National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for base load generation

  1. A systems model and potential leverage points for base load electric generating options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Price, L.G.; Sebo, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    The mission and structure of electric utilities may change significantly to meet the challenges on the next several decades. In addition, providing electrical energy in an environmentally responsible manner will continue to be a major challenge. The methods of supplying electrical power may change dramatically in the future as utilities search for ways to improve the availability and reliability of electrical power systems. The role of large, base load generating capacity to supply the bulk of a utility`s electrical power is evolving, but it will continue to be important for many years to come. The objective of this study is to examine the systems structure of five base load capacity options available to a utility and identify areas where technological improvements could produce significant changes in their systems. These improvements would enhance the likelihood that these options would be selected for providing future electrical capacity. Technology improvements are identified and discussed, but it was beyond the scope of this work to develop strategies for specific Idaho National Engineering Laboratory involvement.

  2. Field Test Protocol. Standard Internal Load Generation for Unoccupied Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

    2011-06-01

    This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

  3. Field Test Protocol: Standard Internal Load Generation in Unoccupied Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

    2011-06-01

    This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

  4. High-power radio frequency pulse generation and extration based on wakefield excited by an intense charged particle beam in dielectric-loaded waveguides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, F.; High Energy Physics; Illinois Inst. of Tech

    2009-07-24

    Power extraction using a dielectric-loaded (DL) waveguide is a way to generate high-power radio frequency (RF) waves for future particle accelerators, especially for two-beam-acceleration. In a two-beam-acceleration scheme, a low-energy, high-current particle beam is passed through a deceleration section of waveguide (decelerator), where the power from the beam is partially transferred to trailing electromagnetic waves (wakefields); then with a properly designed RF output coupler, the power generated in the decelerator is extracted to an output waveguide, where finally the power can be transmitted and used to accelerate another usually high-energy low-current beam. The decelerator, together with the RF output coupler, is called a power extractor. At Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA), we designed a 7.8GHz power extractor with a circular DL waveguide and tested it with single electron bunches and bunch trains. The output RF frequency (7.8GHz) is the sixth harmonic of the operational frequency (1.3GHz) of the electron gun and the linac at AWA. In single bunch excitation, a 1.7ns RF pulse with 30MW of power was generated by a single 66nC electron bunch passing through the decelerator. In subsequent experiments, by employing different splitting-recombining optics for the photoinjector laser, electron bunch trains were generated and thus longer RF pulses could be successfully generated and extracted. In 16-bunch experiments, 10ns and 22ns RF pulses have been generated and extracted; and in 4-bunch experiments, the maximum power generated was 44MW with 40MW extracted. A 26GHz DL power extractor has also been designed to test this technique in the millimeter-wave range. A power level of 148MW is expected to be generated by a bunch train with a bunch spacing of 769ps and bunch charges of 20nC each. The arrangement for the experiment is illustrated in a diagram. Higher-order-mode (HOM) power extraction has also been explored in a dual-frequency design. By using a bunch

  5. MHD generator with improved network coupling electrodes to a load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosa, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    An MHD generator has a plurality of segmented electrodes extending longitudinally of a duct, whereby progressively increasing high DC voltages are derived from a set of cathode electrodes and progressively increasing low DC voltages are derived from a set of anode electrodes. First and second load terminals are respectively connected to the cathode and anode electrodes by separate coupling networks, each of which includes a number of SCR's and a number of diode rectifiers.

  6. INVESTING IN NEW BASE LOAD GENERATING CAPACITY

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... comprehensive GHG policy for the U.S. with international linkages * Implement a demonstration program to "prove out" cost and availability facts for CCS (See MIT "Future of ...

  7. Development of a Stiffness-Based Chemistry Load Balancing Scheme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a Stiffness-Based Chemistry Load Balancing Scheme, and Optimization of IO and Communication, to Enable Massively Parallel High-Fidelity Internal Combustion Engine Simulations...

  8. Breakout Session: Solar as a Base Load Power Source | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Does solar have a future as a base load electricity source? This session explores a vision in which solar power plants can provide dispatchability, predictability, and reliability ...

  9. Property:Distributed Generation System Power Application | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + Based Load + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Based Load + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Based Load + Distributed...

  10. Integration of MHD load models with circuit representations the Z generator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Jones, Brent Manley; McBride, Ryan D.; Bailey, James E.; Jones, Michael C.; Gomez, Matthew Robert.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Nakhleh, Charles; Stygar, William A.; Savage, Mark Edward; Wagoner, Timothy C.; Moore, James K.

    2013-03-01

    MHD models of imploding loads fielded on the Z accelerator are typically driven by reduced or simplified circuit representations of the generator. The performance of many of the imploding loads is critically dependent on the current and power delivered to them, so may be strongly influenced by the generators response to their implosion. Current losses diagnosed in the transmission lines approaching the load are further known to limit the energy delivery, while exhibiting some load dependence. Through comparing the convolute performance of a wide variety of short pulse Z loads we parameterize a convolute loss resistance applicable between different experiments. We incorporate this, and other current loss terms into a transmission line representation of the Z vacuum section. We then apply this model to study the current delivery to a wide variety of wire array and MagLif style liner loads.

  11. Integration of Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Ma, Jian; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Loutan, Clyde; Guttromson, Ross T.

    2010-04-20

    In this paper, a new approach to evaluate the uncertainty ranges for the required generation performance envelope, including the balancing capacity, ramping capability and ramp duration is presented. The approach includes three stages: statistical and actual data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of future grid balancing requirements for specified time horizons and confidence intervals. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on a histogram analysis incorporating all sources of uncertainty and parameters of a continuous (wind forecast and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and failures to start up) nature. Preliminary simulations using California Independent System Operator (CAISO) real life data have shown the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  12. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind and solar power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation), and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind/solar forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. To improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter

  13. Wind Energy Management System Integration Project Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-09-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation) and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. In order to improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively, by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique

  14. An Optimized Autoregressive Forecast Error Generator for Wind and Load Uncertainty Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Mello, Phillip; Lu, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2011-01-17

    This paper presents a first-order autoregressive algorithm to generate real-time (RT), hour-ahead (HA), and day-ahead (DA) wind and load forecast errors. The methodology aims at producing random wind and load forecast time series reflecting the autocorrelation and cross-correlation of historical forecast data sets. Five statistical characteristics are considered: the means, standard deviations, autocorrelations, and cross-correlations. A stochastic optimization routine is developed to minimize the differences between the statistical characteristics of the generated time series and the targeted ones. An optimal set of parameters are obtained and used to produce the RT, HA, and DA forecasts in due order of succession. This method, although implemented as the first-order regressive random forecast error generator, can be extended to higher-order. Results show that the methodology produces random series with desired statistics derived from real data sets provided by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). The wind and load forecast error generator is currently used in wind integration studies to generate wind and load inputs for stochastic planning processes. Our future studies will focus on reflecting the diurnal and seasonal differences of the wind and load statistics and implementing them in the random forecast generator.

  15. Polyamidoamine Dendrimer-Based Binders for High-Loading Lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Polyamidoamine Dendrimer-Based Binders for High-Loading Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as one of the most promising candidates ...

  16. Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The report summarizes the load flow model construction, simulation, and validation and describes the general capabilities of an information query system designed to access load ...

  17. Thermophotovoltaic generators based on gallium antimonide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khvostikov, V. P. Sorokina, S. V.; Potapovich, N. S.; Khvostikova, O. A.; Malievskaya, A. V.; Vlasov, A. S.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Timoshina, N. Kh.; Andreev, V. M.

    2010-02-15

    Designs of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generators with infrared emitters heated by concentrated solar radiation are developed, fabricated, and tested. Emitters made of SiC, W, or Ta of various forms and sizes are studied. To the GaSb-based thermophotovoltaic cells, the efficiency of transformation of thermal radiation of W emitters was 19%. The features of operation of two variants of TPV generators, namely, of cylindrical and conical types, are considered. In a demonstration model of the TPV generator consisting of 12 photocells, the output electric power with conversion of the concentrated solar radiation was P = 3.8 W.

  18. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-26

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Optical based tactile shear and normal load sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salisbury, Curt Michael

    2015-06-09

    Various technologies described herein pertain to a tactile sensor that senses normal load and/or shear load. The tactile sensor includes a first layer and an optically transparent layer bonded together. At least a portion of the first layer is made of optically reflective material. The optically transparent layer is made of resilient material (e.g., clear silicone rubber). The tactile sensor includes light emitter/light detector pair(s), which respectively detect either normal load or shear load. Light emitter(s) emit light that traverses through the optically transparent layer and reflects off optically reflective material of the first layer, and light detector(s) detect and measure intensity of reflected light. When a normal load is applied, the optically transparent layer compresses, causing a change in reflected light intensity. When shear load is applied, a boundary between optically reflective material and optically absorptive material is laterally displaced, causing a change in reflected light intensity.

  20. Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel Engine...

  1. Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 Q1 Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 ...

  2. Economizer recirculation for low-load stability in heat recovery steam generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuscino, R.T.; Shade, R.L. Jr.

    1986-04-15

    An economizer system is described for heating feedwater in a heat recovery steam generator which consists of: at least first and second economizer tube planes; each of the economizer tube planes including a plurality of generally parallel tubes; the tubes being generally vertically disposed; each of the economizer tube planes including a top header and a bottom header; all of the plurality of tubes in each economizer tube plane being connected in parallel to their top and bottom headers whereby parallel feedwater flow through the plurality of tubes between the top and bottom headers is enabled; one of the top and bottom headers being an inlet header; a second of the top and bottom headers being an outlet header; a boiler feed pump; the boiler feed pump being effective for applying a flow of feedwater to the inlet header; means for serially interconnecting the economizer tube planes; the means for serially interconnecting including means for flowing the feedwater upward and downward in tubes of alternating ones of the economizer tube planes between the inlet header and the outlet header; means for conveying heated feedwater from the outlet header to a using process; means for recirculating at least a portion of the heated feedwater from the outlet header to an inlet of the boiler feed pump; and the means for recirculating including means for relating the portion to a steam load in the using process whereby an increased flow is produced through all of the economizer tube planes at values of the steam load below a predetermined value and a condition permitting initiation of reverse flow in any of the tubes is substantially reduced.

  3. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, James C.; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR. (authors)

  4. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, Jim; Forsberg, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR.

  5. Comparison of strength and load-based methods for testing wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musial, W.D.; Clark, M.E.; Egging, N.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two methods of blade test loading and show how they are applied in an actual blade test. Strength and load-based methods were examined to determine the test load for an Atlantic Orient Corporation (AOC) 15/50 wind turbine blade for fatigue and static testing. Fatigue load-based analysis was performed using measured field test loads extrapolated for extreme rare events and scaled to thirty-year spectra. An accelerated constant amplitude fatigue test that gives equivalent damage at critical locations was developed using Miner`s Rule and the material S-N curves. Test load factors were applied to adjust the test loads for uncertainties, and differences between the test and operating environment. Similar analyses were carried, out for the strength-based fatigue test using the strength of the blade and the material properties to determine the load level and number of constant amplitude cycles to failure. Static tests were also developed using load and strength criteria. The resulting test loads were compared and contrasted. The analysis shows that, for the AOC 15/50 blade, the strength-based test loads are higher than any of the static load-based cases considered but were exceeded in the fatigue analysis for a severe hot/wet environment.

  6. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these

  7. Simulations of Lithium-Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Gd-Loaded Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowles, Christian C.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-10-31

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Lithium-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology Coincidence Counting for Gd-loaded Fuels at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the development of a lithium-based neutron coincidence counter for nondestructively assaying Gd loaded nuclear fuel. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of a lithium-based coincidence counter for the possible measurement of Gd-loaded nuclear fuel. A comparison of lithium-based simulations and UNCL-II simulations with and without Gd loaded fuel is provided. A lithium-based model, referred to as PLNS3A-R1, showed strong promise for assaying Gd loaded fuel.

  8. The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_bunting.pdf (371.89 KB) More Documents & Publications The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel

  9. Transistor-based filter for inhibiting load noise from entering a power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taubman, Matthew S

    2013-07-02

    A transistor-based filter for inhibiting load noise from entering a power supply is disclosed. The filter includes a first transistor having an emitter coupled to a power supply, a collector coupled to a load, and a base. The filter also includes a first capacitor coupled between the base of the first transistor and a ground terminal. The filter further includes an impedance coupled between the base and a node between the collector and the load, or a second transistor and second capacitor. The impedance can be a resistor or an inductor.

  10. Transistor-based filter for inhibiting load noise from entering a power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taubman, Matthew S

    2015-02-24

    A transistor-based filter for inhibiting load noise from entering a power supply is disclosed. The filter includes a first transistor having an emitter coupled to a power supply, a collector coupled to a load, and a base. The filter also includes a first capacitor coupled between the base of the first transistor and a ground terminal The filter further includes an impedance coupled between the base and a node between the collector and the load, or a second transistor and second capacitor. The impedance can be a resistor or an inductor.

  11. Method and apparatus for transferring and injecting rf energy from a generator to a resonant load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffert, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Improved apparatus and method are provided for the coherent amplification and injection of radio-frequency (rf) energy into a load cavity using a plurality of amplifier tubes. A plurality of strip line cavities (30, 32, 34, 36, 40, 42, 44) are laterally joined to define a continuous closed cavity (48), with an amplifier tube (50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64) mounted within each resonant strip cavity. Rf energy is injected into the continuous cavity (48) from a single input (70) for coherent coupling to all of the amplifier tubes for amplification and injection into the load cavity (76).

  12. Generation of high-amplitude soliton waves in crystalline materials of different dimensions under high radiative, dynamic, and temperature loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubovsky, O. A. Orlov, A. V.

    2011-12-15

    It is shown that beams of high-amplitude supersonic breather solitons, phonons, and subsonic excitations of new type (torsions) are generated in crystalline materials of different dimensions under high radiative and dynamic loads near the stability threshold. The dispersion dependences of solitons and phonons in 1D crystals are presented. It is shown that, in 2D crystals beams consisting of six or two (depending on the bombarding particle direction), breather solitons are generated and propagate in certain crystallographic directions. The masses of soliton excitations as particles (coupled complexes of massless phonons) have been determined. It is shown that the subsonic soliton waves of a new type with torsion atomic vibrations are generated in 3D nanotubes, along with supersonic soliton waves of longitudinal vibrations.

  13. Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Heat Storage | Department of Energy Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage General Atomics logo General Atomics, under the Baseload CSP FOA, demonstrated the engineering feasibility of using a sulfur-based thermochemical cycle to store heat from a CSP plant and support baseload power generation. Approach Graphic of a diagram of squares and

  14. Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2012: Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Silicon ...

  15. Next Generation Bio-Based & Sustainable Chemicals Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 6th Annual Next Generation Bio-Based & Sustainable Chemicals Summit will be hosted in New Orleans, Louisiana, from February 3–5.

