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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Microsoft Word - UPDATE 5 - Units 1,2 + base load unit.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 to: 5 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant Modeling Cycling Units 1, 2 plus One Baseload Unit ENSR Corporation January 6, 2006 Document Number 10350-002-420 (Update 5) January, 2006 1-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION This report describes dispersion modeling performed for simultaneous operation of one baseload unit and two cycling units at Mirant's Potomac River Generating Station (PRGS). This mode of operation is also referred to as Option A in Mirant Potomac River LLC's December 30, 2005 letter to the U.S. Department of Energy regarding District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05- 01. The modeling was performed according to the Protocol approved by the Virginia Department of

2

Unit load and material handling considerations in facility layout design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 1, 2002 ... In this paper, the integration of unit load and material handling considerations in facility layout design is presented. This integration is based on ...

3

WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Contract - 8-27-12  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Awards Contract for WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Services DOE Awards Contract for WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Services Cincinnati, Ohio, August 27, 2012 - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a competitive small business contract to Celeritex, LLC, (a Joint Venture between Project Services Group, LLC and DeNuke Contracting Services Inc.) of Suwanee, Georgia. The contract is to provide Mobile Loading Unit services in support of the National TRU Program and the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The contract has a value of up to $17.8 million, with a three-year performance period and two- one year extension options. This contract was limited to Small Businesses. The Mobile Loading Unit contractor will load Contact Handled (CH) and Remote Handled (RH)

4

A fuzzy logic based approach to direct load control  

SciTech Connect

Demand side management programs are strategies designed to alter the shape of the load curve. In order to successfully implement such a strategy, customer acceptance of the program is vital. It is thus desirable to design a model for direct load control which may accommodate customer preferences. This paper presents a methodology for optimizing both customer satisfaction and utility unit commitment savings, based on a fuzzy load model for the direct load control of appliances.

Bhattacharyya, K.; Crow, M.L. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Bubble deaeration of water at reduced unit loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Whenever the load is reduced, the parameters of the water and steam being introduced into the deaerator, as well as the pressure, also change. A study was conducted to ascertain the reasons for the improvement in water deaeration whenever the unit load is reduced. The study of the deaerator demonstrated that reducing the load on the turbine produces a reduction in the amount of oxygen contained in the feedwater from 25-30 to 8-12 ..mu..g/kg.

Kondrat'ev, A.D.; Kurnyk, L.N.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Essentials of the SI: Base & derived units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Table 1. SI base units. SI base unit. Base quantity, Name, Symbol. length, meter, m. ... Table 2. Examples of SI derived units. SI derived unit. ...

7

Base unit definitions: Kilogram  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Unit of mass (kilogram), Abbreviations: CGPM, CIPM, BIPM. At the end of the 18th century, a kilogram was the mass of a cubic decimeter of water. ...

8

Load Modeling Using a Measurement Based Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed in the second phase of a multi-year collaborative load modeling research program that was initiated in 2004. The measurement based approach described in this report will help utilities to develop representative load models using suitable measurement data.

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

9

Definition: Base Load | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Load Load Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Base Load The minimum amount of electric power delivered or required over a given period at a constant rate.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Baseload (also base load, or baseload demand) is the minimum amount of power that a utility or distribution company must make available to its customers, or the amount of power required to meet minimum demands based on reasonable expectations of customer requirements. Baseload values typically vary from hour to hour in most commercial and industrial areas. Related Terms electricity generation, power, smart grid References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An in Like Like You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. line Glossary Definition Retrieved from

10

Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load for 12 hours Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load for 12 hours Docket No. EO-05-01. Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load for 12 hours. Arial photograph showing plant and location of predicted SO2 violations, predicted in 2000. Mirant: Case 67a: Units 3 & 4 & 5 at Max Load for 12 hours and at Min Load for 12 hours More Documents & Publications Mirant Potomac, Alexandria, Virginia: Maximum Impacts Predicted by AERMOD-PRIME, Units 3, 1, 2 SO2 Case Mirant Potomac, Alexandria, Virginia: Maximum Impacts Predicted by AERMOD-PRIME, Units 4, 1, 2 SO2 Case Mirant Potomac, Alexandria, Virginia: Maximum Impacts Predicted by

11

Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Research and develop...

12

Lifeline-based global load balancing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On shared-memory systems, Cilk-style work-stealing has been used to effectively parallelize irregular task-graph based applications such as Unbalanced Tree Search (UTS). There are two main difficulties in extending this approach to distributed memory. ... Keywords: distributed work-stealing, global load balancing, uts, x10

Vijay A. Saraswat; Prabhanjan Kambadur; Sreedhar Kodali; David Grove; Sriram Krishnamoorthy

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Load Balancing Content-Based Publish/Subscribe Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed content-based publish/subscribe systems suffer from performance degradation and poor scalability caused by uneven load distributions typical in real-world applications. The reason for this shortcoming is the lack of a load balancing scheme. ... Keywords: PADRES, Publish/subscribe, ToPSS, content-based routing, load balancing, load estimation, offload algorithms, subscriber migration

Alex King Yeung Cheung; Hans-Arno Jacobsen

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Brief A decomposition approach for the solution of the unit loading problem in hydroplants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a decomposition approach for the solution of the dynamic programming formulation of the unit loading problem in hydroplant management. This decomposition approach allows the consideration of network and canal constraints without additional ... Keywords: Decomposition, Dynamic programming, Hydroelectricity, Unit loading problem

MichèLe Breton; Saeb Hachem; Abdelghani Hammadia

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Model Based Load Indices (MBLI) for Scientific Stefan P. Muszala  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Model Based Load Indices (MBLI) for Scientific Simulation by Stefan P. Muszala B.S., B.A. Rutgers and Computer Engineering 2008 #12;This thesis entitled: Model Based Load Indices (MBLI) for Scientific Engineering) Model Based Load Indices (MBLI) for Scientific Simulation Thesis directed by Dr. Daniel Connors

Colorado at Boulder, University of

16

On the operating unit size of load/store architectures†  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce a strict version of the concept of a load/store instruction set architecture in the setting of Maurer machines. We take the view that transformations on the states of a Maurer machine are achieved by applying threads as considered in thread ...

J. a. Bergstra; C. a. Middelburg

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

18

Decentralized agent-based underfrequency load shedding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the transition to a smart grid efforts are being made to decentralize control of electric power systems and modernize protection schemes that are currently in use. One specific application of distributed control is underfrequency load shedding ... Keywords: UFLS, Underfrequency load shedding, intelligent agents

Sara Mullen; Getiria Onsongo

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

DOE Awards Contract for WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Services | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Services WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Services DOE Awards Contract for WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Services August 27, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Bill Taylor Bill.Taylor@srs.gov 803-952-8564 Deb Gill Deb.Gill@wipp.ws 575-234-7270 Cincinnati - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a competitive small business contract to Celeritex, LLC, (a Joint Venture between Project Services Group, LLC and DeNuke Contracting Services Inc.) of Suwanee, Georgia. The contract is to provide Mobile Loading Unit services in support of the National TRU Program and the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The contract has a value of up to $17.8 million, with a three-year performance period and two-one year extension options. This contract was limited to

20

Probability based load factors for design of concrete containment structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a procedure for developing probability-based load combinations for the design of concrete containments. The proposed criteria are in a load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. The load factors and resistance factors are derived for use in limit states design and are based on a target limit state probability. In this paper, the load factors for accident pressure and safe shutdown earthquake are derived for three target limit state probabilities. Other load factors are recommended on the basis of prior experience with probability-based design criteria for ordinary building construction. 6 refs.

Hwang, H.; Kagami, S.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Base load fuel comsumption with radiant boiler simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The operating point of an oil fired radiant boiler, 580 Megawatt capacity, is critical in maximizing the availability, performance, reliability, and maintainability of a power producing system. Operating the unit above the design operating point causes outages to occur sooner than scheduled. When the boiler is operated below the design operating point, fuel is wasted because the quantity of fuel required to operate a radiant boiler is the same, whether the design setpoint is maintained or not. This paper demonstrates by means of simulation software that the boiler design setpoints is critical to fuel consumption and optimum output megawatts. A boiler with this capacity is used to provide a portion of the base load of an electric utility in order to sustain revenues and maintain reliable generation.

Shwehdi, M.H. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Wilkes-Barre, Lehman, PA (United States)); Hughes, C.M. (Naval Aviation Depot, NAS Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL (United States)); Quasem, M.A. (Howard Univ. School of Business, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Evaluation of concrete masonry unit walls for lateral natural phenomena hazards loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Older single-story facilities (Pre-1985 vintage) are commonly constructed of structural steel framing with concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls connected to columns and roof girders of the steel framing system. The CMU walls are designed for lateral wind and seismic loads (perpendicular to the wall) and transmit shear loads from the roof diaphragm to the foundation footings. The lateral loads normally govern their design. The structural framing system and the roof diaphragm system are straight forward when analyzing or upgrading the structure for NPH loads. Because of a buildings design vintage, probable use of empirical methodology, and poor design basis documentation (and record retention); it is difficult to qualify or upgrade CMU walls for lateral Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) loads in accordance with References 1, 2 and 3. This paper discusses three analytical approaches and/or techniques (empirical, working stress and yield line) to determine the collapse capacity of a laterally loaded CMU wall, and compares their results

Faires, W.E. Jr.

1996-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

23

Update: Effective Load-Carrying Capability of Photovoltaics in the United States; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper provides an update on the U.S. distribution of effective load-carrying capability (ELLC) for photovoltaics by analyzing recent load data from 39 U.S. utilities and time-coincident output of PV installations simulated from high-resolution, time/site-specific satellite data. Results show that overall regional trends identified in the early 1990s remain pertinent today, while noting a significant increase in PV ELCC in the western and northern United States, and a modest decrease in the central and eastern United States.

Perez, R.; Margolis, R.; Kmiecik, M.; Schwab, M.; Perez, M.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Air Conditioning Load Prediction Based on DE-SVM Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on SVM (Support Vector Machine) theory, and the model to predict air conditioning load was established. In order to optimize the behavior of SVM, the DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm was introduced into classic SVM. The DE-SVM model is applied ... Keywords: Air Conditioning load, DE-SVM, Prediction

Zhonghai Chen; Yong Sun; Guoli Yang; Tengfei Wu; Guizhu Li; Longbiao Xin

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Part-Load Performance Characterization and Energy Savings Potential of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel  

SciTech Connect

In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technology Office (DOE’s BTO), with help from the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) members, developed a specification for high performance rooftop air-conditioning units (RTU Challenge) with capacity ranges between 10 and 20 tons (DOE 2013). Daikin’s Rebel for the first rooftop unit system that was recognized by DOE in May 2012 as meeting the RTU Challenge specifications. This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and its use with EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from use of Rebel compared to other standard options.

Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

26

Probability based load combinations for design of category I structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a reliability analysis method and a procedure for developing the load combination design criteria for category I structures. For safety evaluation of category I concrete structures under various static and dynamic loads, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed. This reliability analysis method is also used as a tool for determining the load factors for design of category I structures. In this paper, the load combinations for design of concrete containments, corresponding to a target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10/sup -6/ in 4 years, are described. A comparison of containments designed using the ASME code and the proposed design criteria is also presented.

Reich, M.; Hwang, H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Quad Cities Unit 2 Main Steam Line Acoustic Source Identification and Load Reduction  

SciTech Connect

The Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 have a history of steam line vibration issues. The implementation of an Extended Power Up-rate resulted in significant increases in steam line vibration as well as acoustic loading of the steam dryers, which led to equipment failures and fatigue cracking of the dryers. This paper discusses the results of extensive data collection on the Quad Cities Unit 2 replacement dryer and the Main Steam Lines. This data was taken with the intent of identifying acoustic sources in the steam system. Review of the data confirmed that vortex shedding coupled column resonance in the relief and safety valve stub pipes were the principal sources of large magnitude acoustic loads in the main steam system. Modifications were developed in sub-scale testing to alter the acoustic properties of the valve standpipes and add acoustic damping to the system. The modifications developed and installed consisted of acoustic side branches that were attached to the Electromatic Relief Valve (ERV) and Main Steam Safety Valve (MSSV) attachment pipes. Subsequent post-modification testing was performed in plant to confirm the effectiveness of the modifications. The modifications have been demonstrated to reduce vibration loads at full Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) conditions to levels below those at Original Licensed Thermal Power (OLTP). (authors)

DeBoo, Guy; Ramsden, Kevin; Gesior, Roman [Exelon Nuclear Engineering Department (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Detection of Rooftop Cooling Unit Faults Based on Electrical Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) is accomplished by sampling voltage and current at high rates and reducing the resulting start transients or harmonic contents to concise ''signatures''. Changes in these signatures can be used to detect, and in many cases directly diagnose, equipment and component faults associated with roof-top cooling units. Use of the NILM for fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) is important because (1) it complements other FDD schemes that are based on thermo-fluid sensors and analyses and (2) it is minimally intrusive (one measuring point in the relatively protected confines of the control panel) and therefore inherently reliable. This paper describes changes in the power signatures of fans and compressors that were found, experimentally and theoretically, to be useful for fault detection.

Armstrong, Peter R.; Laughman, C R.; Leeb, S B.; Norford, L K.

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Load Profiling Based Routing for Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. To support the stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements of real-time (e.g. audio/video) applications in integrated services networks, several routing algorithms that allow for the reservation of the needed bandwidth over a Virtual Circuit (VC), established on one of several candidate routes, have been proposed. Traditionally, such routing is done using the least-loaded concept, and thus results in balancing the load across the set of candidate routes. In this paper, we propose the use of load profiling as an attractive alternative to load balancing for routing guaranteed bandwidth VCs (flows). Load profiling techniques allow the distribution of "available" bandwidth across a set of candidate routes to match the characteristics of incoming VC QoS requests. We thoroughly characterize the performance of VC routing using load profiling and contrast it to routing using load balancing and load packing. We do so both analytically and via extensive simulations of multi-class traffic r...

Ibrahim Matta; Azer Bestavros; Marwan Krunz

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Classification of total load demand profiles for war-ships based on pattern recognition methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The classification of total load demand profiles for every type of war-ships is crucial information, because it is the necessary base for a series of studies and operations, such as load estimation, load shedding and power management systems. In this ... Keywords: adequacy measures, clustering algorithms, load profiles, pattern recognition, warship

G. J. Tsekouras; I. S. Karanasiou; F. D. Kanellos

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Power System Aggregate Load Area Dynamic Modeling by Learning Based on WAMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with an investigation of a methodology using intelligent learning techniques based on WAMS to construct power system load area model. An aggregate load area dynamic model (ALADM) is proposed to represent large area loads of power ... Keywords: ALADM, Genetic algorithm, Load area modeling, Power system, Recursive least squares

Huimin Yang; Jinyu Wen

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

ANUDlSiTM-40 Load Flow Analysis: Base Cases, Data, Diagrams, and Results  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

ANUDlSiTM-40 ANUDlSiTM-40 Load Flow Analysis: Base Cases, Data, Diagrams, and Results by E.C. Portante, J.A. Kavicky, J.C. VanKuiken, and J.P. Peerenboom Decision and Information Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 October 1997 Work sponsored by Navy Engineering Logistics Office This report is printed on recycled paper. @ DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness. or use- fulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents

33

Comparison of strength and load-based methods for testing wind turbine blades  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to compare two methods of blade test loading and show how they are applied in an actual blade test. Strength and load-based methods were examined to determine the test load for an Atlantic Orient Corporation (AOC) 15/50 wind turbine blade for fatigue and static testing. Fatigue load-based analysis was performed using measured field test loads extrapolated for extreme rare events and scaled to thirty-year spectra. An accelerated constant amplitude fatigue test that gives equivalent damage at critical locations was developed using Miner`s Rule and the material S-N curves. Test load factors were applied to adjust the test loads for uncertainties, and differences between the test and operating environment. Similar analyses were carried, out for the strength-based fatigue test using the strength of the blade and the material properties to determine the load level and number of constant amplitude cycles to failure. Static tests were also developed using load and strength criteria. The resulting test loads were compared and contrasted. The analysis shows that, for the AOC 15/50 blade, the strength-based test loads are higher than any of the static load-based cases considered but were exceeded in the fatigue analysis for a severe hot/wet environment.

Musial, W.D.; Clark, M.E.; Egging, N. [and others

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results  

SciTech Connect

This report describes how an electric utility system is modeled by using load flow techniques to establish a validated power flow case suitable for simulating and evaluating alternative system scenarios. Details of the load flow model are supported by additional technical and descriptive information intended to correlate modeled electrical system parameters with the corresponding physical equipment that makes up the system. Pictures and technical specifications of system equipment from the utility, public, or vendor are provided to support this association for many system components. The report summarizes the load flow model construction, simulation, and validation and describes the general capabilities of an information query system designed to access load flow parameters and other electrical system information.

Portante, E.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Peerenboom, J.P.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

ANN-based Short-Term Load Forecasting in Electricity Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANN-based Short-Term Load Forecasting in Electricity Markets Hong Chen Claudio A. Ca~nizares Ajit forecasting technique that considers electricity price as one of the main characteristics of the system load. B. Makram, "A Hybrid Wavelet- Kalman Filter Method for Load Forecasting," Electric Power Systems

Cañizares, Claudio A.

36

Megnetic Field Based Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synchronous phasor measurements are critical for the wide area monitoring and control of a large interconnected power system. However, only a small number of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) have been installed in the North America, mostly because of the large installation and maintenance costs of a classical PMU that uses current transformers (CT) to obtain current signal and potential transformers (PT) to obtain voltage input signals. The classical PMUs use technology developed more than 20 years ago. I...

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

37

Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant  

SciTech Connect

A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR. (authors)

Conklin, James C.; Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR.

Conklin, Jim [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

PEV-based Reactive Power Compensation for Wind DG Units: A Stackelberg Game Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

turbine's inductive load to ensure a stable voltage profile in the system. Since reactive power can only from the load centers, DG units will speed up the revolution of providing power on site with little unit. Reactive power compensa- tion is needed since the load is not pure resistive and may include

Wu, Chenye

40

ANN-Based Short-Term Load Forecasting in Electricity Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—This paper proposes an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based short-term load forecasting technique that considers electricity price as one of the main characteristics of the system load, demonstrating the importance of considering pricing when predicting loading in today’s electricity markets. Historical load data from the Ontario Hydro system as well as pricing information from the neighboring system are used for testing, showing the good performance of the proposed method. Keywords: Short-term load forecasting, electricity markets, spot prices, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

Hong Chen; Claudio A. Cañizares; Ajit Singh

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Part load operation and heat recovery optimization in cogeneration units with diesel engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the optimization possibilities of different co-generation units with diesel engines — especially applied in small and middle-size biogas power plant installations. The first subject of the publication is the analysis of ...

Slawomir Smolen

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Estimates of Refrigerator Loads in Public Housing Based on Metered Consumption Data  

SciTech Connect

The New York Power Authority (NYPA), the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA), and the U.S. Departments of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and Energy (DOE) have joined in a project to replace refrigerators in New York City public housing with new, highly energy-efficient models. This project laid the ground work for the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) and DOE to enable housing authorities throughout the United States to bulk-purchase energy-efficient appliances. DOE helped develop and plan the program through the ENERGY STAR@ Partnerships program conducted by its Pacific Nofiwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL was subsequently asked to conduct the savings evahations for 1996 and 1997. PNNL designed the metering protocol and occupant survey, supplied and calibrated the metering equipment, and managed and analyzed the data. The 1996 metering study of refrigerator energy usage in New York City public housing (Pratt and Miller 1997) established the need and justification for a regression-model-based approach to an energy savings estimate. The need originated in logistical difficulties associated with sampling the population and pen?orming a stratified analysis. Commonly, refrigerators[a) with high representation in the popula- tion were missed in the sampling schedule, leaving significant holes in the sample and difficulties for the stratified anrdysis. The just{jfcation was found in the fact that strata (distinct groups of identical refrigerators) were not statistically distinct in terms of their label ratio (ratio of metered consumption to label rating). This finding suggested a general regression model could be used to represent the consumption of all refrigerators in the population. In 1996 a simple two-coefficient regression model, a function of only the refrigerator label rating, was developed and used to represent the existing population of refrigerators. A key concept used in the 1997 study grew from findings in a small number of apartments metered in 1996 with a detailed protocol. Fifteen-minute time-series data of ambient and compartment temperatures and refrigerator power were analyzed and demonstrated the potential for reducing power records into three components. This motivated the development of an analysis process to divide the metered consumption into baseline load, occupant-associated load, and defrosting load. The baseline load is the consumption that would occur if the refrigerator were on but had no occupant usage load (no door- opening events) and the defrosting mechanism was disabled. The motivation behind this component reduction process was the hope that components could be more effectively modeled than the total. We reasoned that the components would lead to abetter (more general and more significant) understanding of the relationships between consumption, the characteristics of the refrigerator, and its operating environment.

JD Miller; RG Pratt

1998-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

43

Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles Speaker(s): Nobuyuki Yamaguchi Date: March 26, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 This seminar provides new regression models for demand reduction of Demand Response programs for the purpose of ex ante evaluation of the programs and screening for recruiting customer enrollment into the programs. The proposed regression models employ load sensitivity to outside air temperature and representative load pattern derived from cluster analysis of customer baseline load as explanatory variables. We examined the performance of the proposed models with respect to the validity of explanatory variables and fitness of regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas and Electric Company's commercial and industrial

44

Transistor-based filter for inhibiting load noise from entering a power supply  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A transistor-based filter for inhibiting load noise from entering a power supply is disclosed. The filter includes a first transistor having an emitter coupled to a power supply, a collector coupled to a load, and a base. The filter also includes a first capacitor coupled between the base of the first transistor and a ground terminal. The filter further includes an impedance coupled between the base and a node between the collector and the load, or a second transistor and second capacitor. The impedance can be a resistor or an inductor.

Taubman, Matthew S

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

45

Extreme wind load estimates based on Gumbel distribution of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... morning breezes and so forth-are as unwarranted as inferences on the height of adults based on the heights of children in a kinder- garten class. ...

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

46

A circuit theory based load flow tracing method considering counter-flow contribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method to trace the power flow based on the converged AC power flow solution is proposed in this paper. The method is formulated by using the transmission network structure, the equivalent-current-injection and the load- equivalent-admittances ... Keywords: equivalent current injection, equivalent load impedance, generator contribution, line loss allocation

Whei-Min Lin; Tung-Sheng Zhan; Cong-Hui Huang

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

An Automatic Load Sharing Approach for a DFIG Based Wind Generator in a Microgrid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Automatic Load Sharing Approach for a DFIG Based Wind Generator in a Microgrid M. A. Barik and H.ravishankar@unsw.edu.au Abstract--The aim of this paper is to manage the load variation of a microgrid by controlling the wind by simulating a benchmark microgrid test system. Simulation results show that the proposed control scheme

Pota, Himanshu Roy

48

PEM fuel cellstack development based on membrane-electrode assemblies of ultra-low platinum loadings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Attempt is made to scale-up single cell technology, based on ultra-low platinum loadings, to develop a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack for stationary power generation.

Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

FUTURA: Hybrid System for Electric Load Forecasting by Using Case-Based Reasoning and Expert System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of combining a numeric extrapolation of data with the methodology of case-based reasoning and expert systems in order to improve the electric load forecasting are presented in this contribution. Registers of power consumption are stored as ...

Raúl Vilcahuamán; Joaquim Meléndez; Josep Lluis de la Rosa

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Modularization and simulation techniques for heat balance-based energy and load calculation programs: the experience  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Through sponsorship of the Loads Toolkit and coming changes to the Handbook of Fundamentals, ASHRAE has taken the lead in promoting a heat balance based approach as the "preferred " method for thermal load and energy analysis calculations. Building on previous ASHRAE research and to some extent the BLAST (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics) program, one of the goals of the Loads Toolkit research project is to obtain a heat balance based load calculation procedure that is relatively simple in structure where various algorithms, such as different exterior convection coefficient calculation techniques among many others, can be hooked into the heat balance without any restructuring. One of the keys to achieving this goal is the adaptation of legacy versions of a heat balance based approach a nd their modularization using a modern programming language such as FORTRAN90. This process was not a trivial task, and the insight gained in this re-engineering process in a small-scale (single zone) environment provided ideas for modularizing a larger-scale (multiple zone) program such as EnergyPlus. This paper gives an overview of the challenges faced in modularizing the heat balance algorithms in both the Loads Toolkit and EnergyPlus. In addition, it provides an analysis of the resulting heat balance routines in each project and suggestions for the developers of other simulation programs as well as those interested in working with the Loads Toolkit and EnergyPlus.

Richard K. Strand

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

The Base Load Fallacy and other Fallacies disseminated by Renewable Energy Deniers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: The Base-Load Fallacy is the incorrect notion that renewable energy cannot supply base-load (24-hour) electric power. Alternatives to base-load coal power can be provided by efficient energy use, solar hot water, bioenergy, large-scale wind power, solar thermal electricity with thermal storage, and geothermal, with gas power playing a transitional role. In particular, large-scale wind power from geographically distributed sites is partially reliable and can be made more so by installing a little additional low-cost peak-load back-up from gas turbines. Other fallacies are refuted concisely in the appendix. 1 Opponents of renewable energy, from the coal and nuclear industries and from NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) groups, are disseminating the Base-Load Fallacy, that is, the fallacy that renewable energy cannot provide base-load (24-hour) power to substitute for coal-fired electricity. In Australia, even Government Ministers and some journalists are propagating this conventional ‘wisdom’, although it is false. This fallacy is the principal weapon of renewable energy deniers. Other fallacies are discussed briefly in the appendix. The political implications are that, if these fallacies become widely believed, renewable energy would always have to remain a niche market, rather than achieve its true potential of becoming a

Dr Mark Diesendorf

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Fibre optical measuring network based on quasi-distributed amplitude sensors for detecting deformation loads  

SciTech Connect

A new design of a sensitive element for a fibre optical sensor of deformation loads is proposed. A distributed fibre optical measuring network, aimed at determining both the load application point and the load mass, has been developed based on these elements. It is shown that neural network methods of data processing make it possible to combine quasi-distributed amplitude sensors of different types into a unified network. The results of the experimental study of a breadboard of a fibre optical measuring network are reported, which demonstrate successful reconstruction of the trajectory of a moving object (load) with a spatial resolution of 8 cm, as well as the load mass in the range of 1 - 10 kg with a sensitivity of 0.043 kg{sup -1}. (laser optics 2012)

Kul'chin, Yurii N; Kolchinskiy, V A; Kamenev, O T; Petrov, Yu S

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

53

Wavelet-Based Nonlinear Multiscale Decomposition Model for Electricity Load Forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: We propose a wavelet multiscale decomposition based autoregressive approach for the prediction of one-hour ahead ahead load based on historical electricity load data. This approach is based on a multiple resolution decomposition of the signal using the non-decimated or redundant Haar à trous wavelet transform whose advantage is taking into account the asymmetric nature of the time-varying data. There is an additional computational advantage in that there is no need to recompute the wavelet transform (wavelet coefficients) of the full signal if the electricity data (time series) is regularly updated. We assess results produced by this multiscale autoregressive (MAR) method, in both linear and non-linear variants, with single resolution autoregression (AR), multilayer perceptron (MLP), Elman recurrent neural network (ERN) and the general regression neural network (GRNN) models. Results are based on the New South Wales (Australia) electricity load data that is provided by the National Electricity Market

D. Benaouda; F. Murtagh; J. L. Starck; O. Renaud; Universiti Tenaga Nasional; Jalan Kajang-puchong

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Combustion Impacts of Flexible Operation: Low Load, Load Following, and Increased Staging Impact on Boiler Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past few years, coal-fired generating units have changed from stable base load operation to flexible operation, including periods of prolonged low-load operation. These changes in operation can have various adverse effects on all plant equipment, particularly in older units and may impact their ability to operate without tube failures due to elevated levels of fireside corrosion and circumferential cracking. This report discusses the combustion-related impacts of low-load, load-following, ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

55

A Stator-Voltage Decoupling Control Strategy for DFIG-based Wind Power Turbine Supplying Local Isolated Load  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbines supplying local isolated load is manly up to the stator-voltage control strategy. Compared with conventional steady mathematic model based one, a dynamic mathematic model based ... Keywords: dynamic model, supplying local isolated load, decoupling stator-voltage control, DFIG-based wind turbine

Long Zhan; Shuying Yang; Hui Gao

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

building load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

57

electric load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

58

commercial load | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

59

residential load | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

60

A Historical Perspective and Business Model for Load Response Aggregation Based on Priority Service  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Historical Perspective and Business Model for Load Response Aggregation Based on Priority Service] limits consumption during peak demand periods and is set by the customer according to a rate agreements of a colored light indicator which tariff is active. In its June 17, 1985 issue Electric Utility Week published

Oren, Shmuel S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

A fuzzy logic based system for heavy metals loaded wastewaters monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents a fuzzy logic based system for wastewater quality monitoring with the purpose of attenuating the environmental impact of the heavy metals loaded wastewaters. The proposed method offers an improvement over the traditionally modelling ... Keywords: environmental indices, fuzzy logic, fuzzy rules, wastewater quality monitoring

Daniel Dunea; Mihaela Oprea

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Large heavy-duty gas turbines for base-load power generation and heat cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

The predominant role of large gas turbines has shifted from peaking-load duty to midrange and base-load electric power generation, especially within combined-cycle plants. Such applications require heavy-duty industrial gas turbines to ensure the same high reliability and availability for continuous service as the associated steam turbines. It is also important that the gas turbines be designed for low maintenance to minimize the necessary outage times and costs for component repair and replacement. The basic design principles and applications of Model V94 gas turbines are discussed with special reference to highly reliable and economic bulk power generation.

