Unit Decommitment Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solving Unit Commitment by a Unit Decommitment Method Chung-Li Tsengy,Chao-an Liz, Shmuel S. Oren x October 14, 1997 Abstract In this paper, we present an e cient and robust method for solving unit commit- ment problem using a unit decommitment method. 1 Introduction A problem that must be frequently solved

  3. UCL Migration Research Unit 2013 Migration Research Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    UCL Migration Research Unit ANNUAL REPORT 2013 Migration Research Unit UCL DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY in the Migration Research Unit. Two key members of the research unit are on the move. JoAnn McGregor moves highly successful MSc in Global Migration and her involvement in the degree will be missed as well as her

  4. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M.

    1992-01-01

    TO DETERMINING MOTOR LOAD by Michael Brown Georgia Tech Research Institute Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACf Properly sized electric motors are essential if industrial plant efficiency is to be optimized and energy costs minimized. Because of the difficully..., oversizing is usually unwarranted and ultimately leads to ineffi-eiency and energy waste. This paper ex.amines methods to determine underloaded motor operdtion and presents an evaluation of the savings afforded by properly sizing of motors. MOTOR...

  6. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GANTT, D.A.

    2000-01-12

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.

  7. Electricity pricing for conservation and load shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orans, Ren; Woo, C.K.; Horii, Brian; Chait, Michele; DeBenedictis, Andrew

    2010-04-15

    The electricity industry is facing the challenge of increasing costs of reliably meeting demand growth and fully complying with legislative renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas reduction targets. However, an electric utility's existing tariffs often don't have rates that increase with consumption volume or vary by time of use, thus not fully exploiting the potential benefits from customer conservation and load shifting. (author)

  8. Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egg, Richard P

    1979-01-01

    and medium size dairy operations unless the pro- cess can be made more efficient or some other economic benefit can be derived from the manure. A recent study indicated that a batch load process might be more efficient in waste stabilization and biogas... rate of biogas production was 0. 69 liters biogas/liter digester/ day. This volumetric biogas production increased with increasing influent total solids concentration. Influent concentration had little effect on other biogas production parameters...

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit Buildings",19.1,4.4,3.7,6.2,4.7 "Mobile Homes",6.9,0.5,1.1,3.9,1.4 "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",14.4,5.6,4.6,2.4,1.9 "1940 to 1949",5.2,1.3,1.4,1.6,0.9 "1950 to...

  10. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are thought to contribute to carbon sequestration, including current debates on this topic. The science regarding forestry and carbon sequestration is more advanced and less controversial than that for range, land management, carbon sequestration, carbon markets, United States. #12;ii Executive Summary

  11. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to moisture availability and solar radiation. We describe research results pertaining to global climate change Technical Report PSW-GTR-235 June 2011 A Review of the Potential Effects of Climate Change on Quaking Aspen of the potential effects of climate change on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the Western United States

  12. NO{sub 2} gas sensing of flame-made Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} thick films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samerjai, Thanittha [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Graduate School, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Tamaekong, Nittaya [Program in Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Liewhiran, Chaikarn [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wisitsoraat, Anurat [Nanoelectronics and MEMS Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Phanichphant, Sukon, E-mail: sphanichphant@yahoo.com [Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-06-01

    Unloaded WO{sub 3} and 0.25–1.0 wt% Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} nanoparticles for NO{sub 2} gas detection were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The BET surface area (SSA{sub BET}) of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption. The NO{sub 2} sensing properties of the sensors based on unloaded and Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were investigated. The results showed that the gas sensing properties of the Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensors were excellent to those of the unloaded one. Especially, 0.25 wt% Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensor showed highest response to NO{sub 2} than the others at low operating temperature of 150 °C. - Graphical abstract: The response of 0.25 wt% Pt-loaded WO3 sensor was 637 towards NO{sub 2} concentration of 10 ppm at 150 °C. - Highlights: • Unloaded and Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} nanoparticles for NO{sub 2} gas detection were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). • Gas sensing properties of the Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensors were excellent to those of the unloaded one. • 0.25 wt% Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensor showed highest response to NO{sub 2} at low operating temperature of 150 °C.

  13. Commercial Buildings High Performance Rooftop Unit Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEAs) are releasing a new design specification for high performance rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs). Manufacturers who develop RTUs based on this new specification will find strong interest from the commercial sector due to the energy and financial savings.

  14. UNITED STATES NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNITED STATES NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD 2300 Clarendon Boulevard, Suite 1300 Arlington are pleased to transmit a technical report prepared by the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (Board. Based on its review of data gathered by the DOE and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

  15. Minor Actinides Loading Optimization for Proliferation Resistant Fuel Design - BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang; Hongbin Zhang

    2009-09-01

    One approach to address the United States Nuclear Power (NP) 2010 program for the advanced light water reactor (LWR) (Gen-III+) intermediate-term spent fuel disposal need is to reduce spent fuel storage volume while enhancing proliferation resistance. One proposed solution includes increasing burnup of the discharged spent fuel and mixing minor actinide (MA) transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel. Thus, we can reduce the spent fuel volume while increasing the proliferation resistance by increasing the isotopic ratio of 238Pu/Pu. For future advanced nuclear systems, MAs are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. A typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel unit lattice cell model with UO2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of adding MAs (237Np and/or 241Am) to enhance proliferation resistance and improve fuel cycle performance for the intermediate-term goal of future nuclear energy systems. However, adding MAs will increase plutonium production in the discharged spent fuel. In this work, the Monte-Carlo coupling with ORIGEN-2.2 (MCWO) method was used to optimize the MA loading in the UO2 fuel such that the discharged spent fuel demonstrates enhanced proliferation resistance, while minimizing plutonium production. The axial averaged MA transmutation characteristics at different burnup were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality and the ratio of 238Pu/Pu discussed.

  16. Transmission Reliability "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials Now Available Transmission Reliability "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials Now Available September 25, 2014 - 11:43am Addthis OE's...

  17. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Lodging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2011-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are the loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. This report reviews methods to reduce MELs in lodging.

  18. Electrical Energy Conservation and Load Management - An Industrial User's Viewpoint 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    load management has been implemented already. Additional load management is possible; however, optimizing it will require close industry and electric utility company cooperation to develop new incentives and rate structures to make it economically...

  19. Load Management and Houston Lighting and Power Co. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drawe, R. G.; Ramsay, I. M.

    1984-01-01

    Defining Load Management as influencing of customer loads in order to shift the time use of electric power and energy, encompasses a broad spectrum of activities at Houston Lighting & Power Company. This paper describes those activities by directing...

  20. Calculation of Extreme Wave Loads on Coastal Highway Bridges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Bo

    2010-01-14

    Coastal bridges are exposed to severe wave, current and wind forces during a hurricane. Most coastal bridges are not designed to resist wave loads in such extreme situations, and there are no existing analytical methods to calculate wave loads...