  16. Study of node and mass sensitivity of resonant mode based cantilevers with concentrated mass loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Kewei Chai, Yuesheng; Fu, Jiahui

    2015-12-15

    Resonant-mode based cantilevers are an important type of acoustic wave based mass-sensing devices. In this work, the governing vibration equation of a bi-layer resonant-mode based cantilever attached with concentrated mass is established by using a modal analysis method. The effects of resonance modes and mass loading conditions on nodes and mass sensitivity of the cantilever were theoretically studied. The results suggested that the node did not shift when concentrated mass was loaded on a specific position. Mass sensitivity of the cantilever was linearly proportional to the square of the point displacement at the mass loading position for all the resonance modes. For the first resonance mode, when mass loading position x{sub c} satisfied 0 < x{sub c} < ∼ 0.3l (l is the cantilever beam length and 0 represents the rigid end), mass sensitivity decreased as the mass increasing while the opposite trend was obtained when mass loading satisfied ∼0.3l ≤ x{sub c} ≤ l. Mass sensitivity did not change when concentrated mass was loaded at the rigid end. This work can provide scientific guidance to optimize the mass sensitivity of a resonant-mode based cantilever.

  17. The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Ash Loading Protocol The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol When 5% lubrication oil is added to diesel fuel in a small engine test, ash increases linearly and at the back of a filter, the amount depending on the differences in substrate and wash-coat type. deer08_bunting.pdf (322.41 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design

  18. Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines | Department of Energy Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_atkinson.pdf (585.55 KB) More Documents & Publications Future Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency Improvement andn Emissions Control Technology Integrated Engine and Aftertreatment Technology Roadmap for EPA

  19. Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage - FY13 Q1 | Department of Energy Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 Q1 Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this General Atomics project, funded by SunShot, for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013. progress_report_baseload_generalatomics_fy13_q1.pdf (196.13 KB) More Documents & Publications Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with

  20. Load monitoring and compensation strategies for guided-waves based structural health monitoring using piezoelectric transducers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Surajit; Ladpli, Purim; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2015-09-01

    Accurate interpretation of in-situ piezoelectric sensor signals is a challenging task. This article presents the development of a numerical compensation model based on physical insight to address the influence of structural loads on piezo-sensor signals. The model requires knowledge of in-situ strain and temperature distribution in a structure while acquiring sensor signals. The parameters of the numerical model are obtained using experiments on flat aluminum plate under uniaxial tensile loading. It is shown that the model parameters obtained experimentally can be used for different structures, and sensor layout. Furthermore, the combined effects of load and temperature on the piezo-sensor response are also investigated and it is observed that both of these factors have a coupled effect on the sensor signals. It is proposed to obtain compensation model parameters under a range of operating temperatures to address this coupling effect. An important outcome of this study is a new load monitoring concept using in-situ piezoelectric sensor signals to track changes in the load paths in a structure.

  1. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs. Cormos, C. C. Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  2. Loading and Regeneration Analysis of a Diesel Particulate Filter with a Radio Frequency-Based Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sappok, Alex; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of diesel particulate filter (DPF) loading is critical for robust and efficient operation of the combined engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. Furthermore, upcoming on-board diagnostics regulations require on-board technologies to evaluate the status of the DPF. This work describes the application of radio frequency (RF) based sensing techniques to accurately measure DPF soot levels and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material. A 1.9L GM turbo diesel engine and a DPF with an RF-sensor were studied. Direct comparisons between the RF measurement and conventional pressure-based methods were made. Further analysis of the particulate matter loading rates was obtained with a mass-based soot emission measurement instrument (TEOM). Comparison with pressure drop measurements show the RF technique is unaffected by exhaust flow variations and exhibits a high degree of sensitivity to DPF soot loading and good dynamic response. Additional computational and experimental work further illustrates the spatial resolution of the RF measurements. Based on the experimental results, the RF technique shows significant promise for improving DPF control enabling optimization of the combined engine-aftertreatment system for improved fuel economy and extended DPF service life.

  3. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J; Szybist, James P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith; Moore, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion

  4. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Developments of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J; Szybist, James P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith; Moore, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion

  5. Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W; Conklin, Jim

    2007-09-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the

  6. Suzlon Generators Pvt Ltd SGPL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Generators Pvt. Ltd. (SGPL) Place: Pune, Maharashtra, India Product: Pune-based generator manufacturing arm of Suzlon. Coordinates: 18.52671, 73.8616 Show Map Loading...

  7. An 8-GW long-pulse generator based on Tesla transformer and pulse forming network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Jiancang; Zhang, Xibo; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang Sun, Xu; Wang, Limin; Zeng, Bo; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Ying; Peng, Jianchang; Song, Xiaoxin

    2014-06-15

    A long-pulse generator TPG700L based on a Tesla transformer and a series pulse forming network (PFN) is constructed to generate intense electron beams for the purpose of high power microwave (HPM) generation. The TPG700L mainly consists of a 12-stage PFN, a built-in Tesla transformer in a pulse forming line, a three-electrode gas switch, a transmission line with a trigger, and a load. The Tesla transformer and the compact PFN are the key technologies for the development of the TPG700L. This generator can output electrical pulses with a width as long as 200 ns at a level of 8 GW and a repetition rate of 50 Hz. When used to drive a relative backward wave oscillator for HPM generation, the electrical pulse width is about 100 ns on a voltage level of 520 kV. Factors affecting the pulse waveform of the TPG700L are also discussed. At present, the TPG700L performs well for long-pulse HPM generation in our laboratory.

  8. Oil-fired cycling station converted to base-loaded, coal-burning operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, J.; Steinbach, P.

    1982-04-01

    The Baltimore Gas and Electric Company has been able to modify its oil-fired Brandon Shores plant while under construction to a base-loaded plant able to burn either oil or coal. Utility planners had the foresight prior to the 1973 embargo to see advantages in a dual-fuel capability. Brandon Shores has experienced the same financing and fluctuating load problems as other projects, but it has evolved into a facility suited for the 1980s and 90s. The original plan included space to handle coal and wastes as well as specifying dual-fuel equipment throughout to minimize future modifications. During one construction delay, the utility initiated a preventative-maintenance program comparable to that of a nuclear plant that has been continued. Extensive environmental planning and interaction with the public have avoided other costly delays. (DCK)

  9. Virus-based Piezoelectric Energy Generation - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Virus-based Piezoelectric Energy Generation Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Bacteriophage_Commercial Analysis_EERE_20130521 ps.pdf (1,100 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Researchers at Berkeley Lab have demonstrated that the piezoelectric and liquid-crystalline

  10. Estimates of Refrigerator Loads in Public Housing Based on Metered Consumption Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, JD; Pratt, RG

    1998-09-11

    The New York Power Authority (NYPA), the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA), and the U.S. Departments of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and Energy (DOE) have joined in a project to replace refrigerators in New York City public housing with new, highly energy-efficient models. This project laid the ground work for the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) and DOE to enable housing authorities throughout the United States to bulk-purchase energy-efficient appliances. DOE helped develop and plan the program through the ENERGY STAR@ Partnerships program conducted by its Pacific Nofiwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL was subsequently asked to conduct the savings evahations for 1996 and 1997. PNNL designed the metering protocol and occupant survey, supplied and calibrated the metering equipment, and managed and analyzed the data. The 1996 metering study of refrigerator energy usage in New York City public housing (Pratt and Miller 1997) established the need and justification for a regression-model-based approach to an energy savings estimate. The need originated in logistical difficulties associated with sampling the population and pen?orming a stratified analysis. Commonly, refrigerators[a) with high representation in the population were missed in the sampling schedule, leaving significant holes in the sample and difficulties for the stratified anrdysis. The just{jfcation was found in the fact that strata (distinct groups of identical refrigerators) were not statistically distinct in terms of their label ratio (ratio of metered consumption to label rating). This finding suggested a general regression model could be used to represent the consumption of all refrigerators in the population. In 1996 a simple two-coefficient regression model, a function of only the refrigerator label rating, was developed and used to represent the existing population of refrigerators. A key concept used in the 1997 study grew from findings in a small number of apartments

  11. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  12. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  13. On Market-Based Coordination of Thermostatically Controlled Loads With User Preference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Sen; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents a market-based control framework to coordinate a group of autonomous Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCL) to achieve the system-level objectives with pricing incentives. The problem is formulated as maximizing the social welfare subject to feeder power constraint. It allows the coordinator to affect the aggregated power of a group of dynamical systems, and creates an interactive market where the users and the coordinator cooperatively determine the optimal energy allocation and energy price. The optimal pricing strategy is derived, which maximizes social welfare while respecting the feeder power constraint. The bidding strategy is also designed to compute the optimal price in real time (e.g., every 5 minutes) based on local device information. The coordination framework is validated with realistic simulations in GridLab-D. Extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach effectively maximizes the social welfare and decreases power congestion at key times.

  14. Demonstration of Security Benefits of Renewable Generation at FE Warren Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, William M.; Myers, Kurt; Seifert, Gary

    2010-12-31

    Report detailing field demonstration of security benefits of renewable generation at FE Warren Air Force Base.

  15. Polyamidoamine Dendrimer-Based Binders for High-Loading Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Lv, Dongping; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Darsell, Jens T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Tomalia, Donald A.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for next generation energy storage systems because of their ultra high theoretical specific energy. To realize the practical application of Li-S batteries, however, a high S active material loading is essential (>70 wt% in the carbon-sulfur (C-S) composite cathode and >2 mg cm-2 in the electrode). A critical challenge to achieving this high capacity in practical electrodes is the dissolution of the longer lithium polysulfide reaction intermediates in the electrolyte (resulting in loss of active material from the cathode and contamination of the anode due to the polysulfide shuttle mechanism). The binder material used for the cathode is therefore crucial as this is a key determinant of the bonding interactions between the active material (S) and electronic conducting support (C), as well as the maintenance of intimate contact between the electrode materials and current collector. The battery performance can thus be directly correlated with the choice of binder, but this has received only minimal attention in the relevant Li-S battery published literature. Here, we investigated the application of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as functional binders in Li-S batteries—a class of materials which has been unexplored for electrode design. By using dendrimers, it is demonstrated that high S loadings (>4 mg cm-2) can be easily achieved using "standard" (not specifically tailored) materials and simple processing methods. An exceptional electrochemical cycling performance was obtained (as compared to cathodes with conventional linear polymeric binders such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)) with >100 cycles and 85-98% capacity retention, thus demonstrating the significant utility of this new binder architecture which exhibits critical physicochemical properties and flexible nanoscale design parameters (CNDP's).

  16. Assessment of LWR piping design loading based on plant operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svensson, P. O.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of this study has been to: (1) identify current Light Water Reactor (LWR) piping design load parameters, (2) identify significant actual LWR piping loads from plant operating experience, (3) perform a comparison of these two sets of data and determine the significance of any differences, and (4) make an evaluation of the load representation in current LWR piping design practice, in view of plant operating experience with respect to piping behavior and response to loading.

  17. Systems and methods for providing power to a load based upon a control strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A; Ransom, Ray M

    2013-12-24

    Systems and methods are provided for an electrical system. The electrical system includes a load, an interface configured to receive a voltage from a voltage source, and a controller configured to receive the voltage from the voltage source through the interface and to provide a voltage and current to the load. Wherein, when the controller is in a constant voltage mode, the controller provides a constant voltage to the load, when the controller is in a constant current mode, the controller provides a constant current to the load, and when the controller is in a constant power mode, the controller provides a constant power to the load.

  18. Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterka, J A; Derickson, R G

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

  19. Durable pd-based alloy and hydrogen generation membrane thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benn, Raymond C.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry

    2010-02-02

    A durable Pd-based alloy is used for a H.sub.2-selective membrane in a hydrogen generator, as in the fuel processor of a fuel cell plant. The Pd-based alloy includes Cu as a binary element, and further includes "X", where "X" comprises at least one metal from group "M" that is BCC and acts to stabilize the .beta. BCC phase for stability during operating temperatures. The metal from group "M" is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Cr, Nb, Ta, V, Mo, and W, with Nb and Ta being most preferred. "X" may further comprise at least one metal from a group "N" that is non-BCC, preferably FCC, that enhances other properties of the membrane, such as ductility. The metal from group "N" is selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Re, Ru, Rh, Y, Ce, Ni, Ir, Pt, Co, La and In. The at. % of Pd in the binary Pd--Cu alloy ranges from about 35 at. % to about 55 at. %, and the at. % of "X" in the higher order alloy, based on said binary alloy, is in the range of about 1 at. % to about 15 at. %. The metals are selected according to a novel process.

  20. Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Han, Junqiao; Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Asano, Hiroshi; Kiliccote, Sila

    2009-06-28

    This paper provides new regression models for demand reduction of Demand Response programs for the purpose of ex ante evaluation of the programs and screening for recruiting customer enrollment into the programs. The proposed regression models employ load sensitivity to outside air temperature and representative load pattern derived from cluster analysis of customer baseline load as explanatory variables. The proposed models examined their performances from the viewpoint of validity of explanatory variables and fitness of regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas and Electric Company's commercial and industrial customers who participated in the 2008 Critical Peak Pricing program including Manual and Automated Demand Response.

  1. Systems and methods for providing power to a load based upon a control strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perisic, Milun; Lawrence, Christopher P; Ransom, Ray M; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2014-11-04

    Systems and methods are provided for an electrical system. The electrical system, for example, includes a first load, an interface configured to receive a voltage from a voltage source, and a controller configured to receive the voltage through the interface and to provide a voltage and current to the first load. The controller may be further configured to, receive information on a second load electrically connected to the voltage source, determine an amount of reactive current to return to the voltage source such that a current drawn by the electrical system and the second load from the voltage source is substantially real, and provide the determined reactive current to the voltage source.

  2. Dynamic load balancing algorithm for molecular dynamics based on Voronoi cells domain decompositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattebert, J.-L.; Richards, D.F.; Glosli, J.N.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new algorithm for automatic parallel load balancing in classical molecular dynamics. It assumes a spatial domain decomposition of particles into Voronoi cells. It is a gradient method which attempts to minimize a cost function by displacing Voronoi sites associated with each processor/sub-domain along steepest descent directions. Excellent load balance has been obtained for quasi-2D and 3D practical applications, with up to 440106 particles on 65,536 MPI tasks.

  3. A tandem-based compact dual-energy gamma generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persaud, A.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.N.; Ludewigt, B.; Tanaka, N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Antolak, A.J.; Morse, D.H.; Raber, T.

    2009-11-11

    A dual-energy tandem-type gamma generator has been developed at E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. The tandem accelerator geometry allows higher energy nuclear reactions to be reached, thereby allowing more flexible generation of MeV-energy gammas for active interrogation applications.

  4. The production of high load coal-water mixtures on the base of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demidov, Y.; Bruer, G.; Kolesnikova, S.

    1995-12-01

    The results of the {open_quotes}KATEKNIIugol{close_quotes} work on the problems of high load coal-water mixtures are given in this article. General principles of the mixture production, short characteristics of Kansk-Achinsk coals, the experimental results of the coal mixture production on a test-industrial scale, the suspension preparation on the base of coal mixtures, technical-economical indexes of tested coal pipeline variants based on Kansk-Achinsk coals are described.

  5. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  6. Load Model Data Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to bemore » provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.« less

  7. Materials-based process tolerances for neutron generator encapsulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Ryan S.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Stavig, Mark Edwin

    2007-10-01

    Variations in the neutron generator encapsulation process can affect functionality. However, instead of following the historical path in which the effects of process variations are assessed directly through functional tests, this study examines how material properties key to generator functionality correlate with process variations. The results of this type of investigation will be applicable to all generators and can provide insight on the most profitable paths to process and material improvements. Surprisingly, the results at this point imply that the process is quite robust, and many of the current process tolerances are perhaps overly restrictive. The good news lies in the fact that our current process ensures reproducible material properties. The bad new lies in the fact that it would be difficult to solve functional problems by changes in the process.