Joyce, J.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

NIST Guide to SI Units - Appendix A. Definitions of the SI Base ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... that SI derived units are uniquely defined only in terms of SI base units; for example, 1 ... The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the ...

64

Three-dimensional isotropic perfect lens based on LC-loaded transmission lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An isotropic three-dimentional perfect lens based on cubic meshes of interconnected transmission lines and bulk loads is proposed. The lens is formed by a slab of a loaded mesh placed in between two similar unloaded meshes. The dispersion equations and the characteristic impedances of the eigenwaves in the meshes are derived analytically, with an emphasis on generality. This allows designing of transmission-line meshes with desired dispersion properties. The required backward-wave mode of operation in the lens is realized with simple inductive and capacitive loads. An analytical expression for the transmission through the lens is derived and the amplification of evanescent waves is demonstrated. Factors that influence enhancement of evanescent waves in the lens are studied and the corresponding design criteria are established. A possible realization of the structure is outlined.

P. Alitalo; S. Maslovski; S. Tretyakov

2005-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

65

Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles Nobuyuki Yamaguchi,on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles Nobuyuki Yamaguchi,regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas

Kiliccote, Sila

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Economic and Emissions Implications of Load-Based, Source-Based, and First-Seller Emissions Trading Programs Under California AB32  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to Assembly Bill 32, the state of California considered three types of carbon emissions trading programs for the electric power sector: load-based, source-based, and first-seller. They differed in terms of their point of regulation and in ... Keywords: CO2 emissions, electric market, emissions trading, first-seller, load-based, source-based

Yihsu Chen; Andrew L. Liu; Benjamin F. Hobbs

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Exploring the cognitive loads of high-school students as they learn concepts in web-based environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study measured high-school learners' cognitive load as they interacted with different web-based curriculum components, and examined the interactions between cognitive load and web-based concept learning. Participants in this study were 105 11th ... Keywords: Improving classroom teaching, Interactive learning environments, Pedagogical issues, Secondary education

Cheng-Chieh Chang; Fang-Ying Yang

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

Weall, Adam J [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Developments of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit  

SciTech Connect

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

Weall, Adam J [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

OpenEI Community - load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

71

OpenEI Community - electric load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

72

OpenEI Community - building load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

73

OpenEI Community - residential load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

74

OpenEI Community - commercial load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

75

OpenEI Community - building load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

76

Fuzzy rule-based methodology for residential load behaviour forecasting during power systems restoration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inadequate load pickup during power system restoration can lead to overload and underfrequency conditions, and even restart the blackout process, due to thermal energy losses. Thus, load behaviour estimation during restoration is desirable to avoid inadequate ... Keywords: artificial intelligence, energy management systems, fuzzy logic, load behaviour estimation, power system distribution, power system restoration, residential load forecasting, thermostatically controlled loads

Lia Toledo Moreira Mota; Alexandre Assis Mota; Andre Luiz Morelato Franca

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

To forecast short-term load in electric power system based on FNN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric power system load forecasting plays an important part in the Energy Management System (EMS), which has a great effect on the operating, controlling and planning of power system. Accurate load forecasting, especially short-term load forecasting, ...

Yueli Hu; Huijie Ji; Xiaolong Song

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Battery loading device  

SciTech Connect

A battery loading device for loading a power source battery, built in small appliances having a battery loading chamber for selectively loading a number of cylindrical unit batteries or a one body type battery having the same voltage as a number of cylindrical unit batteries, whereby the one body type battery and the battery loading chamber are shaped similarly and asymmetrically in order to prevent the one body type battery from being inserted in the wrong direction.

Phara, T.; Suzuki, M.

1984-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

79

Nuclear power: least cost option for base-load electricity in Finland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a result of the outstanding operating experience and the low electricity production costs of the existing Finnish nuclear power plants, energy-intensive process industries in particular have a strong belief in nuclear power. There is a potential interest in building more nuclear capacity, the fifth unit, in order to guarantee for Finnish industry the availability of cheap electrical energy in the future. In any case more baseload generation capacity will be needed by 2010 to meet the future growth of electricity consumption in Finland. Nuclear power generation matches excellently with the long-duration load profile of the Finnish power system. The good performance of Finnish nuclear power has yielded benefits also to consumers through its contribution to decreasing the electricity price. Furthermore, the introduction of nuclear power has resulted in a clear drop in the carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation during the 1970s and 1980s, as shown in Figure 1. In 1999 the four Finnish nuclear power units at Loviisa and Olkiluoto generated 22.1 TWh of electricity, roughly equivalent to one third of the total

Risto Tarjanne; Sauli Rissanen

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Optimization of disk generator performance for base-load power plant systems applications  

SciTech Connect

Disk generators for use in base-load MHD power plants are examined for both open-cycle and closed-cycle operating modes. The OCD cases are compared with PSPEC results for a linear channel; enthalpy extractions up to 23% with 71% isentropic efficiency are achievable with generator inlet conditions similar to those used in PSPEC, thus confirming that the disk configuration is a viable alternative for base-load power generation. The evaluation of closed-cycle disks includes use of a simplified cycle model. High system efficiencies over a wide range of power levels are obtained for effective Hall coefficients in the range 2.3 to 4.9. Cases with higher turbulence (implying ..beta../sub eff/ less than or equal to 2.4) yield high system efficiencies at power levels of 100 to 500 MW/sub e/. All these CCD cases compare favorably with linear channels reported in the GE ECAS study, yielding higher isentropic efficiences for a given enthalpy extraction. Power densities in the range 70 to 170 MW/m/sup 3/ appear feasible, leading to very compact generator configurations.

Teare, J.D.; Loubsky, W.J.; Lytle, J.K.; Louis, J.F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Model-Based Drought Indices over the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Drought indices derived from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and Noah models from 1950 to 2000 are intercompared and evaluated for their ability to classify drought across the United ...

Kingtse C. Mo

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Ensemble-based methods for forecasting census in hospital units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Koestler et al. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013, 13:67in hospital units. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:Koestler et al. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013, 13:67

Koestler, Devin C; Ombao, Hernando; Bender, Jesse

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these options. Conclusions Natural gas utilization as the primary heat source for district heat production implies environmental complications beyond just the global warming impacts. Diffusing renewable energy sources for generating the base load district heat would reduce human toxicity, ecosystem quality degradation, global warming, and resource depletion compared to the case of natural gas. Reducing fossil fuel dependency in various stages of wood pellet production can remarkably reduce the upstream global warming impact of using wood pellets for district heat generation.

Ghafghazi, Saeed [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Work stealing and persistence-based load balancers for iterative overdecomposed applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applications often involve iterative execution of identical or slowly evolving calculations. Such applications require incremental rebalancing to improve load balance across iterations. In this paper, we consider the design and evaluation of two distinct ... Keywords: dynamic load balancing, hierarchical load balancer, iterative applications, persistence, task scheduling, work stealing

Jonathan Lifflander; Sriram Krishnamoorthy; Laxmikant V. Kale

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! Home > Groups > Utility Rate Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 building load building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL I am pleased to announce that simulated hourly residential and commercial building load datasets are now available on OpenEI. These datasets are available for all TMY3 locations in the United States. They contain hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). In addition to various

86

A LOAD-BASED DEPTH-SENSING INDENTATION TECHNIQUE FOR ELASTIC–PLASTIC MATERIAL MECHANICAL PROPERTY EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

A load-based depth-sensing micro-indentation technique has been developed for material mechanical properties evaluation including elastic modulus, yield stress, strain hardening exponent and stress-strain curve. Based on a Hertzian contact mechanics approach, this load-based depthsensing micro-indentation technique does not require system compliance calibration or the use of high precision depth sensors. Furthermore a unique, material independent, indentation based load-depth algorithm has been developed accounting for both elastic and elastic-plastic deformation of the material beneath the indenter. This algorithm, found to be a function of material yield stress, strain hardening exponent and elastic modulus, is shown to be the basis for obtaining a stressstrain curve. Finite element analyses of multiple materials with various mechanical properties were employed to examine and develop the fundamental indention based relationships between these variables and the load/depth curve needed to extract the stress-strain diagram. In addition, experimental results obtained with this load-based micro-indentation technique were found to yield accurate material mechanical properties (elastic modulus, strain hardening, yield strength) at room and elevated temperatures (up to 1200°C).

K. Lee; J. M. Tannenbaum; B. S.-J. Kang; M.A. Alvin

2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

87

Evaluation of solar gain through skylights for inclusion in the SP53 residential building loads data base  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The energy performance of skylights is similar to that of windows in admitting solar heat gain, while at the same time providing a pathway for convective and conductive heat transfer through the building envelope. Since skylights are typically installed at angles ranging from 0{degrees} to 45{degrees}, and differ from windows in both their construction and operation, their conductive and convective heat gains or losses, as well as solar heat gain, will differ for the same rough opening and thermal characteristics. The objective of this work is to quantify the impact of solar gain through skylights on building heating and cooling loads in 45 climates, and to develop a method for including these data into the SP53 residential loads data base previously developed by LBL in support of DOE`s Automated Residential Energy Standard (ARES) program. The authors used the DOE-2.1C program to simulate the heating and cooling loads of a prototypical residential building while varying the size and solar characteristics of skylights and windows. The results are presented as Skylight Solar Loads, which are the contribution of solar gains through skylights to the overall building heating and cooling loads, and as Skylight Solar Load Ratios, which are the ratios of skylight solar loads to those for windows with the same orientation. The study shows that skylight solar loads are larger than those for windows in both heating and cooling. Skylight solar cooling loads are from three to four times greater than those for windows regardless of the skylight tilt, except for those facing north. These cooling loads are largest for south-facing skylights at a tilt angle of approximately 20{degrees}, and drop off at higher tilts and other orientations.

Hanford, J.W.; Huang, Y.J.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Nodal ant colony optimization for solving profit based unit commitment problem for GENCOs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a nodal ant colony optimization (NACO) technique to solve profit based unit commitment problem (PBUCP). Generation companies (GENCOs) in a competitive restructured power market, schedule their generators with an objective to maximize ... Keywords: Ant colony optimization and nodal ant colony optimization, Deregulated market, Profit based unit commitment problem

C. Christopher Columbus; K. Chandrasekaran; Sishaj P. Simon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

Peterka, J.A.; Derickson, R.G. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Lab.)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Load Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualization and Controls Peer Review Visualization and Controls Peer Review Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Dan Trudnowski, PhD, PE Montana Tech Butte, MT 59701 dtrudnowski@mtech.edu 406-496-4681 October 2006 2 Presentation Outline * Introduction - Goals, Enabling technologies, Overview * Load Control - Activities, Status * Stability Assessment - Activities, Status * Wrap up - Related activities, Staff 3 Goals * Research and develop technologies to improve T&D reliability * Technologies - Real-time load control methodologies - Measurement-based stability-assessment 4 Enabling Technologies * Load control enabled by GridWise technology (e.g. PNNL's GridFriendly appliance) * Real-time stability assessment enabled by Phasor Measurement (PMU) technology 5 Project Overview * Time line: April 18, 2006 thru April 17, 2008

91

Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides new regression models for demand reduction of Demand Response programs for the purpose of ex ante evaluation of the programs and screening for recruiting customer enrollment into the programs. The proposed regression models employ load sensitivity to outside air temperature and representative load pattern derived from cluster analysis of customer baseline load as explanatory variables. The proposed models examined their performances from the viewpoint of validity of explanatory variables and fitness of regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas and Electric Company's commercial and industrial customers who participated in the 2008 Critical Peak Pricing program including Manual and Automated Demand Response.

Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Han, Junqiao; Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Asano, Hiroshi; Kiliccote, Sila

2009-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

92

Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methods for Customer and Demand Response Policies SelectionC. McParland,“Open Automated Demand Response Communicationset al, “Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation

Kiliccote, Sila

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

G&T adds versatile load management system  

SciTech Connect

Wolverine`s load management system was designed in response to the need to reduce peak demand. The Energy Management System (EMS) prepares short term (seven day) load forecasts, based on a daily peak demand forecst, augmented by a similar day profile based on weather conditions. The software combines the similar day profile with the daily peak demand forecast to yield an hourly load forecast for an entire week. The software uses the accepted load forecast case in many application functions, including interchange scheduling, unit commitment, and transaction evaluation. In real time, the computer updates the accepted forecast hourly, based in actual changes in the weather and load. The load management program executes hourly. The program uses impact curves to calculate a load management strategy that reduces the load forecast below a desired load threshold.

Nickel, J.R.; Baker, E.D.; Holt, J.W.; Chan, M.L.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

The dynamic character curve adjusting model of electric load based on data mining theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are a number of dirty data in the load database produced by SCADA system. Consequently, the data must be adjusted carefully and reasonably before being used for electric load forecasting or power system analysis. This paper proposes a dynamic and ...

Xiaoxing Zhang; Haijun Ren; Yuming Liu; Qiyun Cheng; Caixin Sun

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

NN-Based Near Real Time Load Prediction for Optimal Generation Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the environment of ongoing deregulated power industry, traditional automatic generation control (AGC) has become a set of ancillary services traded in separate markets which are different than the energy market. The performance of AGC is mandated ... Keywords: Automatic Generation Control (AGC), Control Performance Standard (CPS), Dynamic Economic Dispatch, Hierarchical Neural Network, Load Dynamics, Very Short Term Load Prediction (VSTLP)

Dingguo Chen

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

A Stator-Voltage Decoupling Control Strategy for No-Load Cutting-in Process of DFIG-based Wind Power Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of no-load cutting-in process is manly up to the stator-voltage control strategy for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbines. Compared with conventional steady mathematic model based one, a dynamic mathematic model based ... Keywords: dynamic model, no-load cutting-in process decoupling stator-voltage control, DFIG-based wind turbine

Shuying Yang, Long Zhan, Xing Zhang

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

The Research of Distribution Transformer Remote Terminal Units Based on DSP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Based on the importance analysis of the distribution transformer remote terminal units ,Introduced the main performance and the hardware design of the distribution transformer intelligent monitoring terminal units which take the TMS320C5410 high ... Keywords: distribution monitoring terminal, DSP (Digital Signal Processor), Data acquisition

Li Yan; Lu Wenmei; Li Wencai

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Regional load-curve models. Volume 5. Data base. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In preparing to build the models detailed in the first four volumes of the EA-1672 reports, a substantial data gathering, clean-up, and organizing effort was conducted. This volume describes that process and documents the data banks sent to EPRI. Three types of data concepts were needed to explore hourly load forecasting: hourly load, hourly weather and related socioeconomic data concepts. These materials were gathered for the project. EPRI has 32 data tapes that include hourly load and weather data for 32 regions for the period 1962 to 1977. Two other data banks, EPRIDATAA and EPRIDATAM, contain annual and monthly data respectively, gathered for use in this project. Hourly load forecasts out to the year 2000 have also been received by EPRI. DRI's forecasts are contained in the data bank FORECASTBANK. QUERI's forecasts are also available. These data series may prove useful to other researchers exploring related topics.

Platt, H.D.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ESCRIPTIVE S TATISTICS Maximum Demand (kW) Num. of Obs. Meanrate and customer’s maximum demand. C’ i, t : a constant, Arate and customer’s maximum demand. The load sensitivity to

Kiliccote, Sila

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Probability based load criteria for the design of nuclear structures: a critical review of the state-of-the-art  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structures for nuclear power plant facilities must be designed to withstand safely and effectively all kinds of loads and load combinations that may be expected to occur during their lifetime. The traditional methods of structural design attempt to account for the inevitable variability in the loads, material strengths, in-service environments, and fabrication process, etc., through the use of safety factor, allowable stresses or load and resistance factors. These approaches may result in an unknown and nonuniform reliability because of the subjective manner in which the safety factors have been determined. The stochastic nature loads and the uncertainties in material properties dictate a probabilistic approach for a rational assessment of structural safety and performance. This report presents: an in-depth review of the state-of-the-art pertaining to probability-based analysis and design of civil engineering structures; basis for extending existing probability-based methods to seismic category I nuclear structures; and the availability of the pertinent data required to perform probabilistic analysis for seismic category I nuclear structures.

Shinozuka, M.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Wang, P.C.; Meyer, C.; Wen, Y.K.; Kao, S.; Shooman, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

FLOCKING-BASED DOCUMENT CLUSTERING ON THE GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNIT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyzing and grouping documents by content is a complex problem. One explored method of solving this problem borrows from nature, imitating the fl ocking behavior of birds. Each bird represents a single document and fl ies toward other documents that are similar to it. One limitation of this method of document clustering is its complexity O(n2). As the number of documents grows, it becomes increasingly diffi cult to receive results in a reasonable amount of time. However, fl ocking behavior, along with most naturally inspired algorithms such as ant colony optimization and particle swarm optimization, are highly parallel and have experienced improved performance on expensive cluster computers. In the last few years, the graphics processing unit (GPU) has received attention for its ability to solve highly-parallel and semi-parallel problems much faster than the traditional sequential processor. Some applications see a huge increase in performance on this new platform. The cost of these high-performance devices is also marginal when compared with the price of cluster machines. In this paper, we have conducted research to exploit this architecture and apply its strengths to the document flocking problem. Our results highlight the potential benefi t the GPU brings to all naturally inspired algorithms. Using the CUDA platform from NVIDIA®, we developed a document fl ocking implementation to be run on the NVIDIA® GEFORCE 8800. Additionally, we developed a similar but sequential implementation of the same algorithm to be run on a desktop CPU. We tested the performance of each on groups of news articles ranging in size from 200 to 3,000 documents. The results of these tests were very signifi cant. Performance gains ranged from three to nearly fi ve times improvement of the GPU over the CPU implementation. This dramatic improvement in runtime makes the GPU a potentially revolutionary platform for document clustering algorithms.

Charles, J.S.; Patton, R.M.; Potok, T.E.; Cui, X.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Application of immune algorithm-based particle swarm optimization for optimized load distribution among cascade hydropower stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The immune algorithm-based particle swarm optimization (IA-PSO), which is proposed by involving the immune information processing mechanism into the original particle swarm optimal algorithm, improves the ability to find the globally excellent result ... Keywords: Cascade hydropower stations, Immune algorithm, Load distribution, PSO

Anqiang Li; Liping Wang; Jiqing Li; Changming Ji

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Dynamic-Model-Based Seasonal Prediction of Meteorological Drought over the Contiguous United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple method was developed to forecast 3- and 6-month standardized precipitation indices (SPIs) for the prediction of meteorological drought over the contiguous United States based on precipitation seasonal forecasts from the NCEP Climate ...

Jin-Ho Yoon; Kingtse Mo; Eric F. Wood

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Research on Short-term Load Forecasting of the Thermoelectric Boiler Based on a Dynamic RBF Neural Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As thermal inertia is the key factor for the lag of thermoelectric utility regulation, it becomes very important to forecast its short-term load according to running parameters. In this paper, dynamic radial basis function (RBF) neural network is proposed based on the RBF neural network with the associated parameters of sample deviation and partial sample deviation, which are defined for the purpose of effective judgment of new samples. Also, in order to forecast the load of sample with large deviation, sensitivity coefficients of input layer is given in this paper. To validate this model, an experiment is performed on a thermoelectric plant, and the experimental result indicates that the network can be put into extensive use for short-term load forecasting of thermoelectric utility.

Dai, W.; Zou, P.; Yan, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Recommending energy tariffs and load shifting based on smart household usage profiling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a system and study of personalized energy-related recommendation. AgentSwitch utilizes electricity usage data collected from users' households over a period of time to realize a range of smart energy-related recommendations on energy tariffs, ... Keywords: demand response, energy tariffs, load shifting, personalization, recommender systems, smart grid

Joel E. Fischer; Sarvapali D. Ramchurn; Michael Osborne; Oliver Parson; Trung Dong Huynh; Muddasser Alam; Nadia Pantidi; Stuart Moran; Khaled Bachour; Steve Reece; Enrico Costanza; Tom Rodden; Nicholas R. Jennings

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

A Historical Perspective and Business Model for Load Response Aggregation Based on Priority Service  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We review early technologies and experiments in the 1980's for implementing demand response. We argue that while new smart grid technologies are cheaper and provide more functionality the barrier to demand response implementation at the retail level ... Keywords: Priority Service, Demand Response, Load Response Aggragation, Energy Economics

Shmuel S. Oren

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Selective ensemble modeling parameters of mill load based on shell vibration signal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load parameters inside the ball mill have direct relationships with the optimal operation of grinding process. This paper aims to develop a selective ensemble modeling approach to estimate these parameters. At first, the original vibration signal is ... Keywords: empirical mode decomposition, selective ensemble modeling, soft sensor, vibration frequency spectrum

Jian Tang; Li-Jie Zhao; Jia Long; Tian-you Chai; Wen Yu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

On-line Fault Diagnosis Model of the Hydropower Units Based on MAS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper introduced a novel on-line fault diagnosis system model of the hydropower units based on multi-agent system. In allusion to the classical MAS-based fault diagnosis model, it proposes a new function of information interactive between the mission-controlled ...

Liao Jiaping; Fu Bo; Chen Yu

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Incorporating Variable Generation and Controllable Loads into Risk-Based Transmission Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the penetration and size of renewable generation resources increase, transmission infrastructure must be expanded to accommodate increasing renewable resource output. Conventional transmission expansion planning requires sufficient transmission capacities to transfer the full name-plate capacity of all power plants at the same time to load centers. However, renewable resources, such as wind and solar, have highly variable output and are spatially diversified. Thus, transmission expansion planning with...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

110

Demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the second in a series of annual summaries on minable coal in the United States, pursuant to the power plant and industrial fuel use act. The demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1980 by area, rank, and potential method of mining is given. Reserve data are given by state and by type of coal (anthracite, bithiminous, subbituminous, and lignite). An introduction, summary, and a glossary of selected coal classification terms is also included. The appendix provides the demonstrated reserve base adjustments and related notions by state. References are also included. Coal reserves for 1979 are given for comparison. 7 figures, 6 tables.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Geoecology: a county-level environmental data base for the conterminous United States  

SciTech Connect

The Geoecology Data Base represents a unique compilation of computerized environmental data for research and development needs. Environmental assessment and planning for energy development require rapid access to data at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. In the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have developed an integrated data base of diverse environmental resource information from extant sources. Data are stored at the county level of resolution for the conterminous United States with some data available for subcounty units within larger, more diverse eastern counties. The Geoecology Data Base contains selected data on terrain and soils, water resources, forestry, vegetation, agriculture, land use, wildlife, air quality, climate, natural areas, and endangered species. Basic files on human population are also included to complement the environmental files. Data are stored in metric-SI units. The Geoecology Data Base is currently fulfilling diverse ongoing research needs while it is being expanded and updated as needs and new data are identified. This report is both a documentation and a user's guide to the Geoecology Data Base. It describes the Data Base design, illustrates applications, provides examples of accessing the Data Base, and gives general information on the data set contents.

Olson, R.J.; Emerson, C.J.; Nungesser, M.K.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Improvement of load-following capacity based on the flame radiation intensity signal in a power plant  

SciTech Connect

The capability to perform fast load changes has been an important issue due to the increasing commercialization of the power market. In the traditional boiler control system, the feedback signals come from the variations of the steam pressure and the steam flow, which leads to a large time delay. Therefore, a new method for the boiler control system based on radiation intensity for improving the load-following capacity of a coal-fired power plant has been developed in this paper. The system is implemented by adding the radiation intensity of the flame to the existing boiler control system as a complement. The radiation intensity obtained by the sensor can directly reflect the input heat in the boiler, with a faster response and higher sensitivity. Field tests on a 300 MW coal-fired power plant reveal that the improved boiler control system increases the load-following capacity. At the same time, the steam pressure variations are smaller as compared with those of the existing control system. 14 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Fei Wang; Qunxing Huang; Dong Liu; Jianhua Yan; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Mitigation of Fatigue Loads Using Individual Pitch Control of Wind Turbines Based on FAST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the wind turbine code FAST is applied to doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based power system], and Simulink are used to model the wind, mechanical and electrical aspects of the wind turbine and DFIG system in detail. This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 an overview of a DFIG based wind power system is

Chen, Zhe

114

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

Spletzer, B.L.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Optimal weight tuning method for unit selection cost functions in syllable based text-to-speech synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a method for tuning the weights of unit selection cost functions in syllable based text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis system. In this work, unit selection cost functions, namely target cost and concatenation cost, are designed appropriate ... Keywords: Concatenation cost, Genetic algorithm, Target cost, Text-to-speech synthesis, Tuning of weights, Unit selection

N. P. Narendra; K. Sreenivasa Rao

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Evaluation of Counter-Based Dynamic Load Balancing Schemes for Massive Contingency Analysis on Over 10,000 Cores  

SciTech Connect

Contingency analysis studies are necessary to assess the impact of possible power system component failures. The results of the contingency analysis are used to ensure the grid reliability, and in power market operation for the feasibility test of market solutions. Currently, these studies are performed in real time based on the current operating conditions of the grid with a set of pre-selected contingency list, which might result in overlooking some critical contingencies caused by variable system status. To have a complete picture of a power grid, more contingencies need to be studied to improve grid reliability. High-performance computing techniques hold the promise of being able to perform the analysis for more contingency cases within a much shorter time frame. This paper evaluates the performance of counter-based dynamic load balancing schemes for a massive contingency analysis program on 10,000+ cores. One million N-2 contingency analysis cases with a Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model have been used to demonstrate the performance. The speedup of 3964 with 4096 cores and 7877 with 10240 cores are obtained. This paper reports the performance of the load balancing scheme with a single counter and two counters, describes disk I/O issues, and discusses other potential techniques for further improving the performance.

Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Rice, Mark J.

2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

119

Simulating Hydrological Drought Properties at Different Spatial Units in the United States Based on Wavelet–Bayesian Regression Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of their stochastic nature, droughts vary in space and time, and therefore quantifying droughts at different time units is important for water resources planning. The authors investigated the relationship between meteorological variables ...