  8. Demonstrating and Validating a Next Generation Model-Based Controller...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model-Based Controller for Fuel Efficient, Low Emissions Diesel Engines Fully model-based, practically-mapless engine control concept is viable PDF icon deer09allain.pdf...

  9. Physics based model for online fault detection in autonomous cryogenic loading system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashani, Ali; Ponizhovskaya, Ekaterina; Luchinsky, Dmitry; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Patterson-Hine, Anna; Sass, Jared; Brown, Barbara

    2014-01-29

    We report the progress in the development of the chilldown model for a rapid cryogenic loading system developed at NASA-Kennedy Space Center. The nontrivial characteristic feature of the analyzed chilldown regime is its active control by dump valves. The two-phase flow model of the chilldown is approximated as one-dimensional homogeneous fluid flow with no slip condition for the interphase velocity. The model is built using commercial SINDA/FLUINT software. The results of numerical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental time traces. The obtained results pave the way to the application of the SINDA/FLUINT model as a verification tool for the design and algorithm development required for autonomous loading operation.

  10. Biomass gasification for gas turbine-based power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Anson, D.

    1998-04-01

    The Biomass Power Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has as a major goal the development of cost-competitive technologies for the production of power from renewable biomass crops. The gasification of biomass provides the potential to meet this goal by efficiently and economically producing a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in high-efficiency gas turbines. This paper discusses the development and first commercial demonstration of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for power generation systems. Projected process economics are presented along with a description of current experimental operations coupling a gas turbine power generation system to the research scale gasifier and the process scaleup activities in Burlington, Vermont.

  11. Generator for ionic gallium-68 based on column chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neirinckx, Rudi D.; Davis, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 fluorides, having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of solution is provided. The solution is obtained from a generator comprising germanium-68 hexafluoride bound to a column of an anion exchange resin which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with an acid solution to form a solution containing .sup.68 Ga-fluorides. The solution then is neutralized prior to administration.

  12. A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

    2008-06-30

    The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

  13. Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents a next generation model-based engine controller that incorporates real-time fuel efficiency optimization and tested under fully transient engine and vehicle operating conditions.

  14. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  15. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  16. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  17. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  18. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  19. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  20. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L; Ford, Justin R; Spires, Shannon V; Goldsmith, Steven Y

    2015-11-05

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  1. Demonstrating and Validating a Next Generation Model-Based Controller for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficient, Low Emissions Diesel Engines | Department of Energy and Validating a Next Generation Model-Based Controller for Fuel Efficient, Low Emissions Diesel Engines Demonstrating and Validating a Next Generation Model-Based Controller for Fuel Efficient, Low Emissions Diesel Engines Fully model-based, practically-mapless engine control concept is viable deer09_allain.pdf (625.73 KB) More Documents & Publications Increased Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion

  2. Microsoft Word - UPDATE 5 - Units 1,2 + base load unit.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant Modeling Cycling Units 1, 2 plus One Baseload Unit ENSR Corporation January 6, 2006 Document Number 10350-002-420 (Update 5) January, 2006 1-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION This report describes dispersion modeling performed for simultaneous operation of one baseload unit and two cycling units at Mirant's Potomac River Generating Station (PRGS). This mode of operation is also referred to as Option A in Mirant Potomac

  3. Study and Development of Anti-Islanding Control for Synchronous Machine-Based Distributed Generators: November 2001--March 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Z.

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes the study and development of new active anti-islanding control schemes for synchronous machine-based distributed generators, including engine generators and gas turbines.

  4. Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System | Department of Energy a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. 7_intelligent.pdf (22.28 KB) More Documents & Publications 2012 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program 2011 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and

  5. Communication systems, transceivers, and methods for generating data based on channel characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, Michael A; Young, Derek

    2012-09-18

    Examples of methods for generating data based on a communications channel are described. In one such example, a processing unit may generate a first vector representation based in part on at least two characteristics of a communications channel. A constellation having at least two dimensions may be addressed with the first vector representation to identify a first symbol associated with the first vector representation. The constellation represents a plurality of regions, each region associated with a respective symbol. The symbol may be used to generate data, which may stored in an electronic storage medium and used as a cryptographic key or a spreading code or hopping sequence in a modulation technique.

  6. Cyclic-loading-induced Accumulation of Geometrically Necessary Dislocations Near Grain Boundaries in an Ni-based Superalloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, E-Wen; Barabash, Rozaliya I.; Ice, Gene E.; Liu, Wenjun; Liu, Yee-Lang; Kai, Ji-Jung; Liaw, Peter K.

    2011-12-14

    In this study, the fatigue-induced microstructure produced in a nickel-based polycrystalline superalloy that was subjected to cyclic loading was characterized by polychromatic x-ray microdiffraction (PXM) together with in-situ neutron diffraction and transmission-electron microscopy (TEM). In-situ neutron-diffraction measurements reveal two distinct stages of the fatigue damage: cyclic hardening followed by cyclic softening. Three-dimensional spatially resolved PXM micro-Laue measurements find an increase in the density of geometrically necessary dislocations near the grain boundaries, which is accompanied by lattice rotations and grain subdivisions. The PXM results are in agreement with the in-situ neutron-diffraction and TEM results.

  7. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  8. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model - 13413

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djokic, Denia [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Piet, Steven J.; Pincock, Layne F.; Soelberg, Nick R. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system, and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity. (authors)

  9. Improving the Operating Efficiency of Microturbine-Based Distributed Generation at an Affordable Price

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Operating Efficiency of Microturbine-Based Distributed Generation at an Affordable Price This project developed a clean, cost-effective 370 kilowatt (kW) microturbine with 42% net electrical effciency and 85% total combined heat and power (CHP) effciency. Introduction The U.S. economic market potential for distributed generation is signifcant. This market, however, remains mostly untapped in the commercial and small industrial buildings that are well suited for microturbines. Gas turbines

  10. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slininger, Patricia J.; Shea-Andersh, Maureen A.; Thompson, Stephanie R.; Dien, Bruce S.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Dale, Bruce E; Cotta, Michael A

    2015-04-09

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock useful for the production of fuel-grade ethanol via the processing steps of pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Traditional industrial yeasts do not ferment xylose and are not able to grow, survive, or ferment in concentrated hydrolyzates that contain enough sugar to support economical ethanol recovery since they are laden with toxic byproducts generated during pretreatment. Repetitive culturing in two types of concentrated hydrolyzates was applied along with ethanol challenged xylose-fed continuous culture to force targeted evolution of the native pentose fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis strain NRRL Y-7124 maintained in the ARSmore » Culture Collection, Peoria, IL. Isolates collected from various enriched populations were screened and ranked based on relative xylose uptake rate and ethanol yield. Ranking on hydrolyzates with and without nutritional supplementation was used to identify those isolates with best performance across diverse conditions. Robust S. stipitis strains adapted to perform very well in enzyme hydrolyzates of high solids loading ammonia fiber expansion-pretreated corn stover (18% weight per volume solids) and dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated switchgrass (20% w/v solids) were obtained. Improved features include reduced initial lag phase preceding growth, significantly enhanced fermentation rates, improved ethanol tolerance and yield, reduced diauxic lag during glucose-xylose transition, and ability to accumulate >40 g/L ethanol in <167 h when fermenting hydrolyzate at low initial cell density of 0.5 absorbance units and pH 5 to 6.« less

  11. Sub-micron fracture mechanism in silica-based glass activated by permanent densification from high-strain loading

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Waters, Shirley B.; Parten, Randy J.; Pye, L. David

    2016-04-26

    Several silica-based glasses were fractured at high strain energy via drop-weight testing on small specimens. A cylindrical specimen geometry was chosen to promote initially simple, axisymmetric, and uniform compressive loading. The imposed uniaxial compressive strain at impact was sufficiently high to qualitatively cause permanent densification. Produced fragments were collected for postmortem and a fraction of them, for all the silica-based glasses, consistently had distinct sub-micron-sized fractures (~ 300–1000 nm), designated here as “microkernels”, on their surfaces. They would most often appear as a sub-micron pore on the fragment - apparently if the microkernel had popped out as a consequence ofmore » the local crack plane running through it, tensile-strain release, and the associated formation of the fragment it was on. No fractographic evidence was found to show the microkernels were associated with local failure initiation. However, their positioning and habit sometimes suggested they were associated with localized crack branching and that they could have influenced secondary fracturing that occurred during overall crushing and comminution and associated fragment size and shape creation. Furthermore, the size range of these microkernels is much too small to affect structural flexure strength of these glasses for most applications but are of a size and concentration that may affect their ballistic, shock, crush, and comminution responses when permanent densification is concomitantly occurring.« less

  12. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs

  13. Generating clock signals for a cycle accurate, cycle reproducible FPGA based hardware accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asaad, Sameth W.; Kapur, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for generating clock signals for a cycle accurate FPGA based hardware accelerator used to simulate operations of a device-under-test (DUT). In one embodiment, the DUT includes multiple device clocks generating multiple device clock signals at multiple frequencies and at a defined frequency ratio; and the FPG hardware accelerator includes multiple accelerator clocks generating multiple accelerator clock signals to operate the FPGA hardware accelerator to simulate the operations of the DUT. In one embodiment, operations of the DUT are mapped to the FPGA hardware accelerator, and the accelerator clock signals are generated at multiple frequencies and at the defined frequency ratio of the frequencies of the multiple device clocks, to maintain cycle accuracy between the DUT and the FPGA hardware accelerator. In an embodiment, the FPGA hardware accelerator may be used to control the frequencies of the multiple device clocks.

  14. Ontology-based Software for Generating Scenarios for Characterizing Searches for Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Richard C; Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G; Wright, Michael C; Kruse, Kara L

    2011-01-01

    A software environment was created in which ontologies are used to significantly expand the number and variety of scenarios for special nuclear materials (SNM) detection based on a set of simple generalized initial descriptions. A framework was built that combined advanced reasoning from ontologies with geographical and other data sources to generate a much larger list of specific detailed descriptions from a simple initial set of user-input variables. This presentation shows how basing the scenario generation on a process of inferencing from multiple ontologies, including a new SNM Detection Ontology (DO) combined with data extraction from geodatabases, provided the desired significant variability of scenarios for testing search algorithms, including unique combinations of variables not previously expected. The various components of the software environment and the resulting scenarios generated will be discussed.

  15. Cable load sensing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  16. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy

  17. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  18. TermGenie – a web-application for pattern-based ontology class generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dietze, Heiko; Berardini, Tanya Z.; Foulger, Rebecca E.; Hill, David P.; Lomax, Jane; Osumi-Sutherland, David; Roncaglia, Paola; Mungall, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Biological ontologies are continually growing and improving from requests for new classes (terms) by biocurators. These ontology requests can frequently create bottlenecks in the biocuration process, as ontology developers struggle to keep up, while manually processing these requests and create classes. TermGenie allows biocurators to generate new classes based on formally specified design patterns or templates. The system is web-based and can be accessed by any authorized curator through a web browser. Automated rules and reasoning engines are used to ensure validity, uniqueness and relationship to pre-existing classes. In the last 4 years the Gene Ontology TermGenie generated 4715 newmore » classes, about 51.4% of all new classes created. The immediate generation of permanent identifiers proved not to be an issue with only 70 (1.4%) obsoleted classes. Lastly, TermGenie is a web-based class-generation system that complements traditional ontology development tools. All classes added through pre-defined templates are guaranteed to have OWL equivalence axioms that are used for automatic classification and in some cases inter-ontology linkage. At the same time, the system is simple and intuitive and can be used by most biocurators without extensive training.« less

  19. An Internet-based interactive module for air emissions from fossil fuel based power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karman, D.; O`Leary, K.; O`Reilly, S.

    1997-12-31

    The proliferation of the Internet, Web pages and associated software tools available for developing multimedia material provides significant opportunities in training, education and information transfer. This paper will describe the development, testing and evaluation of an interactive teaching module aimed at college and university students that have previous education in thermodynamics and basic chemistry. The module is currently in development at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Carleton University with support from Environment Canada. Preliminary testing of this module is expected to begin late January. The module contains options to look at CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions associated with electric power generation in thermal stations that use coal, natural gas, crude and distillate oil. Factors governing the thermal efficiency of typical boiler systems and the thermodynamic limitations for converting heat into work are discussed. Supporting background information such as emission trends and emission factors used in calculations are also included as part of this module. A simple Rankine cycle without reheat or regeneration is considered to compare the emissions per unit energy delivered from each of the fuels considered. For natural gas and distillate oil, combined cycle operation is considered with a gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator combination replacing the boiler in the simple Rankine cycle. For all fuels, the cogeneration option is investigated by expanding the steam to an intermediate pressure in the turbine and utilizing the remaining heat by condensing the steam in a heat recovery application. Emission factors and basic information on CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies are utilized to calculate and report the emissions per unit energy delivered under the various scenarios investigated.

  20. Mach-zehnder based optical marker/comb generator for streak camera calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Edward Kirk

    2015-03-03

    This disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for generating marker and comb indicia in an optical environment using a Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) modulator. High speed recording devices are configured to record image or other data defining a high speed event. To calibrate and establish time reference, the markers or combs are indicia which serve as timing pulses (markers) or a constant-frequency train of optical pulses (comb) to be imaged on a streak camera for accurate time based calibration and time reference. The system includes a camera, an optic signal generator which provides an optic signal to an M-Z modulator and biasing and modulation signal generators configured to provide input to the M-Z modulator. An optical reference signal is provided to the M-Z modulator. The M-Z modulator modulates the reference signal to a higher frequency optical signal which is output through a fiber coupled link to the streak camera.

  1. A small-signal generator based on a multi-layer graphene/molybdenum disulfide heterojunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Zhen; Tian, He; Feng, Tingting; Zhao, Lianfeng; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Xiao, Lei; Wang, Jing; Ren, Tian-Ling E-mail: JunXu@tsinghua.edu.cn; Xu, Jun E-mail: JunXu@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2013-12-23

    In this work, we fabricate a heterojunction small-signal generator (HSSG) based on a graphene-molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) heterojunction. The HSSG is fundamentally different from any analog device developed previously. The HSSG is composed of two quasi-2D heterojunctions and has three terminals named injector (I), recombinator (R), and generator (G). MoS{sub 2} serves as I and G, and graphene works as R in the HSSG. The scale coefficient (??=?I{sub G}/I{sub R}) of the HSSG is 1.14??10{sup ?4} (V{sub IG,?IR}?=?0.2?V) to 1.95??10{sup ?4} (V{sub IG,?IR}?=?1?V). The current generated from G could be as low as pA scale, which reveals the good performance of the HSSG.

  2. LOADING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  3. Wireless power charging using point of load controlled high frequency power converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, John M.; Campbell, Steven L.; Chambon, Paul H.; Seiber, Larry E.; White, Clifford P.

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus for wirelessly charging a battery of an electric vehicle is provided with a point of load control. The apparatus includes a base unit for generating a direct current (DC) voltage. The base unit is regulated by a power level controller. One or more point of load converters can be connected to the base unit by a conductor, with each point of load converter comprising a control signal generator that transmits a signal to the power level controller. The output power level of the DC voltage provided by the base unit is controlled by power level controller such that the power level is sufficient to power all active load converters when commanded to do so by any of the active controllers, without generating excessive power that may be otherwise wasted.

  4. Enhancing Automatic Biological Pathway Generation with GO-based Gene Similarity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Baddeley, Robert L.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Riensche, Roderick M.; Gopalan, Banu

    2009-08-03

    One of the greatest challenges in today’s analysis of microarray gene expression data is to identify pathways across regulated genes that underlie structural and functional changes of living cells in specific pathologies. Most current approaches to pathway generation are based on a reverse engineering approach in which pathway plausibility is solely induced from observed pathway data. These approaches tend to lack in generality as they are too dependent on the pathway observables from which they are induced. By contrast, alternative approaches that rely on prior biological knowledge may err in the opposite direction as the prior knowledge is usually not sufficiently tuned to the pathology of focus. In this paper, we present a novel pathway generation approach which combines insights from the reverse engineering and knowledge-based approaches to increase the biological plausibility and specificity of induced regulatory networks.

  5. Parallel octree-based hexahedral mesh generation for eulerian to lagrangian conversion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staten, Matthew L.; Owen, Steven James

    2010-09-01

    Computational simulation must often be performed on domains where materials are represented as scalar quantities or volume fractions at cell centers of an octree-based grid. Common examples include bio-medical, geotechnical or shock physics calculations where interface boundaries are represented only as discrete statistical approximations. In this work, we introduce new methods for generating Lagrangian computational meshes from Eulerian-based data. We focus specifically on shock physics problems that are relevant to ASC codes such as CTH and Alegra. New procedures for generating all-hexahedral finite element meshes from volume fraction data are introduced. A new primal-contouring approach is introduced for defining a geometric domain. New methods for refinement, node smoothing, resolving non-manifold conditions and defining geometry are also introduced as well as an extension of the algorithm to handle tetrahedral meshes. We also describe new scalable MPI-based implementations of these procedures. We describe a new software module, Sculptor, which has been developed for use as an embedded component of CTH. We also describe its interface and its use within the mesh generation code, CUBIT. Several examples are shown to illustrate the capabilities of Sculptor.

  6. Tungsten disulphide based all fiber Q-switching cylindrical-vector beam generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, J.; Yan, K.; Zhou, Y.; Xu, L. X. Gu, C.; Zhan, Q. W.

    2015-11-09

    We proposed and demonstrated an all fiber passively Q-switching laser to generate cylindrical-vector beam, a two dimensional material, tungsten disulphide (WS{sub 2}), was adopted as a saturable absorber inside the laser cavity, while a few-mode fiber Bragg grating was used as a transverse mode-selective output coupler. The repetition rate of the Q-switching output pulses can be varied from 80 kHz to 120 kHz with a shortest duration of 958 ns. Attributed to the high damage threshold and polarization insensitivity of the WS{sub 2} based saturable absorber, the radially polarized beam and azimuthally polarized beam can be easily generated in the Q-switching fiber laser.

  7. Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xu-De; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Hao; Liu, Meng; Luo, Ai-Ping Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2014-10-20

    We reported on the femtosecond pulse generation from an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser by using microfiber-based gold nanorods (GNRs) as saturable absorber (SA). By virtue of the geometric characteristic of microfiber-based GNRs, the optical damage threshold of GNRs-SA could be greatly enhanced. The microfiber-based GNRs-SA shows a modulation depth of 4.9% and a nonsaturable loss of 21.1%. With the proposed GNRs-SA, the fiber laser emitted a mode-locked pulse train with duration of ∼887 fs. The obtained results demonstrated that the GNRs deposited microfiber could indeed serve as a high-performance SA towards the practical applications in the field of ultrafast photonics.

  8. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  9. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Ozone Based Laundry Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Brian K.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg; Goetzler, W.; Sutherland, T. A.; Foley, K. J.

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of ozone laundry system installations at the Charleston Place Hotel in Charleston, South Carolina, and the Rogerson House assisted living facility in Boston, Massachusetts.

  10. Utility Static Generation Reliability

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-03-05

    PICES (Probabilistic Investigation of Capacity and Energy Shortages) was developed for estimating an electric utility''s expected frequency and duration of capacity deficiencies on a daily on and off-peak basis. In addition to the system loss-of-load probability (LOLP) and loss-of-load expectation (LOLE) indices, PICES calculates the expected frequency and duration of system capacity deficiencies and the probability, expectation, and expected frequency and duration of a range of system reserve margin states. Results are aggregated and printedmore » on a weekly, monthly, or annual basis. The program employs hourly load data and either the two-state (on/off) or a more sophisticated three-state (on/partially on/fully off) generating unit representation. Unit maintenance schedules are determined on a weekly, levelized reserve margin basis. In addition to the 8760-hour annual load record, the user provides the following information for each unit: plant capacity, annual maintenance requirement, two or three-state unit failure and repair rates, and for three-state models, the partial state capacity deficiency. PICES can also supply default failure and repair rate values, based on the Edison Electric Institute''s 1979 Report on Equipment Availability for the Ten-Year Period 1968 Through 1977, for many common plant types. Multi-year analysis can be performed by specifying as input data the annual peak load growth rates and plant addition and retirement schedules for each year in the study.« less

  11. Radiolytic gas generation from cement-based waste hosts for DOE low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dole, L.R.; Friedman, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using cement-based immobilization binders with simulated radioactive waste containing sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and fluoride anions, the gamma- and alpha-radiolytic gas generation factors (G/sub t/, molecules/100 eV) and gas compositions were measured on specimens of cured grouts. These tests studied the effects of; (1) waste composition; (2) the sample surface-to-volume ratio; (3) the waste slurry particle size; and (4) the water content of the waste host formula. The radiolysis test vessels were designed to minimize the ''dead'' volume and to simulate the configuration of waste packages.

  12. Optical Square-Wave Clock Generation Based on an All-Optical Flip-Flop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, A.M.; Agrawal, G.P.; Maywar, D.N.

    2010-03-10

    We demonstrate optical square-wave clock generation based on an all-optical flip-flop. The bistable output power from a resonant-type semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is switched ON and OFF by modulating its input with its output via cross-gain modulation in a traveling-wave SOA. All active components are driven by dc currents, and the wavelength and clock frequency are selectable. A clock frequency of 3.5 MHz is demonstrated, limited by the time of flight between bulk optical components. Optical square-wave clock signals are promising for applications in photonic integrated circuits and all-optical signal processing.

  13. Adapting a GIS-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis Approach for Evaluating New Power Generating Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Blevins, Brandon R; Jochem, Warren C; Mays, Gary T; Belles, Randy; Hadley, Stanton W; Harrison, Thomas J; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Neish, Bradley S; Rose, Amy N

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing need to site new power generating plants that use cleaner energy sources due to increased regulations on air and water pollution and a sociopolitical desire to develop more clean energy sources. To assist utility and energy companies as well as policy-makers in evaluating potential areas for siting new plants in the contiguous United States, a geographic information system (GIS)-based multicriteria decision analysis approach is presented in this paper. The presented approach has led to the development of the Oak Ridge Siting Analysis for power Generation Expansion (OR-SAGE) tool. The tool takes inputs such as population growth, water availability, environmental indicators, and tectonic and geological hazards to provide an in-depth analysis for siting options. To the utility and energy companies, the tool can quickly and effectively provide feedback on land suitability based on technology specific inputs. However, the tool does not replace the required detailed evaluation of candidate sites. To the policy-makers, the tool provides the ability to analyze the impacts of future energy technology while balancing competing resource use.

  14. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  15. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  16. Fuel-cell based power generating system having power conditioning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K.; Pradhan, Sanjaya K.

    2010-10-05

    A power conditioner includes power converters for supplying power to a load, a set of selection switches corresponding to the power converters for selectively connecting the fuel-cell stack to the power converters, and another set of selection switches corresponding to the power converters for selectively connecting the battery to the power converters. The power conveners output combined power that substantially optimally meets a present demand of the load.

  17. PROJECT PROFILE: Dynamic Building Load Control to Facilitate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Penetration of Solar Photovoltaic Generation (SuNLaMP) PROJECT PROFILE: Dynamic Building Load Control to Facilitate High Penetration of Solar Photovoltaic Generation (SuNLaMP) ...

  18. HLW Glass Waste Loadings

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of ... (JHCM) technology Factors affecting waste loadings Waste loading requirements ...

  19. Observation of Beam Loading in a Laser-Plasma Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rechatin, C.; Ismail, A. Ben; Lim, J.; Faure, J.; Malka, V.; Davoine, X.; Lefebvre, E.; Lifschitz, A.

    2009-11-06

    Beam loading is the phenomenon which limits the charge and the beam quality in plasma based accelerators. An experimental study conducted with a laser-plasma accelerator is presented. Beam loading manifests itself through the decrease of the beam energy, the reduction of dark current, and the increase of the energy spread for large beam charge. 3D PIC simulations are compared to the experimental results and confirm the effects of beam loading. It is found that, in our experimental conditions, the trapped electron beams generate decelerating fields on the order of 1 (GV/m)/pC and that beam loading effects are optimized for trapped charges of about 20 pC.

  20. ActivitySim: large-scale agent based activity generation for infrastructure simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gali, Emmanuel; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Mniszewski, Sue; Cuellar, Leticia; Teuscher, Christof

    2008-01-01

    The United States' Department of Homeland Security aims to model, simulate, and analyze critical infrastructure and their interdependencies across multiple sectors such as electric power, telecommunications, water distribution, transportation, etc. We introduce ActivitySim, an activity simulator for a population of millions of individual agents each characterized by a set of demographic attributes that is based on US census data. ActivitySim generates daily schedules for each agent that consists of a sequence of activities, such as sleeping, shopping, working etc., each being scheduled at a geographic location, such as businesses or private residences that is appropriate for the activity type and for the personal situation of the agent. ActivitySim has been developed as part of a larger effort to understand the interdependencies among national infrastructure networks and their demand profiles that emerge from the different activities of individuals in baseline scenarios as well as emergency scenarios, such as hurricane evacuations. We present the scalable software engineering principles underlying ActivitySim, the socia-technical modeling paradigms that drive the activity generation, and proof-of-principle results for a scenario in the Twin Cities, MN area of 2.6 M agents.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  2. Spin-on-doping for output power improvement of silicon nanowire array based thermoelectric power generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, B. Fobelets, K.

    2014-06-07

    The output power of a silicon nanowire array (NWA)-bulk thermoelectric power generator (TEG) with Cu contacts is improved by spin-on-doping (SOD). The Si NWAs used in this work are fabricated via metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) of 0.010.02 ? cm resistivity n- and p-type bulk, converting ~4% of the bulk thickness into NWs. The MACE process is adapted to ensure crystalline NWs. Current-voltage and Seebeck voltage-temperature measurements show that while SOD mainly influences the contact resistance in bulk, it influences both contact resistance and power factor in NWA-bulk based TEGs. According to our experiments, using Si NWAs in combination with SOD increases the output power by an order of 3 under the same heating power due to an increased power factor, decreased thermal conductivity of the NWA and reduced Si-Cu contact resistance.

  3. Application and development of technologies for engine-condition-based maintenance of emergency diesel generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K. H.; Sang, G.; Choi, L. Y. S.; Lee, B. O.

    2012-07-01

    The emergency diesel generator (EDG) of a nuclear power plant has the role of supplying emergency electric power to protect the reactor core system in the event of the loss of offsite power supply. Therefore, EDGs should be subject to periodic surveillance testing to verify their ability to supply specified frequencies and voltages at design power levels within a limited time. To maintain optimal reliability of EDGs, condition monitoring/diagnosis technologies must be developed. Changing from periodic disassemble maintenance to condition-based maintenance (CBM) according to predictions of equipment condition is recommended. In this paper, the development of diagnosis technology for CBM and the application of a diesel engine condition-analysis system are described. (authors)

  4. Development of a hydrogen generator for fuel cells based on the partial oxidation of methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recupero, V.; Torre, T.; Saija, G.; Fiordano, N.

    1996-12-31

    As well known, the most acknowledged process for generation of hydrogen for fuel cells is based upon the steam reforming of methane or natural gas (SRM). The reaction is endothermic ({Delta}H{sub 298}= 206 kJ/mole) and high H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratios are required in order to limit coke formation at T higher than 1000 K. Moreover, it is a common practice that the process`s fuel economy is highly sensitive to proper heat fluxes and reactor design (tubular type) and to operational conditions. Efficient heat recovery can be accomplished only on large scale units (> 40,000 Nm{sup 3}/h), far from the range of interest of {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} fuel cells. Even if, to fit the needs of the fuel cell technology, medium sized external reforming units (50-200 Nm{sup 3} H{sub 2}/h) have been developed and/or planned for integration with both the first and the second generation fuel cells, amelioration in their heat recovery and efficiency is at the expense of an increased sophistication and therefore at higher per unit costs. In all cases, SRM requires an extra {open_quotes}fuel{close_quotes} supply (to substain the endothermicity of the reaction) in addition to stoichiometric requirements ({open_quotes}feed{close_quotes} gas). A valid alternative could be a process based on catalytic partial oxidation of CH{sub 4} (CSPOM), since the process is mildly exothermic ({Delta}H{sub 298}= -35.6 kJ/mole) and therefore not energy intensive. Consequently, great interest is expected from conversion of methane into syngas, if an autothermal, low energy intensive, compact and reliable process could be developed.

  5. Distributed generation hits market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The pace at which vendors are developing and marketing gas turbines and reciprocating engines for small-scale applications may signal the widespread growth of distributed generation. Loosely defined to refer to applications in which power generation equipment is located close to end users who have near-term power capacity needs, distributed generation encompasses a broad range of technologies and load requirements. Disagreement is inevitable, but many industry observers associate distributed generation with applications anywhere from 25 kW to 25 MW. Ten years ago, distributed generation users only represented about 2% of the world market. Today, that figure has increased to about 4 or 5%, and probably could settle in the 20% range within a 3-to-5-year period, according to Michael Jones, San Diego, Calif.-based Solar Turbines Inc. power generation marketing manager. The US Energy Information Administration predicts about 175 GW of generation capacity will be added domestically by 2010. If 20% comes from smaller plants, distributed generation could account for about 35 GW. Even with more competition, it`s highly unlikely distributed generation will totally replace current market structures and central stations. Distributed generation may be best suited for making market inroads when and where central systems need upgrading, and should prove its worth when the system can`t handle peak demands. Typical applications include small reciprocating engine generators at remote customer sites or larger gas turbines to boost the grid. Additional market opportunities include standby capacity, peak shaving, power quality, cogeneration and capacity rental for immediate demand requirements. Integration of distributed generation systems--using gas-fueled engines, gas-fired combustion engines and fuel cells--can upgrade power quality for customers and reduce operating costs for electric utilities.

  6. 2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions

  7. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  8. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  9. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  10. Method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser-generated plumes based on density gradients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, E.S.; Chen, G.

    1990-05-01

    A method and means are disclosed for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived. 15 figs.

  11. Method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser-generated plumes based on density gradients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chen, Guoying

    1990-05-01

    A method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived.