Ashok K. Mishra; Vijay P. Singh

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the unique characteristics of high-temperature reactors (T>700 C) to produce electricity for premium electric markets whose demands can not be met by other types of nuclear reactors. It may also make the use of nuclear reactors economically feasible in smaller electrical grids, such as those found in many developing countries. The ability to rapidly vary power output can be used to stabilize electric grid performance-a particularly important need in small electrical grids.

Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The Temperature Sensitivity of the Residential Load and Commercial Building Load  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a building modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building heating and cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. A building simulation software are first used to quantify the hourly energy consumption of different building types by end-use and by vintage. Then, the temperature sensitivities are derived based on the climate data inputs.

Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Correia, James; Leung, Lai R.; Wong, Pak C.

2009-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

122

Tests with a microcomputer based adaptive synchronous machine stabilizer on a 400MW thermal unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field tests have been conducted on a microcomputer-based adaptive synchronous machine stabilizer. The adaptive control algorithm tracks the system operating conditions using a least squares identification technique with variable forgetting factor and the control is calculated by a self-searching pole-shift method. An outline of the control algorithm and the results of field tests on a 400MW thermal generating unit are described in this paper.

Malik, O.P.; Hope, G.S.; Hancock, G.C. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Mao, C.X. (Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)); Prakash, K.S. (Bharat Heavy Electricals, Banglore (India))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Bamboo saccharification through cellulose solvent-based biomass pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis at ultra-low cellulase loadings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bamboo Bamboo saccharification through cellulose solvent-based biomass pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis at ultra-low cellulase loadings Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh a,b , Zhiguang Zhu a , Tsung-Jen Ho c,d , Ming-Der Bai e , Yi-Heng Percival Zhang a,b,f, * a Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA b Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA c Pilot Process and Applications Department of Chemical Engineering Division, Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 30011, Taiwan d Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Chungli 32001, Taiwan e BioFuel Department

124

Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

125

Examination of Process Implementation of Evidence-based Design Initiatives on United States Army Medical Construction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to review the degree of United States Army compliance in the implementation of evidence-based design practices within the Military Health System construction cycle. This research looks at the impact of the 2007 Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs memorandum directing the use of evidence-based design within the Military Healthcare System construction process. The memorandum impacted the military medical construction process that includes over 6.2 billion dollars in government programmed military medical construction covering 9.2 million beneficiaries. An analysis of federal construction documents, interviews, and an online survey was conducted with 85 government and civilian healthcare facility planners to measure general evidence-based design knowledge, direct knowledge of medical construction policy requirements, and the level to which the Military Health System Evidence-based Design Principles matrix has been implemented within four selected military medical construction projects. Results of the review of construction publications show minimal evidence of evidence-based design incorporation with key federal regulatory documents. The results of an online survey conducted during the research had a 65.8% response rate (39 government personnel, 17 civilian personnel). The survey showed that basic knowledge of evidence-based design was present, but revealed severe deficiencies in specific knowledge and application of construction policies. Review of selected medical facilities demonstrated non-standardized incorporation of evidence-based design features. This research concludes that evidence-based design has achieved minimal integration into the Military Health System general knowledge base and project execution. Achieving compliance with the 2007 directive memorandum requires that significant efforts be made in personnel training and reconciliation with federal military medical construction documents.

Marsh, Glenn Edward

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater.

Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Impact of Sea Surface Temperature and Soil Moisture on Summer Precipitation in the United States Based on Observational Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) and soil moisture on summer precipitation over two regions of the United States (the upper Mississippi River basin and the Great Plains) based on data from observation and observation-...

Rui Mei; Guiling Wang

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

51 51 Varnish cache server Home Groups Community Central Green Button Applications Developer Utility Rate FRED: FRee Energy Database More Public Groups Private Groups Features Groups Blog posts Content Stream Documents Discussions Polls Q & A Events Notices My stuff Energy blogs 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142234851 Varnish cache server load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! building load building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: application/zip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data

129

Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Operable Unit 1 remedial investigation report, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This remedial investigation report for operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Eielson Air Force Base presents data, calculations, and conclusions as to the nature and extent of surface and subsurface contamination at the eight source areas that make up OU-1. The information is based on the 1993 field investigation result and previous investigations. This report is the first in a set of three for OU-1. The other reports are the baseline risk assessment and feasibility study. The information in these reports will lead to a Record of Decision that will guide and conclude the environmental restoration effort for OU-1 at Eielson Air Force Base. The primary contaminants of concern include fuels and fuel-related contaminants (diesel; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; total petroleum hydrocarbon; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), maintenance-related solvents and cleaners (volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroothylene), polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The origins of contaminants of concern include leaks from storage tanks, drums and piping, and spills. Ongoing operations and past sitewide practices also contribute to contaminants of concern at OU-1 source areas. These include spraying mixed oil and solvent wastes on unpaved roads and aerial spraying of DDT.

Gilmore, T.J.; Fruland, R.M.; Liikala, T.L. [and others

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

load | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load load Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

132

A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Material: Four turbine- based ventilators and nine conventional servo-valve compressed-gas ventilators were1 A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators Arnaud W. Thille,1 MD; Aissam Lyazidi,1 Biomed Eng MS; Jean-Christophe M

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

133

Structural load combinations  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10/sup -6/ or 1.0 x 10/sup -5/ during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

A Hybrid Unit Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Electricity and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Series connection of two types of cells leads to a hybrid unit capable of delivering electricity and clean hydrogen. The role of electrodes on the operation of the ...

135

LOADING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

Ohlinger, L.A.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Improved taguchi method based contracted capacity optimization for power consumer with self-owned generating units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper proposes an improved Taguchi method to determine the best capacity contracts and dispatch the power output of the self-owned generating units from almost infinite combinations. To be achieved are savings of total power expenses of the consumers ... Keywords: capacity contracts, improved Taguchi method, self-owned generating units

Hong-Tzer Yang; Pai-Chun Peng; Chung-His Huang

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Research on Fault Diagnosis of Hydropower Unit Based on Expert System and Hybrid Reasoning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the rapid development of computer and monitoring technologies in recent years, more and more online monitoring equipment of hydropower units have been installed and applied in hydropower plants, and so began the long-term accumulation of data. Although ... Keywords: fault diagnosis, hydropower unit, expert system, hybrid reasoning

Ye Zhou; Luoping Pan

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Profiles for all TMY3 Locations in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Residential Hourly Load Profiles for all TMY3 Locations in and Residential Hourly Load Profiles for all TMY3 Locations in the United States Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Hourly load profiles are available for over all TMY3 locations in the United States here. Browse files in this dataset, accessible as individual files and as commercial and residential downloadable ZIP files. This dataset is approximately 4.8GiB compressed or 19GiB uncompressed. July 2nd, 2013 update: Residential High and Low load files have been updated from 366 days in a year for leap years to the more general 365 days in a normal year.

139

Hybrid simulation and optimization-based capacity planner for integrated photovoltaic generation with storage units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unlike fossil-fueled generation, solar energy resources are geographically distributed and highly intermittent, which makes their direct control difficult and requires storage units. The goal of this research is to develop a flexible capacity planning ...

Esfandyar M. Mazhari; Jiayun Zhao; Nurcin Celik; Seungho Lee; Young-Jun Son; Larry Head

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

A Satellite-Based Summer Convective Cloud Frequency Analysis over the Southeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A convective cloud (CC) analysis is performed over the southeastern United States (SEUS) during June, July, and August 2006 and 2007, using data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) visible and infrared sensors as ...

Laci D. Gambill; John R. Mecikalski

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

LOADED WAVEGUIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

>Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

1958-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

142

Modeling and optimization of an adaptive dynamic load shedding using the ANFIS-PSO algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new optimal adaptive dynamic load-shedding scheme for a large steelmaking industry with cogeneration units. The proposed method is based on the initial rate of a frequency change (df0/dt) and is coordinated with tie-lines frequency ... Keywords: adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system, artificial neural network, frequency stability, optimal load shedding, particle swarm optimization, under-frequency relays

Ghader Isazadeh; Rahmat-Allah Hooshmand; Amin Khodabakhshian

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Program on Technology Innovation: Electric Field-Based Phasor Measurement Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The popularity of phasor measurement units (PMUs) comes from their ability to synchronize the voltage and current phasor measurements in interconnected power systems. Those synchronized phasor measurements are critical for wide area power system monitoring and control. However, the prevailing PMU technology was developed more than 20 years ago and is usually accompanied by high installation and maintenance costs.

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

144

Assembly and Loading of LQS01, a Shell-Based 3.7 m Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet for LARP  

SciTech Connect

The LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has been engaged in the fabrication of the 3.7 m long quadrupole magnet LQS01 in order to demonstrate that Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets are a viable option for future LHC Luminosity upgrades. The LQS01 design, a scale-up of the 1 m long Technology Quadrupole TQS, includes four 3.4 m long cos(theta) coils contained in a support structure based on four 1 m long aluminum shells pre-tensioned with water-pressurized bladders (shell-type structure). In order to verify assembly procedures and loading operations, the structure was pre-stressed around solid aluminum 'dummy coils' and cooled-down to 77 K. Mechanical behavior and stress variations were monitored with strain gauges mounted on the structure and on the dummy coils. The dummy coils were then replaced with Nb{sub 3}Sn coils in a second assembly and loading procedure, in preparation for the cool-down and test. This paper reports on the cool-down test with dummy coils and on the assembly and loading of LQS01, with a comparison between 3D finite element model predictions and strain gauge data.

Ferracin, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Bingham, B.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D. W.; Chlachidze, G.; Felice, H.; Hafalia, A. R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Mumper, W.; Nobrega, F.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Schmalzle, J.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Wanderer, P.; Zlobin, A.

2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

145

Buildings Stock Load Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on electricity demand control by applying some strategies in existing building to reduce it during the extreme climate period. The first part of this paper presents the objectives of the study: ? to restrict the startup polluting manufacturing units (power station), ? to limit the environmental impacts (greenhouse emission), ? to reduce the transport and distribution electricity infrastructures The second part presents the approach used to rise the objectives : ? To aggregat the individual loads and to analyze the impact of different strategies from load shedding to reduce peak power demand by: ? Developing models of tertiary buildings stocks (Schools, offices, Shops, hotels); ? Making simulations for different load shedding strategies to calculate potential peak power saving. The third part is dedicated to the description of the developed models: An assembly of the various blocks of the library of simbad and simulink permit to model building. Finally the last part prensents the study results: Graphs and tables to see the load shedding strategies impacts.

Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

United States | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

United States United States Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(1992) Super contributor 16 August, 2013 - 12:21 New report from White House outlines largest problems facing United States energy grid energy grid OpenEI President Smart Grid United States White House Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! building load building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: application/zip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(1992) Super contributor 29 October, 2012 - 14:46 East Coast Utilities prepare for Hurricane Sandy

147

Phasor Measurement Unit-Based Out-of-Step Protection Scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the most promising applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) or synchro-phasors with advances in wide-area communications is system stability monitoring and control. The synchronized phase information of the system (phases measured at strategically important buses) can indicate the dynamic performance of a power system. This technical report presents a practical approach for detecting and mitigating system out-of-step conditions using PMUs. The approach builds on existing knowledge accumulat...

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

148

Land-Based Wind Potential Changes in the Southeastern United States (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent advancements in utility-scale wind turbine technology and pricing have vastly increased the potential land area where turbines can be deployed in the United States. This presentation quantifies the new developable land potential (e.g., capacity curves), visually identifies new areas for possible development (e.g., new wind resource maps), and begins to address deployment barriers to wind in new areas for modern and future turbine technology.

Roberts, J. O.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

A meso-scale unit-cell based material model for the single-ply flexible-fabric armor M. Grujicic a,*, W.C. Bell a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A meso-scale unit-cell based material model for the single-ply flexible-fabric armor M. Grujicic a April 2008 Accepted 12 February 2009 Available online 20 February 2009 Keywords: Flexible armor Meso-scale unit-cell based material model for a prototypical plain-woven single-ply flexible armor is developed

Grujicic, Mica

150

Dynamic load balancing of applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Dynamic load balancing of applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

Wheat, S.R.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

152

Printed in the United States of America. Available from National Technical Information Service  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Neither the United States nor the Energy Research and Development Administration/United States Nuclear loading ................... 8 4 Yearly heating loads and energy consumption for six cities

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

153

Evaluation of Drought Indices Based on Thermal Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration over the Continental United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reliability of standard meteorological drought indices based on measurements of precipitation is limited by the spatial distribution and quality of currently available rainfall data. Furthermore, they reflect only one component of the surface ...

Martha C. Anderson; Christopher Hain; Brian Wardlow; Agustin Pimstein; John R. Mecikalski; William P. Kustas

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

CFSv2-Based Seasonal Hydroclimatic Forecasts over the Conterminous United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a long history of debate on the usefulness of climate model–based seasonal hydroclimatic forecasts as compared to ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP). In this study, the authors use NCEP's operational forecast system, the Climate ...

Xing Yuan; Eric F. Wood; Joshua K. Roundy; Ming Pan

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generator Units using Genetic Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and electricity in the distribution grid. A group of DG units can form a virtual power plant, being centrally of distributed generation units in a residential distri- bution grid. Power losses are minimized while grid topology with pro- duction and residential load data based on measurements. Different scenarios

156

building load | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load load Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

157

Progress on an Updated National Solar Radiation Data Base for the United States: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1992, The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB), a 30-year set of hourly solar radiation data. In 2003, NREL undertook an NSRDB update project for the decade of 1991-2000.

Wilcox, S.; Anderberg, M.; George, R.; Marion, W.; Myers, D.; Renne, D.; Beckman, W.; DeGaetano, A.; Gueymard, C.; Perez, R.; Plantico, M.; Stackhouse, P.; Vignola, F.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Documentation of the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States. Volume 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the methodologies used to develop the 1979 Demonstrated Reserve Base (DRB) of coal. The main body of this report summarizes the methodological procedures used to develop each state reserve estimate. The appendices to the report provide a detailed description of the entire DRB process for each state.

Herhal, A J; Britton, S G; Minnucci, C A

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Unit Conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unit Conversion. ... Unit Conversion Example. "If you have an amount of unit of A, how much is that in unit B?"; Dimensional Analysis; ...

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

160

Documentation of the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States. Final report, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the methodologies used to develop the 1979 Demonstrated Reserve Base (DRB) of coal. All primary source documents used to prepare the 1979 DRB were reviewed. Using the methodologies and documentation found in the 1979 DRB published report as a guide, each of the state-level published reserve estimates were re-derived. In those cases where the estimates could not be reproduced, EIA personnel from the Eastern and Western Energy Data Offices were consulted and the differences, for the most part, were resolved. Throughout this report an attempt was made to describe the information flow that was an integral part of the DRB development. Particular attention and emphasis was given to those instances where deviations from standard, published EIA procedures were used to derive the DRB estimates. The main body of this report summarizes the methodological procedures used to develop each state reserve estimate.

Herhal, A J; Britton, S G; Minnucci, C A

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Periodic load balancing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiprocessor load balancing aims to improve performance by moving jobs from highly loaded processors to more lightly loaded processors. Some schemes allow only migration of new jobs upon arrival, while other schemes allow migration of ... Keywords: heavy traffic diffusion approximations, load balancing, periodic load balancing, reflected Brownian motion, resource sharing, transient behavior

Gísli Hjálmtýsson; Ward Whitt

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

united stadium. united station.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??DC United is one of Major League Soccerâs most decorated franchises, yet it still plays its home games within the crumbling confines of RFK Stadium.… (more)

Groff, David R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Grid Interactive Quality AC Power Supply With Switching Arm Based Integrated Magnetics For Dynamically Controlled Interconnection Among Multiple Sources And Loads.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The extensive use of nonlinear loads in today’s world has inspired considerable research interest in the area of power quality improvement. This thesis proposes an… (more)

Roy, Sudhin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Energetical factors in power systems with nonlinear loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the volt-ampere charac- teristic of the nonlinear load, an equivalent circuit, containing linear elements, can be determined. In this way, load-flow and.

165

Characterizing Household Plug Loads through Self-Administered Load Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Household miscellaneous loads, which include consumer electronics, are the fastest growing segment of household energy use in the United States. Although the relative energy intensity of applications such as heating and cooling is declining, the DOEAnnual Energy Outlook forecasts that the intensity of residential miscellaneous end uses will increase substantially by 2030. Studies by TIAX and Ecos Consulting reveal that miscellaneous devices8212smaller devices in terms of energy draw but growing in usage8...

2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

166

Efficient real-time divisible load scheduling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Providing QoS and performance guarantees to arbitrarily divisible loads has become a significant problem for many cluster-based research computing facilities. While progress is being made in scheduling arbitrarily divisible loads, current approaches ... Keywords: Arbitrarily divisible loads, Cluster computing, Real-time computing, Scheduling efficiency

Anwar Mamat; Ying Lu; Jitender Deogun; Steve Goddard

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Impact of Wind Energy on Hourly Load Following Requirements: An Hourly and Seasonal Analysis; Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impacts of wind energy on the power system grid can be decomposed into several time scales that include regulation, load following, and unit commitment. Techniques for evaluating the impacts on these time scales are still evolving, and as wind energy becomes a larger part of the electricity supply, valuable experience will be gained that will help refine these methods. Studies that estimated the impact of wind in the load following time scale found differing results and costs, ranging from near zero to approximately $2.50/megawatt-hour (MWh). Part of the reason for these differences is the different interpretation of the impacts that would be allocated to this ancillary service. Because of the low correlation between changes in load and wind, long-term analyses of the load following impact of wind may find low impacts. During the daily load cycle, there is a tremendous variability in load following requirements in systems without wind. When significant levels of wind generation are added to the resource mix, relatively small changes in wind output can complicate the task of balancing the system during periods of large load swings. This paper analyzes the load following impacts of wind by segregating these critical time periods of the day and separating the analysis by season. The analysis compares wind generation at geographically dispersed sites to wind generation based primarily at a single site, and for a large penetration of wind (more than 20% wind capacity to peak load).

Krich, A.; Milligan, M.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Base unit definitions: Second  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... two energy levels of an atom or a molecule, could be realized and reproduced much more precisely. Considering that a very precise definition of ...

169

On Load Balancing in a Dense Wireless  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the load balancing problem in a dense wireless multihop network, where a typical path consists of large number of hops, i.e., the spatial scales of a typical distance between source and destination, and mean distance between the neighbouring nodes are strongly separated. In this limit, we present a general framework for analysing the traffic load resulting from a given set of paths and traffic demands. We formulate the load balancing problem as a minmax problem and give two lower bounds for the achievable minimal maximum traffic load. The framework is illustrated by an example of uniformly distributed traffic demands in a unit disk with a few families of paths given in advance. With these paths we are able to decrease the maximum traffic load by factor of 33 40% depending on the assumptions. The obtained traffic load level also comes quite near the tightest lower bound.

Multihop Network Esa; Esa Hyytiä

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composition: The total load profile obtained from  load individual load types if  load profiles of individual load composition validation: Load profiles generated by the load 

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

High payload six-axis load sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Knoxville, TN)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Realizing load reduction functions by aperiodic switching of load groups  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the problem of scheduling ON/OFF switching of residential appliances under the control of a Load Management System (LMS). The scheduling process is intended to reduce the controlled appliances` power demand in accordance with a predefined load reduction profile. To solve this problem, a solution approach, based on the methodology of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), is introduced. This approach provides a flexible mathematical basis for studying different aspects of the scheduling problem. The conventional practices in this area are shown to be special cases of the PWM technique. By applying the PWM-based technique to the scheduling problem, important classes of scheduling errors are identified and analytical expressions describing them are derived. These expressions are shown to provide sufficient information to compensate for the errors. Detailed simulations of load groups` response to switching actions are use to support conclusions of this study.

Navid-Azarbaijani, N. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Banakar, M.H. [CAE Electronics Ltd., St. Laurent, Quebec (Canada)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

International System of Units from NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Background Definitions of the SI base units and their historical context International aspects of the SI Unit conversions. Bibliography ...

175

An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

Lu, Ning

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

176

A Case Study to Evaluate the Reliability Impact of Large-Scale Wind Generation: Incorporating Variable Generation and Loads into Rel iability-based Transmission Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a case study using a probabilistic framework to capture variations in output of variable generation connected to the transmission system along with system loads. The research in 2010, 2011, and some part of 2012 focused on developing the probabilistic model framework. The focus of the 2012 work was to use this model on a real-world (as opposed to a test system) transmission planning case along with data for all the variable generation and system loads modeled in the case to ...

2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

177

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Energy Use Savings for a Typical New Residential Dwelling Unit Based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2006 IECC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) require a substantial improvement in energy efficiency compared to the 2006 IECC. This report averages the energy use savings for a typical new residential dwelling unit based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Results are reported by the eight climate zones in the IECC and for the national average.

Lucas, Robert G.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Discharge circuits and loads  

SciTech Connect

This will be an overview in which some of the general properties of loads are examined: their interface with the energy storage and switching devices; general problems encountered with different types of loads; how load behavior and fault modes can impact on the design of a power conditioning system (PCS).

Sarjeant, W.J.

1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Satellite-Based Tropical Cyclone Intensity Estimation Using the NOAA-KLM Series Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-borne passive microwave radiometers, such as the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on the NOAA polar-orbiting series, are well suited to monitor tropical cyclones (TCs) by virtue of their ability to assess changes in tropospheric ...

Kurt F. Brueske; Christopher S. Velden

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Methane Emissions from Natural Wetlands in the United States: Satellite-Derived Estimation Based on Ecosystem Carbon Cycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wetlands are an important natural source of methane to the atmosphere. The amounts of methane emitted from inundated ecosystems in the United States can vary greatly from area to area. Seasonal temperature, water table dynamics, and carbon ...

Christopher Potter; Steven Klooster; Seth Hiatt; Matthew Fladeland; Vanessa Genovese; Peggy Gross

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Load relaxation studies of zircaloy-4  

SciTech Connect

The results of the present work have shown (1) the load relaxation data of Zircaloy-4 in the temperature range of 200/sup 0/C to 385/sup 0/C can be represented by the phenomenological model based on Hart's plastic equation of state; (2) the room temperature load relaxation data reflect the effects of deformation twinning; (3) at higher temperatures the load relaxation data suggest the contribution of grain boundary sliding; and (4) the effects of strain aging can be identified based on the load relaxation data.

Huang, F.H.; Sabol, G.P.; McDonald, S.G.; Li, C.Y.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Load transfer coupling regression curve fitting for distribution load forecasting  

SciTech Connect

The planning of distribution facilities requires forecasts of future substation and feeder loads. Extrapolation based on a curve fit to past annual peak loads is currently the most popular manner of accomplishing this forecast. Curve fitting suffers badly from data shifts caused by switching as loads are routinely moved from one substation to another during the course of utility operations. This switching contaminates the data, reducing forecast accuracy. A new regression application reduces error due to these transfers by over an order of magnitude. A key to the usefulness of this method is that the amount of the transfer, and its direction (whether it was to or from a substation), is not a required input. The new technique, aspects of computer implementation of it, and a series of tests showing its advantage over normal multiple regression methods are given.

Willis, H.L.; Powell, R.W.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Legend Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Syntax: LEGEND UNIT units> where is an integer number or parameter in the range 1 to 100 that specifies the legend identifier; and ...

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

185

Microarchitecture support for improving the performance of load target prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presents a load target prediction scheme that mitigates the impact of load latency for modern microprocessors. The scheme uses a cache-like buffer to provide the base address, offset and operand size at the instruction fetching stage of a pipeline so ... Keywords: load target prediction, load-use stall, pipeline, speculative data access, superscalar procesor

Chung-Ho Chen; Akida Wu

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Reliability analysis of RC containment structures under combined loads  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a reliability analysis method and load combination design criteria for reinforced concrete containment structures under combined loads. The probability based reliability analysis method is briefly described. For load combination design criteria, derivations of the load factors for accidental pressure due to a design basis accident and safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) for three target limit state probabilities are presented.

Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Kagami, S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

NORMAL LOAD BEARING BY SITE SPECIFIC CANISTER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall purpose of this calculation is to perform a preliminary analysis of the Site Specific Canister/Basket, subject to static gravity loads that include the self weight of the Canister Shell, the Basket, the Spent Nuclear Fuel, the Shield Plug and the related hardware, so that the loads are approximately known for sizing purposes. Based on these loads the stress levels in various components of the Site Specific Canister/Basket are evaluated.

NA

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

188

Supply Fan Control for Constant Air Volume Air Handling Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since terminal boxes do not have a modulation damper in constant volume (CV) air handling unit (AHU) systems, zone reheat coils have to be modulated to maintain the space temperature with constant supply airflow. This conventional control sequence causes a significant amount of reheat and constant fan power under partial load conditions. Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) can be installed on these constant air volume systems. The fan speed can be modulated based on the maximum zone load. This paper present the procedure to control the supply fan speed and analyzes the thermal performance and major fan energy and thermal energy savings without expensive VAV retrofit through the actual system operation.

Cho, Y.; Wang, G.; Liu, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Peak load management: Potential options  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Direct Nyquist array design of PID controllers for boiler-turbine units based on gain and phase margins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a direct Nyquist array (DNA) method for the design of PID controllers for multivariable boiler-turbine units with specifications of gain and phase margins is proposed. The essential objective is to propose a method for the design and auto-tuning ...

Hui Pan; Minrui Fei; Ling Wang; Kang Li; Lin Qian

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress  

SciTech Connect

This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby and Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed. Initial testing showed that the units respond very quickly. Problems with local power quality generated false low frequency signals which required testing to be stopped. This should not be a problem in actual operation since the frequency trip points will be staggered to generate a droop curve which mimics generator governor response. The actual trip frequencies will also be low enough to avoid power quality problems. The actual trip frequencies are too low to generate test events with sufficient regularity to complete testing in a reasonable amount of time. Frequency response testing will resume once the local power quality problem is fully understood and reasonable test frequency settings can be determined. Overall the preliminary testing was extremely successful. The hotel response capability matches the power system reliability need, being faster than generation response and inherently available when the power system is under the most stress (times of high system and hotel load). Periodic testing is scheduled throughout the winter and spring to characterize hotel response capability under a full range of conditions. More extensive testing will resume when summer outdoor temperatures are again high enough to fully test hotel response.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

193

Watershed Mercury Loading Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report explains and illustrates a simplified stochastic framework, the Watershed Mercury Loading Framework, for organizing and framing site-specific knowledge and information on mercury loading to waterbodies. The framework permits explicit treatment of data uncertainties. This report will be useful to EPRI members, state and federal regulatory agencies, and watershed stakeholders concerned with mercury-related human and ecological health risk.

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

194

Load-management decision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities require baseload, intermediate, and peaking plants to meet fluctuating customer demand. These can be supplemented with off-peak generation and storage and load management, which can take the form of direct utility control over interruptible and deferrable customers or customer incentives that require off-peak demand. Utilities should make a careful analysis of their load profile, their generation mix, their ability to shift loads, and customer attitudes before deciding on a load-management program that fits their individual needs. They should also be aware that load management is only a limited resource with a number of uncertainties. Research programs into customer relations, system reliability, communications devices, and special control switches and meters will help to relieve some of the uncertainties. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; Gupta, P.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Dynamic Response Analysis of Underground Powerhouse Structures Considering Coupling Effects of Hydraulic Impulse and Dynamic Loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When accident takes place in hydropower generator units, they transit from normal working condition to accident working condition. During this period, the generator pier structures bear coupling effect of dynamic load from the units and hydraulic impulse ... Keywords: underground powerhouse structure, unit dynamic load, hydraulic impulse, coupling effect, dynamic analysis

Li Xiaoli; Yuan Chaoqing; Li Ke; Li Yujie

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Investigation of wind induced load on guyline anchors  

SciTech Connect

Most producing oil wells in the United States include guyline anchors to provide structural support for wind loaded service derricks. Recent safety regulations have focused attention on the load transferred to these anchors during high wind, but no definitive data has been available to establish precise requirements for such loading. In order to provide accurate and broadly acceptable data, a full scale field study was conducted on an actual servicing unit subject to severe wind. Load measured on the guyline anchors during the test indicates that there is less load on the guylines than standard criteria would predict. This result seems to be a singular property of oil well servicing units and is probably associated with both the flowfield around the derrick and the vertical velocity profile of the wind.