  12. Method of operating a thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-11-05

    A method for operating a thermoelectric generator supplying a variable-load component includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a first output and determining a first load current and a first load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded first output. The method also includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a second output and determining a second load current and a second load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded second output. The method includes calculating a maximum power output of the thermoelectric generator from the determined first load current and voltage and the determined second load current and voltage, and commanding the variable-load component to operate at a third output. The commanded third output is configured to draw the calculated maximum power output from the thermoelectric generator.

  13. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to

  14. Practical and fast quantum random number generation based on photon arrival time relative to external reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, You-Qi; Zhang, Jun Pan, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2014-02-03

    We present a practical high-speed quantum random number generator, where the timing of single-photon detection relative to an external time reference is measured as the raw data. The bias of the raw data can be substantially reduced compared with the previous realizations. The raw random bit rate of our generator can reach 109 Mbps. We develop a model for the generator and evaluate the min-entropy of the raw data. Toeplitz matrix hashing is applied for randomness extraction, after which the final random bits are able to pass the standard randomness tests.

  15. Generation-based memory synchronization in a multiprocessor system with weakly consistent memory accesses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-09

    In a multiprocessor system, a central memory synchronization module coordinates memory synchronization requests responsive to memory access requests in flight, a generation counter, and a reclaim pointer. The central module communicates via point-to-point communication. The module includes a global OR reduce tree for each memory access requesting device, for detecting memory access requests in flight. An interface unit is implemented associated with each processor requesting synchronization. The interface unit includes multiple generation completion detectors. The generation count and reclaim pointer do not pass one another.

  16. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or smart grid, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  17. Controllable pneumatic generator based on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kyung-Rok; Kim, Kyung-Soo Kim, Soohyun

    2014-07-15

    This paper presents a novel compact and controllable pneumatic generator that uses hydrogen peroxide decomposition. A fuel micro-injector using a piston-pump mechanism is devised and tested to control the chemical decomposition rate. By controlling the injection rate, the feedback controller maintains the pressure of the gas reservoir at a desired pressure level. Thermodynamic analysis and experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed pneumatic generator. Using a prototype of the pneumatic generator, it takes 6 s to reach 3.5 bars with a reservoir volume of 200 ml at the room temperature, which is sufficiently rapid and effective to maintain the repetitive lifting of a 1 kg mass.

  18. Python interface generator for Fortran based codes (a code development aid)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-02-22

    Forthon generates links between Fortran and Python. Python is a high level, object oriented, interactive and scripting language that allows a flexible and versatile interface to computational tools. The Forthon package generates the necessary wrapping code which allows access to the Fortran database and to the Fortran subroutines and functions. This provides a development package where the computationally intensive parts of a code can be written in efficient Fortran, and the high level controlling codemore » can be written in the much more versatile Python language.« less

  19. 2012 CERTS LAAR Program Peer Review - Integration and Extension of Direct Load Management of Smart Loads - Anna Scaglioni, UC Davis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Extension of Direct Load Management of Smart Loads Anna Scaglione, UC Davis GRA: Mahnoosh Alizadeh Project objective  Invent methods to "store" load demand for * Real-time "generation following" * Integration of load reserves as dispatchable assets in the Energy Market  Architecture for virtual "reserves" (queues) of electrical load demand * Watts to Job mapping (analysis)  Captures digitally the service requirements - Equal service type = Equal queue *

  20. EnergyPlus File Generator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE EnergyPlus Factsheet - This fact sheet discusses the EnergyPlus Example File Generator, a free, Web-based service which makes it easier to use EnergyPlus, DOE's building energy analysis and thermal load simulation program. The web-based form allows a user to enter general information about a building and the application then automatically creates a complete EnergyPlus input file, runs an annual simulation, and emails the EnergyPlus input, output, DXF and other files along with an annual summary of the energy results.

  1. NEGATIVE GATE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, C.S.; Eaton, T.E.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to pulse generating circuits and more particularly to rectangular pulse generators. The pulse generator of the present invention incorporates thyratrons as switching elements to discharge a first capacitor through a load resistor to initiate and provide the body of a Pulse, and subsequently dlscharge a second capacitor to impress the potential of its charge, with opposite potential polarity across the load resistor to terminate the pulse. Accurate rectangular pulses in the millimicrosecond range are produced across a low impedance by this generator.

  2. High payload six-axis load sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, John F.; Lind, Randall F.

    2003-01-01

    A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

  3. Isotopic generator for bismuth-212 and lead-212 based on radium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hines, J.J.; Atcher, R.W.; Friedman, A.M.

    1985-01-30

    Disclosed are method and apparatus for providing radionuclides of bismuth-212 and lead-212. Thorium-228 and carrier solution starting material is input to a radiologically contained portion of an isotopic generator system, and radium-224 is separated from thorium-228 which is retained by a strongly basic anion exchange column. The separated radium-224 is transferred to an accessible, strongly acidic cationic exchange column. The cationic column retains the radium-224, and natural radioactive decay generates bismuth-212 and lead-212. The cationic exchange column can also be separated from the contained portion of the system and utilized without the extraordinary safety measures necessary in the contained portion. Furthermore, the cationic exchange column provides over a relatively long time period the short lived lead-212 and bismuth-212 radionuclides which are useful for a variety of medical therapies.

  4. SE-72/AS-72 generator system based on Se extraction/ As reextraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Michael Ernst; Ballard, Beau D

    2013-09-10

    The preparation of a .sup.72Se/.sup.72As radioisotope generator involves forming an acidic aqueous solution of an irradiated alkali bromide target such as a NaBr target, oxidizing soluble bromide in the solution to elemental bromine, removing the elemental bromine, evaporating the resulting solution to a residue, removing hydrogen chloride from the residue, forming an acidic aqueous solution of the residue, adding a chelator that selectively forms a chelation complex with selenium, and extracting the chelation complex from the acidic aqueous solution into an organic phase. As the .sup.72Se generates .sup.72As in the organic phase, the .sup.72As may be extracted repeatedly from the organic phase with an aqueous acid solution.

  5. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  6. Hydrogen Gas Generation Model for Fuel Based Remote Handled TRU Waste Stored at INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soli T. Khericha; Rajiv N. Bhatt; Kevin Liekhus

    2003-02-01

    The Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) initiated efforts to calculate the hydrogen gas generation in remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) containers in order to evaluate continued storage of unvented RH-TRU containers in vaults and to identify any potential problems during retrieval and aboveground storage. A computer code is developed to calculate the hydrogen concentration in the stored RH-TRU waste drums for known configuration, waste matrix, and radionuclide inventories as a function of time.

  7. CARBON MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR EXISTING U.S. GENERATION CAPACITY: A VINTAGE-BASED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; Gale, J.; Kaya, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the existing stock of fossil-fired power generation capacity in the United States within the context of climate change. At present, there are over 1,337 fossil-fired power generating units of at least 100 MW in capacity, that began operating between the early 1940's and today. Together these units provide some 453 GW of electric power, and simply retiring this stock early or repowering with advanced technology as a means of addressing their greenhouse gas emissions will not be a realistic option for them all. Considering a conservative 40-year operating life, there are over 667 fossil-fired power plants, representing a capacity of over 291 GW, that have a minimum of a decade's worth of productive life remaining. This paper draws upon specialized tools developed by Battelle to analyze the characteristics of this subset of U.S. power generation assets and explore the relationships between plant type, location, emissions, and vintage. It examines the economics of retrofit capture technologies and the proximity of these existing power plants to geologic reservoirs with promise for long-term storage of CO2. The costs for retrofitting these plants and disposing of their CO2 into nearby geologic reservoirs are presented.

  8. X-ray FEL based on harmonics generation and electron beam outcoupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Burnham, B.

    1995-12-31

    Electron beam outcoupling was suggested by N. A. Vinokurov as a method of optics independent outcoupling for high power FELs. The bunching of the electron beam is provided in a master oscillator. The prebunched electron beam then radiates coherently into an additional wiggler called the radiator. The electron beam is turned by an achromatic bend into this wiggler and its radiation propagates with a small angle with respect to the OK-4 optical axis. Thus, the radiation will pass around the mirror of the master oscillator optical cavity and can then be utilized. This scheme is perfectly suited for harmonic generation if the radiator wiggler is tuned on one of the master oscillator wavelength harmonics. This system is reminiscent of a klystron operating on a harmonic of the reference frequency. In this paper we present the theory of this device, its spectral and spatial characteristics of radiation, the optimization of the master oscillator, the achromatic bend and bunching for harmonic generation, and influence of beam parameters (energy spread, emittance, etc.) on generated power. Examples of possible storage ring and linac driven systems are discussed.

  9. Direct Carbon Fuel Cells: Assessment of their Potential as Solid Carbon Fuel Based Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolk, R

    2004-04-23

    Small-scale experimental work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has confirmed that a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) containing a molten carbonate electrolyte completely reacts solid elemental carbon with atmospheric oxygen contained in ambient air at a temperature of 650-800 C. The efficiency of conversion of the chemical energy in the fuel to DC electricity is 75-80% and is a result of zero entropy change for this reaction and the fixed chemical potentials of C and CO{sub 2}. This is about twice as efficient as other forms power production processes that utilize solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal. These range from 30-40% for coal fired conventional subcritical or supercritical boilers to 38-42% for IGCC plants. A wide range of carbon-rich solids including activated carbons derived from natural gas, petroleum coke, raw coal, and deeply de-ashed coal have been evaluated with similar conversion results. The rate of electricity production has been shown to correlate with disorder in the carbon structure. This report provides a preliminary independent assessment of the economic potential of DCFC for competitive power generation. This assessment was conducted as part of a Director's Research Committee Review of DCFC held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) on April 9, 2004. The key question that this assessment addresses is whether this technology, which appears to be very promising from a scientific standpoint, has the potential to be successfully scaled up to a system that can compete with currently available power generation systems that serve existing electricity markets. These markets span a wide spectrum in terms of the amount of power to be delivered and the competitive cost in that market. For example, DCFC technology can be used for the personal power market where the current competition for delivery of kilowatts of electricity is storage batteries, for the distributed generation market where the competition for on-site power

  10. Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J

    2008-11-01

    This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby and Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed. Initial

  11. ESF Subsurface Standby Generator Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Fernandez

    1998-04-17

    The purpose of this analysis is to outline and recommend two standby generator systems. These systems shall provide power during a utility outage to critical Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and to subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Critical loads that will be supported by these generator systems will be identified and evaluated. Additionally, other requirements from the Exploratory Studies Facilities Design Requirements (ESFDR) document will be evaluated. Finally, the standby generator systems will be integrated into the existing ESF subsurface distribution system. The objective of this analysis is to provide design inputs for an efficient and reliable standby generator systems which will provide power for critical loads during a power outage; specifically, Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and the subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Additionally, preliminary one-line diagrams will be developed using this analysis as a primary input.

  12. DOE Workshop. Load Participation in Capacity and Ancillary Services Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boston, Terry

    2011-10-26

    Presents profile of PJM demand-side resources. PJM provides 24% of generation, 27% of load, and 19% of transmission assets in Eastern Interconnection. Includes case studies.

  13. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  14. Automated Feature Generation in Large-Scale Geospatial Libraries for Content-Based Indexing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Cheriydat, Anil; Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Palathingal, Paul J; Potok, Thomas E; Price, Jeffery R

    2006-05-01

    We describe a method for indexing and retrieving high-resolution image regions in large geospatial data libraries. An automated feature extraction method is used that generates a unique and specific structural description of each segment of a tessellated input image file. These tessellated regions are then merged into similar groups, or sub-regions, and indexed to provide flexible and varied retrieval in a query-by-example environment. The methods of tessellation, feature extraction, sub-region clustering, indexing, and retrieval are described and demonstrated using a geospatial library representing a 153 km2 region of land in East Tennessee at 0.5 m per pixel resolution.

  15. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  16. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  17. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  18. Patch-based generation of a pseudo CT from conventional MRI sequences for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreasen, Daniel; Van Leemput, Koen; Hansen, Rasmus H.; Andersen, Jon A. L.; Edmund, Jens M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy (RT) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the only modality, the information on electron density must be derived from the MRI scan by creating a so-called pseudo computed tomography (pCT). This is a nontrivial task, since the voxel-intensities in an MRI scan are not uniquely related to electron density. To solve the task, voxel-based or atlas-based models have typically been used. The voxel-based models require a specialized dual ultrashort echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization and the atlas-based models require deformable registrations of conventional MRI scans. In this study, we investigate the potential of a patch-based method for creating a pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI scans without using deformable registrations. We compare this method against two state-of-the-art methods within the voxel-based and atlas-based categories. Methods: The data consisted of CT and MRI scans of five cranial RT patients. To compare the performance of the different methods, a nested cross validation was done to find optimal model parameters for all the methods. Voxel-wise and geometric evaluations of the pCTs were done. Furthermore, a radiologic evaluation based on water equivalent path lengths was carried out, comparing the upper hemisphere of the head in the pCT and the real CT. Finally, the dosimetric accuracy was tested and compared for a photon treatment plan. Results: The pCTs produced with the patch-based method had the best voxel-wise, geometric, and radiologic agreement with the real CT, closely followed by the atlas-based method. In terms of the dosimetric accuracy, the patch-based method had average deviations of less than 0.5% in measures related to target coverage. Conclusions: We showed that a patch-based method could generate an accurate pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI sequences and without deformable registrations. In our evaluations, the method performed better than existing voxel-based and

  19. {sup 99m}Tc generators for clinical use based on zirconium molybdate gel and (n, gamma) produced {sup 99}Mo: Indian experience in the development and deployment of indigenous technology and processing facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saraswathy, P.; Dey, A.C.; Sarkar, S.K.; Kothalkar, C.; Naskar, P.; Arjun, G.; Arora, S.S.; Kohli, A.K.; Meera, V.; Venugopal, V.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2008-07-15

    The Indian pursuit of gel generator technology for {sup 99m}Tc was driven mainly by three considerations, namely, (i) well-established and ease of reliable production of (n, gamma)-based {sup 99}Mo in several tens of GBq quantities in the research reactors in Trombay/Mumbai, India, (ii) need for relatively low-cost alternate technology to replace the solvent (MEK) extraction generator system in use in India since 1970s and (iii) minimize dependency on weekly import of fission-produced {sup 99}Mo raw material required for alumina column generator. Extensive investigations on process standardisation for zirconium molybdate gel (ZMG) led to a steady progress, achieved both in terms of process technology and final performance of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators. The {sup 99m}Tc final product purity from the Indian gel system was comparable to that obtained from the gold-standard alumina column generators. Based on the feasibility established for reliable small-scale production, as well as satisfactory clinical experience with a number of gel generators used in collaborating hospital radiopharmacies, full-fledged mechanised processing facilities for handling up to 150 g of ZMG were set up. The indigenous design and development included setting up of shielded plant facilities with pneumatic-driven as well as manual controls and special gadgets such as, microwave heating of the zirconium molybdate cake, dispenser for gel granules, loading of gel columns into pre-assembled generator housing etc. Formal review of the safety features was carried out by the regulatory body and stage-wise clearance for processing low and medium level {sup 99}Mo activity was granted. Starting from around 70 GBq {sup 99}Mo handling, the processing facilities have since been successfully operated at a level of 740 GBq {sup 99}Mo, twice a month. In all 18 batches of gel have been processed and 156 generators produced. The individual generator capacity was 15 to 30 GBq with an elution yield of nearly 75

  20. TestDose: A nuclear medicine software based on Monte Carlo modeling for generating gamma camera acquisitions and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule Villoing, Daphnée; Ferrer, Ludovic; Cremonesi, Marta; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Bardiès, Manuel

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The TestDose platform was developed to generate scintigraphic imaging protocols and associated dosimetry by Monte Carlo modeling. TestDose is part of a broader project (www.dositest.com) whose aim is to identify the biases induced by different clinical dosimetry protocols. Methods: The TestDose software allows handling the whole pipeline from virtual patient generation to resulting planar and SPECT images and dosimetry calculations. The originality of their approach relies on the implementation of functional segmentation for the anthropomorphic model representing a virtual patient. Two anthropomorphic models are currently available: 4D XCAT and ICRP 110. A pharmacokinetic model describes the biodistribution of a given radiopharmaceutical in each defined compartment at various time-points. The Monte Carlo simulation toolkit GATE offers the possibility to accurately simulate scintigraphic images and absorbed doses in volumes of interest. The TestDose platform relies on GATE to reproduce precisely any imaging protocol and to provide reference dosimetry. For image generation, TestDose stores user’s imaging requirements and generates automatically command files used as input for GATE. Each compartment is simulated only once and the resulting output is weighted using pharmacokinetic data. Resulting compartment projections are aggregated to obtain the final image. For dosimetry computation, emission data are stored in the platform database and relevant GATE input files are generated for the virtual patient model and associated pharmacokinetics. Results: Two samples of software runs are given to demonstrate the potential of TestDose. A clinical imaging protocol for the Octreoscan™ therapeutical treatment was implemented using the 4D XCAT model. Whole-body “step and shoot” acquisitions at different times postinjection and one SPECT acquisition were generated within reasonable computation times. Based on the same Octreoscan™ kinetics, a dosimetry

  1. Valuation-Based Framework for Considering Distributed Generation Photovoltaic Tariff Design: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinaman, O. R.; Darghouth, N. R.