Hoyt, P.M.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

English Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

English Units. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J. 1, Steam Point Calculator: English Units, ... 6, Height of steam point apparatus above ground (ft.), 0, ft. ...

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

198

Unit Conversions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... volume flow units, which contain "atm", assume that the gas is: ideal; at a pressure of 101325 Pa; at a temperature of 0 °C. Be aware that the unit "atm ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

199

Characterizing Highly Varying Loads Associated With the Steel Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the quality of power and the effects of the highly varying load on automatic generation control at a utility service territory that contains 22% of the United States' steel manufacturing capability.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Automatic Electric Load Identification in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — A microgrid is the power system of choice for the electrification of rural areas in developing countries. It should be able to adapt to changing load situations without the need for specialists to change the configuration of the microgrid controller. This paper proposes a self-configuring microgrid management system that is able to adjust both generation and demand of the system, so that also in case of growing electricity demand the grid can still be operable by disconnecting unessential loads. A crucial task for the microgrid controller is to automatically identify the connected loads on the basis of their consumption behaviors. For this, a template-matching algorithm is proposed that is based on Dynamic Time Warping, which is primarily used in speech recognition. It has been found that for load profile analysis, simple signal features such as the number of rising edges or the aggregated energy consumption in a given time window is sufficient to describe the signal. In contrast to speech recognition, frequency domain analysis is not necessary.

Self-configuring Microgrids; Friederich Kupzog; Tehseen Zia; Adeel Abbas Zaidi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

The Growth in Home-Based Wage and Salary Employment in the United States, 1980-2000: How Much and Why?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study quantifies the growth in home-based employment among prime-age, civilian workers in the United States between 1980 and 2000 and analyzes how the wage penalty on home-based wage and salary jobs evolved over these twenty years. Home-based employment grew much more rapidly than on-site employment during this period, especially among wage and salary workers. At the same time, the mean wage penalty suffered by wage and salary workers on home-based jobs fell dramatically over this period. These patterns hold not only in the aggregate but also within almost all occupation categories, and little of the aggregate change in the home-based employment share or the home-based wage penalty is explained by change in the occupational composition of employment. These findings suggest that widespread reductions in employers ’ costs of providing home-based work arrangements were the main reason for the growth in home-based employment in the last several decades. The paper also shows that the relationship between the home-based wage penalty and the probability that a worker uses a computer at work has changed markedly over time, in ways that suggest that IT innovations have had significant impacts on worker labor market productivity both in the workplace and at home. 1 I.

Gerald S. Oettinger

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Using DER in Transmission-Constrained Urban Load Pockets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Urban load centers are characterized by their dense population, environmental constraints, as well as transmission-constrained electricity delivery. They also have potentially high infrastructure investment costs for distribution system investments to meet peak load growth. This report looks at seven areas in the United States that have been identified as transmission-constrained load pockets, focusing on opportunities for using distributed energy resources (DER).

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

204

HLW Glass Waste Loadings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HLW HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview  Vitrification - general background  Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) technology  Factors affecting waste loadings  Waste loading requirements and projections  WTP DWPF  DWPF  Yucca Mountain License Application requirements on waste loading  Summary Vitrification  Immobilization of waste by conversion into a glass  Internationally accepted treatment for HLW  Why glass?  Amorphous material - able to incorporate a wide spectrum of elements over wide ranges of composition; resistant to radiation damage  Long-term durability - natural analogs Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large  Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large scale  There

205

OpenEI - load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

are given by a location defined by the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) for which the weather data was collected. Commercial load data is sorted by the (TMY) site as a...

206

Composite Load Model Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

207

A new method for stochastic production simulation in generation system with multiple hydro units  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new method of calculating loss of load probability, expected energy generation and production cost for units in a generating system with multiple hydro units. The method uses the equivalent load duration curve (ELDC) obtained by convolving the distributions of the original load and the forced outage power loss of all generators. Hydro units are scheduled on the ELDC according to their assigned energy and available capacity. Then the deconvolution procedure is performed to obtain a load duration curve for an equivalent system without hydro units. The expected energy of the thermal units is achieved by convolving the generating units in an economic merit order of loading.

Chen, S.J.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Jet-engine-based units for cleaning transport media and thawing frozen soil at mining, metallurgical, and transportation facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, it has become much more difficult to deal with the adhesion and freezing of moist overburden or soil during mining and transport operations due to the increase in the volume of the various materials being mined and transported - coal, ore, fluxes, structural materials, etc. The most productive and effective methods to deal with the sticking and freezing of soil and rock are gas dynamic methods. These methods employ high-speed jets of hot gases from jet engines and can be 15-30 times more productive than mechanical methods and machinery. Proceeding on the basis of calculations, completed studies, and field tests, the Gortekhtrans Department of Research Institute for Problems of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (NIIKMA) has developed several highly efficient units that employ this technology.

Khechuev, Y.D.

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Geothermal Resource/Reservoir Investigations Based on Heat Flow and Thermal Gradient Data for the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several activities related to geothermal resources in the western United States are described in this report. A database of geothermal site-specific thermal gradient and heat flow results from individual exploration wells in the western US has been assembled. Extensive temperature gradient and heat flow exploration data from the active exploration of the 1970's and 1980's were collected, compiled, and synthesized, emphasizing previously unavailable company data. Examples of the use and applications of the database are described. The database and results are available on the world wide web. In this report numerical models are used to establish basic qualitative relationships between structure, heat input, and permeability distribution, and the resulting geothermal system. A series of steady state, two-dimensional numerical models evaluate the effect of permeability and structural variations on an idealized, generic Basin and Range geothermal system and the results are described.

D. D. Blackwell; K. W. Wisian; M. C. Richards; J. L. Steele

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Letto, Daryl [Enbala Power Networks; Johnson, Brandon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dowling, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); George, Raoule [Enbala Power Networks; Khan, Saqib [University of Texas, Austin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac  

SciTech Connect

The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

212

Analysis of industrial load management  

SciTech Connect

Industrial Load Management, ILM, has increased the possibilities of changing load profiles and raising load factors. This paper reports on load profile measurements and feasible load management applications that could be implemented in industry e.g. bivalent systems for heating of premises and processes, load priority systems, energy storage and rescheduling processes or parts of processes due to differential electricity rates. Industrial load variations on hourly, daily and seasonal basis are treated as well as the impact by load management on load curves e g peak clipping, valley filling and increased off-peak electricity usage.

Bjork, C.O.; Karlsson, B.G.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Bias Adjustment of Satellite Precipitation Estimation Using Ground-Based Measurement: A Case Study Evaluation over the Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reliable precipitation measurement is a crucial component in hydrologic studies. Although satellite-based observation is able to provide spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation, the measurements tend to show systematic bias. This paper ...

Farid Ishak Boushaki; Kuo-Lin Hsu; Soroosh Sorooshian; Gi-Hyeon Park; Shayesteh Mahani; Wei Shi

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Electrical and Production Load Factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector. The operating hours of small and medium sized manufacturing facilities are analyzed to identify the most common operating hour or shift work patterns. About 75% of manufacturing facilities fall into expected operating hour patterns with operating hours near 40, 80, 120 and 168 hours/week. Two types of load factors, electrical and production are computed for each shift classification within major industry categories in the U.S. The load factor based on monthly billing hours (ELF) increases with operating hours from about 0.4 for a nominal one shift operation, to about 0.7 for around-the-clock operation. On the other hand, the load factor based on production hours (PLF) shows an inverse trend, varying from about 1.4 for one shift operation to 0.7 for around-the-clock operation. When used as a diagnostic tool, if the PLF exceeds unity, then unnecessary energy consumption may be taking place. For plants operating at 40 hours per week, the ELF value was found to greater than the theoretical maximum, while the PLF value was greater than one, suggesting that these facilities may have significant energy usage outside production hours. The data for the PLF however, is more scattered for plants operating less than 80 hours per week, indicating that grouping PLF data based on operating hours may not be a reasonable approach to benchmarking energy use in industries. This analysis uses annual electricity consumption and demand along with operating hour data of manufacturing plants available in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) database. The annual values are used because more desirable monthly data are not available. Monthly data are preferred as they capture the load profile of the facility more accurately. The data there come from Industrial Assessment Centers which employ university engineering students, faculty and staff to perform energy assessments for small to medium-sized manufacturing plants. The nation-wide IAC program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Sen, Tapajyoti

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Distribution substation load impacts of residential air conditioner load control  

SciTech Connect

An ongoing experiment to monitor the substation level load impacts of end-use load control is described. An overview of the data acquisition system, experimental procedures and analysis techniques are provided. Results of the 1983 and 1984 experiments demonstrate the value of aggregate load impact monitoring as a means of verifying load research results, calculating the diversity of end-use loads, and predicting the impacts of load management on the transmission and distribution systems.

Heffner, G.C.; Kaufman, D.A.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: QwickLoad  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

QwickLoad QwickLoad QwickLoad logo QwickLoad uses the ASHRAE TFM (Transfer Function Method) algorithms combined with a screen interface that provides building load calculations. It includes a Duct Sizing Program and supports IP and SI units. QwickLoad Residential 7.0 provides heat gain and heat loss calculations for up to 10 zones. QwickLoad Commercial 7.0 provides heat gain and heat loss calculations for up to 500 zones. Zones and plenums can be added or deleted with one button click. Intuitive screens for entering building information. Default is automatically displayed. Construction types for roofs, walls, partitions, windows, shade types, and scheduling control. Complete air-conditioning and heating system control and supply, return, heating and cooling duct static pressure specification. Energy recovery ventilator can

217

Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program  

SciTech Connect

This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

218

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Boron loaded scintillator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A scintillating composition for detecting neutrons and other radiation comprises a phenyl containing silicone rubber with carborane units and at least one phosphor molecule. The carborane units can either be a carborane molecule dispersed in the rubber with the aid of a compatiblization agent or can be covalently bound to the silicone.

Bell, Zane William (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert Morris (Knoxville, TN); Maya, Leon (Knoxville, TN); Sloop, Jr., Frederick Victor (Oak Ridge, TN)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

220

Load-shape modeling in southeastern utility systems  

SciTech Connect

Load models are tools which have a wide range of application in the electric-utility industry. Some uses include monitoring load-management policies and helping with on-line commitment problems. The output from a load model can be placed in a suitable software environment where daily load curves are computed and displayed. Also, load models can be extended to perform forecasting functions. A weather sensitive load model that takes into account both weekdays and weekends on an hourly basis has been developed and applied to load shape modeling and short term forecasting on three southeastern electric utilities. A software package associated with the load modeling theory was developed and tested. This load-modeling program computes the daily load curve in terms of identifiable components. The program uses historical hourly load data to compute coefficients related to load components including base, growth, seasonal and weather. These coefficients can be used in a mathematical model to compute an estimate of the daily load curve with load values for each hour of the day. The load-modeling procedure described employs a linear least squares method for computing coefficients in the mathematical model.

Lebby, G.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Teaching HS computer science as if the rest of the world existed: rationale for a HS Pre-APCS curriculum of interdisciplinary central-problem-based units that model real-world applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The presentation, an interim report, will focus on the design, implementation and rationale for a pre-APCS HS curriculum of Interdisciplinary Central-Problem-Based units that model real-world applications. In a typical multi-week unit, students use an ... Keywords: K-12 instruction, Pre-APCS, central problem, curriculum, gender / diversity, increasing enrollment, interdisciplinary

Scott R. Portnoff

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

The effect of load parameters on system thermal performance  

SciTech Connect

The effects of load size, load profile and hot water set temperature on system thermal performance are investigated in order to determine the relative importance of these design parameters in sizing a solar water heating system. The WATSUN IV computer program was used to introduce various load sizes, load profiles and set temperatures to a base model. The results indicate that variations in load size have a significant effect on the thermal performance of the system. However, variations in load profile and hot water set temperature seem to have no significant effect on system performance.

Vakili, M.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

United Oil Company | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

United Oil Company Jump to: navigation, search Name United Oil Company Place Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Product Vegetable-Oil producer Biodiesel producer based in Pittsburgh, PA...

224

United Biofuels Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

United Biofuels Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name United Biofuels Inc Place Plover, Wisconsin Zip 54467 Sector Biomass Product Wisconsin-based manufacturer and distributor of...

225

Mass-Loaded Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A key process within astronomy is the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between diffuse plasmas in many types of astronomical sources (including planetary nebulae, wind-blown bubbles, supernova remnants, starburst superwinds, and the intracluster medium) and dense, embedded clouds or clumps. This transfer affects the large scale flows of the diffuse plasmas as well as the evolution of the clumps. I review our current understanding of mass-injection processes, and examine intermediate-scale structure and the global effect of mass-loading on a flow. I then discuss mass-loading in a variety of diffuse sources.

J. M. Pittard

2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

226

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that

227

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that

228

Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: HAP System Design Load  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HAP System Design Load HAP System Design Load HAP System Design Load logo. Provides the load estimating and system design features found in its popular cousin � Carrier�s Hourly Analysis Program (HAP). By focusing on system design features, the HAP System Design Load program serves as a simpler, more efficient tool for those users only interested in system design; energy simulation features are omitted. Like the HAP program, HAP System Design Load provides the ease of use of a Windows-based graphical user interface and the computing power of modern 32-bit software. HAP System Design Load uses a system-based approach to HVAC load estimating. This approach tailors sizing procedures and results to the specific type of system being considered. A wide variety of equipment types

230

Remote Sensing of Temperature Profiles from a Combination of Observations from the Satellite-Based Microwave Sounding Unit and the Ground-Based Profiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Temperature profiles are derived from ground- and satellite-based microwave radiometric observations. Data taken by the NOAA Profiler during December 1981 to December 1982, at Stapleton International Airport, Denver, Colorado, are combined with ...

Ed R. Westwater; Wang Zhenhui; Norman C. Grody; Larry M. McMillin

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading  

SciTech Connect

This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

Oyague, F.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

An Adaptive Threshold Load Balancing Scheme for the End-to-End Reconfigurable System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, an adaptive threshold load balancing (ATLB) scheme is proposed for the joint load control (JOLDC) in the end-to-end reconfigurable system. The dynamic threshold based on heterogeneous load measurement is designed to adapt to varying load ... Keywords: Heterogeneous, Load balancing, Reconfigurability, Terminal selection, Vertical handover

Yongjing Zhang; Kui Zhang; Cheng Chi; Yang Ji; Zhiyong Feng; Ping Zhang

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Microprocessor-controlled photovoltaic-array loading unit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Described is a microprocessor-controlled test system in operation at the Photovoltaics Advanced Systems Test Facility located at Sandia National Laboratories. The test system is designed to measure the total energy output of photovoltaic arrays. The theory, installation, operation, and calibration of the test system are described.

Russell, D.F.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Cooling load estimation methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Multidimensional spectral load balancing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

Hendrickson, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Leland, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

236

LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

Treshow, M.

1960-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

238

Capacity Assessment of a Transmission Tower under Wind Loading.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Transmission towers play a vital role in power distribution networks and are often subject to strong wind loads. Lattice tower design is often based on… (more)

Mara, Thomas G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

An unusual mono-substituted Keggin anion-chain based 3D framework with 24-membered macrocycles as linker units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new compound, [Cu{sup I}(H{sub 2}O)(Hbpp){sub 2}] Subset-Of {l_brace}[Cu{sup I}(bpp)]{sub 2}[PW{sub 11}Cu{sup II}O{sub 39}]{r_brace} (1) (bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In compound 1, the unusual -A-B-A-B- array mono-substituted Keggin anion-chains and 24-membered (Cubpp){sub 2} cation-macrocycles are linked together to form a (2, 4) connected 3D framework with channels of ca. 9.784 Multiplication-Sign 7.771 A{sup 2} along two directions, in which the [Cu(H{sub 2}O)(Hbpp){sub 2}] coordination fragments as guest components are trapped. The photocatalytic experiments of compound 1 were performed, which show a good catalytic activity of compound 1 for photodegradation of RhB. Furthermore, the IR, TGA and electrochemical properties of compound 1 were investigated. - Graphical abstract: An unusual example of mono-substituted Keggin anion-chain based hybrid compound that possesses a 3D structure has been synthesized, which offers a feasible route for synthesis of such compounds. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first example of -A-B-A-B- array mono-substituted Keggin chain is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An unusual three dimensional structure based mono-substituted Keggin anion-chains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalysis and electrochemical properties of the title compound were studied.

Pang Haijun [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Engineering and Technology College of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Ma Huiyuan, E-mail: mahy017@163.com [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Engineering and Technology College of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Yu Yan; Yang Ming; Xun Ye [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Engineering and Technology College of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Liu Bo, E-mail: liubo200400@vip.sina.com [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Engineering and Technology College of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service. Second topical report  

SciTech Connect

The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled ``An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems`` [Ref.1.1], identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three topical reports, an assessment of the technical options posed by the above trade-offs is presented. The assessment is based on the current status of gas turbine technology. Several industry and university experts were contacted to contribute to the study. Literature sources and theoretical considerations are used only to provide additional background and insight to the technology involved.

Thomas, R.L.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service  

SciTech Connect

The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems'' (Ref.1.1), identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three topical reports, an assessment of the technical options posed by the above trade-offs is presented. The assessment is based on the current status of gas turbine technology. Several industry and university experts were contacted to contribute to the study. Literature sources and theoretical considerations are used only to provide additional background and insight to the technology involved.

Thomas, R.L.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

United States  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

- I - I United States Department of Energy D lSCk Al M E R "This book was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency

243

Metric Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J. 1, Steam Point Calculator: Metric Units, Elevation Converter, ... 6, Height of steam point apparatus above ground (m), 0, m, ...

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

244

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Menxmmhmz 9 Menxmmhmz 9 1 / UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT i TO : ThcFFles . mx.f I A. B. Piccct, +3lation section : DATE: .@.eti 16, 1949 SUBJECT: VISIT To HAVY OFfDHAlfCE DEPOT, EARIZ, B.J. FmmlTo ,sYmOL: DH:ARP . . : OnJuly 8,&g the uriterattendedameeting at the Navy Oxdnce Depot at Farle, Ii. J. for the purpose of advising the navy on i-adlatlon hazards involved In the dmping of contadnated AEC wastes at /?ea. " Presint were: J. Cook - Traffic & Transportation, AEC ~J.Moren- Utilifation, AEC ..J. Ccnmigl.io - Chief of Middlesex Operaticns A. PIhot -~Hadiation Section, AEC Captain Blossoin - Navy Captain hall - Navy ThefoSkndngwas agreedupcmby AFC andthe l&v. 1. 2. 3. 4. Contaminatedmaterial dnmied, I (loose in case of large contaminated units) loaded on truck&and lsonltored at'

245

Unit Commitment Considering Generation Flexibility and Environmental Constraints  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new framework for power system unit commitment process, which incorporates the generation flexibility requirements and environmental constraints into the existing unit commitment algorithm. The generation flexibility requirements are to address the uncertainties with large amount of intermittent resources as well as with load and traditional generators, which causes real-time balancing requirements to be variable and less predictable. The proposed flexibility requirements include capacity, ramp and ramp duration for both upward and downward balancing reserves. The environmental constraints include emission allowance for fossil fuel-based generators and ecological regulations for hydro power plants. Calculation of emission rates is formulated. Unit commitment under this new framework will be critical to the economic and reliable operation of the power grid and the minimization of its negative environmental impacts, especially when high penetration levels of intermittent resources are being approached, as required by the renewable portfolio standards in many states.

Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.; Zhu, Yunhua; Lu, Ning; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

Comparisons of Short Term Load Forecasting using Artificial Neural Network and Regression Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In power systems the next day’s power generation must be scheduled every day, day ahead short-term load forecasting (STLF) is a necessary daily task for power dispatch. Its accuracy affects the economic operation and reliability of the system greatly. Under prediction of STLF leads to insufficient reserve capacity preparation and in turn, increases the operating cost by using expensive peaking units. On the other hand, over prediction of STLF leads to the unnecessarily large reserve capacity, which is also related to high operating cost. the research work in this area is still a challenge to the electrical engineering scholars because of its high complexity. How to estimate the future load with the historical data has remained a difficulty up to now, especially for the load forecasting of holidays, days with extreme weather and other anomalous days. With the recent development of new mathematical, data mining and artificial intelligence tools, it is potentially possible to improve the forecasting result. This paper presents a new neural network based approach for short-term load forecasting that uses the most correlated weather data for training, validating and testing the neural network. Correlation analysis of weather data determines the input parameters of the neural networks. And its results compare to regression method. Index terms Load Forecasting, artificial neural network, short term

Mr. Rajesh Deshmukh; Dr. Amita Mahor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted from prescribed fires in the United States  

SciTech Connect

We measured the emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5) from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass burning emissions of glycolaldehyde, a possible precursor for aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol formation. We also measured the emissions of phenol, another aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Our data confirm previous suggestions that urban deposition can impact the NOx emission factors and thus subsequent plume chemistry. For two fires, we measured the emissions in the convective smoke plume from our airborne platform at the same time the unlofted residual smoldering combustion emissions were measured with our ground-based platform after the flame front passed through. The smoke from residual smoldering combustion was characterized by emission factors for hydrocarbon and oxygenated organic species that were up to ten times higher than in the lofted plume, including significant 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations which were not observed in the lofted plume. This should be considered in modeling the air quality impacts of smoke that disperses at ground level, and we show that the normally-ignored unlofted emissions can also significantly impact estimates of total emissions. Preliminary evidence of large emissions of monoterpenes was seen in the residual smoldering spectra, but we have not yet quantified these emissions. These data should lead to an improved capacity to model the impacts of biomass burning in similar ecosystems.

Burling, Ian; Yokelson, Robert J.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Wold, Cyle E.; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Reardon, James; Weise, David

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

248

Load Capacity of Bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the stress analysis in a plastic body $\\Omega$, we prove that there exists a maximal positive number $C$, the \\emph{load capacity ratio,} such that the body will not collapse under any external traction field $t$ bounded by $Y_{0}C$, where $Y_0$ is the elastic limit. The load capacity ratio depends only on the geometry of the body and is given by $$ \\frac{1}{C}=\\sup_{w\\in LD(\\Omega)_D} \\frac{\\int_{\\partial\\Omega}|w|dA} {\\int_{\\Omega}|\\epsilon(w)|dV}=\\left\\|\\gamma_D\\right\\|. $$ Here, $LD(\\Omega)_D$ is the space of isochoric vector fields $w$ for which the corresponding stretchings $\\epsilon(w)$ are assumed to be integrable and $\\gamma_D$ is the trace mapping assigning the boundary value $\\gamma_D(w)$ to any $w\\in LD(\\Omega)_D$.

Reuven Segev

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air  

SciTech Connect

The importance of controlling humidity in buildings is cause for concern, in part, because of indoor air quality problems associated with excess moisture in air-conditioning systems. But more universally, the need for ventilation air has forced HVAC equipment (originally optimized for high efficiency in removing sensible heat loads) to remove high moisture loads. To assist cooling equipment and meet the challenge of larger ventilation loads, several technologies have succeeded in commercial buildings. Newer technologies such as subcool/reheat and heat pipe reheat show promise. These increase latent capacity of cooling-based systems by reducing their sensible capacity. Also, desiccant wheels have traditionally provided deeper-drying capacity by using thermal energy in place of electrical power to remove the latent load. Regardless of what mix of technologies is best for a particular application, there is a need for a more effective way of thinking about the cooling loads created by ventilation air. It is clear from the literature that all-too-frequently, HVAC systems do not perform well unless the ventilation air loads have been effectively addressed at the original design stage. This article proposes an engineering shorthand, an annual load index for ventilation air. This index will aid in the complex process of improving the ability of HVAC systems to deal efficiently with the amount of fresh air the industry has deemed useful for maintaining comfort in buildings. Examination of typical behavior of weather shows that latent loads usually exceed sensible loads in ventilation air by at least 3:1 and often as much as 8:1. A designer can use the engineering shorthand indexes presented to quickly assess the importance of this fact for a given system design. To size those components after they are selected, the designer can refer to Chapter 24 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, which includes separate values for peak moisture and peak temperature.

Harriman, L.G. III [Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Plager, D. [Quantitative Decision Support, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Kosar, D. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Dynamic model of power system operation incorporating load control  

SciTech Connect

Load management has been proposed as a means whereby an electric utility can reduce its requirements for additional generation, transmission, and distribution investments, shift fuel dependency from limited to more abundant energy resources, and improve the efficiency of the electric energy system. There exist, however, serious technological and economic questions which must be answered to define the cost trade-offs between initiating a load management strategy or adding additional capacity to meet the load. One aspect of this complex problem is to determine how the load profile might be modified by the load management option being considered. Towards this end, a model has been developed to determine how a power system with an active load control system should be operated to make the best use of its available resources. The model is capable of handling all types of conventional generating sources including thermal, hydro, and pumped storage units, and most appliances being considered for direct control including those with inherent or designed storage characteristics. The model uses a dynamic programming technique to determine the optimal operating strategy for a given set of conditions. The use of the model is demonstrated. Case study results indicate that the production cost savings that can be achieved through the use of direct load control are highly dependent on utility characteristics, load characteristics, storage capacity, and penetration. The load characteristics that produce the greatest savings are: large storage capacity; high coincidence with the system peak; large connected load per point; and moderately high diversity fraction.

Kuliasha, M.A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

United States  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Office of Research and EPA 600/R-941209 Environmental Protection Development January 1993 Agency Washington, DC 20460 Offsite Environmental 57,,7 Monitoring Report Radiation Monitoring Around United States Nuclear Test Areas, Calendar Year 1992 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEMS LABORATORY-LAS VEGAS P.O. BOX 93478 LAS VEGAS. NEVADA 891 93-3478 702/798-2100 Dear Reader: Since 1954, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its predecessor the U.S, Public Health Service (PHs) has conducted radiological monitoring in the offsite areas around United States nuclear test areas. The primary objective of this monitoring has been the protection of the health and safety of

253

United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BP Energy Company BP Energy Company OE Docket No. EA- 3 14 Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Mexico Order No. EA-3 14 February 22,2007 BP Energy Company Order No. EA-314 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 301(b) and 402(Q of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7 15 l(b), 7172(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C.S24a(e)) . On May 22,2006, BP Energy Company (BP Energy) applied to DOE for an authorization to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico as a power marketer. BP Energy proposes to purchase surplus electric energy from electric utilities and other suppliers within the United States and to export that energy to ~Mexico. The cnergy

254

Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Buildings: A Collaborative Study by the United States and India Title Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Buildings: A Collaborative Study by the United States and India Publication Type Report Refereed Designation Unknown LBNL Report Number LBNL-6287E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Ghatikar, Girish, Iris H. Y. Cheung, and Steven Lanzisera Secondary Authors Wardell, Bob, Manoj Deshpande, Jayraj Ugarkar, and Infosys Technologies Limited Date Published 04/2013 Keywords Electronic loads, energy efficiency opportunities for commercial buildings Short Title MELs Refereed Designation Unknown Attachment Size PDF 1.44 MB Google Scholar BibTex

255

Variable loading roller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

Williams, D.M.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

256

Numerical simulation of the conceptual model for mCCHP-stirling engine based on renewable energy sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The constituent elements of the mCCHP system are mCHP-Stirling Engine as a base unit, auxiliary energy sources, storage units for ensuring load peaks, the system for cooling and accumulating cold water. For the elaboration of the conceptual device of ... Keywords: CHP, mCCHP, microcogeneration, residential building, trigeneration

Nicolae Badea; Emil Ceang?; Sergiu Caraman; Marian Barbu

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

INVESTING IN NEW BASE LOAD GENERATING CAPACITY  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Depends on - Level of CO 2 prices - How CO 2 prices are allowed to be reflected in retail electricity prices - Cost and availability of large scale CCS technology - Construction...