    2015-02-01

    While an export tariff is only one element of a larger regulatory framework for distributed generation, we choose to focus on tariff design because of the significant impact this program design component has on the various flows of value among power sector stakeholders. In that context, this paper is organized into a series of steps that can be taken during the design of a DGPV export tariff design. To that end this paper outlines a holistic, high-level approach to the complex undertaking of DGPV tariff design, the crux of which is an iterative cost-benefit analysis process. We propose a multi-step progression that aims to promote transparent, focused, and informed dialogue on CBA study methodologies and assumptions. When studies are completed, the long-run marginal avoided cost of the DGPV program should be compared against the costs imposed on utilities and non-participating customers, recognizing that these can be defined differently depending on program objectives. The results of this comparison can then be weighed against other program objectives to formulate tariff options. Potential changes to tariff structures can be iteratively fed back into established analytical tools to inform further discussions.

  2. A Reasoning And Hypothesis-Generation Framework Based On Scalable Graph Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukumar, Sreenivas Rangan

    2016-01-01

    Finding actionable insights from data has always been difficult. As the scale and forms of data increase tremendously, the task of finding value becomes even more challenging. Data scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are leveraging unique leadership infrastructure (e.g. Urika-XA and Urika-GD appliances) to develop scalable algorithms for semantic, logical and statistical reasoning with unstructured Big Data. We present the deployment of such a framework called ORiGAMI (Oak Ridge Graph Analytics for Medical Innovations) on the National Library of Medicine s SEMANTIC Medline (archive of medical knowledge since 1994). Medline contains over 70 million knowledge nuggets published in 23.5 million papers in medical literature with thousands more added daily. ORiGAMI is available as an open-science medical hypothesis generation tool - both as a web-service and an application programming interface (API) at http://hypothesis.ornl.gov . Since becoming an online service, ORIGAMI has enabled clinical subject-matter experts to: (i) discover the relationship between beta-blocker treatment and diabetic retinopathy; (ii) hypothesize that xylene is an environmental cancer-causing carcinogen and (iii) aid doctors with diagnosis of challenging cases when rare diseases manifest with common symptoms. In 2015, ORiGAMI was featured in the Historical Clinical Pathological Conference in Baltimore as a demonstration of artificial intelligence to medicine, IEEE/ACM Supercomputing and recognized as a Centennial Showcase Exhibit at the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Conference in Chicago. The final paper will describe the workflow built for the Cray Urika-XA and Urika-GD appliances that is able to reason with the knowledge of every published medical paper every time a clinical researcher uses the tool.

  3. Instabilities during the growth of dust successive generations in silane-based plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavarroc, Marjorie; Mikikian, Maxime; Tessier, Yves; Boufendi, Laiefa

    2008-10-15

    Dust growth in silane-based plasmas is known to be a cyclic phenomenon as long as silane is provided. This continuous dust growth leads to an unstable behavior of the complex plasma, characterized by well-defined instabilities. In this paper, a complete study of these instabilities is presented. The electrical analysis is corroborated by an optical one, and high speed video imaging is used to get an insight in the dust cloud behavior. A possible cause of this instability phenomenon is also discussed.

  4. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    wong, bunsen

    2014-11-20

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  5. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Fe(sub 3)Al-Based Alloy Tubes: Application Specific Development for the Power Generation Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kad, B.K.

    1999-07-01

    A detailed and comprehensive research and development methodology is being prescribed to produce Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS)-Fe3Al thin walled tubes, using powder extrusion methodologies, for eventual use at operating temperatures of up to 1100C in the power generation industry. A particular 'in service application' anomaly of Fe3Al-based alloys is that the environmental resistance is maintained up to 1200C, well beyond where such alloys retain sufficient mechanical strength. Grain boundary creep processes at such high temperatures are anticipated to be the dominant failure mechanism.

  6. New Generation of MoSx Based Solid Lubricant Coatings: Recent Developments and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Julfikar; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2011-01-17

    In recent times, there is a growing interest in applying Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub x}) solid lubricant coatings on components to improve the tribological performance (i.e. lower friction coefficient and wear rate). The tribological performance of MoS{sub x} coating is strongly dependent on coating properties and tribological environment. MoS{sub x} coatings are highly successful in certain applications such as in space/vacuum technology, but its effectiveness is questioned in other terrestrial applications such as in cutting tool industry due to its lower hardness and poor oxidation resistance leading to shorter life. In order to circumvent this drawback, the paper identifies that current research is being concentrated on developing MoS{sub x} based coatings using three different approaches: (1) Metal or compound addition in MoS{sub x} coating (2)MoS{sub x} layer on hard coating and (3)MoS{sub x} addition in hard coating matrix. Although the primary objective is same in all three cases, the third approach is considered to be more effective in improving the tribological properties of the coating. Finally, the potential applications of MoS{sub x} based coatings in different industrial sectors have been briefly outlined.

  7. Connectivity-based, all-hexahedral mesh generation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tautges, T.J.; Mitchell, S.A.; Blacker, T.D.; Murdoch, P.

    1998-06-16

    The present invention is a computer-based method and apparatus for constructing all-hexahedral finite element meshes for finite element analysis. The present invention begins with a three-dimensional geometry and an all-quadrilateral surface mesh, then constructs hexahedral element connectivity from the outer boundary inward, and then resolves invalid connectivity. The result of the present invention is a complete representation of hex mesh connectivity only; actual mesh node locations are determined later. The basic method of the present invention comprises the step of forming hexahedral elements by making crossings of entities referred to as ``whisker chords.`` This step, combined with a seaming operation in space, is shown to be sufficient for meshing simple block problems. Entities that appear when meshing more complex geometries, namely blind chords, merged sheets, and self-intersecting chords, are described. A method for detecting invalid connectivity in space, based on repeated edges, is also described, along with its application to various cases of invalid connectivity introduced and resolved by the method. 79 figs.

  8. Connectivity-based, all-hexahedral mesh generation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tautges, Timothy James; Mitchell, Scott A.; Blacker, Ted D.; Murdoch, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a computer-based method and apparatus for constructing all-hexahedral finite element meshes for finite element analysis. The present invention begins with a three-dimensional geometry and an all-quadrilateral surface mesh, then constructs hexahedral element connectivity from the outer boundary inward, and then resolves invalid connectivity. The result of the present invention is a complete representation of hex mesh connectivity only; actual mesh node locations are determined later. The basic method of the present invention comprises the step of forming hexahedral elements by making crossings of entities referred to as "whisker chords." This step, combined with a seaming operation in space, is shown to be sufficient for meshing simple block problems. Entities that appear when meshing more complex geometries, namely blind chords, merged sheets, and self-intersecting chords, are described. A method for detecting invalid connectivity in space, based on repeated edges, is also described, along with its application to various cases of invalid connectivity introduced and resolved by the method.

  9. Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-04-03

    Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing ~24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Details analysis indicates that the design offers a substantial improvement in specific power over the present generator of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There are three copies in the file.

  10. Mode-hopping mechanism generating colored noise in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Raghav; Drrenfeld, P.; Iacocca, E.; Heinonen, O. G.; kerman, J.; Muduli, P. K.

    2014-09-29

    The frequency noise spectrum of a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator is examined where multiple modes and mode-hopping events are observed. The frequency noise spectrum is found to consist of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise. We find a systematic and similar dependence of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise on bias current and the relative angle between the reference and free layers, which changes the effective damping and hence the mode-hopping behavior in this system. The frequency at which the 1/f frequency noise changes to white noise increases as the free layer is aligned away from the anti-parallel orientation w.r.t the reference layer. These results indicate that the origin of 1/f frequency noise is related to mode-hopping, which produces both white noise as well as 1/f frequency noise similar to the case of ring lasers.

  11. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segmentmore » road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.« less

  12. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  13. Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.

    2009-06-30

    Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public

  14. Influence of cooling rate on the development of multiple generations of {gamma}' precipitates in a commercial nickel base superalloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, A.R.P.; Nag, S.; Hwang, J.Y.; Viswanathan, G.B.; Tiley, J.; Srinivasan, R.; Fraser, H.L.; Banerjee, R.

    2011-09-15

    The compositional and microstructural evolution of different generations of {gamma}' precipitates during the continuous cooling of a commercial nickel base superalloy, Rene88DT, has been characterized by three dimensional atom probe tomography coupled with energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy studies. After solutionizing in the single {gamma} phase field, continuous cooling at a very high rate results in a monomodal size distribution of {gamma}' precipitates with a high nucleation density and non-equilibrium compositions. In contrast, a relatively slower cooling rate ({approx} 24 deg. C/min) results in a multi-modal size distribution of {gamma}' precipitates with the larger first generation primary precipitates exhibiting close to equilibrium composition, along with the smaller scale secondary {gamma}' precipitates, exhibiting non-equilibrium composition (excess of Co and Cr, depleted in Al and Ti). The composition of the {gamma} matrix near these precipitates also exhibits similar trends with the composition being closer to equilibrium near the primary precipitates as compared to the secondary precipitates. - Highlights: {yields} Effect of cooling rate on the precipitation of {gamma}' particles in commercial nickel base superalloy. {yields} Couples EFTEM and 3DAP studies to determine the composition and morphology of {gamma}' precipitates. {yields} Determination of near and far field compositional variations within the gamma matrix leading to subsequent precipitation.

  15. Next Generation Print-based Manufacturing for Photovoltaics and Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sue A. Carter

    2012-09-07

    For the grand challenge of reducing our energy and carbon footprint, the development of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies offer a potential solution. Energy technologies can reduce our dependence on foreign oil as well as the energy consumed by the petroleum industry, the leading consumer of energy by a U.S. industry sector. Nonetheless, the manufacturing processes utilized to manufacture equipment for alternative energy technologies often involve energy-intensive processes. This undermines some of the advantages to moving to 'green' technologies in the first place. Our answer to the Industrial Technology Program's (ITP) Grand Challenge FOA was to develop a transformational low cost manufacturing process for plastic-based photovoltaics that will lower by over 50% both energy consumption and greenhouse emissions and offer a return-of-investment of over 20%. We demonstrated a Luminescent Solar Concentrator fabricated on a plastic acrylic substrate (i.e. no glass) that increases the power output of the PV cell by 2.2x with a 2% power efficiency as well as an LSC with a 7% power efficiency that increased the power output from the PV cells by 35%. S large area 20-inch x 60-inch building-integrated photovoltaic window was fabricated using contract manufacturing with a 4% power efficiency which improved the power output of the PV cell by over 50%. In addition, accelerated lifetimes of the luminescent material demonstrate lifetimes of 20-years.

  16. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  17. Evaluating the Impact of Solar Generation on Balancing Requirements in Southern Nevada System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2012-07-26

    Abstract—In this paper, the impacts of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation on balancing requirements including regulation and load following in the Southern Nevada balancing area are analyzed. The methodology is based on the “swinging door” algorithm and a probability box method developed by PNNL. The regulation and load following signals are mimicking the system’s scheduling and real-time dispatch processes. Load, solar PV generation and distributed PV generation (DG) data are used in the simulation. Different levels of solar PV generation and DG penetration profiles are used in the study. Sensitivity of the regulation requirements with respect to real-time solar PV generation forecast errors is analyzed.

  18. Towards Next Generation TATB-based Explosives by Understanding Voids and Microstructure from 10 nm to 1 cm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willey, T M; Overturf, G

    2009-03-26

    TATB-based explosives have been investigated on length scales spanning several orders of magnitude, from just under 10 nm to larger than 1 cm. This has been accomplished using a combination of ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS), ultra-small angle neutron scattering (USANS), and x-ray computed tomography (XRCT). USAXS determines distributions the smallest structures including hot-spot voids from hundreds of nanometers to a few microns, USANS extends this range to about 10 microns, and two variants of XRCT cover sizes from microns to centimeters. Several examples are presented for LX-17, a triaminotrinitrobenzene based plastic bonded explosive using Kel-F 800. As an extension of previous USAXS results, in these proceedings, an alternate binder results in a more uniform microstructure for the PBX, useful towards design of next-generation TATB-based explosives. These data are an important step to understanding microstructural mechanisms that affect the mechanical properties of TATB-based explosives, and provide complete a comprehensive characterization of the structure of LX-17 from nanometers to centimeters that can be used as empirical input to computational models of detonation, and in determining the relationship between voids and microstructure to detonation properties.

  19. Development of Novel Nanocrystal-based Solar Cell to Exploit Multiple Exciton Generation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-00227

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, R.

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the project was to develop new design and fabrication techniques for NC solar cells with the goal of demonstrating enhanced photocurrent and efficiency by exploiting multiple exciton generation and to investigate multiple exciton generation and charge carrier dynamics in semiconductor NC films used in NC-based solar cells.

  20. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  1. Effect of Large Scale Transmission Limitations on Renewable Energy Load Matching for Western U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, V.; Short, W.; Gilchrist, B.

    2012-06-01

    Based on the available geographically dispersed data for the Western U.S. (excluding Alaska), we analyze to what extent the geographic diversity of these resources can offset their variability. Without energy storage and assuming unlimited energy flows between regions, wind and PV can meet up to 80% of loads in Western U.S. while less than 10% of the generated power is curtailed. Limiting hourly energy flows by the aggregated transmission line carrying capacities decreases the fraction of the load that can be met with wind and PV generation to approximately 70%.