258

Load management strategies for electric utilities: a production cost simulation  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with the development and application of a simulation model for analyzing strategies for managing the residential loads of electric utilities. The basic components of the model are (1) a production-cost model, which simulates daily operation of an electric power system; (2) a load model, which disaggregates system loads into appliance loads and other loads; and (3) a comparison model, which compares the production costs and energy consumption needed to meet a particular load profile to the corresponding costs and energy consumption required for another load profile. The profiles in each pair define alternative ways of meeting the same demand. A method for disaggregating load profiles into appliance components is discussed and several alternative strategies for residential load management for a typical northeastern electric utility are formulated. The method is based on an analysis of the composition of electric loads for a number of classes of residential customers in the model utility system. The effect of alternative load management strategies on the entire residential loadcurve is determined by predicting the effects of these strategies on the specific appliance components of the loadcurve. The results of using the model to analyze alternative strategies for residential load management suggest that load management strategies in the residential sector, if adopted by utilities whose operating and load characteristics are similar to those of the system modeled here, must take into account a wide variety of appliances to achieve significant changes in the total load profile. Moreover, the results also suggest that it is not easy to reduce costs significantly through new strategies for managing residential loads only and that, to be worthwhile, cost-reducing strategies will have to encompass many kinds of appliances.

Blair, P.D.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

United Telecoms Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Telecoms Ltd Telecoms Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name United Telecoms Ltd. Place Bangalore, Karnataka, India Zip 560 048 Sector Solar Product Bangalore-based firm involved in etting up telecom networks, e-governance networks and solutions including transport sector. The firm is also setting up solar project. Coordinates 12.97092°, 77.60482° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":12.97092,"lon":77.60482,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

260

United States  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

WASHINGTON, TUESDAY, JUNE 28, 1983 @nngmeional Ruord United States of America .__ -- . . ,- PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 9@ CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION United States Government Printing Office SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS Washmgton, D C 20402 OFFICIAL BUSINESS Penalty Ior pwate use. $xX Congresstonal Record (USPS 087-390) Postage and Fees Pad U S Government Prlnhng 0ffv.X 375 SECOND CLASS NEWSPAPER H.4578 ' C.QNGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE June 28, 1983 H.J. Res. 273: Mr. BOUND. Mr. W~.XMAN. Mr. OBERSTAR, Mr. BEDELL. Mr. BONER of Tennessee, Mr. OWENS. Mr. DAUB, Mr. CONTE. Mr. RAHALL; Mr. GRAY, Mr. VANDER JACT. Mr. TRAKLER, and Mr. Vxrrro. H. Con. Res. 107: Mr. KASICH. Mr. AUCOIN. Mr. CARPER, and Mr. SIZHFIJER. H. Con. Res. 118: Mr. FISH. Mr. LANTOS.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

United States  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ongrees;ional Record ongrees;ional Record United States of America __._ -.. I. :- PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 9tth CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION United States Government Printing Office SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS Washmcqton. Cl C 20402 OFFICIAL BUSINESS Penalty Ior pwate use. $300 Congressmal Record (USPS 087-390) Postage and Fees Pad U S Governme3n:jPnntmg OfIce SECOND CLASS NEWSPAPER H.4578 ' June 28, 1983 -: I H.J. Res. 273: Mr. BOLAND, Mr. WA-. Mr. OBERSTAFC, M' r. BEDELL, Mr. BONER of Tennessee, Mr. OWENS. Mr. DAUB. Mr. CONTE. Mr. RAHALL,. Mr. GRAY, Mr. VANDER JAGT. Mr. TRAKLER. and Mr. VENTO. H. Con. Res. iO7: Mr. KASICH. Mr. ALCOIN. Mr. CARPER. and Mr. SCHEUER. H. Con. Res. 118: Mr. FISH, Mr. LANTOS. Mr. KILDEE. Mr. SOLARZ Mr. Bmrr, Mr. BELWLL, Mr. RANG~L, Mr. DYMALLY. Mr.

262

United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

E-T Global Energy, LLC E-T Global Energy, LLC OE Docket No. EA-381 Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Mexico Order No. EA-381 June 10, 2011 I. BACKGROUND E-T Global Energy, LLC Order No. EA-381 Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 301(b) and 402(f) of the Department ofEnergy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7151(b), 7172(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) ofthe Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C.824a(e)) 1 * On May 10,2011, DOE received an application from E-T Global Energy, LLC (E-T Global) for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico for five years as a power marketer using existing international transmission facilities. E-

263

MTS Table Top Load frame  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MTS Table Top Load frame MTS Table Top Load frame The Non-destructive Evaluation group operates an MTS Table Top Load frame for ultimate strength and life cycle testing of various ceramic, ceramic-matrix (FGI), carbon, carbon fiber, cermet (CMC) and metal alloy engineering samples. The load frame is a servo-hydraulic type designed to function in a closed loop configuration under computer control. The system can perform non-cyclic, tension, compression and flexure testing and cyclic fatigue tests. The system is comprised of two parts: * The Load Frame and * The Control System. Load Frame The Load Frame (figure 1) is a cross-head assembly which includes a single moving grip, a stationary grip and LVDT position sensor. It can generate up to 25 kN (5.5 kip) of force in the sample under test and can

264

Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Determining the Cost of Cycling and Varied Load Operations: Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For many reasons—heightened wholesale electricity competition under deregulation, new market rules, growing capacity due to additions of new gas-fired capacity, environmental pressures on coal units—the power industry must operate power plants differently. In particular, many generating units that formerly ran around the clock must adjust operations to cycle or to follow load (demand). This report describes a new methodology for estimating the long-term wear and tear costs that inevitably acc...

2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

266

An efficient load model for analyzing demand side management impacts  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of implementing Demand Side Management (DSM) in power systems is to change the utility's load shape--i.e. changes in the time pattern and magnitude of utility's load. Changing the load shape as a result of demand side activities could change the peak load, base load and/or energy demand. Those three variables have to be explicitly modeled into the load curve for properly representing the effects of demand side management. The impact of DSM will be manifested as higher or lower reliability levels. This paper presents an efficient technique to model the system load such that the impact of demand side management on the power system can be easily and accurately evaluated. The proposed technique to model the load duration curve will facilitate the representation of DSM impacts on loss-of-load probability, energy not served and energy consumption. This will provide an analytical method to study the impact of DSM on capacity requirements. So far iterative methods have been applied to study these impacts. The proposed analytical method results in a faster solution with higher accuracy. It takes only 18 seconds on an 80486 PC to solve each case study involving different peak and base loads, and energy use.

Rahman, S.; Rinaldy (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

STLOAD 1.1 (Substation Terminal Equipment Loading Software)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI’s Substation Terminal Equipment Loading software (STLOAD 1.1) calculates temperatures and thermal ratings for substation equipment based on physical parameters of the equipment, electrical load, air temperature, and, where appropriate, solar heating and wind. This provides a convenient way for substation engineers to maximize the usage of existing substation terminal equipment under a wide variety of operating conditions. STLOAD can perform temperature and rating calculations for a daily load and am...

2009-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

268

End-Use Load Composition Estimation Using Smart Meter Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this research project is to enhance methodologies used to compute the fraction of load components (that is, motor; constant impedance, constant current, and constant power (ZIP); and electronic) needed for power system simulations that are attributable to each load class (that is, residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural) by using smart meter (advanced metering infrastructure [AMI]) data. The load component percentages obtained should be appropriate for an overall component-based...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 5 United States Department of Energy Southeastern Power Administration Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CC-1-I Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies and cooperatives served through the facilities of Carolina Power & Light Company, Western Division (hereinafter called the Customers). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereinafter called collectively the "Cumberland Projects") and sold in wholesale quantities. Character of Service: The electric capacity and energy supplied hereunder will be three-phase alternating

270

Status of load management storage demonstrations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DOE is funding a nationwide demonstration of electric load management through the use of utility-controlled, customer-side thermal energy storage for residential space conditioning. The general concept of the projects was developed with the assistance of a broadly based working group drawn from the utility industry. This paper presents the current status of these demonstrations. Ten demonstrations are underway - five heat storage and five cool storage - using between 30 and 50 near-commercial thermal storage devices. The installations and experimental program are designed to: (1) collect reliable load research data for assessing the impact on the utility system; (2) delineate and solve installation problems; (3) establish maintainability; (4) illuminate customer and utility acceptance; and (5) generate cost data. The results obtained are expected to assist utilities in making local load-management decisions, to assist DOE in establishing priorities for R and D efforts in load management, and to provide objective information related to the electric system impact, energy conservation, and cost-effectiveness of this form of load management.

Long, H M; Mohre, D L

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

SYSPLAN. Load Leveling Battery System Costs  

SciTech Connect

SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer`s monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer`s peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer`s side of the meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer`s load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.

Hostick, C.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

272

United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TexMex Energy, LLC TexMex Energy, LLC OE Docket No. EA-294-A Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Mexico Order No. EA-294-A February 22, 2007 TexMex Energy, LLC Order No. EA-294-A I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign count~y are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 301(b) and 402(f) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7 15 1 (b), 71 72(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C.824a(e)) . On August 25,2004, DOE issued Order No. EA-294 authorizing TexMex Energy LLC (TexMex) to transmit electric energy fiom the United States to Mexico as a power marketer. That authority expired on August 25, 2006. On September 8, 2006, TexMex applied to renew the electricity export authority

273

United States  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

United States United States Coal ................................................ 4,367 4,077 4,747 4,181 4,473 4,125 4,983 4,330 4,414 4,003 4,796 4,178 4,344 4,479 4,348 Natural Gas .................................... 2,802 2,843 3,694 2,863 2,713 2,880 3,636 2,707 2,792 2,972 3,815 2,849 3,052 2,986 3,109 Petroleum (a) .................................. 74 73 81 67 73 70 75 66 75 70 76 66 74 71 71 Other Gases ................................... 32 33 36 32 32 34 37 33 33 35 39 34 33 34 35 Nuclear ........................................... 2,176 2,044 2,257 2,170 2,106 2,037 2,167 2,010 2,144 2,074 2,206 2,055 2,162 2,080 2,120 Renewable Energy Sources: Conventional Hydropower ........... 736 886 716 633 765 887 708 646 767 919 729 659 742 751 768 Wind ............................................ 491 520 353 449 477 521 379 475

274

United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tenaslta Power Services Co. Tenaslta Power Services Co. OE Docket No. EA-243-A Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Canada Order No. EA-243-A March 1,2007 Tenaska Power Services Co. Order No. EA-243-A I. BACKGROUND Exports of elcctricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 30 I(b) and 402(f) of the Departrncnt of' Energy Organizatio~l Act (42 U, S.C. 7 15 1 (b), 7 1 72Cf)) and rcquirc authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) ( Z 6 U. s.c.824a(e)j1. On August 16,2001, DOE issued Order No. EA-243 authorizing Tenaska Power Scrvices Co. (Tenaska) to transmit electric cncrgy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer. That authority expired on August 16,2003. On August 14,2006, Teilaska applied to renew the electricity export authority

275

Unit Cost Natural Gas | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2 2 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142281532 Varnish cache server Unit Cost Natural Gas Dataset Summary Description Provides annual energy usage for years 1989 through 2010 for UT at Austin; specifically, electricity usage (kWh), natural gas usage (Mcf), associated costs. Also provides water consumption for 2005 through 2010. Source University of Texas (UT) at Austin, Utilities & Energy Management Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords Electricity Consumption Natural Gas Texas Unit Cost Electricity Unit Cost Natural Gas University Water Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon Energy and Water Use Data for UT-Austin (xls, 32.8 KiB) Quality Metrics

276

Unit Cost Electricity | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8 8 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142281518 Varnish cache server Unit Cost Electricity Dataset Summary Description Provides annual energy usage for years 1989 through 2010 for UT at Austin; specifically, electricity usage (kWh), natural gas usage (Mcf), associated costs. Also provides water consumption for 2005 through 2010. Source University of Texas (UT) at Austin, Utilities & Energy Management Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords Electricity Consumption Natural Gas Texas Unit Cost Electricity Unit Cost Natural Gas University Water Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon Energy and Water Use Data for UT-Austin (xls, 32.8 KiB) Quality Metrics

277

Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After the change in the economics of generating electricity which took place in 1973, many utilities are examining options to hold down their costs. One fact which is clear is that the difference between peak and off peak generating costs is much larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces during peak periods are both examples of load control which lower the costs borne by the utility. The other option is the use of seasonal surcharges or time-of-day rates to induce customers to alter their usage patterns. Both these load management options focus on reducing utility costs overall without regard to the cost to the consumers affected by the load management options. The issue, then, is whether industrial customers can find opportunities to lower their costs under load management.

Males, R.; Hassig, N.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Experimental performance verification of a coil-type liquid desiccant system at part-load operation  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted to compare the predicted performance of a commercially available coil type liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification system with the experimental results at part-load conditions. A mathematical model was used to predict the performance of coil type liquid desiccant system. This model was based mostly on the manufacturer's catalog data. The coil type system used in the experimental study was a system manufactured in the US. The system is commercially available as 200-10 KXCb, 10-row deep conditioner unit with a design air flow rate of 1180 1/s(2500 scfm). For regeneration of the solution, a packed type 3.0-P regenerator unit with a design air flow rate of 448.4 1/s(950 scfm) was used.

Khan, A.Y. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico)); Ball, H.D. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

High-Power Rf Load  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Verti Jack Pumping Unit evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Verti Jack Pumping Unit was tested primarily to establish the energy comsumption efficiency of the unit as compared with that of conventional pumping unit. Before the unit was field tested, extensive static testing was performed to determine the effect of the counterbalance system throughout the operational cycle. The field test included comparing the performance of the Verti Jack Unit and conventional pump jacks - a Bethlehem 16 and Cabot 25 pumping unit. The Verti Jack unit was operated at four different pumping conditions. The Verti Jack unit peformed satisfactorily during the testing. Only minor problems that could not be attributed to the design or operation of the unit were encountered. Changing the stroke length was difficult in the field, but such operational problems were expected in operating the first phototype and can be corrected on future models. During the higher pumping rate tests of the Verti Jack unit, the well ceased to deliver fluid quantities at rates adequate to the pumping rate. These data are shown in table 8. Therefore, evaluation data are based on theoretical pump performance and are presented in table 9. The data show that the Verti Jack is more efficient than the conventional units tested. The most direct comparison was the Verti Jack test at 36-inch stroke and 12 1/2 strokes per minute versus the Cabot unit at 37-inch stroke and 12 strokes per minute. In the comparison the Verti Jack operated about 24 percent more efficiently than the Cabot unit. Comparing the summation of all Verti Jack tests with that of all conventional unit tests, the Verti Jack operated about 15 percent more efficiently. Compared to the Cabot unit only, the Verti Jack was about 17 percent more energy efficient. 13 figs., 12 tabs.

Porter, R.; Spence, K.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7 7 United States Department of Energy Southeastern Power Administration Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CTV-1-H Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to the Tennessee Valley Authority (hereinafter called TVA). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy generated at the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Old Hickory, Cheatham, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereafter called collectively the "Cumberland Projects") and the Laurel Project sold under agreement between the Department of Energy and TVA. Character of Service: The electric capacity and energy supplied hereunder will be three-phase alternating current at a frequency of approximately 60 hertz at the outgoing terminals of the Cumberland

283

United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

United States Department of Energy Southeastern Power Administration Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CTVI-1-A Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to customers (hereinafter called the Customer) who are or were formerly in the Tennessee Valley Authority (hereinafter called TVA) service area. Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy generated at the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Old Hickory, Cheatham, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereafter called collectively the "Cumberland Projects") and the Laurel Project sold under agreement between the Department of Energy and the Customer. Character of Service: The electric capacity and energy supplied hereunder will be three-phase alternating

284

United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bangor Hydro-Electric Company Bangor Hydro-Electric Company OE Docket No. PP-89-1 Amendment to Presidential Permit Order No. PP-89-1 December 30,2005 PRESIDENTIAL PERMIT AMENDMENT Bangor Hydro-Electric Company Order No. PP-89-1 I. BACKGROUND The Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for implementing Executive Order (E.O.) 10485, as amended by E.O. 12038, which requires the issuance of a Presidential permit by DOE before electric trans~nission facilities may be constructed, operated, maintained, or connected at the borders of the United States. DOE may issue such a permit if it determines that the permit is in the public interest and after obtaining favorable recommendations from the U.S. Departments of State and Defense. On December 16, 1988, Bangor Hydro-Electric Company (BHE) applied to DOE

285

UNITED STATES  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

f).~<~~ \--\c :y-,ai F p"- KG f).~<~~ \--\c :y-,ai F p"- KG WASHINOTDN 28.0. C. ' -lr ' \ ' ' --- ".I ?--" ' z I. .~;-4.' J frr*o& 2 ii, - - -4 70-147 LRL:JCD JAN !! 8 1958 Oregon Metallurgical Corporation P. 0. Box 484 Albany, Oregon Attention: Mr. Stephen M. Shelton General Manager Gentlemen: Enclosed is Special Nuclear Material License No. SNM-144, as amended. Very 33uly yours, r:; I,;, ll)~gQ""d".- Lyall Johnson Chief, Licensing Branch Division of Licensing & Regulation Enclosure: SNM-144, as amended Distribution: bRO0 Attn: Dr. H.M.Roth DFMusser NMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIN (2) HSteele LRL SRGustavson LRL Document room Formal file Suppl. file Br & Div rf's ' .b liwwArry s/VW- ' q+ ' yj/ 2; 2-' , COP' 1 J JAM01958 -- UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION

286

United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

United States Department of Energy Southeastern Power Administration Wholesale Power Rate Schedule JW-2-F Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to the Florida Power Corporation (or Progress Energy Florida, hereinafter called the Company). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric energy generated at the Jim Woodruff Project (hereinafter called the Project) and sold to the Company in wholesale quantities. Points of Delivery: Power sold to the Company by the Government will be delivered at the connection of the Company's transmission system with the Project bus. Character of Service: Electric power delivered to the Company will be three-phase alternating current at a nominal frequency of 60 cycles per second.

287

Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

288

A new generation of load sharing algorithms: the semi-adaptive load sharing algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distributed systems have become a popular computing environment. Due to their high potentials in improving performance and resource sharing, the evolution and maturing of technologies such as networks and computer hardware, have led to more realizations of distributed computing capabilities. One of the key factors that impacts the system's performance is how load sharing is handled. Most of the work done in load sharing algorithms focused on either one of two approaches: the static approach, or the dynamic approach. Static load sharing is characterized with its simplicity and minimal overhead induced on the system when performing load distribution. This is attributed to the fact that their load sharing decisions do not require any information exchange between nodes. However, static algorithms are not capable of adapting to traffic changes. Hence, this will affect the distributed system adaptability and stability features against load alteration. The second approach in load sharing algorithums is the dynamic approach. In this approach, nodes base their sharing decisions on the knowledge of the status on other nodes. This knowledge enables nodes to make improved decisions when selecting a remote execution site. Therefore, these algorithms provide the distributed system with adaptability and stability. Nevertheless, information exchange between nodes has proven to be expensive. The problem lies in the communication and processing overheads which these algorithms impose on the system. This research work presents a Semi-Adaptive load sharing approach that attempts to lay a common ground between the dynamic and the static approaches. This approach provides the system with adaptability features at are supplied with tools to control the level of adaptability and information exchange in the system. It is argued that this approach is adaptable, scalable, stable, fault tolerant, and will generate low and controlled system overheads. Two implementations of the Semi-Adaptive approach are presented: The Controller Load Sharing Protocol (CLSP) and The Pool Load Sharing Protocol (PLSP). The study of CLSP and PLSP include simulating their performance under various conditions. The simulation include comparing the performance of these two protocols against two load sharing algorithms representing the static and dynamic families. Furthermore, the properties of CLSP and PLSP are investigated. Finally, based on the study and analysis of both protocols, the research work proposes possible areas of improvement in the final conclusion.

Morsy, Hazem Kamal

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Cell with Dynamic PHEV Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Cell with Dynamic PHEV Loads F. R. Islam, H. R. Pota, M. S. Rahman and M. S. Ali Abstract--This paper presents the dynamics of photovoltaic (PV) cell with Plug for charging PHEVs with PV cell where PHEVs load are modelled based on third order battery model. System

Pota, Himanshu Roy

290

Impact of Nonlinear Loads on Motor Generator Sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using backup generators with loads that create high harmonics can cause power quality problems. This report describes how to calculate voltage distortion based on the different impedance characteristics of a generator and the harmonic current characteristics of loads and discusses options for reducing the harmonics and mitigating their impact.

2001-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

291

Hydroclimate of the Western United States Based on Observations and Regional Climate Simulation of 1981–2000. Part I: Seasonal Statistics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The regional climate of the western United States shows clear footprints of interaction between atmospheric circulation and orography. The unique features of this diverse climate regime challenges climate modeling. This paper provides detailed ...

L. Ruby Leung; Yun Qian; Xindi Bian

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

A Synoptic Weather Pattern and Sounding-Based Climatology of Freezing Precipitation in the United States East of the Rocky Mountains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of 411 winter storms that produced freezing precipitation events in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains over the 25-yr period of 1970–94 is presented to identify specific weather patterns associated with freezing ...

Robert M. Rauber; Larry S. Olthoff; Mohan K. Ramamurthy; Dianne Miller; Kenneth E. Kunkel

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Design Method for the Heating/Cooling Coil in the AHU Based on Fuzzy Logic - Part Two: Design of the Minimum Heat-Exchanging Unit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Considering a heating/cooling coil with adjustable heat-exchange area, an unequal type is put forward in this paper. Aiming at the application of such heat exchanger in an air-handling unit, restriction conditions are given for the minimum heat-exchanging unit in accordance with the requirement of control precision of indoor temperature and humidity. The structure adjustable heat exchanger improved the hydraulic adjusting characteristics of existing air handling units in the respective structure, and overcame the problems of existing air-handling units such as a narrow hydraulic adjusting range due to the rapid-opening performance of the continuous motor-driven value. As a result, such kind of heat exchanger is extremely suitable to fuzzy control.

Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Liang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Hydroclimate of the Western United States Based on Observations and Regional Climate Simulation of 1981–2000. Part II: Mesoscale ENSO Anomalies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hydroclimate of the western United States is influenced by strong interannual variability of atmospheric circulation, much of which is associated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Precipitation anomalies during ENSO often show ...

L. Ruby Leung; Yun Qian; Xindi Bian; Allen Hunt

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Changes in 20th century extreme temperature and precipitation over the western United States based on observations and regional climate model simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trends in extreme temperature and precipitation in two regional climate model simulations forced by two global climate models are compared with observed trends over the western United States. The observed temperature extremes show substantial and ...

Valérie Dulière; Yongxin Zhang; Eric P. Salathé Jr.

296

Chemical Characterization of Aerosols on the East Coast of the United States Using Aircraft and Ground-Based Stations during the CLAMS Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) experiment was carried out off the central East Coast of the United States in July 2001. During CLAMS, aerosol particle mass was measured at two ground stations and on the ...

Andréa Dde Almeida Castanho; Paulo Artaxo; J. Vanderlei Martins; Peter V. Hobbs; Lorraine Remer; Marcia Yamasoe; Peter R. Colarco

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

United Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

United Energy United Energy Name United Energy Address 284, Old Deal Rd Place Eatontown, New Jersey Zip 07722 Sector Solar Product Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Year founded 2009 Number of employees 1-10 Phone number 201-697-8770 Website http://www.unitedenergypro.com Coordinates 40.2785975°, -74.0359722° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.2785975,"lon":-74.0359722,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

298

Statistical Review of UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a comprehensive statistical review of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used electrical appliances in the UK residential load sector. It focuses on individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, and also provides information on the reactive power characteristics of the load, which is often neglected from standard consumption statistics. This data is particularly important for power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability distribution functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information which provides a useful database for the wider research community.

Tsagarakis, G; Kiprakis, A E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Future for Offshore Wind Energy in the United States: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Until recently, the offshore wind energy potential in the United States was ignored because vast onshore wind resources have the potential to fulfill the electrical energy needs for the entire country. However, the challenge of transmitting the electricity to the large load centers may limit wind grid penetration for land-based turbines. Offshore wind turbines can generate power much closer to higher value coastal load centers. Reduced transmission constraints, steadier and more energetic winds, and recent European success, have made offshore wind energy more attractive for the United States. However, U.S. waters are generally deeper than those on the European coast, and will require new technology. This paper presents an overview of U.S. coastal resources, explores promising deepwater wind technology, and predicts long-term cost-of-energy (COE) trends. COE estimates are based on generic 5-MW wind turbines in a hypothetical 500-MW wind power plant. Technology improvements and volume production are expected to lower costs to meet the U.S. Department of Energy target range of $0.06/kWh for deployment of deepwater offshore wind turbines by 2015, and $0.05/kWh by 2012 for shallow water. Offshore wind systems can diversify the U.S. electric energy supply and provide a new market for wind energy that is complementary to onshore development.

Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's electricity price forecasting model, produces forecast of gas demand consistent with electric load. #12Gas demand Council's Market Price of Electricity Forecast Natural GasDemand Electric Load Aggregating Natural between the natural gas and electricity and new uses of natural gas emerge. T natural gas forecasts

Feinberg, Eugene A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Static identification of delinquent loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effective use of processor caches is crucial to the performance of applications. It has been shown that cache misses are not evenly distributed throughout a program. In applications running on RISC-style processors, a small number of delinquent load instructions are responsible for most of the cache misses. Identification of delinquent loads is the key to the success of many cache optimization and prefetching techniques. In this paper, we propose a method for identifying delinquent loads that can be implemented at compile time. Our experiments over eighteen benchmarks from the SPEC suite shows that our proposed scheme is stable across benchmarks, inputs, and cache structures, identifying an average of 10 % of the total number of loads in the benchmarks we tested that account for over 90 % of all data cache misses. As far as we know, this is the first time a technique for static delinquent load identification with such a level of precision and coverage has been reported. While comparable techniques can also identify load instructions that cover 90 % of all data cache misses, they do so by selecting over 50 % of all load instructions in the code, resulting in a high number of false positives. If basic block profiling is used in conjunction with our heuristic, then our results show that it is possible to pin down just 1.3 % of the load instructions that account for 82 % of all data cache misses. 1.

Vlad-mihai Panait; Amit Sasturkar Ý

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Advanced Standing Unit Credits (Unit Exemptions) * see overleaf, if not approved, Theme Leader/ALU to provide a reason  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advanced Standing Unit Credits (Unit Exemptions) * see overleaf, if not approved, Theme Leader/ALU to provide a reason Advanced Standing Unit Level (Unspecified Credit - Applies to Higher Education Only based CDU Units for which Credit is sought Unit title Institution Year Result Course Level Unit Code

303

Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems  

SciTech Connect

In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

Brown, Scott A.; Thornton, Brian; Widder, Sarah H.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Wind load reduction for heliostats  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Dynamic load balancing in IP-over-WDM optical burst switching networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider the problem of dynamic load balancing in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)-based optical burst switching (OBS) networks. We propose a load balancing scheme based on adaptive alternate routing aimed at reducing burst loss. ... Keywords: Load balancing, Optical burst switching, Traffic engineering, Wavelength division multiplexing

J. Li; G. Mohan; K. C. Chua

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Long-run Implications of a Forest-based Carbon Sequestration Policy on the United States Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Modeling Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The economic impacts of a government-funded, forest-based sequestration program were analyzed under two different payment schemes. The impacts were obtained by developing a regional, static CGE model built to accommodate a modified IMPLAN SAM for a determined region in the United States for 2008. The IMPLAN SAM was modified to accommodate the more conventional factors of production (labor, capital and land) and to account for land heterogeneity using the Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA). The regional aggregation considered included the Southern, Northeastern, Southwestern and Midwestern regions. The two policy scenarios considered consisted of two CO2-offset payment schemes: 1) the government compensates the generation of CO2-offsets only by the land converted to a carbon graveyard and 2) the government additionally compensates the CO2 offsets generated as a by-product by the existing commercial logging activity. By doing an analysis of the model with different budget magnitudes under the two scenarios, two different CO2-offset supply schedules were obtained with their respective CO2-offset price and quantity sets. For a budget allocation of $6.9 billion, approximately 1 billion metric tons of CO2 offsets (15% of U.S. 2008 total GHG emissions) were produced in the first scenario versus 0.8 billion metric tons (11% of U.S. 2008 GHG net emissions) in the second one. Fifty million acres were diverted out of agriculture and commercial forestry land to the carbon graveyard mainly in the Northern, Western and Central Great Plains in the first scenario. Twenty two million acres were diverted out of agricultural land to the carbon graveyard and commercial logging mainly in the Northern and Western Great Plains; and the Eastern and Western boundaries of the Appalachian Mountains in the second scenario. Both scenarios resulted in higher land and agricultural commodity prices, lower consumption of agricultural commodities by households, lower agricultural exports and higher imports. The payment structure of the second scenario benefited the commercial logging industry, increasing its production and exports, and decreasing its imports. The non-agricultural sectors mostly impacted by the two policy scenarios were the manufacturing, construction and government employment sectors.

Monge, Juan

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Demand or Request: Will Load Behave?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power planning engineers are trained to design an electric system that satisfies predicted electrical demand under stringent conditions of availability and power quality. Like responsible custodians, we plan for the provision of electrical sustenance and shelter to those in whose care regulators have given us the responsibility to serve. Though most customers accept this nurturing gladly, a growing number are concerned with the economic costs and environmental impacts of service at a time when technology (particularly distributed generation, storage, automation, and information networks) offers alternatives for localized control and competitive service. As customers’ and their systems mature, a new relationship with the electricity provider is emerging. Demand response is perhaps the first unsteady step where the customer participates as a partner in system operations. This paper explores issues system planners need to consider as demand response matures to significant levels beyond direct load control and toward a situation where service is requested and bargains are reached with the electricity provider based on desired load behavior. On one hand, predicting load growth and behavior appears more daunting than ever. On the other, for the first time load becomes a new resource whose behavior can be influenced during system operations to balance system conditions.

Widergren, Steven E.

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

308

End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program: Analysis of residential refrigerator/freezer performance  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is conducting a large end-use data acquisition program in an effort to understand how energy is utilized in buildings with permanent electric space heating equipment in the Pacific Northwest. The initial portion of effort, known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), was conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The collection of detailed end-use data provided an opportunity to analyze the amount of energy consumed by both refrigerators and separate freezers units located in residential buildings. By obtaining this information, the uncertainty of long- term regional end-use forecasting can be improved and potential utility marketing programs for new appliances with a reduced overall energy demand can be identified. It was found that standby loads derived from hourly averages between 4 a.m. and 5 a.m. reflected the minimum consumption needed to maintain interior refrigerator temperatures at a steady-state condition. Next, an average 24-hour consumption that included cooling loads from door openings and cooling food items was also determined. Later, analyses were conducted to develop a model capable of predicting refrigerator standby loads and 24-hour consumption for comparison with national refrigerator label ratings. Data for 140 residential sites with a refrigeration end-use were screened to develop a sample of 119 residences with pure refrigeration for use in this analysis. To identify those refrigerators that were considered to be pure (having no other devices present on the circuit) in terms of their end-use classification, the screening procedure used a statistical clustering technique that was based on standby loads with 24-hour consumption. 5 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

Ross, B.A.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

United States  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmental Protection and Indoor Air EPA/540-R-00-006 Agency Office of Solid Waste and PB2000 963306 Emergency Response October 2000 Washington, DC 20460 ORIA / Superfund Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides: Technical Background Document Publication 9355.4-16 October 2000 Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides: Technical Background Document Office of Radiation and Indoor Air Office of Emergency and Remedial Response U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC 20460 ii DISCLAIMER Notice: The Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides is based on policies set out in the Preamble to the Final Rule of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), which was published on March 8, 1990 (55 Federal Register 8666). This guidance document sets forth recommended approaches based on EPA's best thinking to date with respect to soil

310

Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load  

SciTech Connect

As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Laughner, T [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, K [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

High-power I-V curve tracer employing a capacitive load  

SciTech Connect

A portable, photovoltaic voltage versus current curve tracer is discussed. The curve tracer employs a capacitive load to provide automatic sweeping of the array voltage. The unit is capable of measuring arrays up to 10 kW, but is similar and lighter than a conventional 2.5-kW dissipative load.

Warner, T.H.; Cox, C.H. III

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

UNRES: a united-residue force field for energy-based prediction of protein structure—orgin and significance of multibody terms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

United-residue models of polypeptide chains [3, 5, 19-22, 24, 31, 33] have long been of interest, because they enable one to carry out global conformational searches of proteins in real time, which in turn can facilitate ab initio protein ...

Adam Liwo; Jaroslaw Pillardy; Cezary Czaplewski; Jooyoung Lee; Daniel R. Ripoll; Malgorzata Groth; Sylwia Rodziewicz-Motowidlo; Rajmund Kamierkiewicz; Ryszard J. Wawak; Stanislaw Oldziej; Harold A. Scheraga

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Fault diagnosis for the feedwater heater system of a 300MW coal-fired power generating unit based on RBF neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a new style radial basis function (RBF) neural network is used for fault diagnosis of the high-pressure feed-water heater system of a coal-fired power generating unit. The structure of the RBF network and its training algorithm are given. ...

Liangyu Ma; Yongguang Ma; Jin Ma

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Advanced nonintrusive load monitoring system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a need for flexible, inexpensive metering technologies that can be deployed in many different monitoring scenarios. Individual loads may be expected to compute information about their power consumption. Utility ...

Wichakool, Warit, 1977-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

OpenEI - building load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

are given by a location defined by the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) for which the weather data was collected. Commercial load data is sorted by the (TMY) site as a...

316

Permanent Load Shift Control Strategies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Permanent Load Shifting for HVAC and other storage assets as it relates to summer on-peak demand, how it can be dynamically and autonomously controlled, and its relationship...

317

Building load control and optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs annually for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel per year. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling is primarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches. It is intended for rapid trade-off studies, technology impact estimation, and preliminary HVAC sizing design and to complement more detailed and expensive CAE tools by exploring and identifying regions of interest in the design space. This paper describes the CoolCalc tool, provides outdoor long-haul truck thermal testing results, shows validation using these test results, and discusses future applications of the tool.

Lustbader, J. A.; Rugh, J. P.; Rister, B. R.; Venson, T. S.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

United States Government  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

uv /uu/u* ±.u.. J.OJ..L rAA , *. . uv /uu/u* ±.u.. J.OJ..L rAA , *. . 'A4 .. ± OO, I U444 flmI I.j102 ' -f- $I)002 EP<.1 (o-.vu) United States Government Department of Energy memorandum DATE: January 30, 2004 REP.YTO: IG-35 (A03DN039) Audit Report No.: OAS-L-04-10 SUBJECT: Audit of the Safeguards and Security Program at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site To: Frazer Lockhart, Manager, Rocky Flats Field Office INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE Because of the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001, the Department of Energy (Department) instituted additional security requirements beyond those already in place for normal security operations. These "Security Conditions" requirements were established by Department Notice 473.8 (Notice). The requirements are based on

320

Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); De Marquis, Virginia K. (Tijeras, NM); Harris, Steven M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Hydrodynamic design loads for the OTEC cold water pipe  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ocean current and/or plant motion crossflows induce time dependent hydrodynamic loads on the OTEC cold water pipe due to vortex shedding. Design criteria were established for mean and fluctuating loads based on a review of the literature, analysis of test data acquired by SAI under a previous experimental program and an analytical extension of test results to higher Reynolds number. Baseline loads were specified for rigid cylinders in uniform flows. Modifications to the loads by current shear, stratification and cylinder motion, were investigated and final design criteria established. Limited structural response calculations were performed to demonstrate the use of the design criteria and to investigate briefly the possible structural response mode. Comparisons were made with alternate hydrodynamic loads, and recommendations were made for experimental verification.

Hove, D.; Shih, W.; Albano, E.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Monitoring of Electrical End-Use Loads in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Edison is currently conducting a program to collect end-use metered data from commercial buildings in its service area. The data will provide actual measurements of end-use loads and will be used in research and in designing energy management programs oriented toward end-use applications. The focus of the program is on five major types of commercial buildings: offices, grocery stores, restaurants, retail stores, and warehouses. End-use metering equipment is installed at about 50 buildings, distributed among these five types. The buildings selected have average demands of 100 to 300 kW. The metered end-uses vary among building types and include HVAC, lighting, refrigeration. plug loads, and cooking. Procedures have been custom-designed to facilitate collection and validation of the end-use load data. For example, the Load Profile Viewer is a PC-based software program for reviewing and validating the end-use load data.

Martinez, M.; Alereza, T.; Mort, D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Load Component Database of Household Appliances and Small Office Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the development of a load component database for household appliances and office equipment. To develop more accurate load models at both transmission and distribution level, a better understanding on the individual behaviors of home appliances and office equipment under power system voltage and frequency variations becomes more and more critical. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has begun a series of voltage and frequency tests against home appliances and office equipments since 2005. Since 2006, Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has collaborated with BPA personnel and developed a load component database based on these appliance testing results to facilitate the load model validation work for the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In this paper, the testing procedure and testing results are first presented. The load model parameters are then derived and grouped. Recommendations are given for aggregating the individual appliance models to feeder level, the models of which are used for distribution and transmission level studies.

Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu; Puyleart, Francis; Yang, Steve

2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

324

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: TRACE Load 700  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Load 700 Load 700 TRACE Load 700 logo. Use TRACE Load 700 software - the building and load design modules of TRACE 700, Trane Air Conditioning Economics - to evaluate the effect of building orientation, size, shape, and mass based on hourly weather data and the resulting heat-transfer characteristics of air and moisture. To assure calculation integrity, the program uses algorithms recommended by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Choose from eight different ASHRAE cooling and heating methodologies, including the Exact Transfer Function. The program encourages "what if" analyses, allowing the user to enter construction details in any order and then easily change the resulting building model as the design progresses. Multiple project views and "drag-and-drop"

325

Microsoft Word - UPDATE 2 - Unit 1.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 to: 2 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant Modeling Unit 1 Emissions at Maximum and Minimum Loads ENSR Corporation December 20, 2005 Document Number 10350-002-410 (Update 2) December, 2005 1-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION This report describes AERMOD modeling results performed for Unit 1 at Mirant's Potomac River Generating Station. The purpose of these runs was to demonstrate that operation of Unit 1 for 24 hours a day at loads from 35 MW to 88 MW with the use of trona to reduce SO 2 emissions will not cause or contribute to modeled exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Mirant proposes to use trona on an as needed basis to limit SO 2 emissions to less than 0.89 lb/MMBtu

326

Microsoft Word - UPDATE 4 - Unit 4.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 to: 4 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant Modeling Unit 4 Emissions at Maximum and Minimum Loads ENSR Corporation December 23, 2005 Document Number 10350-002-410 (Update 4) December, 2005 1-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION This report describes dispersion modeling performed for Unit 4 at Mirant's Potomac River Generating Station. The modeling was performed according to the Protocol approved by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. The purpose of the modeling was to demonstrate that Unit 4, operating alone under minimum and maximum loads will not cause or contribute to exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Section 2 of this report presents the stack and emission parameters included in the modeling. Section

327

United Illuminating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Illuminating Illuminating Jump to: navigation, search Logo: United Illuminating Name United Illuminating Address 157 Church St Place New Haven, Connecticut Zip 06510 Sector Services Product Green Power Marketer Website http://www.uinet.com/ Coordinates 41.3073289°, -72.9247896° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.3073289,"lon":-72.9247896,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

328

United Nations | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nations Nations Jump to: navigation, search Logo: United Nations Name United Nations Address UN Headquarters 1st Ave & 46th Street Place New York, NY Zip 10017 Region Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Year founded 1945 Website http://www.un.org/ Coordinates 40.7143528°, -74.0059731° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.7143528,"lon":-74.0059731,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

329

Everyday Life within the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The international prototype of the kilogram is the only remaining artifact used to define a base unit of the SI (rather than definition by a fundamental ...

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

330

Sunton United Energy LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Product Utah-based investment company seeking to fund the commercial development of alternative and renewable energy technologies. References Sunton United Energy LLC1...

331

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of InternationalExperience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we examine the arrangements for andexperiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in fiveelectricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordicmarket, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objectivein undertaking this review of international experience was to identifyspecific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads toeffectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hopethat this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S.and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments areneeded to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in allwholesale electricity markets.

Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

The Validation of AIRS Retrievals of Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor Using Measurements from a Network of Ground-Based GPS Receivers over the Contiguous United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A robust and easily implemented verification procedure based on the column-integrated precipitable water (IPW) vapor estimates derived from a network of ground-based global positioning system (GPS) receivers has been used to assess the quality of ...

M. K. Rama Varma Raja; Seth I. Gutman; James G. Yoe; Larry M. McMillin; Jiang Zhao

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PSLF that incorporates motor  A?C, ZIP, and electronic load the fractions motors A?C, ZIP, and electronic loads.    Usethat incorporates motor  A?C, ZIP, and  electronic load 

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

load profile | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load profile Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 13:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load building...

335

Monthly Crustal Loading Corrections for Satellite Altimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite altimeter measurements of sea surface height include a small contribution from vertical motion of the seafloor caused by crustal loading. Loading by ocean tides is routinely allowed for in altimeter data processing. Here, loading by ...

R. D. Ray; S. B. Luthcke; T. van Dam

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Accurate Short Term Load Forecasting for an ESKOM Major Distribution Region in South Africa: An Application of EPRI ANNSTLF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ANNSTLF (Artificial Neural Network Short-term Load Forecaster), developed by EPRI, is a Microsoft Windows-based neural-network load forecasting software that uses historical load and weather parameters to predict future load values. The software requires customization for each utility. This project involved customizing ANNSTLF for the Eastern Region of the South African energy company ESKOM.

2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

337

Self-aligning biaxial load frame  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

338

Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

enables the management of large groups of distributed loads under a single innovative control schemes to use the flexibility of electrical loads for power system purposes....

339

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Load Express  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

graphical interface makes Load Express a powerful engineering tool with a very short learning curve. The "rookie" or experienced user can quickly and accurately perform load...

340

Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States: Technical assistance report No. 6 geothermal space heating and airconditioning -- McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method of utilizing the geothermal (66 F) water resource for space heating and cooling of 200 of the 1452 housing units at McGuire AFB is suggested. Using projections of future costs of gas, coal and electricity made by DOD and by industry (Westinghouse), the relative costs of the geothermal-water-plus-heat-pump system and the otherwise-planned central gas heating (to be converted to coal in 1984) and air-conditioning (using individual electric units) system are compared. For heating with the geothermal/heat-pump system, an outlet temperature of 130 F is selected, requiring a longer running time than the conventional system (at 180 F) but permitting a COP (coefficient of performance) of the heat pump of about 3.4. For cooling (obtained in this study by changing directions of water flow, not refrigerant cycles), the change in temperature is less, and a COP near 4.5 is obtained. The cost of cooling in the summer months would be significantly less than the cost of using individual electric air-conditioners. Thus, by using nonreversible heat pumps, geothermal water is used to heat and to cool a section of the housing compound, minimizing operating expenditures. It is estimated that, to drill 1000 ft deep production and reinjection wells and to install ten heat pumps, heat exchangers and piping, would require a capital outlay of $643 K. This cost would replace the capital cost of purchasing and installing 200 air-conditioning units and 14% of the cost of the future coal-fired central heating system (which would otherwise serve all 1452 housing units at McGuire). The net additional capital outlay would be $299 K, which could be amortized in 10 years by the lower operating cost of the geothermal system if electricity and coal prices escalate as industry suggests. If the coal and electricity costs rise at the more modest rates that DOD projects, the capital costs would be amortized in a 15 year period.

Hill, F.K.; Briesen R. von

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Power Generation Loading Optimization using a Multi-Objective Constraint-Handling Method via  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

results of the power generation loading optimization based on a coal-fired power plant demonstratesPower Generation Loading Optimization using a Multi-Objective Constraint-Handling Method via PSO power industry. A major objective for the coal-fired power generation loading optimization

Li, Xiaodong

343

Nonconvex economic load dispatch using an efficient real-coded genetic algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An efficient optimisation procedure based on real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) is proposed for the solution of economic load dispatch (ELD) problem with continuous and nonsmooth/nonconvex cost function and with various constraints being considered. ... Keywords: Constraint handling, Economic load dispatch, Polynomial mutation, Real-coded genetic algorithm, Simulated binary crossover, Valve point loading effect

Sushil Kumar; R. Naresh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Load-balancing mechanism for the RFID middleware applications over grid networking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RFID middleware often has to process enormous amounts of data, possibly causes overloading and leading to data errors. Therefore, RFID middleware applications require load-balancing mechanisms. This work proposes a grid-based load-balancing mechanism ... Keywords: Grid networking, Load-balancing mechanism, Middleware, Overloading problem, RFID networks

Yi-Wei Ma; Han-Chieh Chao; Jiann-Liang Chen; Cheng-Yen Wu

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Dynamic load balancing of SSH sessions using user-specific selection policies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ballast is a tool for balancing user load across SSH servers based on various criteria such as CPU load and system availability. It includes a load balancing client, a lightweight data server, and a data collection agent. Ballast is invoked as part of ...

Paul Z. Kolano

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Energy Efficiency Indicators for High Electric-Load Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency Indicators for High Electric-Load Buildings Energy Efficiency Indicators for High Electric-Load Buildings Speaker(s): Bernard Aebischer Date: February 6, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Kristina LaCommare Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indictor for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed. Prerequisites in order to be able to use these indicators in energy efficiency programmes are discussed. The opportunity of an internationally coordinated research activity is also presented. Since 1999, Dr. Bernard Aebischer has served as a senior scientist at CEPE (Centre for Energy Policy and Economics) of the Swiss Federal Institutes of

347

Comparison of Wind Power and Load Forecasting Error Distributions: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The introduction of large amounts of variable and uncertain power sources, such as wind power, into the electricity grid presents a number of challenges for system operations. One issue involves the uncertainty associated with scheduling power that wind will supply in future timeframes. However, this is not an entirely new challenge; load is also variable and uncertain, and is strongly influenced by weather patterns. In this work we make a comparison between the day-ahead forecasting errors encountered in wind power forecasting and load forecasting. The study examines the distribution of errors from operational forecasting systems in two different Independent System Operator (ISO) regions for both wind power and load forecasts at the day-ahead timeframe. The day-ahead timescale is critical in power system operations because it serves the unit commitment function for slow-starting conventional generators.

Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Orwig, K.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Method for loading resin beds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H.sup.+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145.degree.-200.degree. C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145.degree. C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO.sub.3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate.

Notz, Karl J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rainey, Robert H. (Knoxville, TN); Greene, Charles W. (Knoxville, TN); Shockley, William E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS AT REDUCED CATALYST LOADINGS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We focus in this paper on the reduction of catalyst loading in direct methanol fuel cells currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Based on single-cell DMFC testing, we discuss performance vs. catalyst loading trade-offs and demonstrate optimization of the anode performance. We also show test data for a short five-cell DMFC stack with the average total platinum loading of 0.53 mg cm{sup {minus}2} and compare performance of this stack with the performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell using similar total amount of precious metal.

P. ZELENAY; F. GUYON; SM. GOTTESFELD

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Direct methanol fuel cells at reduced catalyst loadings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We focus in this paper on the reduction of catalyst loading in direct methanol fuel cells currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Based on single-cell DMFC testing, we discuss performance vs. catalyst loading trade-offs and demonstrate optimization of the anode performance. We also show test data for a short five-cell DMFC stack with the average total platinum loading of 0.53 mg cm{sup -2} and compare performance of this stack with the performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell using similar total amount of precious metal.

Zelenay, P. (Piotr); Guyon, F. (Francois); Gottesfeld, Shimshon

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Climatic indicators for estimating residential heating and cooling loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extensive data base of residential energy use generated with the DOE-2.1A simulation code provides an opportunity for correlating building loads predicted by an hourly simulation model to commonly used climatic parameters such as heating and cooling degree-days, and to newer parameters such as insolation-days and latent enthalpy-days. The identification of reliable climatic parameters for estimating cooling loads and the incremental loads for individual building components, such as changing ceiling and wall R-values, infiltration rates or window areas is emphasized.

Huang, Y.J.; Ritschard, R.; Bull, J.; Chang, L.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Modeling, loading, and preliminary design considerations for tall guyed towers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the authors first summarize the results of an investigation they carried out on the collapse of a 1900 ft tall guyed tower under ice and wind loads. Based on this investigation, they then proceed to present some structural analysis recommendations relating to loading and modeling concerns. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of ice loading, and on the level of accuracy required in modeling the nonlinear response behavior. Finally, the conclusions drawn from this study are used to formulate preliminary design guidelines. This facilitates a systematic approach for the design of tall guyed towers. 23 refs.

Gantes, C.; Khoury, R.; Connors, J.J.; Pouangare, C. [Engg Information Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Impact of Minimum Load Operation on Steam Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some utilities, as part of a fleet management strategy, are keeping baseload-design plants that are not competitive for 24/7 dispatch at minimum loads to increase their ability to respond to changing demand. Units being operated this way face some associated risks and may see an additional drop in availability, further exacerbating supply management issues and increasing O&M costs. This report seeks to capture ...

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

354

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT: CAMPUS ADDRESS: CLASSIFICATION / TITLE: DEPARTMENT EMAIL ADDRESS: DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE: 2011 FRANKLIN STAFF SERVICE AWARDS START DATE IN DEPARTMENT / UNIT: ACTUAL NUMBER MEMBER DEADLINE: FRIDAY MARCH 4, 2011 ADDITIONAL COMMENTS: Signature of Head / Director of Nominee's Unit

Arnold, Jonathan

355

Unit Outline Training Guide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unit Outline Builder Training Guide Document Status: Final Revision Number: 6.0 Revision Date: 14 Approved #12;Online Unit Outline Builder Training Guide Curtin University of Technology Page 2 TABLE................................................................................................................. 4 4. Log in and Select a Unit Outline

356

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT: CAMPUS ADDRESS: CLASSIFICATION / TITLE: DEPARTMENT EMAIL ADDRESS: DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE: 2013 FRANKLIN STAFF SERVICE AWARDS START DATE IN DEPARTMENT / UNIT: ACTUAL NUMBER MEMBER DEADLINE: MARCH 5, 2013 ADDITIONAL COMMENTS: Signature of Head / Director of Nominee's Unit

Arnold, Jonathan

357

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT: CAMPUS ADDRESS: CLASSIFICATION / TITLE: DEPARTMENT EMAIL ADDRESS: DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE: 2012 FRANKLIN STAFF SERVICE AWARDS START DATE IN DEPARTMENT / UNIT: ACTUAL NUMBER MEMBER DEADLINE: FRIDAY MARCH 2, 2012 ADDITIONAL COMMENTS: Signature of Head / Director of Nominee's Unit

Arnold, Jonathan

358

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT: CAMPUS ADDRESS: CLASSIFICATION / TITLE: DEPARTMENT EMAIL ADDRESS: DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE: 2014 FRANKLIN STAFF SERVICE AWARDS START DATE IN DEPARTMENT / UNIT: ACTUAL NUMBER MEMBER DEADLINE: MARCH 7, 2014 ADDITIONAL COMMENTS: Signature of Head / Director of Nominee's Unit

Arnold, Jonathan

359

STLOAD 1.0, Substation Equipment Thermal Loading Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Substation Equipment Thermal Loading Program, STLOAD Version 1.0 software is intended for use by substation engineers for the purpose of establishing thermal ratings for and making diagnostic evaluations of substation equipment. STLOAD 1.0 software calculates substation equipment operating temperatures and thermal ratings based on user-specified physical parameters for the equipment and user-specified load and air temperature data. Substation equipment that can be modeled using STLOAD includes strain...

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy December 4, 2012 - 12:06pm Addthis Lightweight materials, such as high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber can help improve fuel economy in future vehicles. This is a carbon fiber from microwave-assisted plasma unit -- a unit that is part of the process to transform precursor fibers into carbon fibers that can be used in vehicles. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Lightweight materials, such as high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber can help improve fuel economy in future vehicles. This is a carbon fiber from microwave-assisted plasma unit -- a unit that is part of the process to transform precursor fibers into carbon fibers that can be

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Analysis of parametric transformer with rectifier load  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a push-pull parametric transformer constructed using a pair of orthogonal-cores. The operating characteristics of the parametric transformer with a rectifier load were analyzed based on SPICE simulations. The analysis results show good agreement with experiment. It was found that the input surge current of the full-wave rectifier circuit with a smoothing capacitor can be compensated by the parametric transformer. Use of the parametric transformer as a power stabilizer is anticipated owing to its various functions such as for voltage regulation and overload protection.

Ichinokura, O.; Jinzenji, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Tajima, K. (Akita Univ. (Japan))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

PRB rail loadings shatter record  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

Buchsbaum, L.

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative forcing induced by soot on snow is a major anthropogenic forcing affecting the global climate. However, it is uncertain how the soot-induced snow albedo perturbation affects regional snowpack and the hydrological cycle. In this study we simulated the deposition of soot aerosol on snow and investigated the resulting impact on snowpack and the surface water budget in the western United States. A yearlong simulation was performed using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) to determine an annual budget of soot deposition, followed by two regional climate simulations using WRF in meteorology-only mode, with and without the soot-induced snow albedo perturbations. The chemistry simulation shows large spatial variability in soot deposition that reflects the localized emissions and the influence of the complex terrain. The soot-induced snow albedo perturbations increase the net solar radiation flux at the surface during late winter to early spring, increase the surface air temperature, reduce snow water equivalent amount, and lead to reduced snow accumulation and less spring snowmelt. These effects are stronger over the central Rockies and southern Alberta, where soot deposition and snowpack overlap the most. The indirect forcing of soot accelerates snowmelt and alters stream flows, including a trend toward earlier melt dates in the western United States. The soot-induced albedo reduction initiates a positive feedback process whereby dirty snow absorbs more solar radiation, heating the surface and warming the air. This warming causes reduced snow depth and fraction, which further reduces the regional surface albedo for the snow covered regions. Our simulations indicate that the change of maximum snow albedo induced by soot on snow contributes to 60% of the net albedo reduction over the central Rockies. Snowpack reduction accounts for the additional 40%.

Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ghan, Steven J.

2009-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

364

On-line load relief control  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of an investigation concerning the on-line prediction and enhancement of load relief. The effects of voltage fluctuation, system voltage profile control and generator voltage adjustment on load relief and load shedding operations during under-frequency transients are studied. The technique promoted in the paper may be used to reduce system spinning reserve or prospective load shedding.

Jovanovic, S.; Fox, B.; Thompson, J.G. (Queen' s Univ. of Belfast (United Kingdom))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Evolving non-intrusive load monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) identifies used appliances in a total power load according to their individual load characteristics. In this paper we propose an evolutionary optimization algorithm to identify appliances, which are modeled as on/off ... Keywords: NILM, evolution, evolutionary algorithm, knapsack problem, non-intrusive load monitoring

Dominik Egarter; Anita Sobe; Wilfried Elmenreich

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Load Forecasting for Modern Distribution Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load forecasting is a fundamental activity for numerous organizations and activities within a utility, including planning, operations, and control. Transmission and Distribution (T&D) planning and design engineers use the load forecast to determine whether any changes and additions are needed to the electric system to satisfy the anticipated load. Other load forecast users include system operations, financial ...