  2. SU-E-T-395: Multi-GPU-Based VMAT Treatment Plan Optimization Using a Column-Generation Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Z; Shi, F; Jia, X; Jiang, S; Peng, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: GPU has been employed to speed up VMAT optimizations from hours to minutes. However, its limited memory capacity makes it difficult to handle cases with a huge dose-deposition-coefficient (DDC) matrix, e.g. those with a large target size, multiple arcs, small beam angle intervals and/or small beamlet size. We propose multi-GPU-based VMAT optimization to solve this memory issue to make GPU-based VMAT more practical for clinical use. Methods: Our column-generation-based method generates apertures sequentially by iteratively searching for an optimal feasible aperture (referred as pricing problem, PP) and optimizing aperture intensities (referred as master problem, MP). The PP requires access to the large DDC matrix, which is implemented on a multi-GPU system. Each GPU stores a DDC sub-matrix corresponding to one fraction of beam angles and is only responsible for calculation related to those angles. Broadcast and parallel reduction schemes are adopted for inter-GPU data transfer. MP is a relatively small-scale problem and is implemented on one GPU. One headand- neck cancer case was used for test. Three different strategies for VMAT optimization on single GPU were also implemented for comparison: (S1) truncating DDC matrix to ignore its small value entries for optimization; (S2) transferring DDC matrix part by part to GPU during optimizations whenever needed; (S3) moving DDC matrix related calculation onto CPU. Results: Our multi-GPU-based implementation reaches a good plan within 1 minute. Although S1 was 10 seconds faster than our method, the obtained plan quality is worse. Both S2 and S3 handle the full DDC matrix and hence yield the same plan as in our method. However, the computation time is longer, namely 4 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively. Conclusion: Our multi-GPU-based VMAT optimization can effectively solve the limited memory issue with good plan quality and high efficiency, making GPUbased ultra-fast VMAT planning practical for real clinical use.

  3. Assessment study of RELAP5/MOD2 Cycle 36.04 based on the DOEL-4 manual loss of load test of November 23, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbe, E.J.; Deschutter, P.

    1992-03-01

    The loss of external load test conducted on the DOEL-4 power plant has been analyzed on the basis of a high quality data acquisition system. A detailed numerical analysis of the transient by means of the best estimate code RELAP5/MOD2 is presented. The RELAP5 code is capable to simulate the basic plant behavior. Deficiencies noted involved structural heat simulation, acoustic phenomena, and excessive interphase drag.

  4. Assessment study of RELAP5/MOD2 Cycle 36. 04 based on the DOEL-4 manual loss of load test of November 23, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbe, E.J.; Deschutter, P. )

    1992-03-01

    The loss of external load test conducted on the DOEL-4 power plant has been analyzed on the basis of a high quality data acquisition system. A detailed numerical analysis of the transient by means of the best estimate code RELAP5/MOD2 is presented. The RELAP5 code is capable to simulate the basic plant behavior. Deficiencies noted involved structural heat simulation, acoustic phenomena, and excessive interphase drag.

  5. PROJECT PROFILE: Dynamic Building Load Control to Facilitate High

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Penetration of Solar Photovoltaic Generation (SuNLaMP) | Department of Energy Dynamic Building Load Control to Facilitate High Penetration of Solar Photovoltaic Generation (SuNLaMP) PROJECT PROFILE: Dynamic Building Load Control to Facilitate High Penetration of Solar Photovoltaic Generation (SuNLaMP) Funding Program: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Systems Integration Location: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN SunShot Award Amount: $3,000,000 This project aims to develop,

  6. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  7. A loaded thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of the performance of a thermoacoustic engine driving a dissipative load are presented. The effect of the load can be explained qualitatively using a simple low-amplitude approximation and quantitatively by invoking a more accurate low-amplitude numerical solution. The heater power {ital @};DQ and hot-end temperature {ital T}{sub {ital H}} are found to be simple functions of the load impedance and the unloaded values of {ital @};DQ and {ital T}{sub {ital H}}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Acoustical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.

  8. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  9. IT and Building Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-09-30

    The article discusses available technologies for reducing IT energy consumption and the commensurate cooling load in commercial buildings. This article addresses the energy savings and market potential of these strategies as well.

  10. A Robust Load Shedding Strategy for Microgrid Islanding Transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong; Xiao, Bailu; Starke, Michael R; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources. It can operate in either gridconnected mode to exchange energy with the main grid or run autonomously as an island in emergency mode. However, the transition of microgrid from grid-connected mode to islanded mode is usually associated with excessive load (or generation), which should be shed (or spilled). Under this condition, this paper proposes an robust load shedding strategy for microgrid islanding transition, which takes into account the uncertainties of renewable generation in the microgrid and guarantees the balance between load and generation after islanding. A robust optimization model is formulated to minimize the total operation cost, including fuel cost and penalty for load shedding. The proposed robust load shedding strategy works as a backup plan and updates at a prescribed interval. It assures a feasible operating point after islanding given the uncertainty of renewable generation. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a simulated microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a battery, two distributed generators (DGs), a critical load and a interruptible load. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm.

  11. LOADING MACHINE FOR REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simon, S.L.

    1959-07-01

    An apparatus is described for loading or charging slugs of fissionable material into a nuclear reactor. The apparatus of the invention is a "muzzle loading" type comprising a delivery tube or muzzle designed to be brought into alignment with any one of a plurality of fuel channels. The delivery tube is located within the pressure shell and it is also disposed within shielding barriers while the fuel cantridges or slugs are forced through the delivery tube by an externally driven flexible ram.

  12. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  13. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  14. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  15. Clarification of stress corrosion cracking mechanism on nickel base alloys in steam generators for their long lifetime assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagano, Hiroo; Kajimura, Haruhiko

    1995-12-31

    Thermally treated (TT) Alloys 600 (16%Cr-8%Fe-bal.Ni) and 690 (30%Cr-10%Fe-bal.Ni) have been successfully used in the steam generators of operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper deals with intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mechanisms in Ni-base alloys in various corrosive environments such as deaerated water, air-saturated chloride medium, and caustic solutions at high temperatures with focus on Cr content and Cr carbide precipitation at grain boundaries in the alloys. Nickel base alloys of high purity, or with different Cr, C, and B contents with different heat treatments were put to various corrosion tests. SCC resistance of Alloy 600 is affected differently by water chemistry of environments, while Alloy 690 is almost immune to the environments investigated: (1) Cr depletion at grain boundaries is clearly detrimental to IGSCC resistance of Alloy 600 in air-saturated water containing Cl{sup {minus}} ions at 300 C. (2) High purity Alloy 600 has weaker SCC resistance in deaerated water at 360 C than commercially available Alloy 600. Cr depletion along grain boundaries is detrimental to the IGSCC resistance, however its detrimental effect disappears when Cr carbides precipitate at grain boundaries in semi-continuous or continuous way. The NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} film formed on the metal surfaces enhances the IGSCC resistance. Similar relationship between Cr depletion and Cr carbide precipitation is also observed in Alloy 600 in deaerated caustic solutions at high temperatures. (3) Concerning intergranular attack (IGA), which occurs in oxidizing caustic solutions at high temperature, existence of semi-continuous or continuous Cr carbides improves the IGA resistance regardless of Cr depletion. A dual layer corrosion protective film composed of an upper layer of NiO and lower layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed on metal surfaces, of which formation is accelerated by selective Cr carbide dissolution, may be responsible for the IGA resistance.

  16. Parametric study of broadband terahertz radiation generation based on interaction of two-color ultra-short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, S.; Ganjovi, A.; Shojaei, F.; Saeed, M.

    2015-04-15

    In this work, using a two-dimensional kinetic model based on particle in cell-Monte Carlo collision simulation method, the influence of different parameters on the broadband intense Terahertz (THz) radiation generation via application of two-color laser fields, i.e., the fundamental and second harmonic modes, is studied. These two modes are focused into the molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) with uniform density background gaseous media and the plasma channels are created. Thus, a broadband THz pulse that is around the plasma frequency is emitted from the formed plasma channel and co-propagates with the laser pulse. For different laser pulse shapes, the THz electric field and its spectrum are both calculated. The effects of laser pulse and medium parameters, i.e., positive and negative chirp pulse, number of laser cycles in the pulse, laser pulse shape, background gas pressure, and exerted DC electric field on THz spectrum are verified. Application of a negatively chirped femtosecond (40 fs) laser pulse results in four times enhancement of the THz pulse energy (2 times in THz electric field). The emission of THz radiation is mostly observed in the forward direction.

  17. Influence of mutual coupling between ICRH antenna straps on the load resilience of hybrid couplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamalle, P. U.; Messiaen, A.

    2007-09-28

    The mutual coupling present between ICRF antenna straps can strongly reduce the performance of quadrature hybrid couplers when used as 'ELM dump' circuits. An analytical study of this effect shows that during resistive ELM-like load perturbations of a matched circuit configuration, the fraction of the reflected power returned to the generator through the hybrid has a lower bound that rapidly increases with the ratio {xi}{approx} (mutual reactance between straps)/(strap input resistance). At very low levels of mutual the reflected power is efficiently diverted to the dummy load. However when {xi} becomes of order 1, which readily occurs at low resistive loading, the load resilience of the quadrature hybrid coupler becomes inhibited. Illustrations based on matching circuit simulations for the JET ITER-like ICRF antenna are presented. The behaviour of the hybrids is found the same with the load resilient 'conjugate T' circuit as in the case of 'classic' tuners. The insertion of decoupling circuits between the tuners and the antenna significantly improves the load resilience.

  18. Popping the CO{sub 2}RC: an alternative Load-Based CO{sub 2} Cap-and-Trade instrument for the electricity Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, Steven; Nielsen, John

    2008-05-15

    The CO{sub 2}RC method proposed by the authors can effectively reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in electricity markets in a way that is easy to administer, avoids difficult allowance distribution issues, and eliminates leakage because it involves all generators. It provides strong and direct incentives for renewables and efficiency, and promises to work well in markets with incomplete participation. (author)

  19. Tunable coherent soft X-ray source based on the generation of high-order harmonic of femtosecond laser radiation in gas-filled capillaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkov, Yu A; Yashunin, D A; Kiselev, A M; Stepanov, A N; Andreev, N E

    2014-05-30

    We have carried out experimental and theoretical investigations of a tunable coherent soft X-ray radiation source in the 30 – 52 nm wavelength range based on the generation of high-order harmonics of femtosecond laser radiation propagating in a dielectric xenon-filled capillary. The long path of laser pulse propagation through the capillary permits tuning the generated harmonic wavelengths to almost completely span the range under consideration. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  20. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Turbine Loads Database - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database ...

  1. Cluster generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donchev, Todor I.; Petrov, Ivan G.

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  2. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  3. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Standardized Software for Wind Load Forecast Error Analyses and Predictions Based on Wavelet-ARIMA Models - Applications at Multiple Geographically Distributed Wind Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Makarov, Yuri V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Etingov, Pavel V.

    2013-03-19

    Given the multi-scale variability and uncertainty of wind generation and forecast errors, it is a natural choice to use time-frequency representation (TFR) as a view of the corresponding time series represented over both time and frequency. Here we use wavelet transform (WT) to expand the signal in terms of wavelet functions which are localized in both time and frequency. Each WT component is more stationary and has consistent auto-correlation pattern. We combined wavelet analyses with time series forecast approaches such as ARIMA, and tested the approach at three different wind farms located far away from each other. The prediction capability is satisfactory -- the day-ahead prediction of errors match the original error values very well, including the patterns. The observations are well located within the predictive intervals. Integrating our wavelet-ARIMA (stochastic) model with the weather forecast model (deterministic) will improve our ability significantly to predict wind power generation and reduce predictive uncertainty.

  5. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, Lauren; Skolnik, Edward G.; Marchionini, Brian; Fall, Ndeye K.

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  6. Passive SCR for lean gasoline NOX control: Engine-based strategies to minimize fuel penalty associated with catalytic NH3 generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Parks, James E.; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.

    2016-02-18

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than common stoichiometric gasoline engines. However, excess oxygen prevents the use of the current three-way catalyst (TWC) to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in lean exhaust. A passive SCR concept, introduced by General Motors Global R&D, makes use of a TWC that is already onboard to generate NH3 under slightly rich conditions, which is stored on the downstream SCR. The stored NH3 is then used to reduce NOX emissions when the engine switches to lean operation. In this work, the effect of engine parameters, such as air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing, onmore » NH3 generation over a commercial Pd-only TWC with no dedicated oxygen storage component was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine. NOX reduction, NH3 formation, and reductant utilization processes were evaluated, and fuel efficiency was assessed and compared to the stoichiometric engine operation case. We found air-fuel equivalence ratio to be one of the most important parameters in controlling the NH3 production; however, the rich operation necessary for NH3 production results in a fuel consumption penalty. The fuel penalty can be minimized by adjusting spark timing to increase rich-phase engine out NOX emissions and, thereby, NH3 levels. Additionally, higher engine out NOX during engine load increase to simulate acceleration resulted in additional fuel savings. Ultimately, a 10% fuel consumption benefit was achieved with the passive SCR approach by optimizing rich air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing while also utilizing acceleration load conditions.« less

  7. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Megawatts and 2003 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,..."Texas Power ...

  8. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2004 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,..."Texas Power ...

  9. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2005 Base ...

  10. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  11. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  12. LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treshow, M.

    1960-08-16

    A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

  13. Method for controlling vapor emissions during loading of tankers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, T.K.

    1992-06-30

    This patent describes a method for loading crude oil into a tank of a tanker ship having a built-in crude oil loading manifold. It comprises generating and compressing foam at a point remote from the tank; supplying the foam through the crude oil loading manifold onto the bottom of the tank in an amount sufficient to form a layer of the foam having a thickness adequate to provide a barrier which will substantially prevent the passage of hydrocarbon vapors therethrough, the foam expanding while flowing through the manifold and into the tank; and supplying crude oil through the crude oil loading manifold into the tank beneath the layer of foam.

  14. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  15. Orex based {open_quotes}point of generation{close_quotes} low-level radioactive waste reduction program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, B.

    1995-11-01

    Nuclear power facilities, both commercial and government operated, generate material called Dry Active Waste (DAW). DAW is a by-product of maintenance and operation of the power systems which contain radioactive materials. DAW can be any material contaminated with radioactive particles as long as it is not a fluid, typically: paper, cardboard, wood, plastics, cloth, and any other solid which is contaminated and determined to be dry. DAW is generated when any material is exposed to loose radioactive particles and subsequently becomes contaminated. In the United States, once a material is contaminated it must be treated as radioactive waste and disposed of in accordance with the requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Problems facing all commercial and non-commercial nuclear facilities are escalating costs of processing DAW and volumetric reduction of the DAW generated. Currently, approximately 85% of all DAW generated at a typical facility is comprised of anti-contamination clothing and protective barrier materials. A typical 800 megawatt power station will generate between 6,000 to 10,000 cubic feet of DAW annually. Facilities that generate low-level radioactive waste need to dramatically reduce their waste volumes. This curtailment is required for several reasons: (1). The number of radioactive waste repositories now accepting new waste is limited. (2). The current cost of burial at an operating dump site is significant. Costs can be as high as $4,000 for a single 55 gallon drum. (3). The cost of burial is constantly increasing. (4). Onsite storage of low-level radioactive waste is costly and results in a burial fee at plant decommissioning. In order to address this issue, the industry must look to the application of {open_quotes}point of generation{close_quotes} technologies.

  16. Methods and apparatus for rotor load control in wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2006-08-22

    A wind turbine having a rotor, at least one rotor blade, and a plurality of generators, of which a first generator is configured to provide power to an electric grid and a second generator is configured to provide power to the wind turbine during times of grid loss. The wind turbine is configured to utilize power provided by the second generator to reduce loads on the wind turbine during times of grid loss.

  17. PEM fuel cells for transportation and stationary power generation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleghorn, S.J.; Ren, X.; Springer, T.E.; Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1996-05-01

    We describe recent activities at LANL devoted to polymer electrolyte fuel cells in the contexts of stationary power generation and transportation applications. A low cost/high performance hydrogen or reformate/air stack technology is being developed based on ultralow Pt loadings and on non-machined, inexpensive elements for flow-fields and bipolar plates. On board methanol reforming is compared to the option of direct methanol fuel cells because of recent significant power density increases demonstrated in the latter.

  18. Photovoltaic power converter system with a controller configured to actively compensate load harmonics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de Rooij, Michael Andrew; Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Delgado, Eladio Clemente

    2008-12-16

    Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.

  19. PBL FY 2002 Third Quarter Review Forecast of Generation Accumulated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Revenue Basis. The FB CRAC Revenue Basis is the total generation revenue (not including LB CRAC) for the loads subject to FB CRAC plus Slice loads, for the year in which the FB...

  20. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  1. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  2. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  3. Solaire Generation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Generation Place: New York, New York Zip: 10001 Sector: Solar Product: New York-based rooftop PV mounting systems and solar canopy maker. References: Solaire Generation1 This...

  4. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative (DGIC) "Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening" Dora Nakafuji and Anthony Hong, Hawaiian Electric Co. Babak Enayati, DG Techincal Standards Review Group April 30, 2014 2 Speakers Babak Enayati Chair of Massachusetts DG Technical Standards Review Group Dora Nakafuji Director of Renewable Energy Planning Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) Kristen Ardani Solar Analyst, (today's moderator) NREL Anthony Hong Director of

  5. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwemin, A.J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator is presented for producing relatively large currents at high voltages. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  6. Minimization of Impact from Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment to the Electric Grid Using a Dynamically Controlled Battery Bank for Peak Load Shaving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castello, Charles C

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a comparison of two control systems for peak load shaving using local solar power generation (i.e., photovoltaic array) and local energy storage (i.e., battery bank). The purpose is to minimize load demand of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on the electric grid. A static and dynamic control system is compared to decrease demand from EVSE. Static control of the battery bank is based on charging and discharging to the electric grid at fixed times. Dynamic control, with 15-minute resolution, forecasts EVSE load based on data analysis of collected data. In the proposed dynamic control system, the sigmoid function is used to shave peak loads while limiting scenarios that can quickly drain the battery bank. These control systems are applied to Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) solar-assisted electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. This installation is composed of three independently grid-tied sub-systems: (1) 25 EVSE; (2) 47 kW photovoltaic (PV) array; and (3) 60 kWh battery bank. The dynamic control system achieved the greatest peak load shaving, up to 34% on a cloudy day and 38% on a sunny day. The static control system was not ideal; peak load shaving was 14.6% on a cloudy day and 12.7% on a sunny day. Simulations based on ORNL data shows solar-assisted EV charging stations combined with the proposed dynamic battery control system can negate up to 89% of EVSE load demand on sunny days.

  7. commercial load | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

  8. residential load | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

  9. load profile | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

  10. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  11. Hydrogen Gas Generation Model for Fuel-Based Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Stored at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khericha, S.; Bhatt, R.; Liekhus, K.

    2003-01-14

    The Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) initiated efforts to calculate the hydrogen gas generation in remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) containers in order to evaluate continued storage of unvented RH-TRU containers in vaults and to identify any potential problems during retrieval and aboveground storage. A computer code is developed to calculate the hydrogen concentration in the stored RH-TRU waste drums for known configuration, waste matrix, and radionuclide inventories as a function of time.

  12. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  13. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  14. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings tomore » investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  15. Attainable Burnup in a LIFE Engine Loaded with Depleted Uranium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Attainable Burnup in a LIFE Engine Loaded with Depleted Uranium The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) system uses a laser-based fusion source for electricity ...

  16. Microgrids in the Evolving Electricity Generation and DeliveryInfrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2006-02-01

    The legacy paradigm for electricity service in most of the electrified world today is based on the centralized generation-transmission-distribution infrastructure that evolved under a regulated environment. More recently, a quest for effective economic investments, responsive markets, and sensitivity to the availability of resources, has led to various degrees of deregulation and unbundling of services. In this context, a new paradigm is emerging wherein electricity generation is intimately embedded with the load in microgrids. Development and decay of the familiar macrogrid is discussed. Three salient features of microgrids are examined to suggest that cohabitation of micro and macro grids is desirable, and that overall energy efficiency can be increased, while power is delivered to loads at appropriate levels of quality.

  17. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a larger number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  18. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.; Peierls, R.F.

    1995-08-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a large number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  19. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  20. Study on a regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, T.K.; Park, H.S.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I.

    2013-07-01

    A regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel has been studied. This regeneration process is composed of a chemical conversion process and a vacuum distillation process. Through the regeneration process, a high efficiency of renewable salt recovery can be obtained from the waste salt and rare earth nuclides in the waste salt can be separated as oxide or phosphate forms. Thus, the regeneration process can contribute greatly to a reduction of the waste volume and a creation of durable final waste forms. (authors)

  1. Transportation Electrification Load Development For a Renewable Future Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, Tony; Mai, Trieu; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2010-09-30

    Electrification of the transportation sector offers the opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The transportation sector accounts for 70% of US petroleum consumption. The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. In support of a recent US Department of Energy funded activity that analyzed a future generation scenario with high renewable energy technology contributions, a set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles were developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. These load profiles with their underlying assumptions will be presented in this paper. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Two market saturation scenarios of 30% of sales and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average {approx}6 kWh per day were considered. Results were generated for 3109 counties and were consolidated to 134 Power Control Areas (PCA) for the use NREL's's regional generation planning analysis tool ReEDS. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across 4 daily time slices under optimal control from the utility perspective. No other literature has addressed the potential flexibility in energy delivery to electric vehicles in connection with a regional power generation study. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios. EVS25 Copyright.

  2. HELIOS—A laboratory based on high-order harmonic generation of extreme ultraviolet photons for time-resolved spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plogmaker, S. E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se Terschlüsen, J. A. E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se Krebs, N.; Svanqvist, M.; Forsberg, J.; Cappel, U. B.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Siegbahn, H.; Söderström, J. E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we present the HELIOS (High Energy Laser Induced Overtone Source) laboratory, an in-house high-order harmonic generation facility which generates extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photon pulses in the range of 15-70 eV with monochromatized XUV pulse lengths below 35 fs. HELIOS is a source for time-resolved pump-probe/two-color spectroscopy in the sub-50 fs range, which can be operated at 5 kHz or 10 kHz. An optical parametric amplifier is available for pump-probe experiments with wavelengths ranging from 240 nm to 20 000 nm. The produced XUV radiation is monochromatized by a grating in the so-called off-plane mount. Together with overall design parameters, first monochromatized spectra are shown with an intensity of 2 ⋅ 10{sup 10} photons/s (at 5 kHz) in the 29th harmonic, after the monochromator. The XUV pulse duration is measured to be <25 fs after monochromatization.

  3. COMBINE7.1 - A Portable ENDF/B-VII.0 Based Neutron Spectrum and Cross-Section Generation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo Y. Yoon; David W. Nigg

    2011-09-01

    COMBINE7.1 is a FORTRAN 90 computer code that generates multigroup neutron constants for use in the deterministic diffusion and transport theory neutronics analysis. The cross-section database used by COMBINE7.1 is derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-VII.0). The neutron energy range covered is from 20 MeV to 1.0E-5 eV. The Los Alamos National Laboratory NJOY code is used as the processing code to generate a 167 fine-group cross-section library in MATXS format for Bondarenko self-shielding treatment. Resolved resonance parameters are extracted from ENDF/B-VII.0 File 2 for a separate library to be used in an alternate Nordheim self-shielding treatment in the resolved resonance energy range. The equations solved for energy dependent neutron spectrum in the 167 fine-group structure are the B3 or B1 zero-dimensional approximations to the transport equation. The fine group cross sections needed for the spectrum calculation are first prepared by Bondarenko self-shielding interpolation in terms of background cross section and temperature. The geometric lump effect, when present, is accounted for by augmenting the background cross section. Nordheim self-shielded fine group cross sections for a material having resolved resonance parameters overwrite correspondingly the existing self-shielded fine group cross sections when this option is used. COMBINE7.1 coalesces fine group cross sections into broad group macroscopic and microscopic constants. The coalescing is performed by utilizing fine-group fluxes and/or currents obtained by spectrum calculation as the weighting functions. The multigroup constants may be output in any of several standard formats including INL format, ANISN 14** free format, CCCC ISOTXS format, and AMPX working library format. ANISN-PC, a one-dimensional (1-D) discrete-ordinate transport code, is incorporated into COMBINE7.1. As an option, the 167 fine-group constants generated by zero-dimensional COMBINE portion in the program can be

  4. WWTP Power Generation Station Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WWTP Power Generation Station Sector Biomass Facility Type Non-Fossil Waste Location Alameda County, California Coordinates 37.6016892, -121.7195459 Show Map Loading map......

  5. Perry Wyoming manure to electricity generation plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    will build and operate anaerobic digestion systems to convert animal manure into methane for electricity generation. Coordinates: 42.895849, -89.760231 Show Map Loading...

  6. Knot Undulator to Generate Linearly Polarized Photons with Low...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heat load on beamline optics is a serious problem to generate pure linearly polarized ... Language: English Subject: 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; OPTICS; PERMANENT MAGNETS; PHOTONS; ...

  7. Category:Energy Generation Organizations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Category Edit History Category:Energy Generation Organizations Jump to: navigation, search Add a new Company Loading map......

  8. Determining site-specific drum loading criteria for storing combustible {sup 238}Pu waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, R.S.; Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.; Espinoza, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Reich, B.T.; Smith, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    Waste containing hydrogenous-combustible material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu can generate hydrogen gas at appreciable rates through alpha radiolysis. To ensure safe transportation of WIPP drums, the limit for {sup 238}Pu-combustible waste published in the WIPP TRUPACT-11 CONTENT (TRUCON) CODES is 21 milliwafts per 55 gallon drum. This corresponds to about 45 milligrams of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} used for satellite heat source-electrical generators. The Los Alamos waste storage site adopted a {sup 238}Pu waste storage criteria based on these TRCUCON codes. However, reviews of the content in drums of combustible waste generated during heat source assembly at Los Alamos showed the amount of {sup 238}Pu is typically much greater than 45 milligrams. It is not feasible to appreciably reduce Los Alamos {sup 238}Pu waste drum loadings without significantly increasing waste volumes or introducing unsafe practices. To address this concern, a series of studies were implemented to evaluate the applicability of the TRUCON limits for storage of this specific waste. Addressed in these evaluations were determination of the hydrogen generation rate, hydrogen diffusion rates through confinement layers and vent filters, and packaging requirements specific to Los Alamos generated {sup 238}Pu contaminated combustible waste. These studies also showed that the multiple-layer packaging practices in use at Los Alamos could be relaxed without significantly increasing the risk of contamination. Based on a model developed to predict H{sub 2} concentrations in packages and drum headspace, the site specific effective hydrogen generation rate, and hydrogen-diffusion values, and revising the waste packaging practices, we were able to raise the safe loading limit for {sup 238}Pu waste drums for on site storage to the gram levels typical of currently generated {sup 238}Pu waste.

  9. PhotoVoltaic distributed generation for Lanai power grid real-time simulation and control integration scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Kukolich, Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses the modeling, analysis, and testing in a real-time simulation environment of the Lanai power grid system for the integration and control of PhotoVoltaic (PV) distributed generation. The Lanai Island in Hawaii is part of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) to transition to 30% renewable green energy penetration by 2030. In Lanai the primary loads come from two Castle and Cook Resorts, in addition to residential needs. The total peak load profile is 12470 V, 5.5 MW. Currently there are several diesel generators that meet these loading requirements. As part of the HCEI, Lanai has initially installed 1.2 MW of PV generation. The goal of this study has been to evaluate the impact of the PV with respect to the conventional carbon-based diesel generation in real time simulation. For intermittent PV distributed generation, the overall stability and transient responses are investigated. A simple Lanai 'like' model has been developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment (see Fig. 1) and to accommodate real-time simulation of the hybrid power grid system the Opal-RT Technologies RT-Lab environment is used. The diesel generators have been modelled using the SimPowerSystems toolbox swing equations and a custom Simulink module has been developed for the High level PV generation. All of the loads have been characterized primarily as distribution lines with series resistive load banks with one VAR load bank. Three-phase faults are implemented for each bus. Both conventional and advanced control architectures will be used to evaluate the integration of the PV onto the current power grid system. The baseline numerical results include the stable performance of the power grid during varying cloud cover (PV generation ramping up/down) scenarios. The importance of assessing the real-time scenario is included.

  10. COMBINE7.0 - A Portable ENDF/B-VII.0 Based Neutron Spectrum and Cross-Section Generation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo Y. Yoon; David W. Nigg

    2008-09-01

    COMBINE7.0 is a FORTRAN 90 computer code that generates multigroup neutron constants for use in the deterministic diffusion and transport theory neutronics analysis. The cross-section database used by COMBINE7.0 is derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-VII.0). The neutron energy range covered is from 20 MeV to 1.0E-5 eV. The Los Alamos National Laboratory NJOY code is used as the processing code to generate a 167 finegroup cross-section library in MATXS format for Bondarenko self-shielding treatment. Resolved resonance parameters are extracted from ENDF/B-VII.0 File 2 for a separate library to be used in an alternate Nordheim self-shielding treatment in the resolved resonance energy range. The equations solved for energy dependent neutron spectrum in the 167 fine-group structure are the B-3 or B-1 approximations to the transport equation. The fine group cross sections needed for the spectrum calculation are first prepared by Bondarenko selfshielding interpolation in terms of background cross section and temperature. The geometric lump effect, when present, is accounted for by augmenting the background cross section. Nordheim self-shielded fine group cross sections for a material having resolved resonance parameters overwrite correspondingly the existing self-shielded fine group cross sections when this option is used. The fine group cross sections in the thermal energy range are replaced by those selfshielded with the Amouyal/Benoist/Horowitz method in the three region geometry when this option is requested. COMBINE7.0 coalesces fine group cross sections into broad group macroscopic and microscopic constants. The coalescing is performed by utilizing fine-group fluxes and/or currents obtained by spectrum calculation as the weighting functions. The multigroup constant may be output in any of several standard formats including ANISN 14** free format, CCCC ISOTXS format, and AMPX working library format. ANISN-PC, a onedimensional, discrete