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

367

Load Forecast For use in Resource Adequacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load Forecast 2019 For use in Resource Adequacy Massoud Jourabchi #12;In today's presentation d l­ Load forecast methodology ­ Drivers of the forecast f i­ Treatment of conservation ­ Incorporating impact of weather ­ Forecast for 2019 #12;Regional Loads (MWA and MW)Regional Loads (MWA and MW

368

Breakeven Prices for Photovoltaics on Supermarkets in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The photovoltaic (PV) breakeven price is the PV system price at which the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. This point is also called 'grid parity' and can be expressed as dollars per watt ($/W) of installed PV system capacity. Achieving the PV breakeven price depends on many factors, including the solar resource, local electricity prices, customer load profile, PV incentives, and financing. In the United States, where these factors vary substantially across regions, breakeven prices vary substantially across regions as well. In this study, we estimate current and future breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets in the United States. We also evaluate key drivers of current and future commercial PV breakeven prices by region. The results suggest that breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets vary significantly across the United States. Non-technical factors -- including electricity rates, rate structures, incentives, and the availability of system financing -- drive break-even prices more than technical factors like solar resource or system orientation. In 2020 (where we assume higher electricity prices and lower PV incentives), under base-case assumptions, we estimate that about 17% of supermarkets will be in utility territories where breakeven conditions exist at a PV system price of $3/W; this increases to 79% at $1.25/W (the DOE SunShot Initiative's commercial PV price target for 2020). These percentages increase to 26% and 91%, respectively, when rate structures favorable to PV are used.

Ong, S.; Clark, N.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell microturbine generators during load changes  

SciTech Connect

This report describes test measurements of the behavior of two microturbine generators (MTGs) under transient conditions. The tests were conducted under three different operating conditions: grid-connect; stand-alone single MTG with load banks; and two MTGs running in parallel with load banks. Tests were conducted with both the Capstone 30-kW and Honeywell Parallon 75-kW MTGs. All tests were conducted at the Southern California Edison /University of California, Irvine (UCI) test facility. In the grid-connected mode, several test runs were conducted with different set-point changes both up and down and a start up and shutdown were recorded for each MTG. For the stand-alone mode, load changes were initiated by changing load-bank values (both watts and VARs). For the parallel mode, tests involved changes in the load-bank settings as well as changes in the power set point of the MTG running in grid-connect mode. Detailed graphs of the test results are presented. It should be noted that these tests were done using a specific hardware and software configuration. Use of different software and hardware could result in different performance characteristics for the same units.

Yinger, Robert J.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Barstow Marine Corps Logistics Base, Operable Units 5 and 6, Barstow, CA, January 12, 1998  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) Barstow is in San Bernardino County, California, in the central Mojave Desert approximately 135 miles northeast of Los Angeles. Twenty-four Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Areas of Concern (CAOCs) at MCLB Barstow are addressed by this Record of Decision (ROD). The OU 5 AOCs are within the Yermo Annex and the OU 6 CAOCs are within the Nebo Main Base. The 4,006-acre Nebo Main Base is 1 mile east of Barstow and intersected by Interstate 40. The 1,680-acre Yermo Annex is 7 miles east of Barstow, between Interstates 15 and 40, and is 6 miles east of the Nebo Main Base.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Load-shape development aids planning  

SciTech Connect

The concept that provides capable, load-shape development, is being adopted by several utilities and power pools. Public Service Electric and Gas Company has developed a computer simulation model that can predict a utility's load shape for up to a 30-year period. The objective of the PSE and G model, known as EICS (Electric Load-Curve Synthesis) is to provide a demand profile, to examine the impact of load mangement and other activities upon a system's load shape, and to apply appropriate forecast non-load-management and load-management impacts before finally examining the resulting revised load-shape. Other models dealing with load-shape are discussed. Specifically, the Systems Control Inc. model for EPRI (SCI/EPRI), useful in performing accurate simulations of various load-control strategies involving customer appliance control is mentioned.

Gellings, C.W.

1979-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Offshore loading-system design is aimed at higher efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Mobil Shipping and Transporation Co. has completed the design of an offshore loading system aimed at overcoming the limitations of existing terminals. The loading/mooring/storage system (LMS) is a semisubmersible vessel with ship mooring and loading facilities atop a box-shaped crude storage structure, which is well below the water line away from the effect of waves and clear of loading tankers' bows. The storage volume equals or exceeds that of a VLCC. There are 15 dual-purpose cargo/ballast tanks in the lower section with a control tower over the center tank. The loading system is designed to load 800,000 bbl of crude in about 12 hr. Each tank contains a diagonally suspended synthetic rubber diaphragm that will isolate crude from water ballast. Computer simulations based on North Sea weather data indicate that the LMS will allow marine loading efficiencies of at least 95Vertical Bar3< with total storage of a week's production or more. Other advantages of the LMS include the ability to moor shuttle tankers up to 200,000 dwt; self-contained repair and maintenance capabilities; and mobility. Variations of anchoring and riser systems for the LMS are discussed.

1978-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

373

Short-Term Load Forecasting Error Distributions and Implications for Renewable Integration Studies: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Load forecasting in the day-ahead timescale is a critical aspect of power system operations that is used in the unit commitment process. It is also an important factor in renewable energy integration studies, where the combination of load and wind or solar forecasting techniques create the net load uncertainty that must be managed by the economic dispatch process or with suitable reserves. An understanding of that load forecasting errors that may be expected in this process can lead to better decisions about the amount of reserves necessary to compensate errors. In this work, we performed a statistical analysis of the day-ahead (and two-day-ahead) load forecasting errors observed in two independent system operators for a one-year period. Comparisons were made with the normal distribution commonly assumed in power system operation simulations used for renewable power integration studies. Further analysis identified time periods when the load is more likely to be under- or overforecast.

Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

United Nations Foundation (UNF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

United Nations Foundation (UNF) United Nations Foundation (UNF) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: United Nations Foundation Name United Nations Foundation Address 1800 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 400 Place Washington, DC Zip 20036 Region Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Coordinates 38.90879°, -77.042271° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.90879,"lon":-77.042271,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

375

Good Energies (United Kingdom) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

United Kingdom) United Kingdom) Name Good Energies (United Kingdom) Address 2-5 Old Bond Street Place London, United Kingdom Zip W1S 4PD Product Global investor in renewable energy and energy efficiency industries Year founded 2001 Phone number +44 20 7659 3300 Website http://www.goodenergies.com/ Coordinates 51.5083291°, -0.1403335° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.5083291,"lon":-0.1403335,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

376

The development of an approximate dynamic analysis of insulating glass units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this thesis is to develop an approximate dynamic analysis of sealed insulating glass (IG) units subject to uniform blast loads, the formulation of which will be incorporated into a computer program that will be used as a tool to estimate their dynamic response. The formulation of this approximate dynamic analysis of IG units is achieved by modeling the unit with two equivalent single degree of freedom systems consisting of equivalent masses, equivalent structural stiffnesses, equivalent forces, and by incorporating air space compatibility relationships into this model. The equations of motion which define the behavior of this dynamic model are incorporated into a computer program that computes the dynamic response of an IG unit subjected to a prescribed blast loading. This response includes the displacements, velocities, and accelerations of the glass plates of the IG unit. The blast loading will be idealized in order to simplify the analysis. The program will approximate the positive pressure phase of a blast load with an equivalent triangular loading. IG units designed by existing methods will be analyzed using the program, and their performance evaluated. This analysis will not only provide valuable data on the behavior of the IG units to blast loadings, but will lend insight into the acceptability of the existing design approach. The results will also indicate the acceptability of the technique developed in this thesis as a tool in the design and analysis of IG units subject to blast loads.

Sequeira, Miguel Angel

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Load Scheduling with Profile Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Within the past five years, many manufactures have added hardware performance counters to their microprocessors to generate profile data cheaply. We show how to use Compaq's DCPI tool to determine load latencies which are at a fine, instruction granularity and use them as fodder for improving instruction scheduling. We validate our heuristic for using DCPI latency data to classify loads as hits and misses against simulation numbers. We map our classification into the Multiflow compiler's intermediate representation, and use a locality sensitive Balanced scheduling algorithm. Our experiments illustrate that our algorithm improves run times by 1% on average, but up to 10% on a Compaq Alpha. 1 Introduction This paper explores how to use hardware performance counters to produce fine grain latency information to improve compiler scheduling. We use this information to hide latencies with any available instruction level parallelism (ILP). (ILP for an instruction is the number of o...

Götz Lindenmaier; Kathryn S. McKinley; Olivier Temam

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Prophet Load Profiler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Prophet Load Profiler Prophet Load Profiler Prophet Load Profiler logo. Internet-enabled software that empowers business energy customers to manage energy and reduce costs. Valuable to facility managers, energy managers and energy service companies, the Prophet web-based service delivers real-time and near-real-time energy information on energy consumption and demand for any size facility. A number of facilities can be managed using consumption data gathered in 15 minute, 30 minute, 60 minute, daily, weekly and monthly intervals. Users can immediately view and analyze data with an eye toward load shedding, cost avoidance strategies, energy budget management, utility cost validation and energy forecasting. All tools are contained within the Prophet Web application and enabled via the internet using a standard web

379

Monitoring of electrical end-use loads in commercial buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A California utility is currently conducting a program to collect end-use metered data from commercial buildings in its service area. The data will provide actual measurements of end-use loads and will be used in research and in designing energy management programs oriented toward end-use applications. The focus of the program is on five major types of commercial buildings: offices, grocery stores, restaurants, retail stores, and warehouses. End-use metering equipment is installed at about 50 buildings selected have average demands of 100kW to 300 kW. The metered end-uses vary among building types and include HVAC, lighting, refrigeration, plug loads, and cooking. Procedures have been custom-designed to facilitate collection and validation of the end-use load data. PC-based software programs have been developed for reviewing and validating the end-sue load data and for generating reports.

Martinez, M. (Southern California Edison, CA (US)); Alereza, T.; Mort, D. (ADM Associates, Sacramento, CA (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

End of FY10 report - used fuel disposition technical bases and lessons learned : legal and regulatory framework for high-level waste disposition in the United States.  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the current policy, legal, and regulatory framework pertaining to used nuclear fuel and high level waste management in the United States. The goal is to identify potential changes that if made could add flexibility and possibly improve the chances of successfully implementing technical aspects of a nuclear waste policy. Experience suggests that the regulatory framework should be established prior to initiating future repository development. Concerning specifics of the regulatory framework, reasonable expectation as the standard of proof was successfully implemented and could be retained in the future; yet, the current classification system for radioactive waste, including hazardous constituents, warrants reexamination. Whether or not consideration of multiple sites are considered simultaneously in the future, inclusion of mechanisms such as deliberate use of performance assessment to manage site characterization would be wise. Because of experience gained here and abroad, diversity of geologic media is not particularly necessary as a criterion in site selection guidelines for multiple sites. Stepwise development of the repository program that includes flexibility also warrants serious consideration. Furthermore, integration of the waste management system from storage, transportation, and disposition, should be examined and would be facilitated by integration of the legal and regulatory framework. Finally, in order to enhance acceptability of future repository development, the national policy should be cognizant of those policy and technical attributes that enhance initial acceptance, and those policy and technical attributes that maintain and broaden credibility.

Weiner, Ruth F.; Blink, James A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Rechard, Robert Paul; Perry, Frank (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Carter, Joe (Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC); Nutt, Mark (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cotton, Tom (Complex Systems Group, Washington DC)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING  

SciTech Connect

The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

Garrett, A.

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

382

Summary of Time Period-Based and Other Approximation Methods for Determining the Capacity Value of Wind and Solar in the United States: September 2010 - February 2012  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper updates previous work that describes time period-based and other approximation methods for estimating the capacity value of wind power and extends it to include solar power. The paper summarizes various methods presented in utility integrated resource plans, regional transmission organization methodologies, regional stakeholder initiatives, regulatory proceedings, and academic and industry studies. Time period-based approximation methods typically measure the contribution of a wind or solar plant at the time of system peak - sometimes over a period of months or the average of multiple years.

Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of BaselineLoad Models for Non-Residential Buildings in California  

SciTech Connect

Both Federal and California state policymakers areincreasingly interested in developing more standardized and consistentapproaches to estimate and verify the load impacts of demand responseprograms and dynamic pricing tariffs. This study describes a statisticalanalysis of the performance of different models used to calculate thebaseline electric load for commercial buildings participating in ademand-response (DR) program, with emphasis onthe importance of weathereffects. During a DR event, a variety of adjustments may be made tobuilding operation, with the goal of reducing the building peak electricload. In order to determine the actual peak load reduction, an estimateof what the load would have been on the day of the event without any DRactions is needed. This baseline load profile (BLP) is key to accuratelyassessing the load impacts from event-based DR programs and may alsoimpact payment settlements for certain types of DR programs. We testedseven baseline models on a sample of 33 buildings located in California.These models can be loosely categorized into two groups: (1) averagingmethods, which use some linear combination of hourly load values fromprevious days to predict the load on the event, and (2) explicit weathermodels, which use a formula based on local hourly temperature to predictthe load. The models were tested both with and without morningadjustments, which use data from the day of the event to adjust theestimated BLP up or down.Key findings from this study are: - The accuracyof the BLP model currently used by California utilities to estimate loadreductions in several DR programs (i.e., hourly usage in highest 3 out of10 previous days) could be improved substantially if a morning adjustmentfactor were applied for weather-sensitive commercial and institutionalbuildings. - Applying a morning adjustment factor significantly reducesthe bias and improves the accuracy of all BLP models examined in oursample of buildings. - For buildings with low load variability, all BLPmodels perform reasonably well in accuracy. - For customer accounts withhighly variable loads, we found that no BLP model produced satisfactoryresults, although averaging methods perform best in accuracy (but notbias). These types of customers are difficult to characterize withstandard BLP models that rely on historic loads and weather data.Implications of these results for DR program administrators andpolicymakersare: - Most DR programs apply similar DR BLP methods tocommercial and industrial sector customers. The results of our study whencombined with other recent studies (Quantum 2004 and 2006, Buege et al.,2006) suggests that DR program administrators should have flexibility andmultiple options for suggesting the most appropriate BLP method forspecific types of customers.

Coughlin, Katie; Piette, Mary Ann; Goldman, Charles; Kiliccote,Sila

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

System for loading executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for loading an executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises a surface control unit comprising executable code. An integrated downhole network comprises data transmission elements in communication with the surface control unit and the volatile memory. The executable code, stored in the surface control unit, is not permanently stored in the downhole tool string component. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the downhole tool string component comprises boot memory. In another embodiment, the executable code is an operating system executable code. Preferably, the volatile memory comprises random access memory (RAM). A method for loading executable code to volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises sending the code from the surface control unit to a processor in the downhole tool string component over the network. A central processing unit writes the executable code in the volatile memory.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT)

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

385

Prediction of crack propagation paths in the unit cell of SOFC stacks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) stacks are multi-material layered systems with different thermo-mechanical properties. Due to their severe thermal loading, these layers have to meet high demands to preserve their mechanical integrity without initiation and propagation of fracture. Here, we focus on a typical unit cell of the stack which consists of positive electrode-electrolyte-negative electrode (PEN). Based on the mechanical properties of each layer and their interfaces, an energy criterion as a function of crack length is used for the prediction of possible crack extensions in the PEN. This criterion is a pure local criterion, independent of applied loads and geometry of the specimen. An analysis of the competition between crack deflections in the interfaces and crack penetration in layers is presented.

Joulaee, N.; Makradi, A.; Ahzi, Said; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Koeppel, Brian J.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Overhead Line Loading Program (OHLOAD) Version 2.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OHLOAD allows the user to calculate thermal ratings and conductor temperatures for overhead power transmission lines. EPRI's Overhead Line Loading Program (OHLOAD 2.0) calculates bare conductor temperatures and thermal ratings based on user-specified weather parameters and user-specified electrical load. The calculation methods available in OHLOAD are based on various CIGRE, IEEE, and EPRI documents. WindowsXP, Vista, and Windows 7. The PC must have at least 20 MB of free disk space and a Pentium II proc...

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

United Biorefineries Corp UBC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biorefineries Corp UBC Biorefineries Corp UBC Jump to: navigation, search Name United Biorefineries Corp (UBC) Place Valencia, California Zip 91354-1532 Sector Biofuels Product California-based technology management company doing commercial physical & biological research. Involved in the project development of an Integrated Biorefinery Complex utilizing algae and cellulosic-based second generation biofuels technology. References United Biorefineries Corp (UBC)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. United Biorefineries Corp (UBC) is a company located in Valencia, California . References ↑ "United Biorefineries Corp (UBC)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=United_Biorefineries_Corp_UBC&oldid=352515

389

United States Government  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

/18/04 THU 11:31 FAX 423 241 3897 OIG -- /18/04 THU 11:31 FAX 423 241 3897 OIG -- + HQ 1002 DOE F 1325.8 (08-93) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: March 17, 2004 Audit Report No. OAS-L-04-1 1 REPLY TO IG-36 (A04DN003) ATTN OF: SUBJECT; Audit of "Requests for Equitable Adjustment at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site" TO: Frazer R. Lockhart, Manager, Rocky Flats Project Office INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE Effective February 1, 2000, the Department of Energy's (Department) Rocky Flats Project Office (RFPO) and Kaiser-Hill Co., LLC (Kaiser-Hill), entered into a cost- plus-incentive-fee contract to close the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) by December 15, 2006. Under the contract terms, Kaiser-Hlill's final incentive fee earned will be based on how well it meets established cost targets. For

390

. United States Government  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

,:n5.5.8 ,:n5.5.8 ,849, EfG pw, . United States Government DATE: AUG 2 i994 y#J;; EM-421 (W. A. Williams, 427-1719) sUBJECT: -Elimination of the Robbins & Myers Site, Springfield, Ohio 11179 I The File TO: I have reviewed the attached elimination recommendation and the original historical records for the Myers & Robbins facility in Springfield, Ohio. I have determined that there is little likelihood of radioactive contamination at these sites. The only record of activity at this site by Department of Energy predecessors is an equipment test of a pump in March 1975. This test involved limited amounts of radioactive materials and there was a serious effort to decontaminate the equipment at the conclusion of the tests. Based on the above, the Myers & Robbins site in Springfield, Ohio, is

391

Uniter+ States Government  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

EFG (07-90) EFG (07-90) Uniter+ States Government ~L.aQ-i; Department of Energy inemorandum DATE: SEP 2 5 1992 REPLY TO Al-fN OF: EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 903-8149) SUBJECT: Authorization for Remedial Action at the Former Dow Chemical Company Facility in M a d ison, Illinois TO: L. Price, OR The site of the Former Dow Chemical Company in M a d ison, Illinois, which is currently owned and operated by the Spectrulite Consortium, is designated for inclusion in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). This designation is based upon the results of a preliminary radiological survey and other information described in the attached Designation Summary. The authority determination and preliminary survey report also are attached for information. The site has been assigned a low priority under the FUSRAP protocol, as

392

* United States Government  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

-- -- DE;$r,e /q f-j * I3 - I * United States Government memorandum MAY 21 I991 DATE: REPLY TO Al-fN OF: 4ih55YhL Department of Energy JT:,i 5, f&A 0 ' - j4.~, ' -/ jl.a' \ A t -3 __..-_-. EM-421 SUBJECT: Elimination of the American Potash and Chemical Site The File TO: I have reviewed the attached site summary and elimination recommendation for the American Potash and Chemical Company Site in West Hanover, Massachusetts. I have determined that there is little likelihood of radioactive contamination at this site. Based on the above, the American Potash and Chemical Company site is hereby eliminated from further consideration under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. W. Alexander Williams, PhD Designation and Certification Manager

393

United States Government  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

OOE F 1325.8 OOE F 1325.8 - EFgzk3) United States Government tiemorandum 0 wt;? -J Department of Energy DATE: SEP 2 5 1992 REPLY TO Al-TN OF: EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 903-8149) SUBJECT: Authorization for Remedial Action at Diamond Magnesium Site in Painesville, Ohio TO: L. Price, OR The former Diamond Magnesium Company site located at 720 Fairport-Nursery Road in Painesville, Ohio, is designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The site is owned by Uniroyal Chemical Company and by Lonza Chemical, Incorporated. This designation is based on the results of a radiological survey and conclusions from an authority review as noted in the attached Designation Summary. Copies of the radiological survey reports and the authority

394

United States Government  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ooc F r325.8 ooc F r325.8 imo, EFO ,ww United States Government memorandum Department of Energy -fw?w 81ua DATE: FEB 1 5 1991 l+Ks6 sUsJECT: Elimination of the Buflovak Company Site from FUSRAP ho: The File I have reiiewed the attached preliminary site summary and recommendation for the Buflovak Company site in Buffalo, New York. I have determined that there is little likelihood of contamination at this site. Based on the above, the Buflovak Company site is hereby eliminated from further consideration under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. W. Alexander Williams Designation and Certification Manager Off-Site Branch Division of Eastern Area Programs Office of Environmental Restoration Attachment - I . b e e : W e s to n E M - 4 0 ( 3 ) E M - 4 2 ( 2 ) W illiams r

395

United States Government  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

. v-w. . v-w. ' ;H; (07.901 United States Government 0' ; Td 2, <.<~ Department of Energy ' m e m o randum DATE: REPLY TO Al-TN OF: EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 903-8149) SUBJECT: Authorization for Remedial Action at Alba Craft Laboratory in Oxford, Ohio L. Price, OR TO: The former Alba Craft Laboratory site at lo-14 West Rose Avenue, Oxford, Ohio, is designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Dr. and M rs. Gilbert Pacey, of Oxford, Ohio, own the site. This designation is based on the results of a radiological survey and conclusions from an authority review as noted in the attached Designation Summary. Copies of the radiological survey letter report and the authority review are provided for your information.

396

UNITED STATES GOVERKMENT  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Ojice Memornndz~nz 0 Ojice Memornndz~nz 0 UNITED STATES GOVERKMENT By application dated ;!ay 11, 1959, as a~zen:ii:d Hay 25, 1959, the a--T+- I-r-- cant requests that its license SW-33 be amend,ed to authorizt? proced- ures for t>e CCLl-ect conversion of LT6 to '3$ and by applicaticn datzci June 29, 1959, a.3 n:odifizd July 15, 1059, the shipment of uranium rdioxide pellets. Based on our rexiew of the information finished by the applicant, it is hereby determined that the applicant is qualified, by training and experience, to use special nuclear material for the pwpose requested and that the ap@icant's procedures, facilities and equip- ment are adequate to protect health and minimize danger to life and property. It is, therefore, determined that ~NM-33 may be amended to

397

A Control Scheme of Enhanced Reliability for Multiple Chiller Plants Using Mergerd Building Cooling Load Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a control scheme which utilizes the enhanced instantaneous cooling load measurements to improve the reliability of chiller sequencing control. The enhanced measurement is obtained by merging two different measurements of building cooling load using data fusion technique. One is the direct cooling load measurement, which is obtained directly using the differential water temperature and water flow rate measurements. The other is the indirect cooling load measurement, which estimates the cooling load using chiller models based on the instantaneous chiller electrical power input and condition measured variables. The control performance of the proposed scheme is validated in this paper.

Wang, S.; Sun, Y.; Huang, G.; Zhu, N.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Method of and apparatus for controlling loads on an electrical power supply  

SciTech Connect

To enable a consumer of electrical energy to effect control of total energy consumption by various individual appliances and loads, each individual load has a control unit, conveniently in a plug top, which responds to pulses broadcast on the power supply wiring in the form of short duration interruptions of the waveform. At each appliance a microprocessor unit counts the number of successive pulses in a predetermined time interval and operates an electronic switch if the received count reaches a predetermined number, which may be different for different loads thereby enabling selective control of the loads. Provision is made for automatic restoration of supply if the overall energy consumption falls. Provision can also be made for automatic resumption of supp

Peddie, R.A.; Fielden, J.S.

1984-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

399

Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Estimated Load Reductions for PJM’s Small Customer Loadof Estimated Load Reductions for PJM’s Small Customer LoadResponse Pilot Project Prepared for PJM Interconnection, LLC

Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Economic impact evaluation of short-term load forecast errors using a mutative scale chaos optimization algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the circumstances of Power Market, load forecast errors directly lead to the increase of costs of dispatch and maintenance. With a mutative scale chaos optimization algorithm (MSCOA), and the next-day units bidding model as the valuation model ... Keywords: MSCOA, load forecast error, power market

Jiang Chuanwen; Li Shuai; Wang Chengmin

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Automated fuel pin loading system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

High loading uranium fuel plate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Preconditioning Outside Air: Cooling Loads from Building Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HVAC equipment manufacturers, specifiers and end users interacting in the marketplace today are only beginning to address the series of issues promulgated by the increased outside air requirements in ASHRAE Standard 62- 1989, "Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality", that has cascaded into building codes over the early to mid 1990's. There has been a twofold to fourfold increase in outside air requirements for many commercial building applications, compared to the 1981 version of the standard. To mitigate or nullify these additional weather loads, outdoor air preconditioning technologies are being promoted in combination with conventional HVAC operations downstream as a means to deliver the required fresh air and control humidity indoors. Preconditioning is the term applied for taking outside air to the indoor air setpoint (dry bulb temperature and relative humidity). The large humidity loads from outside air can now be readily recognized and quantified at cooling design point conditions using the extreme humidity ratios/dew points presented in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals Chapter 26 "Climatic Design Information". This paper presents an annual index called the Ventilation Load Index (VLI), recently developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) that measures the magnitude of latent (and sensible) loads for preconditioning outside air to indoor space conditions over the come of an entire year. The VLI has units of ton-hrs/scfm of outside air. The loads are generated using new weather data binning software called ~BinMaker, also from GRI, that organizes the 239 city, 8760 hour by hour, TMY2 weather data into user selected bidtables. The VLI provides a simple methodology for accessing the cooling load impact of increased ventilation air volumes and a potential basis for defining a "humid" climate location.

Kosar, D.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Energy Audits in Process Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emphasis is placed on practical considerations in the effective organization and execution of a successful in-house energy audit of a process unit, based upon experience gained in several such audits of Gulf Coast petrochemical units. Staffing requirements, membership qualifications, probable time span for the audit, cost-benefit ratios, and necessary line management commitment are discussed. The scope and importance of pre-audit preparation and related responsibilities are explained. Activities of the Audit Team are likely to fall naturally into six general phases, each of which is reviewed in detail.

Corwin, J. D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Interruptible load control for Taiwan Power Company  

SciTech Connect

Load management is the planning and implementation of those utility activities designed to influence customer use of electricity in ways that will produce desired changes in the utility's load shape. Interruptible load program is an option of load management which provides incentive rate to customers to interrupt or reduce the power demand during the system peak period or emergency condition. Therefore, how to design a proper incentive rate is the most important issue in implementing this program. This paper describes three alternatives designed for the interruptible load program, one of which was activated by Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) and some preliminary results were obtained. The effect of the interruptible load to the system peak demand reduction and the change of daily load curve for large industrial customers were analyzed. This paper estimates the avoided cost and design more appropriate incentive rate structure for interruptible load program.

Chen, C.S.; Leu, J.T. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (TW))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Loads on drillpipe during jarring operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jarring implies heavy loads on the drillstring. The highest load on the drillpipe before jarring is at the rig floor. This paper discusses loads on drillpipe before, under, and after jarring. The authors show that for most situations, the shock wave from the jar impact does not imply additional load on the drillpipe compared with static load. The theoretical results are confirmed by measurements of a jarring operation with stuck point at [approx] 1,200 m measured depth. Loads on the drillpipe can be a limited factor in jarring operations because fear of possible additional loads from jarring dynamics may restrict the trip force (overpull) on the jar. The main conclusion is that dynamic jar forces do not give additional loads on drillpipe. This information can be used to set an optimal trip force on the jar.

Aarrestad, T.V.; Kyllingstad, A.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Load Scheduling with Profile Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Within the past five years, many manufactureshave added hardware performance counters to their microprocessors to generate profile data cheaply.Translating aggregate data such as basic block execution frequencies from the executable to the com-piler intermediate representation is fairly straightforward. In this paper, we show how to use Com-paq's DCPI tool to determine load latencies which are at a fine, instruction granularity and then usethem to provide fodder for improving instruction scheduling. We validate our heuristic for usingDCPI latency data to classify loads as hits and misses against simulation numbers, demonstratingthat we can gather correct latencies cheaply at runtime. We map our classification into the Multiflowcompiler's intermediate representation, and use a locality sensitive Balanced scheduling algorithm. Ourexperiments illustrate that our algorithm has the potential to improve run times by up to 10 % on a Com-paq Alpha when compared to Balanced scheduling, but that a variety of pitfalls make consistent im-provements difficult to attain. 1 Introduction In this paper, we explore how to use hardware per-formance counters to produce fine grain latency information to improve compiler scheduling. We usethis information to hide latencies with any avail\\Lambda The authors

unknown authors

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Load Management - A Better Way  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ohio Edison Company serves about 800,000 customers in Ohio and Pennsylvania, making it one of the 20 largest electric utilities in the nation. The 'cost of service' concept has been basic to rate design throughout the history of the company, and is evident today as the demand related charges have escalated in recent rate cases reflecting the higher costs of installing new generating facilities at today's high construction and financing costs. This paper will describe one of the many applications of load management techniques which has enabled the company to shift well over 100,000 kilowatts of customer load from the on-peak period to the off-peak period in the last four to five years. This is helping delay the need for new plants and allows existing plants to be more fully utilized, resulting in lower costs to customers who use their electric service wisely and possibly lower rate increases in the future than would have been required otherwise.

Easley, J. F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Spinning reserve from hotel load response  

SciTech Connect

Even though preliminary tests were not conducted during times of highest system or hotel loading during the summer, they showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22 to 37 percent depending on the outdoor temperature and time of day. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator's command to shed load was issued and the load drop was very rapid. (author)

Kirby, Brendan; Kueck, John; Laughner, Theo; Morris, Keith

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Load Shape Library Version 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The downloadable report details EPRI's efforts to develop a framework of a load database and web-accessible repository of end-use and whole-premise data for application to energy efficiency assessments. The tool provides access to the best available end-use load data and whole-premise data by sector, region and building type. Improved end-use load research data will benefit load forecasters, system planners, energy efficiency program managers and rate design analysts by facilitating integration ...

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

412

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT: CAMPUS ADDRESS: JOB TITLE: DEPARTMENT EMAIL ADDRESS: DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE: 2014 FRANKLIN STAFF EXCELLENCE AWARDS START DATE IN DEPARTMENT / UNIT: Nominee Information NAME / RESEARCHPROFESSIONAL Signature of Head / Director of Nominee's Unit: NOMINATION PACKET DEADLINE: MARCH 7, 2014 PLEASE

Arnold, Jonathan

413

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT: CAMPUS ADDRESS: JOB TITLE: DEPARTMENT EMAIL ADDRESS: DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE: 2012 FRANKLIN STAFF EXCELLENCE AWARDS START DATE IN DEPARTMENT / UNIT: Nominee Information NAME / RESEARCHPROFESSIONAL Signature of Head / Director of Nominee's Unit: NOMINATION PACKET DEADLINE: FRIDAY MARCH 2, 2012

Arnold, Jonathan

414

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT: CAMPUS ADDRESS: JOB TITLE: DEPARTMENT EMAIL ADDRESS: DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE: 2011 FRANKLIN STAFF EXCELLENCE AWARDS START DATE IN DEPARTMENT / UNIT: Nominee Information NAME / RESEARCHPROFESSIONAL Signature of Head / Director of Nominee's Unit: NOMINATION PACKET DEADLINE: FRIDAY MARCH 4, 2011

Arnold, Jonathan

415

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nomination Form DEPARTMENT / UNIT: CAMPUS ADDRESS: JOB TITLE: DEPARTMENT EMAIL ADDRESS: DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE: 2013 FRANKLIN STAFF EXCELLENCE AWARDS START DATE IN DEPARTMENT / UNIT: Nominee Information NAME / RESEARCHPROFESSIONAL Signature of Head / Director of Nominee's Unit: NOMINATION PACKET DEADLINE: MARCH 5, 2013 PLEASE

Arnold, Jonathan

416

Dynamic simulation and load-following control of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load-following control of future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture is expected to be far more challenging as electricity produced by renewable energy is connected to the grid and strict environmental limits become mandatory requirements. To study control performance during load following, a plant-wide dynamic simulation of a coal-fed IGCC plant with CO{sub 2} capture has been developed. The slurry-fed gasifier is a single-stage, downward-fired, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow type with a radiant syngas cooler (RSC). The syngas from the outlet of the RSC goes to a scrubber followed by a two-stage sour shift process with inter-stage cooling. The acid gas removal (AGR) process is a dual-stage physical solvent-based process for selective removal of H{sub 2}S in the first stage and CO{sub 2} in the second stage. Sulfur is recovered using a Claus unit with tail gas recycle to the AGR. The recovered CO{sub 2} is compressed by a split-shaft multistage compressor and sent for sequestration after being treated in an absorber with triethylene glycol for dehydration. The clean syngas is sent to two advanced “F”-class gas turbines (GTs) partially integrated with an elevated-pressure air separation unit. A subcritical steam cycle is used for heat recovery steam generation. A treatment unit for the sour water strips off the acid gases for utilization in the Claus unit. The steady-state model developed in Aspen Plus® is converted to an Aspen Plus Dynamics® simulation and integrated with MATLAB® for control studies. The results from the plant-wide dynamic model are compared qualitatively with the data from a commercial plant having different configuration, operating condition, and feed quality than what has been considered in this work. For load-following control, the GT-lead with gasifier-follow control strategy is considered. A modified proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control is considered for the syngas pressure control. For maintaining the desired CO{sub 2} capture rate while load-following, a linear model predictive controller (LMPC) is implemented in MATLAB®. A combined process and disturbance model is identified by considering a number of model forms and choosing the final model based on an information-theoretic criterion. The performance of the LMPC is found to be superior to the conventional PID control for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture rates in an IGCC power plant while load following.

Bhattacharyya, D,; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The renewable supply may comprise, for example, a photovoltaic power supply or a wind-based power supply.

Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Properly Evaluating load-following products  

SciTech Connect

The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Glossary of terms related to load management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Part I of the Glossary of Terms related to Load Management has been prepared by the Terminology Task Force of the Load Management Subcommittee. The glossary contains many definitions of terms used by the electric utility industry concerning the subject of Load Management. The terms are listed in alphabetical order and cross-referenced where necessary.

Gellings, C.W.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Domestic load scheduling using genetic algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An approach using a genetic algorithm to optimize the scheduling of domestic electric loads, according to technical and user-defined constraints and input signals, is presented and illustrative results are shown. The aim is minimizing the end-user's ... Keywords: automated energy management, domestic load scheduling, electric loads, genetic algorithms

Ana Soares; Állvaro Gomes; Carlos Henggeler Antunes; Hugo Cardoso

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Neural-wavelet Methodology for Load Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intelligent demand-side management represents a future trend of power system regulation. A key issue in intelligent demand-side management is accurate prediction of load within a local area grid (LAG), which is defined as a set of customers with an appropriate ... Keywords: load forecasting, load identification, neural-wavelet

Rong Gao; Lefteri H. Tsoukalas

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Adaptive load sharing for network processors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel scheme for processing packets in a router is presented that provides load sharing among multiple network processors distributed within the router. It is complemented by a feedback control mechanism designed to prevent processor overload. Incoming ... Keywords: computer networks, feedback control, load balancing, load sharing, packet processing, router architecture

Lukas Kencl; Jean-Yves Le Boudec

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Performance Testing of a Flywheel-Based Uninterruptible Power Supply  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performance testing of a fully integrated flywheel-based uninterruptible power supply (UPS) confirmed that the Caterpillar UPS 250 unit offers an innovative power quality solution for a broad range of industrial and commercial applications. It provides stored energy, immediately available, to protect critical loads against temporary power disturbances such as outages, sags, and surges. This report provides complete details of performance testing of the UPS system, including test instrumentation and setup...

2002-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

424

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Research Search More Search Options Site Map Photo of Advanced Automotive Manikin Reducing fuel consumption by air conditioning systems is the focus of Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) activities at NREL. About 7 billion gallons of fuel-about 5.5% of total national light-duty vehicle fuel use-are used annually just to cool light-duty vehicles in the United States. That's why our VALR team works with industry to help increase fuel economy and reduce tailpipe emissions by reducing the ancillary loads requirements in vehicles while maintaining the thermal comfort of the passengers. Approaches include improved cabin insulation, advanced window systems, advanced cooling and venting systems, and heat generated cooling. Another focus of the VALR project is ADAM, the ADvanced Automotive Manikin

425

LITERATURE REVIEW ON MAXIMUM LOADING OF RADIONUCLIDES ON CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE  

SciTech Connect

Plans are underway to use small column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions at Savannah River Site. The ion exchange material slated for the SCIX project is engineered or granular crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Information on the maximum loading of radionuclides on CST is needed by Savannah River Remediation for safety evaluations. A literature review has been conducted that culminated in the estimation of the maximum loading of all but one of the radionuclides of interest (Cs-137, Sr-90, Ba-137m, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Am-241, and Cm-244). No data was found for Cm-244.

Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

426

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Physiological Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physiological Model Physiological Model The Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction team developed a three-dimensional model to simulate human internal thermal physiological systems (muscle, blood, etc.) and thermoregulatory responses such as metabolic heat generation. The model was developed with ANSYS, a finite element software which computes heat flow by conduction, convection, and mass transport of the blood. A human tissue system model represents the human body, including the physiological and thermal properties of the tissues. The arms and legs consist of bone, muscle, fat, and skin. There are additional lung, abdominal, and brain tissues in the torso and head zones. The model calculates the conduction heat transfer based on the temperature gradients between the tissue nodes. Blood flow is modeled with a network of supply

427

Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)  

SciTech Connect

Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete. (DLC)

Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

1978-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

428

Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a multi-disciplinary modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. Our results have shown that by the mid-century, building yearly energy consumption and peak load will increase in the Southwest. Moreover, the peak load months will spread out to not only the summer months but also spring and autumn months. The Pacific Northwest will experience more hot days in the summer months. The penetration of the air conditioning (a/c) system in this area is likely to increase significantly over the years. As a result, some locations in the Pacific Northwest may be shifted from winter peaking to summer peaking. Overall, the Western U.S. grid may see more simultaneous peaks across the North and South in summer months. Increased cooling load will result in a significant increase in the motor load, which consumes more reactive power and requires stronger voltage support from the grid. This study suggests an increasing need for the industry to implement new technology to increase the efficiency of temperature-sensitive loads and apply proper protection and control to prevent possible adverse impacts of a/c motor loads.

Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Xie, YuLong; Leung, Lai R.; Correia, James; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Paget, Maria L.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

429

1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect

The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Adaptive Load Forecasting Philip Anton de Saint-Aubain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mathematical models for the heat load. Based on district heating consumption data from four houses in a small taken is to reveal the details in the heating consumption in resi- dential houses by developing the heating signals into different components. One of the models is able to split the overall consumption

431

Managing plug-loads for demand response within buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed and accurate energy accounting is an important first step in improving energy efficiency within buildings. Based on this information, building managers can perform active energy management, especially during demand response situations that require ... Keywords: energy management, energy metering, plug-loads management, wireless sensor network

Thomas Weng; Bharathan Balaji; Seemanta Dutta; Rajesh Gupta; Yuvraj Agarwal

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Electric Load Prediction Using a Bilinear Recurrent Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A prediction scheme of electric load using a Bilinear Recurrent Neural Network (BRNN) is proposed in this paper. Since the BRNN is based on the bilinear polynomial, BRNN has been successfully used in modeling highly nonlinear systems with time-series ... Keywords: recurrent, neural network, forecasting, electricity

Jae-Young Kim; Dong-Chul Park; Dong-Min Woo

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

An Analysis of a Combined Hardware-software Mechanism for Speculative Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a simple hardware mechanism and related compiler support for softwarecontrolled speculative loads. The compiler issues speculative load instructions based on anticipated data references and the ability of the memory system to hide memory latency in high-performance processors. The architectural support for such a mechanism is simple and minimal, yet handles faults gracefully. We have simulated three speculative load mechanisms based on a MIPS processor and a detailed memory system. The results of scientific kernel loops indicate that speculative load techniques can hide memory latency effectively.

Stefanos Damianakis; Kai Li; Anne Rogers

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Low cutter load raise head  

SciTech Connect

A raise head having a multiplicity of cutters for enlarging a pilot hole into a larger diameter hole by disintegrating the earth formations that surround the pilot hole is provided that will require lower cutter loads to penetrate the formations being bored by directing the rock fracture planes toward the pilot hole forcing the rock to yield with less input energy. The cutters are positioned on the raise head to provide an earth formation contact profile with a major portion of said earth formation contact profile extending outward and upward from said pilot hole. The included angle between the major portion of the earth formation contact profile and the axis of the pilot hole is less than 90/sup 0/.

Saxman, W.C.

1981-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Kinesin's backsteps under mechanical load  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kinesins move processively toward the plus end of microtubules by hydrolyzing ATP for each step. From an enzymatic perspective, the mechanism of mechanical motion coupled to the nucleotide chemistry is often well explained using a single-loop cyclic reaction. However, several difficulties arise in interpreting kinesin's backstepping within this framework, especially when external forces oppose the motion of kinesin. We review evidence, such as an ATP-independent stall force and a slower cycle time for backsteps, that has emerged to challenge the idea that kinesin backstepping is due to ATP synthesis, i.e., the reverse cycle of kinesin's forward-stepping chemomechanics. Supplementing the conventional single-loop chemomechanics with routes for ATP-hydrolyzing backward steps and nucleotide-free steps, especially under load, gives a better physical interpretation of the experimental data on backsteps.

Changbong Hyeon; Stefan Klumpp; José N. Onuchic

2009-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

436

Analysis Methodology for Industrial Load Profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology is provided for evaluating the impact of various demand-side management (DSM) options on industrial customers. The basic approach uses customer metered load profile data as a basis for the customer load shape. DSM technologies are represented as load shapes and are used as a basis for altering the customers existing measured load shape. The impact of load shape changes on the customer is evaluated in terms of a change in the electric bill by using a software analytical tool called LOADEXPERT™. The software calculates the customer's bill for a particular rate structure and a given load shape. The output data from LOADEXPERT™ are used to calculate the rate of return on the DSM technology investment. Other uses of load profile data are provided.

Reddoch, T. W.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Properly sized electric motors are essential if industrial plant efficiency is to be optimized and energy costs minimized. Because of the difficulty in making power measurements on three phase motors, loading is rarely, if ever, checked. A simple indication of motor load can be achieved by measuring operating speed because speed and load are almost linearly related. The decrease in motor speed from no load conditions, referred to as slip, can be determined with a non-contact, optical tachometer. Field measurements of motor slip were conducted at a textile plant to quantify motor load conditions. To verify the relationship between operating speed and load, measurements of motor power consumption on a representative number of motors were also conducted. The results of the motor survey, including number of motors, size, and load, are summarized in this paper along with an estimate of the savings from replacing oversized motors.

Brown, M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY UNITED TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION (UNITED  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC04-02AL67610, DOE WAIVER NO. W(A) 02-026. The Petitioner, United Technologies, acting through the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), has requested a waiver of all domestic and foreign pateni rights to inventions that may be conceived or first actually reduced to practice in the course of UTRC's work as the prime contractor under Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC04- 02AL67610 entitled "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAIH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The work to be done will be the design, development and evaluation of a nydrogen storage medium and system based on NaAIH4 with a 5 kg hydrogen storage capacity and

439

Feature Tracking on the Unit Sphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Techniques used in a previous study of the objective identification and tracking of meteorological features in model data are extended to the unit sphere. An alternative feature detection scheme is described based on cubic interpolation for the ...

K. I. Hodges

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

2nd RESPOND project Workshop "Id tifi ti d l f k t b d ti"Identification and analyses of market-based response options  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(heat pumps, hybrid electric cars) #12;Gross list of response options ­ examples GENERATION DEMAND TRADE the RES-E and DG(CCGT) Gas engine Hydro power plant (PP) Conventional units, base load : St t bi ( l i d storage (SMES) Hydrogen-Fuel cell storage system (HFCSS) Supercapacitors Pumped hydro storage

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

CO2 Emissions - United Korea  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Centrally Planned Asia United Korea CO2 Emissions from United Korea Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from United Korea...

442

Experience with automatic, dynamic load balancing and adaptive finite element computation  

SciTech Connect

Distributed memory, Massively Parallel (MP), MIMD technology has enabled the development of applications requiring computational resources previously unobtainable. Structural mechanics and fluid dynamics applications, for example, are often solved by finite element methods (FEMs) requiring, millions of degrees of freedom to accurately simulate physical phenomenon. Adaptive methods, which automatically refine or coarsen meshes and vary the order of accuracy of the numerical solution, offer greater robustness and computational efficiency than traditional FEMs by reducing the amount of computation required away from physical structures such as shock waves and boundary layers. On MP computers, FEMs frequently result in distributed processor load imbalances. To overcome load imbalance, many MP FEMs use static load balancing as a preprocessor to the finite element calculation. Adaptive methods complicate the load imbalance problem since the work per element is not uniform across the solution domain and changes as the computation proceeds. Therefore, dynamic load balancing is required to maintain global load balance. We describe a dynamic, fine-grained, element-based data migration system that maintains global load balance and is effective in the presence of changing work loads. Global load balance is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method utilizes an automatic element management system library to which a programmer integrates the application`s computational description. The library`s flexibility supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications.

Wheat, S.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Devine, K.D. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Maccabe, A.B. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Electrical load management for the California water system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To meet its water needs California has developed an extensive system for transporting water from areas with high water runoff to areas with high water demand. This system annually consumes more than 6 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity for pumping water and produces more than 12 billion kWh/year of hydroelectric power. From the point of view of energy conservation, the optimum operation of the California water supply system would require that pumping be done at night and generation be done during the day. Night pumping would reduce electric power peak load demand and permit the pumps to be supplied with electricity from ''base load'' generating plants. Daytime hydro power generation would augment peak load power generation by fossil-fuel power plants and save fuel. The technical and institutional aspects of this type of electric power load management for water projects are examined for the purpose of explaining some of the actions which might be pursued and to develop recommendations for the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (ERCDC). The California water supply system is described. A brief description is given of various energy conservation methods, other than load management, that can be used in the management of water resources. An analysis of load management is presented. Three actions for the ERCDC are recommended: the Commission should monitor upcoming power contract negotiations between the utilities and the water projects; it should determine the applicability of the power-pooling provisions of the proposed National Energy Act to water systems; and it should encourage and support detailed studies of load management methods for specific water projects.

Krieg, B.; Lasater, I.; Blumstein, C.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Field Test Protocol: Standard Internal Load Generation in Unoccupied Test Homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Power Quality for T&D: Grid IQ Circuit Analysis Using 2030 Load Mix Projections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the key sources of harmonic injections into the distribution systems is usage of power electronics in residential and commercial loads, and the proportion of power electronics-based loads can be expected to increase in the future. This expectation is supported by data on projected trends in electricity consumption for different load types in both residential and commercial categories for 2010–2035 published in Annual Energy Outlook 2011 with Projections to 2035 by the U.S. ...

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

446

Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

447

BNL United Way Campaign  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

about Long Island issues and challenges. Because we care, we come together to raise money towards The United Way of Long Island, which provides "services to children and...

448

United States Government  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

to this report. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CERN, in collaboration with the United States (U.S.) and other non-member states,...

449

Redefining the SI Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and accuracy, simplify and normalize the unit definitions, and liberate the system from dependence on the prototype kilogram, an artifact adopted in ...

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

450

United States Patent  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

( 1 of 1 ) United States Patent 6,994,831 Gentile , et al. February 7, 2006 Oxidative tritium decontamination system Abstract The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS,...

451

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Appliances in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East South...

452

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Home Appliances in Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census Division",,,"Middle...

453

Rooftop Unit Campaign  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

919-943-7291 April 4, 2013 BTO Program Review 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives - Problem Statement * Packaged rooftop units (RTUs)...

454

United States Government  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

'OQOl - United States Government - Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration memorandum January 19, 201 1 DATE. REPLY TO ATTN OF: Y12-60:Gorman SUBJECT ANNUAL...

455

UnitOverview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

UNIT OVERVIEW A general overview of LHC physics, accelerator and detector design, and how data inform claims and reasoning begins with an exploration of the "Big Questions" that...

456

Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Docket No. EO-05-01: TRC Environmental Corporation (TRC) of Lowell, Massachusetts was retained by Mirant Potomac River, LLC (Mirant) to provide sampling and analytical support in completing a Particulate Emission Test of Unit 1 of the Potomac River generating facility. The Test Program at the Potomac facility involved the completion of two series of emissions tests for particulate matter (PM), the first during normal unit operation and the second with the injection of TRONA upstream of hot side ESP fields. All tests were completed while Unit 1 was operating at 90% of full load (84MW)

457

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (Redirected from United Nations Environment Programme) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: United Nations Environment Programme Name United Nations Environment Programme Address United Nations Avenue, Gigiri PO Box 30552, 00100 Place Nairobi, Kenya Phone number (254-20) 7621234 Coordinates -1.23224986037°, 36.815630436° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":-1.23224986037,"lon":36.815630436,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

458

Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Wind loading on solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors has been reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, have been compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, have been estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L.M.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Profile Guided Load Marking for Memory Renaming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Memory operations remain a significant bottleneck in dynamically scheduled pipelined processors, due in part to the inability to statically determine the existence of memory address dependencies. Hardware memory renaming techniques have been proposed which predict which stores a load might be dependent upon. These prediction techniques can be used to speculatively forward a value from a predicted store dependency to a load through a value prediction table; however, these techniques require large and time-consuming hardware tables. In this paper we propose a software-guided approach for identifying dependencies between store and load instructions and the Load Marking (LM) architecture to communicate these dependencies to the hardware. Compiler analysis and profiles are used to find important store/load relationships, and these relationships are identified during execution via hints or an n-bit tag. For those loads that are not marked for renaming, we then use additional profiling inform...

Glenn Reinman; Brad Calder; Dean Tullsen; Gary Tyson; Todd Austin

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "base load unit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Assessment of Industrial-Sector Load Shapes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The load shapes of industrial-sector customers are becoming increasingly important for utility forecasting, marketing, and demand-side management planning and evaluation activities. This report analyzes load shapes for various industry segments and investigates the transfer of these load shapes across service territories. This report is available only to funders of Program 101A or 101.001. Funders may download this report at http://my.primen.com/Applications/DE/Community/index.asp .

1993-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

462

Trends in electric utility load duration curves  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development and analysis of annual and quarterly load duration curves for each of the 10 Federal regions. The report describes analyses performed to test for changes in load duration curve shapes over time. These analyses are intended to aid the electric utility analyses and modeling activities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) by expanding the understanding of current and expected load duration curve shapes. 7 figs., 13 tabs.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Loads, capacity, and failure rate modeling  

SciTech Connect

Both failure rate and load capacity (stress-strength) interferenece methodologies are employed in the reliability analysis at nuclear facilities. Both of the above have been utilized in a heuristic failure rate model in terms of load capacity inference. Analytical solutions are used to demonstrate that infant mortality and random aging failures may be expressed implicity in terms of capacity variability, load variability, and capacity deterioration, and that mode interactions play a role in the formation of the bathtub curve for failure rates.

Lewis, E.E.; Chen, Hsin-Chieh

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

464

Reservoir compaction loads on casings and liners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pressure drawdown due to production from a reservoir causes compaction of the reservoir formation which induces axial and radial loads on the wellbore. Reservoir compaction loads increase during the production life of a well, and are greater for deviated wells. Presented here are casing and liner loads at initial and final pressure drawdowns for a particular reservoir and at well deviation angles of 0 to 45 degrees.

Wooley, G.R.; Prachner, W.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

Mathew, Paul A.

2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

466

1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates our 1990 study. BPS's long-range planning incorporates resource availability with a range of forecasted electrical consumption. The forecasted future electrical demands-firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, then additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. This study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for 1992- 2012.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Facies architecture and reservoir quality of Unit B, Permian Laingsburg Formation, southwestern Karoo Basin, South Africa.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study presents a facies outcrop characterization and petrographical analysis of Unit B of the Permian Laingsburg Formation. Unit B is interpreted as a base-ofslope… (more)

Lombard, Donovan Joseph

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

OpenEI Community - load profile  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

/0 en Commercial and /0 en Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! http://en.openei.org/community/blog/commercial-and-residential-hourly-load-data-now-available-openei <span class=Load data" src="http://en.openei.org/community/files/load_data_figure_small.jpg" style="width:527px; height:285px" title="" />Image source: NREL 

Files: 
application/zip icon

469

Effect of Nonproportional Loadings on Ductile Fracture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, This study aims at understanding the effects of load path ... D-2: Forging of Magnesium Alloy by Impulsive Energy at Room Temperature.

470

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Laboratory Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

VALR Lab. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction Laboratory houses ADAM, our advanced thermal manikin, as well as a passenger compartment climate simulator, testing equipment...

471

Thermoplastic Flour Containing Eugenol-loaded Chitosan ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Thermoplastic Flour Containing Eugenol-loaded Chitosan ... Properties of AA 7075 Reinforced with Nanometric ZrO2 Obtained by Ball-milling.

472

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Load Express  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Create project files with Load Express in just 4 easy steps. Select a weather profile, enter simulation parameters, define the zonesrooms in the building and create air handler...

473

Summary Max Total Units  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Max Total Units Max Total Units *If All Splits, No Rack Units **If Only FW, AC Splits 1000 52 28 28 2000 87 59 35 3000 61 33 15 4000 61 33 15 Totals 261 153 93 ***Costs $1,957,500.00 $1,147,500.00 $697,500.00 Notes: added several refrigerants removed bins from analysis removed R-22 from list 1000lb, no Glycol, CO2 or ammonia Seawater R-404A only * includes seawater units ** no seawater units included *** Costs = (total units) X (estimate of $7500 per unit) 1000lb, air cooled split systems, fresh water Refrig Voltage Cond Unit IF-CU Combos 2 4 5 28 References Refrig Voltage C-U type Compressor HP R-404A 208/1/60 Hermetic SA 2.5 R-507 230/1/60 Hermetic MA 2.5 208/3/60 SemiHerm SA 1.5 230/3/60 SemiHerm MA 1.5 SemiHerm HA 1.5 1000lb, remote rack systems, fresh water Refrig/system Voltage Combos 12 2 24 References Refrig/system Voltage IF only

474

Composite stabilizer unit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an improved fin stabilized projectile including multiple stabilizer fins upon a stabilizer unit situated at the aft end of the projectile is provided, the improvement wherein the stabilizer fins are joined into the stabilizer unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer.

Ebaugh, L.R.; Sadler, C.P.; Carter, G.D.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

475

Composite stabilizer unit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an improved fin stabilized projectile including multiple stabilizer fins upon a stabilizer unit situated at the aft end of the projectile is provided, the improvement wherein the stabilizer fins are joined into the stabilizer unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer.