Sample records for base charge exclude

  1. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Management System NEPA National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded Actions National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded...

  2. Countries Diesel Prices Excluding Taxes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    excluding taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 42715 2.45 2.23 2.40 2.41 2.44 2.40 2.37 42015 2.24 2.15 2.33 2.33 2.34 2.33 2.33 41315 2.21 2.03 2.21...

  3. COMPUTING EXCLUDED MINORS Isolde Adler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Isolde

    , · linklessly/knotlessly embeddable graphs · C, D minor ideals C D, C D minor ideals · C minor ideal Capex minor ideal Capex := {G | v V(G) such that G \\ v C} ISOLDE ADLER COMPUTING EXCLUDED MINORS 5/18 #12 graphs · C, D minor ideals C D, C D minor ideals · C minor ideal Capex minor ideal Capex := {G | v

  4. Vacuum space charge effect in laser-based solid-state photoemission spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graf, Jeff

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. et al. Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-basedB hlow, M. & Kipp, L. Vacuum space-charge e?ects u inVacuum space charge e?ect in laser-based solid-state

  5. Electron beam melting of charge based on titanium sponge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikhonovsky, A.L.; Tikhonovsky, K.A. [JS Co FIKO, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An experience of 0.8 MW consumable box melting furnace operation and theoretical simulation have led to the further development of the FIKO plant under construction on the base of melting of two consumable box-like bullets which move opposite each other and form narrow heated space between melted butt ends. It allows to reduce vaporization, spatter and radiation losses by several times and to reach two times increase in melting rate and 99%(97%) yield for c.p. titanium (alloys) without furnace power add. Future furnace design will provide the optimum protection of vacuum pumps against chlorides, the safety when melting titanium sponge and will permit hot ingots to move to the special furnace for EB surface conditioning. The maximum productivity is to be 18,000 t/year. The furnace can be used for the manufacture of aluminum-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, tungsten-based alloys and others of any charge including salvage.

  6. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan; D Manager

    2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  7. Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from the Energy Performance Requirements of Section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act as Amended by the Energy Policy...

  8. Charge Recycling Sense Amplifier Based Logic: Securing Low Power Security IC's against

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charge Recycling Sense Amplifier Based Logic: Securing Low Power Security IC's against Differential Charge Recycling Sense Amplifier Based Logic is presented. This logic is derived from Sense Amplifier and confidenti- ality. For these battery-powered devices much focus is on lower power design. We have analyzed

  9. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael [Laboratoire d'Ingnierie et Sciences des Matriaux (LISM EA 4695), Universit de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51687 Reims cedex 2 (France)] [Laboratoire d'Ingnierie et Sciences des Matriaux (LISM EA 4695), Universit de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51687 Reims cedex 2 (France); Dellis, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matire Condense (LPMC EA 2081), Universit de Picardie Jules Vernes, 80009 Amiens cedex 1 (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matire Condense (LPMC EA 2081), Universit de Picardie Jules Vernes, 80009 Amiens cedex 1 (France)

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  10. An integrator based on motion and electrostatic charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chamran-Savehi, Mostafa

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with respect to the circuit time constant. Furthermore, the maximum 35 voltage of the oondenser C 1 ~ suggested to be 1 of the uax- 10 inun voltage of C vhich helps the charge displacensnt even in position a . For the raver tibia integrator, three...

  11. Surface Analysis by Highly Charged Ion Based Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface Analysis by Highly Charged Ion Based Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry T. Schenkel,1 A high vacuum (10^8 torr). In posi- tive polarity, HCI can be decelerated to an impact energy of $1 ke in the interaction of slow (u highly charged ions (e.g., Au69+ ) with solid surfaces increases secondary

  12. How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the past 12 months designated in the database (LADWP does this) Home > Groups > Utility Rate Submitted by Marcroper on 11...

  13. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  14. Bighorns Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE): Amplitude Response to Different Seismic Charge Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harder, S. H., Killer, K. C., Worthington, L. L., Snelson, C. M.

    2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Contrary to popular belief, charge weight is not the most important engineering parameter determining the seismic amplitudes generated by a shot. The scientific literature has long claimed that the relationship, A ~R2L1/2, where A is the seismic amplitude generated by a shot, R is the radius of the seismic charge and L is the length of that charge, holds. Assuming the coupling to the formation and the pressure generated by the explosive are constants, this relationship implies that the one should be able to increase the charge radius while decreasing the charge length and obtain more seismic amplitude with less charge weight. This has significant implications for the economics of lithospheric seismic shots, because shallower holes and small charge sizes decrease cost. During the Bighorns Array Seismic Experiment (BASE) conducted in the summer of 2010, 24 shots with charge sizes ranging from 110 to 900 kg and drill hole diameters of 300 and 450 mm were detonated and recorded by an array of up to 2000 single-channel Texan seismographs. Maximum source-receiver offset of 300 km. Five of these shots were located within a one-acre square in an effort to eliminate coupling effects due to differing geological formations. We present a quantitative comparison of the data from these five shots to experimentally test the equation above.

  15. Flywheel-Based Distributed Bus Signalling Strategy for the Public Fast Charging Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    1 Flywheel-Based Distributed Bus Signalling Strategy for the Public Fast Charging Station Tomislav to intolerable stresses in the near future scenario where there will be a large number of public FCS spread across the network. This paper proposes an internal power balancing strategy for FCS based on flywheel

  16. Demonstration of Cathode Emittance Dominated High Bunch Charge Beams in a DC gun-based Photoinjector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulliford, Colwyn; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Cultrera, Luca

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of transverse emittance and longitudinal current profile measurements of high bunch charge (greater than or equal to 100 pC) beams produced in the DC gun-based Cornell Energy Recovery Linac Photoinjector. In particular, we show that the cathode thermal and core beam emittances dominate the final 95% and core emittance measured at 9-9.5 MeV. Additionally, we demonstrate excellent agreement between optimized 3D space charge simulations and measurement, and show that the quality of the transverse laser distribution limits the optimal simulated and measured emittances. These results, previously thought achievable only with RF guns, demonstrate that DC gun based photoinjectors are capable of delivering beams with sufficient single bunch charge and beam quality suitable for many current and next generation accelerator projects such as Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) and Free Electron Lasers (FELs).

  17. Charge-pump based switched-capacitor integrator for DS modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johns, David A.

    maintaining the same thermal noise performance. Power con- sumption of the CP integrator is analysed) is proportional to the power consumption of the amplifier. Since the input differential pair transistors power switched-capacitor (SC) integrator based on a capacitive charge-pump (CP) is proposed. The CP

  18. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Robin A; Hejamanowski, Chris

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    two Pearson Chi-Square tests. The first compared samplesO riginal R esearch Urine Test Strips to Exclude CerebralBayer Multistix urine test strips are designed to test

  19. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xin [ORNL; Do, Changwoo [ORNL; Liu, Yun [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Smith, Greg [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffness of its constituent branch.

  20. An electrostatic nanogenerator based on ZnO/ZnS core/shell electrets with stabilized quasi-permanent charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chao; Cai, Liang; Feng, Yajuan; Chen, Lin; Yan, Wensheng, E-mail: ywsh2000@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhsun@ustc.edu.cn; Liu, Qinghua; Yao, Tao; Hu, Fengchun; Pan, Zhiyun; Sun, Zhihu, E-mail: ywsh2000@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhsun@ustc.edu.cn; Wei, Shiqiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnO-based nanogenerators with excellent performance and convenient functionalization are particularly desirable for self-powered technology, which is however difficult to achieve simultaneously in traditional piezoelectric ZnO nanogenerators. Here, we report a design of electrostatic ZnO nanogenerator by virtue of a type-II ZnO/ZnS core/shell nanostructure electrets, which can turn acoustic waves into electric power with an energy conversion efficiency of 2.2%. The ZnO/ZnS core/shell electrets are charged by ultraviolet irradiation with a long-term stability of the electrostatic charges under ambient condition. The electronic and atomic structure evolution in the charged ZnO/ZnS core/shell electrets are also discussed by detailed experimental and theoretical investigations. This design opens up an alternative path for fabricating robust ZnO-based nanogenerator for future nanotechnology application.

  1. Electric Vehicle Preparedness Task 3: Detailed Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested plug-in electric vehicle replacements at Joint Base Lewis McChord.

  2. Lithium-Ion battery State of Charge estimation with a Kalman Filter based on a electrochemical model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Lithium-Ion battery State of Charge estimation with a Kalman Filter based on a electrochemical model Domenico Di Domenico, Giovanni Fiengo and Anna Stefanopoulou Abstract-- Lithium-ion battery hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). In most cases the lithium-ion battery performance plays an important role

  3. Fuzzy Logic-Based Smart Battery State-of-Charge (SOC) Monitor for SLI Batteries Pritpal Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Pritpal

    dreisner@usnanocorp.com Abstract Automotive starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) lead acid batteries of SLI lead acid batteries. Since 1997, Villanova University and US Nanocorp, Inc. have collaborated1 Fuzzy Logic-Based Smart Battery State-of-Charge (SOC) Monitor for SLI Batteries Pritpal Singh

  4. FIRST GROUND-BASED CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICE PROPER MOTIONS FOR FORNAX. II. FINAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendez, Rene A.; Costa, Edgardo [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Gallart, Carme [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife 38200, Islas Canarias (Spain); Pedreros, Mario H. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7-D, Arica (Chile); Moyano, Maximiliano [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Altmann, Martin, E-mail: rmendez@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: costa@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: carme@iac.es, E-mail: mpedrero@uta.cl, E-mail: moyano@mpia-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: maltmann@ari.uni-heidelberg.de [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first entirely ground-based astrometric determination of the proper motion for the Fornax Local Group dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxy of the Milky Way (MW), using charge-coupled device data acquired with the ESO 3.5 m New Technology Telescope at La Silla Observatory in Chile. Our unweighted mean from five quasar fields in the background of Fornax, used as fiducial reference points, leads to {mu}{sub {alpha}c}os {delta} = 0.62 {+-} 0.16 mas yr{sup -1} and {mu}{sub {delta}} = -0.53 {+-} 0.15 mas yr{sup -1}. A detailed comparison with all previous measurements of this quantity seems to imply that there is still no convincing convergence to a single value, perhaps indicating the existence of unaccounted systematic effects in (some of) these measurements. From all available proper-motion and radial velocity measurements for Fornax, we compute Fornax's orbital parameters and their uncertainty using a realistic Galactic potential and a Monte Carlo simulation. Properties of the derived orbits are then compared to main star formation episodes in the history of Fornax. All published proper-motion values imply that Fornax has recently (200-300 Myr ago) approached perigalacticon at a distance of {approx}150 kpc. However, the derived period exhibits a large scatter, as does the apogalacticon. Our orbit, being the most energetic, implies a very large apogalactic distance of {approx}950 kpc. If this were the case, then Fornax would be a representative of a hypervelocity MW satellite in late infall.

  5. Hybrid inorganic-organic, organic charge transfer, and radical based compounds with chalcofulvalene donors and organic acceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinheimer, Eric Wade

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HYBRID INORGANIC-ORGANIC, ORGANIC CHARGE TRANSFER, AND RADICAL BASED COMPOUNDS WITH CHALCOFULVALENE DONORS AND ORGANIC ACCEPTORS A Dissertation by ERIC WADE REINHEIMER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... COMPOUNDS WITH CHALCOFULVALENE DONORS AND ORGANIC ACCEPTORS A Dissertation by ERIC WADE REINHEIMER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  6. Luminescent systems based on the isolation of conjugated PI systems and edge charge compensation with polar molecules on a charged nanostructured surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Zhao, Bin; Geohegan, David B.; Styers-Barnett, David J.; Hu, Hui

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A photoluminescent or electroluminescent system and method of making a non-luminescent nanostructured material into such a luminescent system is presented. The method of preparing the luminescent system, generally, comprises the steps of modifying the surface of a nanostructured material to create isolated regions to act as luminescent centers and to create a charge imbalance on the surface; applying more than one polar molecule to the charged surface of the nanostructured material; and orienting the polar molecules to compensate for the charge imbalance on the surface of the nanostructured material. The compensation of the surface charge imbalance by the polar molecules allows the isolated regions to exhibit luminescence.

  7. Chemically induced release of charge from a rectifying polymer based on viologen and quinone subunits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.K.; Tender, L.M.; Lane, G.A.; Licht, S.; Wrighton, M.S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge associated with the reduction of quinone, 2e{sup {minus}} + 2H{sup +} + Q {yields} QH{sub 2}, can be trapped at low pH in the electrode-confined siloxane polymer, (BV-Q-BV{sup 6+}){sub n}, which is derived from a monomer that consists of a benzoquinone unit flanked by two benzyl viologen units. 2ne{sup {minus}} can be released from the polymer by raising the solution pH to neutral or basic pH where the viologen can reoxidize the QH{sub 2} to Q, ultimately delivering the charge to the electrode. Chemical redox reagents, added to the polymer film, can also be used to release the charge and deliver it to the electrode. The use of I{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/I{sup {minus}} and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3{minus}/4{minus}} as charge-release mediators is demonstrated. Oxidation of QH{sub 2} centers occurs when the potential of an electrode modified with (BV-Q-BV{sup 6+}){sub n} is brought close to E{degree}{prime}(I{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/I{sup {minus}}) or E{degree}{prime}(Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3{minus}/4{minus}}). Because Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3{minus}/4{minus}} is concentrated by the polycationic (BV-Q-BV{sup 6+}){sub n} polymer, only very small solution concentrations, approximately 1 {mu}M, are required to effectively mediate the oxidation of QH{sub 2}. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Scattering from Colloid-Polymer Conjugates with Excluded Volume Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xin [ORNL; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E [ORNL; Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents scattering functions of conjugates consisting of a colloid particle and a self-avoiding polymer chain as a model for protein-polymer conjugates and nanoparticle-polymer conjugates in solution. The model is directly derived from the two-point correlation function with the inclusion of excluded volume effects. The dependence of the calculated scattering function on the geometric shape of the colloid and polymer stiffness is investigated. The model is able to describe the experimental scattering signature of the solutions of suspending hard particle-polymer conjugates and provide additional conformational information. This model explicitly elucidates the link between the global conformation of a conjugate and the microstructure of its constituent components.

  9. A photodiode-based neutral particle bolometer for characterizing charge-exchanged fast-ion behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clary, R.; Smirnov, A.; Dettrick, S.; Knapp, K.; Korepanov, S.; Ruskov, E. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y. [University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutral particle bolometer (NPB) has been designed and implemented on Tri Alpha Energy's C-2 device in order to spatially and temporally resolve the charge-exchange losses of fast-ion populations originating from neutral beam injection into field-reversed configuration plasmas. This instrument employs a silicon photodiode as the detection device with an integrated tungsten filter coating to reduce sensitivity to light radiation. Here we discuss the technical aspects and calibration of the NPB, and report typical NPB measurement results of wall recycling effects on fast-ion losses.

  10. Thermal treatment effects on charge storage performance of graphene-based materials for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongxin [ORNL; Bhat, Vinay V [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene materials were synthesized by reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets by hydrazine hydrate and then thermally treated in nitrogen to improve the surface area and their electrochemical performance as electrical double-layer capacitor electrodes. The structural and surface properties of the prepared reduced graphite oxide (RGO) were investigated using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption / desorption. RGO forms a continuous network of crumpled sheets, which consist of numerous few-layer and single-layer graphenes. Electrochemical studies were conducted by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The modified RGO materials showed enhanced electrochemical performance, with maximum specific capacitance of 96 F/g, energy density of 12.8 Wh/kg, and power density of 160 kW/kg. The results demonstrate that thermal treatment of RGO at selected conditions is a convenient and efficient method for improving specific capacitance, energy, and power density.

  11. Method and apparatus for measuring the state of charge in a battery based on volume of battery components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The state of charge of electrochemical batteries of different kinds is determined by measuring the incremental change in the total volume of the reactive masses in the battery. The invention is based on the principle that all electrochemical batteries, either primary or secondary (rechargeable), produce electricity through a chemical reaction with at least one electrode, and the chemical reactions produce certain changes in the composition and density of the electrode. The reactive masses of the electrodes, the electrolyte, and any separator or spacers are usually contained inside a battery casing of a certain volume. As the battery is used, or recharged, the specific volume of at least one of the electrode masses will change and, since the masses of the materials do not change considerably, the total volume occupied by at least one of the electrodes will change. These volume changes may be measured in many different ways and related to the state of charge in the battery. In one embodiment, the volume change can be measured by monitoring the small changes in one of the principal dimensions of the battery casing as it expands or shrinks to accommodate the combined volumes of its components.

  12. How to confirm and exclude different models of material properties in the Casimir effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. M. Mostepanenko

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We formulate a method allowing to confirm or exclude the alternative models of material properties at some definite confidence level in experiments on measuring the Casimir force. The method is based on the consideration of differences between the theoretical and mean measured quantities and the confidence intervals for these differences found at sufficiently high or low confidence probabilities. The developed method is applied to the data of four recent experiments on measuring the gradient of the Casimir force by means of a dynamic atomic force microscope. It is shown that in experiments with Au-Au and Ni-Ni test bodies, where the Drude model approach is excluded at a 95% confidence level, the plasma model approach agrees with the data at higher than 90% confidence. In experiments using an Au sphere interacting with either a Ni plate or a graphene-coated substrate the measurement data agree with the common prediction of the Drude and plasma model approaches and theory using the polarization tensor at 90% and 80% confidence levels, respectively.

  13. Mid-infrared electric field characterization using a visible charge-coupled-device-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -based spectrometer. The spec- tral phase is also characterized by a variant of zero-added-phase spectral phase directly to molecular structure and dynamics and benefits from being free of the complications of excited doubling a pico- second mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. Highly stretched 800-nm pulses are readily available from

  14. Thermal influence on charge carrier transport in solar cells based on GaAs PN junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osses-Mrquez, Juan; Caldern-Muoz, Williams R., E-mail: wicalder@ing.uchile.cl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron and hole one-dimensional transport in a solar cell based on a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) PN junction and its dependency with electron and lattice temperatures are studied here. Electrons and heat transport are treated on an equal footing, and a cell operating at high temperatures using concentrators is considered. The equations of a two-temperature hydrodynamic model are written in terms of asymptotic expansions for the dependent variables with the electron Reynolds number as a perturbation parameter. The dependency of the electron and hole densities through the junction with the temperature is analyzed solving the steady-state model at low Reynolds numbers. Lattice temperature distribution throughout the device is obtained considering the change of kinetic energy of electrons due to interactions with the lattice and heat absorbed from sunlight. In terms of performance, higher values of power output are obtained with low lattice temperature and hot energy carriers. This modeling contributes to improve the design of heat exchange devices and thermal management strategies in photovoltaic technologies.

  15. UC Davis Student Services Fee (excludes Mental Health funds) Student Services and Fees Administrative Advisory Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    UC Davis Student Services Fee (excludes Mental Health funds) Student Services and Fees Management Capital Projects 2 943,666.00$ (2,807.79)$ (946,473.79)$ -$ Child Care 45,325.16$ 144,957.08$ 99 and Institutional Analysis #12;UC Davis Student Services Fee (excludes Mental Health funds) Student Services

  16. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery.

  17. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S.Z.

    1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery. 35 figs.

  18. Excluded Volume Effects in Polymer Solutions: II. Comparison of Experimental Results with Numerical Simulation Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graessley, W.W.; Grest, G.S.; Hayward, R.C.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of excluded volume on the coil size of dilute linear polymers was investigated by off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations. The radius of gyration R{sub g} was evaluated for a wide range of chain lengths at several temperatures and at the athermal condition. The theta temperature and the corresponding theta chain dimensions were established for the system, and the dependence of the size expansion factor, a{sub s} = R{sub g} /(R{sub g}){sub {theta}}, on chain length N and temperature T was examined. For long chains and at high temperatures, a{sub s} is a function of N/N{sub s}{sup 2} alone, where the length scale N{sub s}{sup 2} depends only on T. The form of this simulations-based master function compares favorably with {alpha}{sub s}(M/M{sub s}{sup 2}), an experimental master curve for linear polymers in good solvents, where M{sub s}{sup 2} depends only on polymer-solvent system. Comparisons when N{sub s}{sup 2}(T) and M{sub s}{sup 2}(system) are reduced to common units, numbers of Kuhn steps, strongly indicate that coil expansion in even the best of good solvents is small relative to that expected for truly athermal solutions. An explanation for this behavior is proposed, based on what would appear to be an inherent difference in the equation of state properties for polymeric and monomeric liquids.

  19. Measurement of the Electric Charge of the Top Quark in $\\boldsymbol{t\\bar{t}}$ Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D0 Collaboration

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a measurement of the electric charge of top quarks using $t\\bar{t}$ events produced in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at the Tevatron. The analysis is based on fully reconstructed $t\\bar{t}$ pairs in lepton+jets final states. Using data corresponding to 5.3 $\\rm fb^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity, we exclude the hypothesis that the top quark has a charge of $Q=-4/3\\,e$ at a significance greater than 5 standard deviations. We also place an upper limit of 0.46 on the fraction of such quarks that can be present in an admixture with the standard model top quarks ($Q=+2/3\\,e$) at a 95\\% confidence level.

  20. Contribution of Partial Charge Interactions and Base Stacking to the Efficiency of Primer Extension at and beyond Abasic Sites in DNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Shuangluo; Vashishtha, Ashwani; Bulkley, David; Eom, Soo Hyun; Wang, Jimin; Konigsberg, William H. (Yale); (Gwangju)

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During DNA synthesis, base stacking and Watson-Crick (WC) hydrogen bonding increase the stability of nascent base pairs when they are in a ternary complex. To evaluate the contribution of base stacking to the incorporation efficiency of dNTPs when a DNA polymerase encounters an abasic site, we varied the penultimate base pairs (PBs) adjacent to the abasic site using all 16 possible combinations. We then determined pre-steady-state kinetic parameters with an RB69 DNA polymerase variant and solved nine structures of the corresponding ternary complexes. The efficiency of incorporation for incoming dNTPs opposite an abasic site varied between 2- and 210-fold depending on the identity of the PB. We propose that the A rule can be extended to encompass the fact that DNA polymerase can bypass dA/abasic sites more efficiently than other dN/abasic sites. Crystal structures of the ternary complexes show that the surface of the incoming base was stacked against the PB's interface and that the kinetic parameters for dNMP incorporation were consistent with specific features of base stacking, such as surface area and partial charge-charge interactions between the incoming base and the PB. Without a templating nucleotide residue, an incoming dNTP has no base with which it can hydrogen bond and cannot be desolvated, so that these surrounding water molecules become ordered and remain on the PB's surface in the ternary complex. When these water molecules are on top of a hydrophobic patch on the PB, they destabilize the ternary complex, and the incorporation efficiency of incoming dNTPs is reduced.

  1. Investigation on the Charging Process of Li2O2-Based Air Electrodes in Li-O2 Batteries with Organic Carbonate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Deyu; Towne, Silas A.; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Jiguang

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The charge processes of Li-O2 batteries were investigated by analyzing the gas evolution by in situ gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) technique. The mixture of Li2O2/Fe3O4/Super P carbon/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was used as the starting air electrode material and 1M LiTFSI in carbonate-based solvents was used as electrolyte. It was found that Li2O2 is reactive to 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PVDF binder used in the electrode preparation. During the 1st charge (up to 4.6 V), O2 was the main component in the gases released. The amount of O2 measured by GC/MS was consistent with the amount of Li2O2 decomposed in the electrochemical process as measured by the charge capacity, indicative of the good chargeability of Li2O2. However, after the cell was discharged to 2.0 V in O2 atmosphere and re-charged to ~ 4.6 V in the second cycle, CO2 was dominant in the released gases. Further analysis of the discharged air electrode by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that lithium-containing carbonate species (lithium alkyl carbonate and/or Li2CO3) were the main reaction products. Therefore, compatible electrolyte and electrodes as well as the electrode preparation procedures need to be developed for long term operation of rechargeable Li-O2 or Li-air batteries.

  2. *Excludes capital investment for P&R facility EFFECTS OF MAP-21 ON SEAMLESS TRANSIT FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    *Excludes capital investment for P&R facility EFFECTS OF MAP-21 ON SEAMLESS TRANSIT FROM FORT BEND is not available for residents making the commute from FBC to Downtown Houston. Researchers estimate latent demand for 1,700+ P&R one-way passenger trips per day. SEAMLESS TRANSIT COST Federal funds may

  3. Photo-modulated thin film transistor based on dynamic charge transfer within quantum-dots-InGaZnO interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiang [Electronic Science and Engineering School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing (China); Yang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Mingju [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing (China); Tao, Zhi; Wei, Lei, E-mail: lw@seu.edu.cn; Li, Chi, E-mail: lichi@seu.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Baoping [Electronic Science and Engineering School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Dai, Qing, E-mail: daiq@nanoctr.cn [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing (China); London Center for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Nathan, Arokia [Electronic Science and Engineering School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); London Center for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The temporal development of next-generation photo-induced transistor across semiconductor quantum dots and Zn-related oxide thin film is reported in this paper. Through the dynamic charge transfer in the interface between these two key components, the responsibility of photocurrent can be amplified for scales of times (?10{sup 4}?A/W 450?nm) by the electron injection from excited quantum dots to InGaZnO thin film. And this photo-transistor has a broader waveband (from ultraviolet to visible light) optical sensitivity compared with other Zn-related oxide photoelectric device. Moreover, persistent photoconductivity effect can be diminished in visible waveband which lead to a significant improvement in the device's relaxation time from visible illuminated to dark state due to the ultrafast quenching of quantum dots. With other inherent properties such as integrated circuit compatible, low off-state current and high external quantum efficiency resolution, it has a great potential in the photoelectric device application, such as photodetector, phototransistor, and sensor array.

  4. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404). Environmental guidance program reference book: Revision 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  5. Facts and Figures January 2007 INCOME AND EXPENDITURE (Excluding Press, CA & Trusts) 2005-06

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Travis, Adrian

    Facts and Figures January 2007 INCOME AND EXPENDITURE (Excluding Press, CA & Trusts) 2005-06 2004,928 Breakdown of Research Grant Income 2005-06 £'000 % £'000 Total staff 8602 8570 8,623 Research Councils 89,095 Total 203,886 188,711 Total respondents 2,890 100.0% 3,227 100.0 Breakdown of HEFCE/TDA Income 2005-06

  6. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their program running safe and successfully. Sample Workplace Charging Policy More Documents & Publications...

  7. Charge transfer from an adsorbed ruthenium-based photosensitizer through an ultra-thin aluminium oxide layer and into a metallic substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Andrew J; Handrup, Karsten; Weston, Matthew; Mayor, Louise C; O'Shea, James N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of the dye molecule N3 (cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)-ruthenium(II)) with the ultra-thin oxide layer on a AlNi(110) substrate, has been studied using synchrotron radiation based photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant photoemission spectroscopy (RPES) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). Calibrated X-ray absorption and valence band spectra of the monolayer and multilayer coverages reveal that charge transfer is possible from the molecule to the AlNi(110) substrate via tunnelling through the ultra-thin oxide layer and into the conduction band edge of the substrate. This charge transfer mechanism is possible from the LUMO+2&3 in the excited state but not from the LUMO, therefore enabling core-hole clock analysis, which gives an upper limit of $6.0\\pm$2.5fs for the transfer time. This indicates that ultra-thin oxide layers are a viable material for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), which may lead to reduced recombination effe...

  8. A compact transport and charge model for GaN-based high electron mobility transistors for RF applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radhakrishna, Ujwal

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gallium Nitride (GaN)-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are rapidly emerging as front-runners in high-power mm-wave circuit applications. For circuit design with current devices and to allow sensible future ...

  9. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  10. Method for excluding salt and other soluble materials from produced water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Tsouris, Costas (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Palumbo, Anthony V. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Riestenberg, David E. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; McCallum, Scott D. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reducing the salinity, as well as the hydrocarbon concentration of produced water to levels sufficient to meet surface water discharge standards. Pressure vessel and coflow injection technology developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to mix produced water and a gas hydrate forming fluid to form a solid or semi-solid gas hydrate mixture. Salts and solids are excluded from the water that becomes a part of the hydrate cage. A three-step process of dissociation of the hydrate results in purified water suitable for irrigation.

  11. Unexpected Complication with the New C3 Excluder: Cause and Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsargyris, Athanasios; Oikonomou, Kyriakos; Bracale, Umberto M.; Verhoeven, Eric L. G., E-mail: Eric.Verhoeven@klinikum-nuernberg.de [Klinikum Nuernberg Sued, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany)] [Klinikum Nuernberg Sued, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The new C3 Gore Excluder delivery system enables both up/downward and rotational repositioning of the device before complete deployment. This contributes to more precise proximal landing and permits facilitation of the contralateral gate cannulation. During separate deployment, the position of the ipsilateral limb can also be readjusted. We have used the modified C3 delivery system in more than 50 patients, and in most cases, we were able to utilize the repositioning options of the device to achieve optimal fixation and sealing. However, we present a case where our attempt to readjust the position of the ipsilateral limb led to upward migration of the main body with coverage of the left renal artery origin. The latter was secured with a bare stent implantation.

  12. Neutralization of space charge on high-current low-energy ion beam by low-energy electrons supplied from silicon based field emitter arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gotoh, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Shuhei; Ikeda, Keita; Kitagawa, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki [Dept. of Electron. Sci. Eng., Kyoto Univ. Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Dept. of Electron. Information Eng., Chubu Univ., 1200, Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Nissin Ion Equipment Co., Ltd., 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8502 (Japan)

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutralization of space charge on a high-current and low-energy ion beam was attempted to reduce the divergence with an aid of low-energy electrons supplied from silicon based field emitter arrays (Si-FEAs). An argon ion beam with the energy of 500 eV and the current of 0.25 mA was produced by a microwave ion source. The initial beam divergence and the emittance were measured at the entrance of the analysis chamber in order to estimate the intrinsic factors for beam divergence. The current density distribution of the beam after transport of 730 mm was measured by a movable Faraday cup, with and without electron supply from Si-FEAs. A similar experiment was performed with tungsten filaments as an electron source. The results indicated that the electron supply from FEA had almost the same effect as the thermionic filament, and it was confirmed that both electron sources can neutralize the ion beam.

  13. Capacitive charging system for high power battery charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a project to design, build, demonstrate, and document a Level 3 capacitive charging system, and it will be based on the existing PEZIC prototype capacitive coupler. The capacitive coupler will be designed to transfer power at a maximum of 600 kW, and it will transfer power by electric fields. The power electronics will transfer power at 100 kW. The coupler will be designed to function with future increases in the power electronics output power and increases in the amp/hours capacity of sealed batteries. Battery charging algorithms will be programmed into the control electronics. The finished product will be a programmable battery charging system capable of transferring 100 kW via a capacitive coupler. The coupler will have a low power loss of less than 25 watts when transferring 240 kW (400 amps). This system will increase the energy efficiency of high power battery charging, and it will enhance mobility by reducing coupler failures. The system will be completely documented. An important deliverable of this project is information. The information will be distributed to the Army`s TACOM-TARDEC`s Advanced Concept Group, and it will be distributed to commercial organizations by the Society of Automotive Engineers. The information will be valuable for product research, development, and specification. The capacitive charging system produced in this project will be of commercial value for future electric vehicles. The coupler will be designed to rapid charge batteries that have a capacity of several thousand amp/hours at hundreds of volts. The charging system built here will rapid charge batteries with several hundred amp/hours capacity, depending on the charging voltage.

  14. Determination of Grain Boundary Charging in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. S.; Contreras, M. A.; Repins, I.; Moutinho, H. R.; Noufi, R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface potential mapping of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) aims to understand the minority-carrier recombination at the grain boundaries (GBs) of this polycrystalline material by examining GB charging, which has resulted in a number of publications. However, the reported results are highly inconsistent. In this paper, we report on the potential mapping by measuring wide-bandgap or high-Ga-content films and by using a complementary atomic force microscopy-based electrical technique of scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The results demonstrate consistent, positively charged GBs on our high-quality films with minimal surface defects/charges. The potential image taken on a low-quality film with a 1.2-eV bandgap shows significantly degraded potential contrast on the GBs and degraded potential uniformity on grain surfaces, resulting from the surface defects/charges of the low-quality film. In contrast, the potential image on an improved high-quality film with the same wide bandgap shows significantly improved GB potential contrast and surface potential uniformity, indicating that the effect of surface defects is critical when examining GB charging using surface potential data. In addition, we discuss the effect of the SKPFM setup on the validity of potential measurement, to exclude possible artifacts due to improper SKPFM setups. The SKPFM results were corroborated by using SCM measurements on the films with a CdS buffer layer. The SCM image shows clear GB contrast, indicating different electrical impedance on the GB from the grain surface. Further, we found that the GB contrast disappeared when the CdS window layer was deposited after the CIGS film was exposed extensively to ambient, which was caused by the creation of CIGS surface defects by the ambient exposure.

  15. Robust optimization based EV charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    I. INTRODUC TION. The new paradigm of holistic transportation and power ... and control strategies have been proposed in the literature to capture the potential...

  16. Vacuum charge fractionlization re-examined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Nogami

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a model of a quantized fermion field that is based on the Dirac equation in one dimensional space and re-examine how the fermion number of the vacuum, or the vacuum charge, varies when an external potential is switched on. With this model, fractionization of the vacuum charge has been illustrated in the literature by showing that the external potential can change the vacuum charge from zero to a fractional number. Charge conservation then appears violated in this process. This is because the charge that has been examined in this context is only a part of the total charge of the vacuum. The total charge is conserved. It is not fractionalized unless the Dirac equation has a zero mode. Two other confusing aspects are discussed. One is concerned with the usage of the continuum limit and the other with the regularization of the current operator. Implications of these aspects of the vacuum problem are explored.

  17. Frictional cooling of positively charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Greenwald; Allen Caldwell

    2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the focuses of research and development towards the construction of a muon collider is muon beam preparation. Simulation of frictional cooling shows that it can achieve the desired emittance reduction to produce high-luminosity muon beams. We show that for positively charged particles, charge exchange interactions necessitate significant changes to schemes previously developed for negatively charged particles. We also demonstrate that foil-based schemes are not viable for positive particles.

  18. PRECISE CHARGE MEASUREMENT FOR LASER PLASMA ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Donahue, Rich; Rodgers, David; Smith, Alan; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Cross-calibrations of charge diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). Employed diagnostics are a scintillating screen, activation based measurement, and integrating current transformer. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8 %, showing that they can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs provided they are used properly.

  19. Charge regulation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  20. Calculating the binding free energies of charged species based on explicit-solvent simulations employing lattice-sum methods: An accurate correction scheme for electrostatic finite-size effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocklin, Gabriel J. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 1700 4th St., San Francisco, California 94143-2550, USA and Biophysics Graduate Program, University of California San Francisco, 1700 4th St., San Francisco, California 94143-2550 (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 1700 4th St., San Francisco, California 94143-2550, USA and Biophysics Graduate Program, University of California San Francisco, 1700 4th St., San Francisco, California 94143-2550 (United States); Mobley, David L. [Departments of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chemistry, University of California Irvine, 147 Bison Modular, Building 515, Irvine, California 92697-0001, USA and Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, Louisiana 70148 (United States)] [Departments of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chemistry, University of California Irvine, 147 Bison Modular, Building 515, Irvine, California 92697-0001, USA and Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, Louisiana 70148 (United States); Dill, Ken A. [Laufer Center for Physical and Quantitative Biology, 5252 Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-0001 (United States)] [Laufer Center for Physical and Quantitative Biology, 5252 Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-0001 (United States); Hnenberger, Philippe H., E-mail: phil@igc.phys.chem.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, 8093 Zrich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The calculation of a protein-ligand binding free energy based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations generally relies on a thermodynamic cycle in which the ligand is alchemically inserted into the system, both in the solvated protein and free in solution. The corresponding ligand-insertion free energies are typically calculated in nanoscale computational boxes simulated under periodic boundary conditions and considering electrostatic interactions defined by a periodic lattice-sum. This is distinct from the ideal bulk situation of a system of macroscopic size simulated under non-periodic boundary conditions with Coulombic electrostatic interactions. This discrepancy results in finite-size effects, which affect primarily the charging component of the insertion free energy, are dependent on the box size, and can be large when the ligand bears a net charge, especially if the protein is charged as well. This article investigates finite-size effects on calculated charging free energies using as a test case the binding of the ligand 2-amino-5-methylthiazole (net charge +1 e) to a mutant form of yeast cytochrome c peroxidase in water. Considering different charge isoforms of the protein (net charges ?5, 0, +3, or +9 e), either in the absence or the presence of neutralizing counter-ions, and sizes of the cubic computational box (edges ranging from 7.42 to 11.02 nm), the potentially large magnitude of finite-size effects on the raw charging free energies (up to 17.1 kJ?mol{sup ?1}) is demonstrated. Two correction schemes are then proposed to eliminate these effects, a numerical and an analytical one. Both schemes are based on a continuum-electrostatics analysis and require performing Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) calculations on the protein-ligand system. While the numerical scheme requires PB calculations under both non-periodic and periodic boundary conditions, the latter at the box size considered in the MD simulations, the analytical scheme only requires three non-periodic PB calculations for a given system, its dependence on the box size being analytical. The latter scheme also provides insight into the physical origin of the finite-size effects. These two schemes also encompass a correction for discrete solvent effects that persists even in the limit of infinite box sizes. Application of either scheme essentially eliminates the size dependence of the corrected charging free energies (maximal deviation of 1.5 kJ?mol{sup ?1}). Because it is simple to apply, the analytical correction scheme offers a general solution to the problem of finite-size effects in free-energy calculations involving charged solutes, as encountered in calculations concerning, e.g., protein-ligand binding, biomolecular association, residue mutation, pK{sub a} and redox potential estimation, substrate transformation, solvation, and solvent-solvent partitioning.

  1. Electrically charged pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. D. Alloy; D. P. Menezes

    2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    n the present work we investigate one possible variation on the usual electrically neutral pulsars: the inclusion of electric charge. We study the effect of electric charge in pulsars assuming that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. All calculations were performed for zero temperature and fixed entropy equations of state.

  2. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Multiplexed Electric Vehicle Charging, US20130154561A1,Chynoweth, Intelligent Electric Vehicle Charging System,of RFID Mesh Network for Electric Vehicle Smart Charging

  3. Search for charged Higgs bosons decaying via H+ -> tau nu in top quark pair events using pp collision data at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Dumlupinar U. /Gazi U. /TOBB ETU, Ankara /TAEK, Ankara /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a search for charged Higgs bosons are presented. The analysis is based on 4.6 fb{sup -1} of proton-proton collision data at {radical}s = 7 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, using top quark pair events with a {tau} lepton in the final state. The data are consistent with the expected background from Standard Model processes. Assuming that the branching ratio of the charged Higgs boson to a {tau} lepton and a neutrino is 100%, this leads to upper limits on the branching ratio of top quark decays to a b quark and a charged Higgs boson between 5% and 1% for charged Higgs boson masses ranging from 90 GeV to 160 GeV, respectively. In the context of the m{sub h}{sup max} scenario of the MSSM, tan {beta} above 12-26, as well as between 1 and 2-6, can be excluded for charged Higgs boson masses between 90 GeV and 150 GeV.

  4. General Groves takes charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    takes charge Colonel James C. Marshall, head of the DSM project (Development of Substitute Materials), did not make much headway, yet he did accomplish some things that lasted....

  5. Local pellet based and line-integrated nonperturbing charge exchange measurements with a compact neutral particle analyzer on Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, P. R.; Ozaki, T.; Sudo, S.; Tamura, N.; Veshchev, E. A.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Krasilnikov, A. V. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); St. Petersburg Polytechnical University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments on suprathermal ion physics are carried out on the Large Helical Device (LHD) with a 40 channel compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA). The analyzer is used both in passive nonperturbing chord-integral neutral particle flux measurements and for local probing with an impurity pellet. The analyzer observes trapped particles with vertical bar v{sub parallel}/v vertical bar <0.25 and the pitch angle cosine value v{sub parallel}/v changes sign along the diagnostic sight line. The measurable energy range for H{sup 0} is 1-170 keV. Radially resolved data on local H{sup 0} atomic energy spectra have been obtained on LHD by the pellet charge exchange method with CNPA, as well as chord-integral atomic energy distribution data for electron cyclotron heated, neutral beam injected, and high power ion cyclotron heated plasma. The article addresses the diagnostic technical background and the analysis scheme of measurement results taking into account the helical geometry and the species and densities of the charge exchange targets.

  6. Search for Charged Massive Long-Lived Particles Using the D0 Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Yunhe; /Brown U.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for charged massive stable particles has been performed with the D0 detector using 1.1 fb{sup -1} of data. The speed of the particle has been calculated based on the time-of-flight and position information in the muon system. The present research is limited to direct pair-production of the charged massive long-lived particles. We do not consider CMSPs that result from the cascade decays of heavier particles. In this analysis, the exact values of the model parameters of the entire supersymmetric particle mass spectrum, relevant for cascade decays, are not important. We found no evidence of the signal. 95% CL cross-section upper limits have been set on the pair-productions of the stable scaler tau lepton, the gaugino-like charginos, and the higgsino-like charginos. The upper cross section limits vary from 0.31 pb to 0.04 pb, for stau masses in the range between 60 GeV and 300 GeV. We use the nominal value of the theoretical cross section to set limits on the mass of the pair produced charginos. We exclude the pair-produced stable gaugino-like charginos with mass below 206 GeV, and higgsino-like charginos below 171 GeV, respectively. Although the present sensitivity is insufficient to test the model of the pair produced stable staus, we do set cross section limits which can be applied to the pair production of any charged massive stable particle candidates with similar kinematics. These are the most restrictive limits to the present on the cross sections for CMSPs and the first published from the Tevatron Collider Run II. The manuscript has been published by Physical Review Letters in April 2009 and is available at arXiv as.

  7. Electrically charged compact stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subharthi Ray; Manuel Malheiro; Jose' P. S. Lemos; Vilson T. Zanchin

    2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We review here the classical argument used to justify the electrical neutrality of stars and show that if the pressure and density of the matter and gravitational field inside the star are large, then a charge and a strong electric field can be present. For a neutron star with high pressure (~ 10^{33} to 10^{35} dynes /cm^2) and strong gravitational field (~ 10^{14} cm/s^2), these conditions are satisfied. The hydrostatic equation which arises from general relativity, is modified considerably to meet the requirements of the inclusion of the charge. In order to see any appreciable effect on the phenomenology of the neutron stars, the charge and the electrical fields have to be huge (~ 10^{21} Volts/cm). These stars are not however stable from the viewpoint that each charged particle is unbound to the uncharged particles, and thus the system collapses one step further to a charged black hole

  8. Charging Black Saturn?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenda Chng; Robert Mann; Eugen Radu; Cristian Stelea

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordstrom solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we could find present either a conical singularity or a naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  9. Simulating spin-charge separation with light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitris G. Angelakis; Mingxia Huo; Elica Kyoseva; Leong Chuan kwek

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we show that stationary light-matter excitations generated inside a hollow one-dimensional waveguide filled with atoms, can be made to generate a photonic two-component Lieb Liniger model. We explain how to prepare and drive the atomic system to a strongly interacting regime where spin-charge separation could be possible. We then proceed by explaining how to measure the corresponding effective spin and charge densities and velocities through standard optical methods based in measuring dynamically the emitted photon intensities or by analyzing the photon spectrum. The relevant interactions exhibit the necessary tunability both to generate and efficiently observe spin charge separation with current technology.

  10. taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramani, Praveen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

  11. Abstract adiabatic charge pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Joye; V. Brosco; F. Hekking

    2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of an abstract formula describing quantum adiabatic charge pumping in a general context. We consider closed systems characterized by a slowly varying time-dependent Hamiltonian depending on an external parameter $\\alpha$. The current operator, defined as the derivative of the Hamiltonian with respect to $\\alpha$, once integrated over some time interval, gives rise to a charge pumped through the system over that time span. We determine the first two leading terms in the adiabatic parameter of this pumped charge under the usual gap hypothesis. In particular, in case the Hamiltonian is time periodic and has discrete non-degenerate spectrum, the charge pumped over a period is given to leading order by the derivative with respect to $\\alpha$ of the corresponding dynamical and geometric phases.

  12. International aeronautical user charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: 1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION Very few issues relating to the international air transportation industry are today as divisive as those pertaining to user charges imposed at international airports and enroute ...

  13. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  14. Electrically charged targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Ronald K. (Livermore, CA); Hunt, Angus L. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  15. Charge shelving and bias spectroscopy for the readout of a charge-qubit on the basis of superposition states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew D. Greentree; A. R. Hamilton; F. Green

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge-based qubits have been proposed as fundamental elements for quantum computers. One commonly proposed readout device is the single-electron transistor (SET). SETs can distinguish between localized charge states, but lack the sensitivity to directly distinguish superposition states, which have greatly enhanced coherence times compared with position states. We propose introducing a third dot, and exploiting energy dependent tunnelling from the qubit into this dot (bias spectroscopy) for pseudo-spin to charge conversion and superposition basis readout. We introduce an adiabatic fast passage-style charge pumping technique which enables efficient and robust readout via charge shelving, avoiding problems due to finite SET measurement time.

  16. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1% per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm{sup 2} and 0.4 pC/ps/mm{sup 2}, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within {+-}10%.

  17. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  18. Holographic Charge Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mike Blake; Aristomenis Donos; David Tong

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reissner-Nordstrom black hole provides the prototypical description of a holographic system at finite density. We study the response of this system to the presence of a local, charged impurity. Below a critical temperature, the induced charge density, which screens the impurity, exhibits oscillations. These oscillations can be traced to the singularities in the density-density correlation function moving in the complex momentum plane. At finite temperature, the oscillations are very similar to the Friedel oscillations seen in Fermi liquids. However, at zero temperature the oscillations in the black hole background remain exponentially damped, while Friedel oscillations relax to a power-law

  19. Overview of charge symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, G.A. [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1995-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge independence and symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature. The observations of the small charge symmetry breaking effects and the consequences of those effects are reviewed. The effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and the off shell dependence {ital q}{sup 2} of {rho}{sup 0}-{omega} mixing are stressed. We find that models which predict a strong {ital q}{sup 2} dependence of {rho}{sup 0}-{omega} mixing seem also to predict a strong {ital q}{sup 2} variation for the {rho}{sup 0}-{gamma}* matrix element, in contradiction with experiment.

  20. Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology can be tuned with volume fraction of the charged block and the casting solvent. A physical understanding based on the underlying strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions is obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The 75/25 FPI-PSS shows hexagonal morphologies with the minority blocks (PSS) forming the continuous phase due to charge percolation and the FPI blocks arranged in hexagonal cylinders. Some long-range order can be sustained even if lipophobicity is increased (addition of water), albeit with lower dimensional structures. However, thermal annealing provides sufficient energy to disrupt the percolated charges and promotes aggregation of ionic sites which leads to a disordered system. Diverse and atypical morphologies are readily accessible by simply changing the number distribution of the charges on PSS block.

  1. Study of the top quark electric charge at the CDF experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartos, Pavol; /Comenius U.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the measurement of the top quark electric charge using the jet charge tagging method on events containing a single lepton collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab between February 2002 and February 2010 at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. There are three main components to this measurement: determining the charge of the W (using the charge of the lepton), pairing the W with the b-jet to ensure that they are from the same top decay branch and finally determining the charge of the b-jet using the Jet Charge algorithm. We found, on a sample of 5.6 fb{sup -1} of data, that the p-value under the standard model hypothesis is equal to 13.4%, while the p-value under the exotic model hypothesis is equal to 0.014%. Using the a priori criteria generally accepted by the CDF collaboration, we can say that the result is consistent with the standard model, while we exclude an exotic quark hypothesis with 95% confidence. Using the Bayesian approach, we obtain for the Bayes factor (2ln(BF)) a value of 19.6, that favors very strongly the SM hypothesis over the XM one. The presented method has the highest sensitivity to the top quark electric charge among the presented so far top quark charge analysis.

  2. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  3. AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced...

  4. Charges for Technology Fall 2014 / Spring 2015 / Summer 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charges for Technology Fall 2014 / Spring 2015 / Summer 2015 Part Full Part Full Agricultural/A N/A No Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences 7.50 90.00 N/A N/A No Charges for Technology are assessed to students based on their declared major/program to support college technology needs for students

  5. GreenCharge: Managing Renewable Energy in Smart Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Prashant

    1 GreenCharge: Managing Renewable Energy in Smart Buildings Aditya Mishra, David Irwin, Prashant that combines market-based electricity pricing models with on-site renewables and modest energy storage (in renewables). We show that GreenCharge's savings for a typical home today are near 20%, which are greater than

  6. Charge detection in semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLean, Kenneth (Kenneth MacLean, III)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis nanometer scale charge sensors are used to study charge transport in two solid state systems: Lateral GaAs quantum dots and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). In both of these experiments we use ...

  7. Dynamics and thermodynamics of decay in charged clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Mark A; Moerland, Christian P; Gray, Sarah J; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method for quantifying charge-driven instabilities in clusters, based on equilibrium simulations under confinement at constant external pressure. This approach makes no assumptions about the mode of decay and allows different clusters to be compared on an equal footing. A comprehensive survey of stability in model clusters of 309 Lennard-Jones particles augmented with Coulomb interactions is presented. We proceed to examine dynamic signatures of instability, finding that rate constants for ejection of charged particles increase smoothly as a function of total charge with no sudden changes. For clusters where many particles carry charge, ejection of individual charges competes with a fission process that leads to more symmetric division of the cluster into large fragments. The rate constants for fission depend much more sensitively on total charge than those for ejection of individual particles.

  8. General 2 charge geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marika Taylor

    2005-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Two charge BPS horizon free supergravity geometries are important in proposals for understanding black hole microstates. In this paper we construct a new class of geometries in the NS1-P system, corresponding to solitonic strings carrying fermionic as well as bosonic condensates. Such geometries are required to account for the full microscopic entropy of the NS1-P system. We then briefly discuss the properties of the corresponding geometries in the dual D1-D5 system.

  9. On the Proton charge extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Gluck

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the recent determination of the various proton charge extensions is compatible with Standard Model expectations.

  10. Method for charging a hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Keyser, M.A.; Benson, D.K.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for charging a sample of either a permanent or reversible getter material with a high concentration of hydrogen while maintaining a base pressure below 10{sup {minus}4} torr at room temperature involves placing the sample of hydrogen getter material in a chamber, activating the sample of hydrogen getter material, overcharging the sample of getter material through conventional charging techniques to a high concentration of hydrogen, and then subjecting the sample of getter material to a low temperature vacuum bake-out process. Application of the method results in a reversible hydrogen getter which is highly charged to maximum capacities of hydrogen and which concurrently exhibits minimum hydrogen vapor pressures at room temperatures. 9 figs.

  11. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Stl

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new webpage collecting charged Higgs resources is presented.

  12. Role of the dielectric for the charging dynamics of the dielectric/barrier interface in AlGaN/GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures under forward gate bias stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagger, P., E-mail: peter.lagger@infineon.com [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrae 2, 9500 Villach (Austria); Institute of Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Wien (Austria); Steinschifter, P.; Reiner, M.; Stadtmller, M.; Denifl, G.; Ostermaier, C. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrae 2, 9500 Villach (Austria); Naumann, A.; Mller, J.; Wilde, L.; Sundqvist, J. [Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT, Knigsbrcker Strae 178, 01099 Dresden (Germany); Pogany, D. [Institute of Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Wien (Austria)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The high density of defect states at the dielectric/III-N interface in GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures causes tremendous threshold voltage drifts, ?V{sub th}, under forward gate bias conditions. A comprehensive study on different dielectric materials, as well as varying dielectric thickness t{sub D} and barrier thickness t{sub B}, is performed using capacitance-voltage analysis. It is revealed that the density of trapped electrons, ?N{sub it}, scales with the dielectric capacitance under spill-over conditions, i.e., the accumulation of a second electron channel at the dielectric/AlGaN barrier interface. Hence, the density of trapped electrons is defined by the charging of the dielectric capacitance. The scaling behavior of ?N{sub it} is explained universally by the density of accumulated electrons at the dielectric/III-N interface under spill-over conditions. We conclude that the overall density of interface defects is higher than what can be electrically measured, due to limits set by dielectric breakdown. These findings have a significant impact on the correct interpretation of threshold voltage drift data and are of relevance for the development of normally off and normally on III-N/GaN high electron mobility transistors with gate insulation.

  13. Squeezout phenomena and boundary layer formation of a model ionic liquid under confinement and charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Capozza; A. Vanossi; A. Benassi; E. Tosatti

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical charging of parallel plates confining a model ionic liquid down to nanoscale distances yields a variety of charge-induced changes in the structural features of the confined film. That includes even-odd switching of the structural layering and charging-induced solidification and melting, with important changes of local ordering between and within layers, and of squeezout behavior. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we explore this variety of phenomena in the simplest charged Lennard-Jones coarse-grained model including or excluding the effect a neutral tail giving an anisotropic shape to one of the model ions. Using these models and open conditions permitting the flow of ions in and out of the interplate gap, we simulate the liquid squeezout to obtain the distance dependent structure and forces between the plates during their adiabatic appraoch under load. Simulations at fixed applied force illustrate an effective electrical pumping of the ionic liquid, from a thick nearly solid film that withstands the interplate pressure for high plate charge to complete squeezout following melting near zero charge. Effective enthalpy curves obtained by integration of interplate forces versus distance show the local minima that correspond to layering, and predict the switching between one minimum and another under squeezing and charging.

  14. Charge pumping techniques in ultra-low current transconductor design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker-Gomez, Adriana

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis is to introduce the use of interface-trap charge pumping devices (ITCP) in an analog application based in ultra-low-current transconductors. This application naturally exploits the continuous nature of the current...

  15. Optimization Online - Robust optimization based EV charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alireza Soroudi

    2015-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 11, 2015 ... Abstract: With the introduction of new technologies like electric vehicles and smart grids the operation and planning of power systems are...

  16. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomyDr.Energy University Managing Increased Charging

  17. Automakers and Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments from TarasaName4ServicesTribalWorkplace Charging Summit

  18. NERSC HPSS Charging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1AllocationsNOVA Portal: Submit2014 2015Charging HPSS

  19. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  20. Faculty of Law Number of students who has finished (with a degree) and early leavers (excluding transferred students) by AY (As of May 1, 2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Holdover H OthersI) Total + early admission Total GraduatesC) over-term within designated term Rate outside school Reasons to leaveF) Leaving RateG) Holdover H within designated term over-term GraduatesCFaculty of Law Number of students who has finished (with a degree) and early leavers (excluding

  1. (Data in thousand metric tons of silicon content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal (excluding semiconductor-and solar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal (excluding semiconductor- and solar- grade silicon) produced in the United States in 2009 was $470 million. Four companies produced silicon materials in six plants. Of those companies, three produced ferrosilicon in four plants. Metallurgical

  2. rule'' to reduce the monetary penalty by 50 to 75 percent right off the top. Citizens are often excluded from EPA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, M. Nils

    environmental projects (SEPs), begun in the late 1990s, so that convicted polluters can mitigate the damage excluded from EPA decision making, even when it affects them. For example, in a federal environmental-impact statement, citizens are not given notice of a preliminary environmental assessment of their neighborhood

  3. Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Poster...

  4. Pipeline charging of coke ovens with a preheated charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpov, A.V.; Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Kuznichenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work to test a pipeline charging method was conducted at the Konetsk Coke Works (a PK-2K coke oven system with a single gas main, oven width 407 mm, height 4300 mm, effective column 20.0 cm/sub 3/). This method consists of transporting the heated coal charge to the ovens through a pipe by means of steam. the charge is transported by high pressure chamber groups, and loaded by means of systems equipped with devices for separation, withdrawal and treatment of the spent steam. The principal goal of the present investigation was to test technical advances in the emission-free charging of preheated charges. The problem was, first, to create a reliable technology for separation of the steam from the charge immediately before loading it into the oven and, second, to provide a total elimination of emissions, thereby protecting the environment against toxic substances.

  5. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lal, Amit (Madison, WI); Li, Hui (Madison, WI); Blanchard, James P. (Madison, WI); Henderson, Douglass L. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  6. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The report also examines when consumers want to recharge vehicles, and to what extent pricing and incentives can encourage consumers to charge during off-peak periods. Evaluating...

  7. A Charge Pump that Generates Negative High Voltage with Variable Voltage , Eugene Ivanova,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Joseph

    A Charge Pump that Generates Negative High Voltage with Variable Voltage Gain Jun Zhaob, , Eugene, Massachusetts 02115, U.S.A. Abstract A cross-coupled structure based charge pump that generates negative high. The proposed negative charge pump is designed to deliver 40 uA with a wide supply range from 2.5V to 5.5V using

  8. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  9. Sacrificial Charge and Charge Injection! Evolution of Line Width!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Catherine E.

    . Similar structures are seen in the energy scale due to sacrificial charge. " Solar Min Solar Max increasing CTI, trailing charge and event/split thresholds Evolution of Energy Scale! Radiation damage! Catherine Grant, Bev LaMarr, Eric Miller and Mark Bautz (MIT Kavli Institute)! Instruments and Data! Front

  10. Faculty of Law Number of students who has finished (with a degree) and early leavers (excluding transferred students) by AY (As of May 1, 2011)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Faculty of Law Number of students who has finished (with a degree) and early leavers (excluding or less more than 1 year Law 180 227 227 155 65 220 68% 29% 97% 5 2% 0 2 Total 180 227 227 155 65 220 68% 29% 97% 5 2% 0 2 Law 180 184 184 139 37 176 76% 20% 96% 6 3% 2 0 Total 180 184 184 139 37 176 76% 20

  11. Piston-assisted charge pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaur, D; Mourokh, L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine charge transport through a system of three sites connected in series in the situation when an oscillating charged piston modulates the energy of the middle site. We show that with an appropriate set of parameters, charge can be transferred against an applied voltage. In this scenario, when the oscillating piston shifts away from the middle site, the energy of the site decreases and it is populated by a charge transferred from the lower energy site. On the other hand, when the piston returns to close proximity, the energy of the middle site increases and it is depopulated by the higher energy site. Thus through this process, the charge is pumped against the potential gradient. Our results can explain the process of proton pumping in one of the mitochondrial enzymes, Complex I. Moreover, this mechanism can be used for electron pumping in semiconductor nanostructures.

  12. Double Gated Single Molecular Transistor for Charge Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. Ray; R. Chowdhury

    2014-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrostatic behaviour of an 1,3-Cyclobutadiene (C$_{4}$H$_{4}$) based Single Molecular Transistor (SMT) has been investigated using the first principle calculation based on Density functional Theory and non-equilibrium Green's function approach. While the molecule is placed on top of a dielectric layer (backed by a metallic gate) and weakly coupled between the Source/Drain electrodes, the charge stability diagram revealed the presence of individual charge states in the Coulomb Blockade regime. This gets affected significantly on addition of an another gate electrode placed on the top of the molecule. This modified double-gated geometry allows additional control of the total energy of the system that is sensitive to the individual charge states of the molecule which can be used as a charge sensing technique operational at room temperature.

  13. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  14. Collective thermoelectrophoresis of charged colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arghya Majee; Alois Wrger

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally driven colloidal transport is, to a large extent, due to the thermoelectric or Seebeck effect of the charged solution.We show that, contrary to the generally adopted single-particle picture, the transport coefficient depends on the colloidal concentration. For solutions that are dilute in the hydrodynamic sense, collective effects may significantly affect the thermophoretic mobility. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental observations on polyelectrolytes and charged particles and suggest that for charged colloids collective behavior is the rule rather than the exception.

  15. The Energy of Charged Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Philip Solovej

    2004-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk I will discuss some of the techniques that have been developed over the past 35 years to estimate the energy of charged matter. These techniques have been used to solve stability of (fermionic) matter in different contexts, and to control the instability of charged bosonic matter. The final goal will be to indicate how these techniques with certain improvements can be used to prove Dyson's 1967 conjecture for the energy of a charged Bose gas--the sharp $N^{7/5}$ law.

  16. Efficient wireless charging with gallium nitride FETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Theresa (Theresa I.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Though wireless charging is more convenient than traditional wired charging methods, it is currently less efficient. This not only wastes power but can also result in a longer charging time. Improving the efficiency of ...

  17. Turbo-Charged Lighting Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, W. H. II

    TURBO-CHARGED LIGHTING DESIGN William H. Clark II Design Engineer O'Connell Robertson & Assoc Austin/ Texas ABSTRACT The task of the lighting designer has become very complex, involving thousands of choices for fixture types and hundreds...

  18. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  19. Structure, Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics in Magnetite (Fe3O4) (100) Surfaces from First Principles. Structure, Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics in...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Charging Equipment (EVSE) Testing Data Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging Equipment (EVSE) Testing Data Electric vehicle chargers (otherwise known as...

  1. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design Presentation given at the EV Everywhere...

  2. Utility Grid EV charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhary, Sanjay

    -DC microgrid Power flow analysis for droop controlled LV hybrid AC-DC microgrids with virtual impedance Chendan AC-DC microgrid based on droop control and virtual impedance. Droop and virtual impedance concepts-DC microgrid, droop control, virtual impedance, power flow. I. INTRODUCTION Recent technology development

  3. Thermophoresis of charged colloidal particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Fayolle; T. Bickel; A. Wrger

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally induced particle flow in a charged colloidal suspension is studied in a fluid-mechanical approach. The force density acting on the charged boundary layer is derived in detail. From Stokes' equation with no-slip boundary conditions at the particle surface, we obtain the particle drift velocity and the thermophoretic transport coefficients. The results are discussed in view of previous work and available experimental data.

  4. Charge transfer and reactivity of n[pi]* and [pi][pi]* organic triplets, including anthraquinonesulfonates, in interactions with inorganic anions. A comparative study based on classical Marcus theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loeff, I.; Rabani, J.; Treinin, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Linschitz, H. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1993-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of rates and radical yields in charge-transfer (CT) interactions between organic triplets and simple anions has been extended to triplets of 1-sulfonate, 1,5-disulfonate, and 2,6-disulfonate derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone and of fluorescein dianion. New information is also presented on 1,4-naphthoquinone. For comparison, H-atom-transfer reactions of the anthraquinone triplets with 2-propanol were also studied. The new triplet-anion results, together with many previously reported data, are analyzed in the framework of a simplified Marcus theory by which the activation energy of formation of the pure charge-transfer exciplex, [Delta]G[sup [double dagger

  5. Jet Charge at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Krohn; Tongyan Lin; Matthew D. Schwartz; Wouter J. Waalewijn

    2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowing the charge of the parton initiating a light-quark jet could be extremely useful both for testing aspects of the Standard Model and for characterizing potential beyond-the-Standard-Model signals. We show that despite the complications of hadronization and out-of-jet radiation such as pile-up, a weighted sum of the charges of a jet's constituents can be used at the LHC to distinguish among jets with different charges. Potential applications include measuring electroweak quantum numbers of hadronically decaying resonances or supersymmetric particles, as well as Standard Model tests, such as jet charge in dijet events or in hadronically-decaying W bosons in t-tbar events. We develop a systematically improvable method to calculate moments of these charge distributions by combining multi-hadron fragmentation functions with perturbative jet functions and pertubative evolution equations. We show that the dependence on energy and jet size for the average and width of the jet charge can be calculated despite the large experimental uncertainty on fragmentation functions. These calculations can provide a validation tool for data independent of Monte-Carlo fragmentation models.

  6. Method for mapping charge pulses in semiconductor radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prettyman, T.H.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient method for determining the distribution of charge pulses produced by semiconductor detectors is presented. The method is based on a quasi-steady-state model for semiconductor detector operation. A complete description of the model and underlying assumptions is given. Mapping of charge pulses is accomplished by solving an adjoint carrier continuity equation. The solution of the adjoint equation yields Green`s function, a time- and position-dependent map that contains all possible charge pulses that can be produced by the detector for charge generated at discrete locations (e.g., by gamma-ray interactions). Because the map is generated by solving a single, time-dependent problem, the potential for reduction in computational effort over direct mapping methods is significant, particularly for detectors with complex electrode structures. In this paper, the adjoint equation is derived and the mapping method is illustrated for a simple case.

  7. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui [Clemson University; Meunier, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Wu, Peng [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  8. PV Charging System for Remote Area Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilsemann, Frederick; Thompson, Roger

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to provide the public with a study of new as well existing technology to recharge batteries used in the field. A new product(s) will also be built based upon the information ascertained. American Electric Vehicles, Inc. (AEV) developed systems and methods suitable for charging state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries in remote locations under both ideal and cloudy weather conditions. Conceptual designs are described for existing and next generation technology, particularly as regards solar cells, peak power trackers and batteries. Prototype system tests are reported.

  9. Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

    1983-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  10. Sacrificial Charge and Charge Injection! Evolution of Line Width!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Catherine E.

    MeV). Anti-correlated with the solar cycle. Similar structures are seen in the energy scale due background" which depends on solar cycle and activity." XIS energy scale and line width as a function of cut increasing CTI, trailing charge and event/split thresholds Evolution of Energy Scale! Radiation damage

  11. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allman, S.L.; Chunghsuan Chen; Chen, F.C.

    1993-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  12. Magnetic moment versus tensor charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mekhfi

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We express the baryon magnetic moments in terms of the baryon tensor charges, considering the quarks as relativistic interacting objects. Once tensor charges get measured accurately, the formula for the baryon magnetic moment will serve to extract precise information on the quark anomalous magnetic moment, the quark effective mass and the ratio of the quark constituent mass to the quark effective mass. The analogous formula for the baryon electric dipole moment is of no great use as it gets eventually sizable contributions from various CP- violating sources not necessary associated to the quark electric dipole moment.

  13. Charged and neutral hyperonic effects on the driplines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Roy Chowdhury; C. Samanta; D. N. Basu

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Modification of neutron and proton driplines by the capture of strange hyperon(s) by normal nuclei has been investigated. A generalised mass formula (BWMH) based on the strangeness dependent extended liquid drop model is used to calculate the binding energy of normal nuclei as well as strange hypernuclei. The neutron (Sn) and proton (Sp) separation energies of all hypernuclei with neutral hyperons Lambda, double Lambda or charged hyperons Cascade(-), Theta(+) inside are calculated using BWMH mass formula. The normal neutron and proton driplines get modified due to the addition of the hyperon(s)(Lambda, double Lambda, Cascade(-), Theta(+) etc.) to the core of normal nuclei. The hypernuclei containing the charged hyperon(s) like those with neutral hyperon(s) have similar nucleon separation energies like core nuclei if proton number instead of net charge is used in the symmetry term. Due to the effect of opposite charges present in Theta(+) and Cascade(-), hyperons their corresponding driplines get separated from each other. All the hyperons modify mean field potential due to strong hyperon-nucleon coupling. Addition of a single charged hyperon in normal nuclei affects the entire proton drip line more prominently than that by neutral hyperon. The neutral hyperonic effect on proton dripline is significant for lighter nuclei than for heavier ones whereas both the charged as well as neutral hyperons affect almost the entire neutron dripline.

  14. Gas-Solid Coexistence in Highly Charged Colloidal Suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Mohanty; B. V. R. Tata; A. Toyotama; T. Sawada

    2005-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous suspensions of highly charged polystyrene particles with different volume fractions have been investigated for structural ordering and phase behavior using static light scattering (SLS) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Under deionized conditions, suspensions of high charge density colloidal particles remained disordered whereas suspensions of relatively low charge density showed crystallization by exhibiting iridescence for the visible light. Though for unaided eye crystallized suspensions appeared homogeneous, static light scattering measurements and CLSM observations have revealed their inhomogeneous nature in the form of coexistence of voids with dense ordered regions. CLSM investigations on disordered suspensions showed their inhomogeneous nature in the form coexistence of voids with dense disordered (amorphous) regions. Our studies on highly charged colloids confirm the occurrence of gas-solid transition and are in accordance with predictions of Monte Carlo simulations using a pair-potential having a long-range attractive term [Mohanty and Tata, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2003, 264, 101]. Based on our experimental and simulation results we argue that the reported reentrant disordered state [Yamanaka et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 1998, 80, 5806 and Toyotama et al Langmuir, 2003, 19, 3236] in charged colloids observed at high charge densities is a gas-solid coexistence state.

  15. Mass and charge identification of fragments detected with the Chimera Silicon-CsI(Tl) telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Le Neindre; for REVERSE collaboration

    2001-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass and charge identification of charged products detected with Silicon-CsI(Tl) telescopes of the Chimera apparatus is presented. An identification function, based on the Bethe-Bloch formula, is used to fit empirical correlation between Delta E and E ADC readings, in order to determine, event by event, the atomic and mass numbers of the detected charged reaction products prior to energy calibration.

  16. Reactive Blast Waves from Composite Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigated here is the performance of composite explosives - measured in terms of the blast wave they drive into the surrounding environment. The composite charge configuration studied here was a spherical booster (1/3 charge mass), surrounded by aluminum (Al) powder (2/3 charge mass) at an initial density of {rho}{sub 0} = 0.604 g/cc. The Al powder acts as a fuel but does not detonate - thereby providing an extreme example of a 'non-ideal' explosive (where 2/3 of the charge does not detonate). Detonation of the booster charge creates a blast wave that disperses the Al powder and ignites the ensuing Al-air mixture - thereby forming a two-phase combustion cloud embedded in the explosion. Afterburning of the booster detonation products with air also enhances and promotes the Al-air combustion process. Pressure waves from such reactive blast waves have been measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Here we describe numerical simulations of those experiments. A Heterogeneous Continuum Model was used to model the dispersion and combustion of the Al particle cloud. It combines the gasdynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a dilute continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models of Khasainov. It incorporates a combustion model based on mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) was used to capture the energy-bearing scales of the turbulent flow on the computational grid, and to track/resolve reaction zones. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g and 10-kg composite charges were performed. Computed pressure histories (red curve) are compared with measured waveforms (black curves) in Fig. 1. Comparison of these results with a waveform for a non-combustion case in nitrogen (blue curve) demonstrates that a reactive blast wave was formed. Cross-sectional views of the temperature field at various times are presented in Fig. 2, which shows that the flow is turbulent. Initially, combustion occurs at the fuel-air interface, and the energy release rate is controlled by the rate of turbulent mixing. Eventually, oxidizer becomes distributed throughout the cloud via ballistic mixing of the particles with air; energy release then occurs in a distributed combustion mode, and Al particle kinetics controls the energy release rate. Details of the Heterogeneous Continuum Model and results of the numerical simulations of composite charge explosions will be described in the paper.

  17. RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    intended to recover a more significant share of fixed costs solely from solar PV customer- generators rooftop solar PV development at limited to no cost to taxpayers and non-solar utility customers. StandbyPage | i RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES: REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR

  18. RELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    experience little change while those using the electronic cutoff would drift due to ageing components and changing parameters. The first few shots using the electronic cutoff were less reliable than subsequentRELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS Clint Sprott July 30, 1965 University of Wisconsin

  19. Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves Peptide Identification Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dong; Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Holman, Jerry D.; Chen, Kan; Liebler, Daniel; Orton, Daniel J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Chung, Chang Y.; Rose, Kristie L.; Tabb, David L.

    2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In shotgun proteomics, database search algorithms rely on fragmentation models to predict fragment ions that should be observed for a given peptide sequence. The most widely used strategy (Naive model) is oversimplified, cleaving all peptide bonds with equal probability to produce fragments of all charges below that of the precursor ion. More accurate models, based on fragmentation simulation, are too computationally intensive for on-the-fly use in database search algorithms. We have created an ordinal-regression-based model called Basophile that takes fragment size and basic residue distribution into account when determining the charge retention during CID/higher-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) of charged peptides. This model improves the accuracy of predictions by reducing the number of unnecessary fragments that are routinely predicted for highly-charged precursors. Basophile increased the identification rates by 26% (on average) over the Naive model, when analyzing triply-charged precursors from ion trap data. Basophile achieves simplicity and speed by solving the prediction problem with an ordinal regression equation, which can be incorporated into any database search software for shotgun proteomic identification.

  20. I. Excluded Volume Effects in Ising Cluster Distributions and Nuclear Multifragmentation II. Multiple-Chance Effects in Alpha-Particle Evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breus, Dimitry E.

    2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In Part 1, geometric clusters of the Ising model are studied as possible model clusters for nuclear multifragmentation. These clusters may not be considered as non-interacting (ideal gas) due to excluded volume effect which predominantly is the artifact of the cluster's finite size. Interaction significantly complicates the use of clusters in the analysis of thermodynamic systems. Stillinger's theory is used as a basis for the analysis, which within the RFL (Reiss, Frisch, Lebowitz) fluid-of-spheres approximation produces a prediction for cluster concentrations well obeyed by geometric clusters of the Ising model. If thermodynamic condition of phase coexistence is met, these concentrations can be incorporated into a differential equation procedure of moderate complexity to elucidate the liquid-vapor phase diagram of the system with cluster interaction included. The drawback of increased complexity is outweighted by the reward of greater accuracy of the phase diagram, as it is demonstrated by the Ising model. A novel nuclear-cluster analysis procedure is developed by modifying Fisher's model to contain cluster interaction and employing the differential equation procedure to obtain thermodynamic variables. With this procedure applied to geometric clusters, the guidelines are developed to look for excluded volume effect in nuclear multifragmentation. In part 2, an explanation is offered for the recently observed oscillations in the energy spectra of {alpha}-particles emitted from hot compound nuclei. Contrary to what was previously expected, the oscillations are assumed to be caused by the multiple-chance nature of {alpha}-evaporation. In a semi-empirical fashion this assumption is successfully confirmed by a technique of two-spectra decomposition which treats experimental {alpha}-spectra has having contributions from at least two independent emitters. Building upon the success of the multiple-chance explanation of the oscillations, Moretto's single-chance evaporation theory is augmented to include multiple-chance emission and tested on experimental data to yield positive results.

  1. Charge structure and lightning sensitivity in a simulated multicell thunderstorm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansell, Edward "Ted"

    continental multicell storm. Five laboratory-based parameterizations of noninductive graupel-ice charge for rebounding graupel-droplet collisions. Each noninductive graupel-ice parameterization is combined. [3] Only a few studies have employed multidimensional dynamical simulation models with predicted ice-phase

  2. PREASYMPTOTIC CHARGE OSCILLATIONS AROUND 3d IMPURITIES IN ALUMINIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    on aluminium based transi- tion metal alloys can be explained in the LSF approxi- mation of the Anderson modelL-87 PREASYMPTOTIC CHARGE OSCILLATIONS AROUND 3d IMPURITIES IN ALUMINIUM V. ZLATI0106 and G. GRNER modle d'Anderson la perturbation de densit lectronique autour de certaines impurets 3d dans l'aluminium

  3. The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation and Battery Management System Tutor degradation mechanisms of a Li-ion cell based on LiCoO2", Journal of Power Sources #12;Lithium ions and e and Y. Fuentes. Computer simulations of a lithium-ion polymer battery and implications for higher

  4. Charge Separation via Strain in Silicon Zhigang Wu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    been used in hybrid organic polymer/inorganic nanocrystal solar cells2,3 and in dye-sensitized solar cells by morphology control, where effectively a type-II homojunction is formed and charge separation expensive solar cells, comparable to the costs of fossil-based electricity, from abundant, environmen- tally

  5. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition: Formulation Effect of a Diesel Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition: Formulation Effect of a Diesel Fuel on the Initiation and the Combustion Potential of Olefin Impact in a Diesel Base Fuel D. Alseda1,2, X. Montagne1 and P. Dagaut2 1 Compression Ignition: Formulation Effect of a Diesel Fuel on the Initiation and the Combustion - Potential

  6. INTRAMOLECULAR CHARGE AND ENERGY TRANSFER IN MULTICHROMOPHORIC AROMATIC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward C. Lim

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A concerted experimental and computational study of energy transfer in nucleic acid bases and charge transfer in dialkylaminobenzonitriles, and related electron donor-acceptor molecules, indicate that the ultrafast photoprocesses occur through three-state conical interactions involving an intermediate state of biradical character.

  7. AVTA: ChargePoint America Recovery Act Charging Infrastructure Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports describe results of data collected through the Chargepoint America project, which deployed 4,600 public and home charging stations throughout the U.S. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  8. Charge symmetry breaking in n p --> d pi^0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Opper; E. Korkmaz; D. A. Hutcheon; R. Abegg; C. A. Davis; R. W. Finlay; P. W. Green; L. G. Greeniaus; D. V. Jordan; J. A. Niskanen; G. V. O'Rielly; T. A. Porcelli; S. D. Reitzner; P. L. Walden; S. Yen

    2003-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The forward--backward asymmetry in n p --> d pi^0, which must be zero in the center-of-mass system if charge symmetry is respected, has been measured to be [17.2 +/- 8 (stat) +/- 5.5 (sys)] * 10^{-4}, at an incident neutron energy of 279.5 MeV. This charge symmetry breaking observable was extracted by fitting the data with GEANT-based simulations and is compared to recent chiral effective field theory calculations, with implications regarding the value of the u d quark mass difference.

  9. Robust Broadcast-Communication Control of Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Konstantin; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The anticipated increase in the number of plug-in electric vehicles (EV) will put additional strain on electrical distribution circuits. Many control schemes have been proposed to control EV charging. Here, we develop control algorithms based on randomized EV charging start times and simple one-way broadcast communication allowing for a time delay between communication events. Using arguments from queuing theory and statistical analysis, we seek to maximize the utilization of excess distribution circuit capacity while keeping the probability of a circuit overload negligible.

  10. Robust broadcast-communication control of electric vehicle charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sulc, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The anticipated increase in the number of plug-in electric vehicles (EV) will put additional strain on electrical distribution circuits. Many control schemes have been proposed to control EV charging. Here, we develop control algorithms based on randomized EV charging start times and simple one-way broadcast communication allowing for a time delay between communication events. Using arguments from queuing theory and statistical analysis, we seek to maximize the utilization of excess distribution circuit capacity while keeping the probability of a circuit overload negligible.

  11. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of onroad Electric Vehicle (EV) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (DCFC) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The projects period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: ? Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. ? Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. ? Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the City) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (Aker Wade) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehiclerelated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the projects Engineering Report (see Attachment A) are intended to assist future implementation of electric vehicle technology. They are based on the cited research and on the empirical data collected and presented. The report is not expected to represent the entire operating conditions of any of the equipment under consideration within this project, and tested equipment may operate differently under other conditions.

  12. Transport of elliptic intense charged -particle beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J. (Jing), 1978-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport theory of high-intensity elliptic charged-particle beams is presented. In particular, the halo formation and beam loss problem associated with the high space charge and small-aperture structure is addressed, ...

  13. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of Maryland...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to become a part of the Workplace Charging Challenge. "We are delighted to be the first health care institution in Maryland to provide charging stations for our employees, staff...

  14. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  15. Fast Methods for Bimolecular Charge Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.

    We report a Hessian-implicit optimization method to quickly solve the charge optimization problem over protein molecules: given a ligand and its complex with a receptor, determine the ligand charge distribution that minimizes ...

  16. Effect of net surface charge on particle sizing and material recognition by using phase Doppler anemometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Jun; Xie Li

    2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    By taking net surface charge into consideration, the scattering field of particles illuminated by dual laser beams of phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) is computed based on Mie's theory, and the effect of net surface charge on the phase-diameter relationship and the phase ratio is studied. It is found that the phase-diameter relationship and the relationship between the phase ratio and the refractive index of charged particles could be significantly different from those of uncharged particles, which would lead to errors in particle sizing and the measurement of refractive indices. A method of recognizing charged particles and determining the value of their surface conductivity, which is related to net surface charge, is proposed by utilizing the effect of net surface charge on the measurement of refractive indices using PDA.

  17. Free form hemispherical shaped charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haselman, Jr., Leonard C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is aspherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved.

  18. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of

  19. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of2 DOE Review of

  20. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of2 DOE Review

  1. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of the Rotating Wall Machine by David A.1

  2. Quarks with Integer Electric Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. LaChapelle

    2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the context of the Standard Model, quarks are placed in a $(\\mathbf{3},\\mathbf{2})\\oplus (\\mathbf{3},\\bar{\\mathbf{2}})$ matter field representation of $U_{EW}(2)$. Although the quarks carry unit intrinsic electric charge in this construction, anomaly cancellation constrains the Lagrangian in such a way that the quarks' associated currents couple to the photon with the usual 2/3 and 1/3 fractional electric charge associated with conventional quarks. The resulting model is identical to the Standard Model in the $SU_C(3)$ sector: However, in the $U_{EW}(2)$ sector it is similar but not necessarily equivalent. Off hand, the model appears to be phenomenologically equivalent to the conventional quark model in the electroweak sector for experimental conditions that preclude observation of individual constituent currents. On the other hand, it is conceivable that detailed analyses for electroweak reactions may reveal discrepancies with the Standard Model in high energy and/or large momentum transfer reactions. The possibility of quarks with integer electric charge strongly suggests the notion that leptons and quarks are merely different manifestations of the same underlying field. A speculative model is proposed in which a phase transition is assumed to occur between $SU_C(3)\\otimes U_{EM}(1)$ and $U_{EM}(1)$ regimes. This immediately; explains the equality of lepton/quark generations and lepton/hadron electric charge, relates neutrino oscillations to quark flavor mixing, reduces the free parameters of the Standard Model, and renders the issue of quark confinement moot.

  3. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  4. tt Charge asymmetry at hadron colliders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapelain, Antoine

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the current status for the measurements of the ttbar charge asymmetry at the Tevatron and LHC colliders.

  5. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  6. INL Testing of Wireless Charging Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    investments and FOAs (Funding Opportunity Announcements) * Provide the charging, automotive, and electric utility industries with independent testing assessments and...

  7. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  8. Electrostatic charging of lunar dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walch, Bob [Department of Physics, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado 80639 (United States); Horanyi, Mihaly [LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0392 (United States); Robertson, Scott [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0391 (United States)

    1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient dust clouds suspended above the lunar surface were indicated by the horizon glow observed by the Surveyor spacecrafts and the Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite Experiment (Apollo 17), for example. The theoretical models cannot fully explain these observations, but they all suggest that electrostatic charging of the lunar surface due to exposure to the solar wind plasma and UV radiation could result in levitation, transport and ejection of small grains. We report on our experimental studies of the electrostatic charging properties of an Apollo-17 soil sample and two lunar simulants MLS-1 and JSC-1. We have measured their charge after exposing individual grains to a beam of fast electrons with energies in the range of 20{<=}E{<=}90 eV. Our measurements indicate that the secondary electron emission yield of the Apollo-17 sample is intermediate between MLS-1 and JSC-1, closer to that of MLS-1. We will also discuss our plans to develop a laboratory lunar surface model, where time dependent illumination and plasma bombardment will closely emulate the conditions on the surface of the Moon.

  9. Nuclear PDF for neutrino and charged lepton data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Kovarik

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrino Deep Inelastic Scattering on nuclei is an essential process to constrain the strange quark parton distribution functions in the proton. The critical component on the way to using the neutrino DIS data in a proton PDF analysis is understanding the nuclear effects in parton distribution functions. We parametrize these effects by nuclear parton distribution functions. Here we compare results from two analysis of NPDF both done at next-to-leading order in QCD. The first uses neutral current charged-lepton lA Deeply Inelastic Scattering and Drell-Yan data for several nuclear targets and the second uses neutrino-nucleon DIS data. We compare the nuclear corrections factors F_2^Fe/F_2^D for the charged-lepton data with other results from the literature. In particular, we compare and contrast fits based upon the charged-lepton DIS data with those using neutrino-nucleon DIS data.

  10. Nanometer emittance ultralow charge beams from rf photoinjectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, R. K.; Roberts, K. G.; Scoby, C. M.; To, H.; Musumeci, P.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss the generation of a new class of high brightness relativistic electron beams, characterized by ultralow charge (0.11 pC) and ultralow normalized emittance (<50??nm ). These beams are created in rf photoinjectors when the laser is focused on the cathode to very small transverse sizes (<30???m rms). In this regime, the charge density at the cathode approaches the limit set by the extraction electric field. By shaping the laser pulse to have a cigarlike aspect ratio (the longitudinal dimension much larger than the transverse dimension) and a parabolic temporal profile, the resulting space charge dominated dynamics creates a uniformly filled ellipsoidal distribution and the emittance can be nearly preserved to its thermal value. We also present a new method, based on a variation of the pepper-pot technique, for single shot measurements of the ultralow emittances for this new class of beams.

  11. Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.

  12. Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy technologies, electric vehicles and the appurtenant charging infrastructure, is explored in detail to determine regarding system load profiles, vehicle charging strategies, electric vehicle adoption rates, and storage

  13. Optimal Decentralized Protocols for Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    into the electric power grid. EV charging increases the electricity demand, and potentially amplifies the peak1 Optimal Decentralized Protocols for Electric Vehicle Charging Lingwen Gan Ufuk Topcu Steven Low Abstract--We propose decentralized algorithms for optimally scheduling electric vehicle (EV) charging

  14. A User Programmable Battery Charging System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    to provide the convenience of rare battery replacement and extend the periods between charges. This thesis proposes a user programmable charging system that can charge a Lithium ion battery from three different input sources, i.e. a wall outlet, a universal...

  15. Space Charge and Equilibrium Emittances in Damping Rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu; Wolski, Andy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SPACE CHARGE AND EQUILIBRIUM EMITTANCES IN DAMPING RINGS ?for the pos- sible impact of space charge on the equilibriumrings. INTRODUCTION Direct space charge effects have the

  16. Charging and de-charging of dust particles in bulk region of a radio frequency discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis to investigate the effect of the dust particle size and density on the floating potential of the dust particles of uniform radius and other plasma parameters in the bulk region plasma of a RF-discharge in collisionless/collisional regime has been presented herein. For this purpose, the average charge theory based on charge balance on dust and number balance of plasma constituents has been utilized; a derivation for the accretion rate of electrons corresponding to a drifting Maxwellian energy distribution in the presence of an oscillatory RF field has been given and the resulting expression has been used to determine the floating potential of the dust grains. Further, the de-charging of the dust grains after switching off the RF field has also been discussed.

  17. Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Samarian, A. A. [GREMI - Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energetique des Milieux Ionises, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An on-ground measurement of dust-particle residual charges in the afterglow of a dusty plasma was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force. It was found that positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral dust particles coexisted for more than 1 min after the discharge was switched off. The mean residual charge for 200-nm-radius particles was measured. The dust particle mean charge is about -5e at a pressure of 1.2 mbar and about -3e at a pressure of 0.4 mbar.

  18. Spectroscopy of Photovoltaic Materials: Charge-Transfer Complexes and Titanium Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillon, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X. ; Tryk, D. A. , TiO 2 photocatalysis and related surfacescience perspective on photocatalysis. Surf. Sci. Rep. Joo,J. T. , TiO 2 -based photocatalysis: oxygen and charge

  19. Demand Charges | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE Facility DatabaseMichigan: Energy Resources Jump to:Delta, Ohio:Charges Jump

  20. Ionic exclusion phase transition in neutral and weakly charged cylindrical nanopores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahin Buyukdagli; Manoel Manghi; John Palmeri

    2011-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A field theoretic variational approach is introduced to study ion penetration into water-filled cylindrical nanopores in equilibrium with a bulk reservoir. It is shown that (i) an ion located in a neutral pore undergoes two opposing mechanisms: the deformation of its surrounding ionic cloud of opposite charge, with respect to the reservoir, which increases the surface tension and tends to exclude ions form the pore, and (ii) the attractive contribution to the ion self-energy of the repulsive image forces associated with the dielectric jump between the solvent and the pore wall, which becomes more and more screened when ions enter the pore. For pore radii around 1 nm and bulk concentrations lower than 0.2 mol/L, this mechanism leads to a first-order phase transition, similar to capillary "evaporation", from an ionic-penetration state to an ionic-exclusion state. The discontinuous phase transition survives within the biological concentration range (~ 0.15 mol/L) for small enough membrane dielectric permittivities (characterized by two regimes: at low reservoir concentration or small pore radii, coions are excluded and the energy barrier for counterions is reduced but image forces remain strong enough, so that the counterion partition coefficient in the pore decreases with increasing reservoir concentration up to a characteristic value; for larger reservoir concentrations, image forces are screened and the partition coefficient of counterions increases with the reservoir electrolyte concentration.

  1. A New Charging Method for Li-ion Batteries: Dependence of the charging time on the Direction of an Additional Oscillating Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamad, I Abou; Wipf, D O; Rikvold, P A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have recently proposed a new method for charging Li-ion batteries based on large-scale molecular dynamics studies (I. Abou Hamad et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 2740 (2010)). Applying an additional oscillating electric field in the direction perpendicular to the graphite sheets of the anode showed an exponential decrease in charging time with increasing amplitude of the applied oscillating field. Here we present new results exploring the effect on the charging time of changing the orientation of the oscillating field. Results for oscillating fields in three orthogonal directions are compared.

  2. DECAY CONSTANTS OF CHARGED PSEUDO-SCALAR MESONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - and D+ s decays, the existence of a charged Higgs boson (or any other charged object beyond the Standard

  3. DECAY CONSTANTS OF CHARGED PSEUDO-SCALAR MESONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the existence of a charged Higgs boson (or any other charged object beyond the Standard Model) would modify

  4. Why do Particle Clouds Generate Electric Charges?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Phtz; H. J. Herrmann; T. Shinbrot

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.

  5. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  6. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  7. Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Buckley, M.; Rogers, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their current operating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly compares and contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.

  8. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  9. Particle accelerator employing transient space charge potentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides an accelerator for ions and charged particles. The plasma is generated and confined in a magnetic mirror field. The electrons of the plasma are heated to high temperatures. A series of local coils are placed along the axis of the magnetic mirror field. As an ion or particle beam is directed along the axis in sequence the coils are rapidly pulsed creating a space charge to accelerate and focus the beam of ions or charged particles.

  10. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  11. Nuclear electromagnetic charge and current operators in Chiral EFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girlanda, Luca [Universit del Salento; Marcucci, Laura Elisa [Univ. Pisa; Pastore, Saori [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC; Piarulli, Maria [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA; Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion U., JLAB; Viviani, Michele

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe our method for deriving the nuclear electromagnetic charge and current operators in chiral perturbation theory, based on time-ordered perturbation theory. We then discuss possible strategies for fixing the relevant low-energy constants, from the magnetic moments of the deuteron and of the trinucleons, and from the radiative np capture cross sections, and identify a scheme which, partly relying on {Delta} resonance saturation, leads to a reasonable pattern of convergence of the chiral expansion.

  12. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  13. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  14. Soret Motion of a Charged Spherical Colloid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seyyed Nader Rasuli; Ramin Golestanian

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermophoretic motion of a charged spherical colloidal particle and its accompanying cloud of counterions and co-ions in a temperature gradient is studied theoretically. Using the Debye-Huckel approximation, the Soret drift velocity of a weakly charged colloid is calculated analytically. For highly charged colloids, the nonlinear system of electrokinetic equations is solved numerically, and the effects of high surface potential, dielectrophoresis, and convection are examined. Our results are in good agreement with some of the recent experiments on highly charged colloids without using adjustable parameters.

  15. EV Project: Solar-Assisted Charging Demo

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    occurs at night and times during the day where PV generation is greater than EV charging load Technical Accomplishments and Progress - Peak Shaving Algorithms 17 * The most...

  16. Radiation from charges in the continuum limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ianconescu, Reuven [Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.

  17. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electron spin-in addition to charge-for the storage and processing of data. However, the manipulation of spin typically requires magnetic materials. While commonly found in...

  18. Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the progress of the Challenge and its partners as determined through the annual partner survey. progressreportfinal.pdf More Documents & Publications Workplace Charging...

  19. Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines: British Columbia AgencyCompany Organization: Natural...

  20. Randomly charged polymers in porous environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Blavatska; C. von Ferber

    2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the conformational properties of charged polymers in a solvent in the presence of structural obstacles correlated according to a power law $\\sim x^{-a}$. We work within the continuous representation of a model of linear chain considered as a random sequence of charges $q_i=\\pm q_0$. Such a model captures the properties of polyampholytes -- heteropolymers comprising both positively and negatively charged monomers. We apply the direct polymer renormalization scheme and analyze the scaling behavior of charged polymers up to the first order of an $\\epsilon=6-d$, $\\delta=4-a$-expansion.

  1. Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Table Updated: March 20, 2015 FY 2016 February 2015 CRC Calculation Table (pdf) Final FY 2015 CRC Letter & Table (pdf) Note: The Cost...

  2. Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric semiconductors: An intrinsic or extrinsic mechanism? April 5, 2011 at 3pm36-428 Carlos Silva University of...

  3. Method and apparatus for providing pulse pile-up correction in charge quantizing radiation detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Wintenberg, Alan L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detection method and system for continuously correcting the quantization of detected charge during pulse pile-up conditions. Charge pulses from a radiation detector responsive to the energy of detected radiation events are converted to voltage pulses of predetermined shape whose peak amplitudes are proportional to the quantity of charge of each corresponding detected event by means of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. These peak amplitudes are sampled and stored sequentially in accordance with their respective times of occurrence. Based on the stored peak amplitudes and times of occurrence, a correction factor is generated which represents the fraction of a previous pulses influence on a preceding pulse peak amplitude. This correction factor is subtracted from the following pulse amplitude in a summing amplifier whose output then represents the corrected charge quantity measurement.

  4. A new method to calculate the beam charge for an integrating current transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Yuchi; Han Dan; Zhu Bin; Dong Kegong; Tan Fang; Gu Yuqiu [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The integrating current transformer (ICT) is a magnetic sensor widely used to precisely measure the charge of an ultra-short-pulse charged particle beam generated by traditional accelerators and new laser-plasma particle accelerators. In this paper, we present a new method to calculate the beam charge in an ICT based on circuit analysis. The output transfer function shows an invariable signal profile for an ultra-short electron bunch, so the function can be used to evaluate the signal quality and calculate the beam charge through signal fitting. We obtain a set of parameters in the output function from a standard signal generated by an ultra-short electron bunch (about 1 ps in duration) at a radio frequency linear electron accelerator at Tsinghua University. These parameters can be used to obtain the beam charge by signal fitting with excellent accuracy.

  5. Measuring the Neutron's Mean Square Charge Radius Using Neutron Interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. E. Wietfeldt; M. Huber; T. C. Black; H. Kaiser; M. Arif; D. L. Jacobson; S. A. Werner

    2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron is electrically neutral, but its substructure consists of charged quarks so it may have an internal charge distribution. In fact it is known to have a negative mean square charge radius (MSCR), the second moment of the radial charge density. In other words the neutron has a positive core and negative skin. In the first Born approximation the neutron MSCR can be simply related to the neutron-electron scattering length b_ne. In the past this important quantity has been extracted from the energy dependence of the total transmission cross-section of neutrons on high-Z targets, a very difficult and complicated process. A few years ago S.A. Werner proposed a novel approach to measuring b_ne from the neutron's dynamical phase shift in a perfect crystal close to the Bragg condition. We are conducting an experiment based on this method at the NIST neutron interferometer which may lead to a five-fold improvement in precision of b_ne and hence the neutron MSCR.

  6. Aspects of charge recombination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Difley, Seth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, aspects of charge reconbination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices are presented. These devices show promise relative to traditional inorganic semiconductors. We show ...

  7. Identifying the Charge Carriers of the Quark-Gluon Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott Pratt

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge correlations in lattice gauge calculations suggest that up, down and strange charges move independently in the QGP (quark-gluon plasma), and that the density of such charges is similar to what is expected from simple thermal arguments. Here, we show how specific elements of the charge-charge correlation matrix in the QGP survive hadronization and become manifest in final-state charge-charge correlation measurements.

  8. Algebraic charge liquids RIBHU K. KAUL1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    to this fermion as a `holon'. The holon comes in two species, carrying charges ±1 in its interaction holons with charges ±1. From the f± and aµ, we can construct a variety of observables whose correlations

  9. Charged Higgs boson searches at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Dhiman; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the latest results from searches for singly charged Higgs bosons carried out by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the LHC. Both experiments have searched for production of charged Higgs bosons in pp collisions of up to 20 (5) fb^-

  10. Fluctuation bounds on charge and heat diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavel Kovtun

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study thermal fluctuation corrections to charge and heat conductivity in systems with locally conserved energy and charge, but without locally conserved momentum. Thermal fluctuations may naturally lead to a lower bound on diffusion constants for thermoelectric transport, and need to be taken into account when discussing potential bounds on transport coefficients.

  11. DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potsdam, Universitt

    DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions #12;Outline 1. DNA: structure, charges, dense phases 2. Counterion and DNA condensation 3. ES DNA-DNA interactions 4. DNA toroidal structures 5. Interactions of real DNA helices 6. DNA-DNA ES recognition 7. DNA melting in aggregates 8. Azimuthal

  12. On-line Decentralized Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Qiao; Negi, Rohit; Franchetti, Franz; Ilic, Marija D

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are gaining increasing popularity in recent years, due to the growing societal awareness of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the dependence on foreign oil or petroleum. Large-scale implementation of PEVs in the power system currently faces many challenges. One particular concern is that the PEV charging can potentially cause significant impact on the existing power distribution system, due to the increase in peak load. As such, this work tries to mitigate the PEV charging impact by proposing a decentralized smart PEV charging algorithm to minimize the distribution system load variance, so that a 'flat' total load profile can be obtained. The charging algorithm is on-line, in that it controls the PEV charging processes in each time slot based entirely on the current power system state. Thus, compared to other forecast based smart charging approaches in the literature, the charging algorithm is robust against various uncertainties in the power system, such as random PE...

  13. Localization of positive charge in DNA induced by its interaction with environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry B. Uskov; Alexander L. Burin

    2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscopic mechanisms of positive charge transfer in DNA remain unclear. A quantum state of electron hole in DNA is determined by the competition of the pi-stacking interaction $b$ sharing a charge between different base pairs and the interaction $\\lambda$ with the local environment which attempts to trap charge. To determine which interaction dominates we investigated charge quantum states in various $(GC)_{n}$ sequences choosing DNA parameters satisfying experimental data for the balance of charge transfer rates $G^{+} \\leftrightarrow G_{n}^{+}$, $n=2,3$ \\cite{FredMain}. We show that experimental data can be consistent with theory only assuming $b\\ll \\lambda$ meaning that charge is typically localized within the single $G$ site. Consequently any DNA sequence including the one consisting of identical base pairs behaves more like an insulating material then a molecular conductor. Our theory can be verified experimentally, for instance measuring balance of charge transfer reactions $G^{+} \\leftrightarrow G_{n}^{+}$, $n \\geq 4$ and comparing the experimental results with our predictions.

  14. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  15. Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

  16. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, David K. (155 Coral Way, Broomfield, CO 80020); Haverty, Thomas W. (1173 Logan, Northglenn, CO 80233); Nordin, Carl W. (7203 W. 32nd Ave., Wheatridge, CO 80033); Tyree, William H. (1977 Senda Rocosa, Boulder, CO 80303)

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  17. New charge radius relations for atomic nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. H. Sun; Y. Lu; J. P. Peng; C. Y. Liu; Y. M. Zhao

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the charge radii of neighboring atomic nuclei, independent of atomic number and charge, follow remarkably very simple relations, despite the fact that atomic nuclei are complex finite many-body systems governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. These relations can be understood within the picture of independent-particle motion and by assuming neighboring nuclei having similar pattern in the charge density distribution. A root-mean-square (rms) deviation of 0.0078 fm is obtained between the predictions in these relations and the experimental values, i.e., a comparable precision as modern experimental techniques. Such high accuracy relations are very useful to check the consistence of nuclear charge radius surface and moreover to predict unknown nuclear charge radii, while large deviations from experimental data is seen to reveal the appearance of nuclear shape transition or coexsitence.

  18. Experimental simulation of charge conservation violation and Majorana dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Keil; C. Noh; A. Rai; S. Sttzer; S. Nolte; D. G. Angelakis; A. Szameit

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Unphysical particles are commonly ruled out from the solution of physical equations, as they fundamentally cannot exist in any real system and, hence, cannot be examined experimentally in a direct fashion. One of the most celebrated equations that allows unphysical solutions is the relativistic Majorana equation\\cite{Majorana} which might describe neutrinos and other exotic particles beyond the Standard Model. The equation's physical solutions, the Majorana fermions, are predicted to be their own anti-particles and as a consequence they have to be neutrally charged; the charged version however (called Majoranon) is, due to charge non-conservation, unphysical and cannot exist. On the other hand, charge conservation violation has been contemplated in alternative theories associated with higher spacetime dimensions or a non-vanishing photon mass; theories whose exotic nature makes experimental testing with current technology an impossible task. In our work, we present an experimental scheme based on optics with which we simulate the dynamics of a Majoranon, involving the implementation of unphysical charge conjugation and complex conjugation. We show that the internal dynamics of the Majoranon is fundamentally different from that of its close cousin, the Dirac particle, to illustrate the nature of the unphysical operations. For this we exploit the fact that in quantum mechanics the wave function itself is not a measurable quantity. Therefore, wave functions of real physical particles, in our case Dirac particles with opposite masses, can be superposed to a wave function of an unphysical particle, the Majoranon. Our results open a new front in the field of quantum simulations of exotic phenomena, with possible applications in condensed matter physics, topological quantum computing, and testing theories within and beyond the Standard Model with existing technology.

  19. A Graphene Quantum Dot with a Single Electron Transistor as Integrated Charge Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling-Jun Wang; Gang Cao; Tao Tu; Hai-Ou Li; Cheng Zhou; Xiao-Jie Hao; Zhan Su; Guang-Can Guo; Guo-Ping Guo; Hong-Wen Jiang

    2010-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed an etching process to fabricate a quantum dot and a nearby single electron transistor as a charge detector in a single layer graphene. The high charge sensitivity of the detector is used to probe Coulomb diamonds as well as excited spectrum in the dot, even in the regime where the current through the quantum dot is too small to be measured by conventional transport means. The graphene based quantum dot and integrated charge sensor serve as an essential building block to form a solid-state qubit in a nuclear-spin-free quantum world.

  20. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  1. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  2. Charge and spin topological insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopaev, Yu. V., E-mail: kopaev@sci.lebedev.ru; Gorbatsevich, A. A.; Belyavskii, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The topologically nontrivial states of matter-charge and spin topological insulators, which exhibit, respectively, properties of the integer quantum Hall effect and the quantum spin Hall effect-are discussed. The topological characteristics (invariant with respect to weak adiabatic changes in the Hamiltonian parameters) which lead to such states are considered. The model of a 2D hexagonal lattice having symmetries broken with respect to time reversal and spatial inversion which was proposed by Haldane and marked the beginning of unprecedented activity in the study of topologically nontrivial states is discussed. This model relates the microscopic nature of the symmetry breaking with respect to the time reversal to the occurrence of spontaneous orbital currents which circulate within a unit cell. Such currents become zero upon summation over the unit cell, but they may form spreading current states at the surface which are similar to the edge current states under the quantum Hall effect. The first model of spontaneous currents (exciton insulator model) is considered, and the possibility of implementing new topologically nontrivial states in this model is discussed.

  3. Electron Beam Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Smith, Alan; Rodgers, David; Donahue, Rich; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive study of charge diagnostics is conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). First, a scintillating screen (Lanex) was extensively studied using subnanosecond electron beams from the Advanced Light Source booster synchrotron, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Lanex was cross calibrated with an integrating current transformer (ICT) for up to the electron energy of 1.5 GeV, and the linear response of the screen was confirmed for charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm{sup 2} and 0.4 pC/(ps mm{sup 2}), respectively. After the radio-frequency accelerator based cross calibration, a series of measurements was conducted using electron beams from an LPA. Cross calibrations were carried out using an activation-based measurement that is immune to electromagnetic pulse noise, ICT, and Lanex. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8%, showing that they all can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs.

  4. Decentralized Charging Control for Large Populations of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Application of the Nash Certainty Equivalence Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    strategy results in valley filling, i.e. the total demand, consisting of aggregated PEV charging load PEVs, is responsive to the total demand of the grid, which is the summation of the inelastic non-PEV base demand together with the aggregated charging rates of the whole population of PEVs. Because

  5. Joachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    to charge from an inexpensive AC charging station feeding power directly from the electric grid are an effective catalyst for considerably expanding fast-charging infrastructure. With AC fast-charging, high-powerJoachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles using AC Master's Thesis, September 2013 #12

  6. Spontaneous Charging and Crystallization of Water Droplets in Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joost de Graaf; Jos Zwanikken; Markus Bier; Arjen Baarsma; Yasha Oloumi; Mischa Spelt; Rene van Roij

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the spontaneous charging and the crystallization of spherical micron-sized water-droplets dispersed in oil by numerically solving, within a Poisson-Boltzmann theory in the geometry of a spherical cell, for the density profiles of the cations and anions in the system. We take into account screening, ionic Born self-energy differences between oil and water, and partitioning of ions over the two media. We find that the surface charge density of the droplet as induced by the ion partitioning is significantly affected by the droplet curvature and by the finite density of the droplets. We also find that the salt concentration and the dielectric constant regime in which crystallization of the water droplets is predicted is enhanced substantially compared to results based on the planar oil-water interface, thereby improving quantitative agreement with recent experiments.

  7. A search for charge 1/3 third generation leptoquarks in muon channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzunyan, Sergey A.; /Northern Illinois U.

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Leptoquarks are exotic particles that have color, electric charge, and lepton number and appear in extended gauge theories and composite models. Current theory suggests that leptoquarks would come in three different generations corresponding to the three quark and lepton generations. We are searching for charge 1/3 third generation leptoquarks produced in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using data collected by the D0 detector. Such leptoquarks would decay into either a tau-neutrino plus a b-quark or, if heavy enough, to a tau-lepton plus a t-quark. We present preliminary results on an analysis where both leptoquarks decay into neutrinos giving a final state with missing energy and two b-quarks using 367 pb{sup -1} of Run II D0 data taken between August 2002 and September 2004. We place upper limits on {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} LQ{ovr LQ})B{sup 2} as a function of the leptoquark mass M{sub LQ}. Assuming B = 1, we exclude at the 95% confidence level third generation leptoquarks with M{sub LQ} < 197 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  8. Momentum computed tomography of charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Deyang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principle of the momentum computed tomography of charged particles is presented. It may be useful for momentum spectroscopy of various beam-matter interactions, especially when very intense beams are involved. It is able to collect the shower of charged particles with the 4Pi solid angle, and suitable for measuring the overall perspective of the arbitrary momentum distribution of the outgoing charged particles induced by arbitrary beams, especially when the other techniques are invalid. The extended collisional region, the strong field approximation and the case without magnetic field are discussed.

  9. Superconducting Hair on Charged Black String Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukasz Nakonieczny; Marek Rogatko

    2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Behaviour of Dirac fermions in the background of a charged black string penetrated by an Abelian Higgs vortex is elaborated. One finds the evidence that the system under consideration can support fermion fields acting like a superconducting cosmic string in the sence that a nontrivial Dirac fermion field can be carried by the system in question. The case of nonextremal and extremal black string vortex systems were considered. The influence of electric and Higgs charge, the winding number and the fermion mass on the fermion localization near the black string event horizon was studied. It turned out that the extreme charged black string expelled fermion fields more violently comparing to the nonextremal one.

  10. Lyapunov Exponent and Charged Myers Perry Spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partha Pratim Pradhan

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the proper time Lyapunov exponent for charged Myers Perry black hole spacetime and investigate the instability of the equatorial circular geodesics (both timelike and null) via this exponent. We also show that for more than four spacetime dimensions $(N \\geq 3)$, there are \\emph{no} Innermost Stable Circular Orbits (ISCOs) in charged Myers Perry black hole spacetime. We further show that among all possible circular orbits, timelike circular orbits have \\emph{longer} orbital periods than null circular orbits (photon spheres) as measured by asymptotic observers. Thus, timelike circular orbits provide the \\emph{slowest way} to orbit around the charged Myers Perry black hole.

  11. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV demonstrations. One such previous study was a PHEV demonstration conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). AVTA's PHEV demonstration involved over 250 vehicles in the United States, Canada, and Finland. This paper summarizes driving and charging behavior observed in that demonstration, including the distribution of distance driven between charging events, charging frequency, and resulting proportion of operation charge depleting mode. Charging demand relative to time of day and day of the week will also be shown. Conclusions from the PHEV demonstration will be given which highlight the need for expanded analysis in The EV Project. For example, the AVTA PHEV demonstration showed that in the absence of controlled charging by the vehicle owner or electric utility, the majority of vehicles were charged in the evening hours, coincident with typical utility peak demand. Given this baseline, The EV Project will demonstrate the effects of consumer charge control and grid-side charge management on electricity demand. This paper will outline further analyses which will be performed by eTec and INL to documenting driving and charging behavior of vehicles operated in a infrastructure-rich environment.

  12. D-branes, Wilson Bags, and Coherent Topological Charge Structure in QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. B. Thacker

    2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Monte Carlo studies of pure glue SU(3) gauge theory using the overlap-based topological charge operator have revealed a laminar structure in the QCD vacuum consisting of extended, thin, coherent, locally 3-dimensional sheets of topological charge embedded in 4D space, with opposite sign sheets interleaved. Studies of localization properties of Dirac eigenmodes have also shown evidence for the delocalization of low-lying modes on effectively 3-dimensional surfaces. In this talk, I review some theoretical ideas which suggest the possibility of 3-dimensionally coherent topological charge structure in 4-dimensional gauge theory and provide a possible interpretation of the observed structure. I begin with Luscher's ``Wilson bag'' integral over the 3-index Chern-Simons tensor. The analogy with a Wilson loop as a charged world line in 2-dimensional $CP^{N-1}$ sigma models suggests that the Wilson bag surface represents the world volume of a physical membrane. The large-N chiral Lagrangian arguments of Witten also indicate the existence of multiple ``k-vacuum'' states with discontinuous transitions between k-vacua at $\\theta=$ odd multiples of $\\pi$. The domain walls between these vacua have the properties of a Wilson bag surface. Finally, I review the AdS/CFT duality view of $\\theta$ dependence in QCD. The dual realtionship between topological charge in gauge theory and Ramond-Ramond charge in type IIA string theory suggests that the coherent topological charge sheets observed on the lattice are the holographic image of wrapped D6 branes.

  13. A User Programmable Battery Charging System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable batteries are found in almost every battery powered application. Be it portable, stationary or motive applications, these batteries go hand in hand with battery charging systems. With energy harvesting being targeted in this day and age...

  14. Scattering of very light charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J C Taylor

    1993-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    I advance arguments against the view that the Lee-Nauenberg-Kinoshita theorem is relevant in practice to the scattering of charged particles as their mass tends to zero. I also discuss the case of massive coloured particle scattering.

  15. Charged particle rapidity distributions at relativistic energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, ZW; Pal, S.; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Ba; Zhang, B.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT), which includes both initial partonic and final hadronic interactions, we study the rapidity distributions of charged particles such as protons, antiprotons, pions, and kaons in heavy ion collisions at RHIC...

  16. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David;

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  17. Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves Peptide Identification Rates."Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics 11(2):86-95. doi:10.1016j.gpb.2012.11.004 Authors: D...

  18. Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

  19. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Lawrence Berkeley National...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    has made plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) readiness a major focus of its site sustainability strategy. The laboratory began PEV charging for employees on a modest scale in May...

  20. Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.

  1. Energetics of protein charge transfer and photosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matyushov, Dmitry

    Energetics of protein charge transfer and photosynthesis Dmitry Matyushov Arizona State scheme is to snap a proton from solution! #12; Bacterial photosynthesis e 0.25 eV lost in two

  2. CHARGING STATION FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES GREEN PARKING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellend, Mark

    CHARGING STATION FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES P 3 P 3 P 6 GREEN PARKING UNIVERSIT DE SHERBROOKE YELLOW (CAR-POOLING) PERMITS HOSPITAL PARKING PARKING-PERMIT DISPENSERS RESERVED DISABLED PARKING PLACES ONE

  3. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: self-charging battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    self-charging battery Sandia Labs, Front Edge Technology, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Lab, Univ. of California-Los Angeles: Micro Power Source On March 20, 2013, in Energy...

  5. Sample Employee Survey for Workplace Charging Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicle (ex. Chevy Volt, Ford C-MAX, etc.) b. Electric vehicle (ex. Nissan Leaf, BMW Active-E, etc.) 5. Do you or would you have the ability to install a charging station...

  6. Smart Frequency-Sensing Charge Controller for Electric Vehicles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for licensing:System uses frequency-sensing charge controllers that provide automatic demand response and regulation service to the grid by reducing or turning the charging...

  7. New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Presentation given at...

  8. High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Most accurate and detailed chemical kinetic...

  9. Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy Storage AVTA: Bidirectional Fast Charging Report AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results...

  10. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: El Camino Real Charter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    El Camino Real Charter High School Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: El Camino Real Charter High School Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: El Camino Real Charter High School...

  11. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE Efficiency and Security Testing Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE...

  13. AVTA: Aerovironment AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Aerovironment AC Level 2 - February 2012 More Documents & Publications AVTA: Clipper Creek AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Eaton AC Level 2 Charging System...

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of North Carolina...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eerevehiclesev-everywhere-workplace-charging-challenge July 15, 2014 Campus to get electric car-charging stations Last month, the university became the first institution in...

  15. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: State University of New...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State University of New York at New Paltz Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: State University of New York at New Paltz Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: State University of...

  16. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in...

  17. A Shell Model for Atomistic Simulation of Charge Transfer in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polarons, respectively, are modeled by delocalizing the polarons charge over a titanium or oxygen ion, respectively, and its first nearest-neighbors. The charge...

  18. Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

  19. Where do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper invesigates where Nissan Leaf drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at work, home, or some other location?

  20. Where do Chevrolet Volt drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates where Chevy Volt drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at home, work, or some other location.

  1. Charged Cylindrical Black Holes in Conformal Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson Levi Said; Joseph Sultana; Kristian Zarb Adami

    2013-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering cylindrical topology we present the static solution for a charged black hole in conformal gravity. We show that unlike the general relativistic case there are two different solutions, both including a factor that when set to zero recovers the familiar static charged black string solution in Einstein's theory. This factor gives rise to a linear term in the potential that also features in the neutral case and may have significant ramifications for particle trajectories.

  2. Experimental study of rare charged pion decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinko Pocanic; Emil Frlez; Andries van der Schaaf

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of simple dynamics, small number of available decay channels, and extremely well controlled radiative and loop corrections, make charged pion decays a sensitive means for testing the underlying symmetries and the universality of weak fermion couplings, as well as for improving our understanding of pion structure and chiral dynamics. This paper reviews the current state of experimental study of the allowed rare decays of charged pions: (a) leptonic, $\\pi^+ \\to e^+\

  3. Scalable quantum computer using superconducting charge qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Y. Huo; G. L. Long

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a scalable scheme for superconducting charge qubits with the assistance of one-dimensional superconducting transmission line resonator (STLR) playing the role of data bus. The coupling between qubit and data bus may be turned on and off by just controlling the gate voltage and externally applied flux of superconducting charge qubit. In our proposal, the entanglement between arbitrary two qubits and $W$ states of three qubits can be generated quickly and easily.

  4. Search for a Vectorlike Quark with Charge 2/3 in t+Z Events from pp Collisions at ?s=7 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Er, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; et al

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for pair-produced heavy vectorlike charge-2/3 quarks, T, in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, is performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. Events consistent with the flavor-changing-neutral-current decay of a T quark to a top quark and a Z boson are selected by requiring two leptons from the Z-boson decay, as well as an additional isolated charged lepton. In a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.14 fb?, the number of observed events is found to be consistent with the standard model background prediction. Assuming a branching fraction of 100% for themoredecay T?tZ, a T quark with a mass less than 475 GeV/c is excluded at the 95% confidence level.less

  5. Search for a Vectorlike Quark with Charge 2/3 in t+Z Events from pp Collisions at ?s=7 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Er, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frhwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hnsel, S.; Hoch, M.; Hrmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Teischinger, F.; Trauner, C.; Wagner, P.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Benucci, L.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Maes, T.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; DHondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hammad, G. H.; Hreus, T.; Marage, P. E.; Raval, A.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Adler, V.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Vanelderen, L.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, J.; Ceard, L.; Cortina Gil, E.; De Favereau De Jeneret, J.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Giammanco, A.; Grgoire, G.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Ovyn, S.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Ald Jnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Silva Do Amaral, S. M.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Darmenov, N.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Karadzhinova, A.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Mateev, M.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Cabrera, A.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Lelas, K.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Dzelalija, M.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Hektor, A.; Kadastik, M.; Mntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Azzolini, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Czellar, S.; Hrknen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampn, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindn, T.; Luukka, P.; Menp, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Sillou, D.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Marionneau, M.; Millischer, L.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Elgammal, S.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Min, P.; Mironov, C.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Thiebaux, C.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gel, D.; Goerlach, U.; Greder, S.; Juillot, P.; Karim, M.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Mikami, Y.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Baty, C.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bedjidian, M.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Boumediene, D.; Brun, H.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Le Grand, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tosi, S.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Lomidze, D.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for pair-produced heavy vectorlike charge-2/3 quarks, T, in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, is performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. Events consistent with the flavor-changing-neutral-current decay of a T quark to a top quark and a Z boson are selected by requiring two leptons from the Z-boson decay, as well as an additional isolated charged lepton. In a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.14 fb?, the number of observed events is found to be consistent with the standard model background prediction. Assuming a branching fraction of 100% for the decay T?tZ, a T quark with a mass less than 475 GeV/c is excluded at the 95% confidence level.

  6. Search for a Vectorlike Quark with Charge 2/3 in t+Z Events from pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=7??TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for pair-produced heavy vector-like charge-2/3 quarks, T, in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, is performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. Events consistent with the flavor-changing-neutral-current decay of a T quark to a top quark and a Z boson are selected by requiring two leptons from the Z-boson decay, as well as an additional isolated charged lepton. In a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.14 inverse femtobarns, the number of observed events is found to be consistent with the standard model background prediction. Assuming a branching fraction of 100% for the decay T to tZ, a T quark with a mass less than 475 GeV/c^2 is excluded at the 95% confidence level.

  7. Gravitational collapse of charged scalar fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose M. Torres; Miguel Alcubierre

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to study the gravitational collapse of charged matter we analyze the simple model of an self-gravitating massless scalar field coupled to the electromagnetic field in spherical symmetry. The evolution equations for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon sector are derived in the 3+1 formalism, and coupled to gravity by means of the stress-energy tensor of these fields. To solve consistently the full system we employ a generalized Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formulation of General Relativity that is adapted to spherical symmetry. We consider two sets of initial data that represent a time symmetric spherical thick shell of charged scalar field, and differ by the fact that one set has zero global electrical charge while the other has non-zero global charge. For compact enough initial shells we find that the configuration doesn't disperse and approaches a final state corresponding to a sub-extremal Reissner-N\\"ordstrom black hole with $|Q|charge of the scalar field $q$ we find that the final black hole tends to become more and more neutral. Our results support the cosmic censorship conjecture for the case of charged matter.

  8. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  9. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  10. Author's Accepted Manuscript Cover-sheet-based nanogenerator for charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content conversion of mechanical energy. It consists of a slider and two stators. Each stator comprises of two

  11. Charge Transport and Glassy Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Kremer, Friedrich [University of Leipzig

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique features such as low melting points, low vapor pressures, wide liquidus temperature ranges, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical windows. As a result, they show promise for use in variety of applications: as reaction media, in batteries and supercapacitors, in solar and fuel cells, for electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors, for protein extraction and crystallization, and many others. Because of the ease with which they can be supercooled, ionic liquids offer new opportunities to investigate long-standing questions regarding the nature of the dynamic glass transition and its possible link to charge transport. Despite the significant steps achieved from experimental and theoretical studies, no generally accepted quantitative theory of dynamic glass transition to date has been capable of reproducing all the experimentally observed features. In this Account, we discuss recent studies of the interplay between charge transport and glassy dynamics in ionic liquids as investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques including broadband dielectric spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Based on EinsteinSmoluchowski relations, we use dielectric spectra of ionic liquids to determine diffusion coefficients in quantitative agreement with independent pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, but spanning a broader range of more than 10 orders of magnitude. This approach provides a novel opportunity to determine the electrical mobility and effective number density of charge carriers as well as their types of thermal activation from the measured dc conductivity separately. We also unravel the origin of the remarkable universality of charge transport in different classes of glass-forming ionic liquids.

  12. Fast ion charge exchange spectroscopy adapted for tangential viewing geometry in LHD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, T.; Osakabe, M.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Goto, M.; Isobe, M.; Toi, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Okamura, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Murakami, S.; Kobayashi, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ogawa, K. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A tangential Fast Ion Charge eXchange Spectroscopy is newly applied on a Large Helical Device (LHD) for co/countercirculating fast ions, which are produced by high energy tangential negative-ion based neutral beam injection. With this new observation geometry, both the tangential-neutral beam (NB) and a low-energy radial-NB based on positive ions can be utilized as probe beams of the measurement. We have successfully observed Doppler-shifted H-alpha lights due to the charge exchange process between the probing NB and circulating hydrogen ions of around 100 keV in LHD plasmas.

  13. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and the LCCP results obtained using the three charge degradation correlations are compared.

  14. Charged Local Defects in Extended Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, Peter A.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The conventional approach to treating charged defects in extended systems in first principles calculations is via the supercell approximation using a neutralizing jellium background charge. I explicitly demonstrate shortcomings of this standard approach and discuss the consequences. Errors in the electrostatic potential surface over the volume of a supercell are shown to be comparable to a band gap energy in semiconductor materials, for cell sizes typically used in first principles simulations. I present an alternate method for eliminating the divergence of the Coulomb potential in supercell calculations of charged defects in extended systems that embodies a correct treatment of the electrostatic potential in the local viciniq of the a charged defect, via a mixed boundary condition approach. I present results of first principles calculations of charged vacancies in NaCl that illustrate the importance of polarization effects once an accurate representation of the local potential is obtained. These polarization effects, poorly captured in small supercells, also impact the energetic on the scale of typical band gap energies.

  15. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  16. Attraction between negatively charged surfaces mediated by spherical counterions with quadrupolar charge distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglic, Ales

    charge distribution Jasna Urbanija,1 Klemen Bohinc,2 Alfredo Bellen,3 Stefano Maset,3 Ales Iglic,2 functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations, as that of two interacting flat electrical double layers and by performing the Monte Carlo simulation are in excellent agreement. For high enough charge densities

  17. Stochastic Distributed Protocol for Electric Vehicle Charging with Discrete Charging Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    including those in the integration into the electric power grid. For example, EV charging potentially studies demonstrate that adopting "smart" charging strategies can mitigate some of the integration Gan, Ufuk Topcu, Member, IEEE, and Steven H. Low, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--To address the grid

  18. Fermion space charge in narrow-band gap semiconductors, Weyl semimetals and around highly charged nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eugene B. Kolomeisky; Joseph P. Straley; Hussain Zaidi

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of charged impurities in narrow-band gap semiconductors and Weyl semimetals can create electron-hole pairs when the total charge $Ze$ of the impurity exceeds a value $Z_{c}e$. The particles of one charge escape to infinity, leaving a screening space charge. The result is that the observable dimensionless impurity charge $Q_{\\infty}$ is less than $Z$ but greater than $Z_{c}$. There is a corresponding effect for nuclei with $Z >Z_{c} \\approx 170$, however in the condensed matter setting we find $Z_{c} \\simeq 10$. Thomas-Fermi theory indicates that $Q_{\\infty} = 0$ for the Weyl semimetal, but we argue that this is a defect of the theory. For the case of a highly-charged recombination center in a narrow band-gap semiconductor (or of a supercharged nucleus), the observable charge takes on a nearly universal value. In Weyl semimetals the observable charge takes on the universal value $Q_{\\infty} = Z_{c}$ set by the reciprocal of material's fine structure constant.

  19. Nano watermill driven by the revolving charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Nie, Xuechuan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hangjun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a novel nanoscale watermill for unidirectional transport of water molecules through a curved single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In this nanoscale system, a revolving charge is introduced to drive water chain confined inside the SWNT, which is served as nano waterwheel and nano engine. A resonance-like phenomenon is found that the revolving frequency of the charge plays a key role in pumping water chain. The water flux across the SWNT increases with respect to the revolving frequency of the external charge and reaches the maximum when the frequency is 4 THz. Correspondingly, the number of the hydrogen bonds of water chain inside the SWNT decreases dramatically with the frequency ranging from 4 THz to 25 THz. The mechanism behind the resonant phenomenon has been investigated systematically. Our findings are helpful for designing nanoscale fluidic devices and energy converters.

  20. Measuring and interpreting charge dependent anisotropic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei A. Voloshin; Ronald Belmont

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chiral Magnetic Wave (CMW) [1] predicts a dependence of the positive and negative particle elliptic flow on the event charge asymmetry. Such a dependence has been observed by the STAR Collaboration [2]. However, it is rather difficult to interpret the results of this measurement, as well as to perform cross-experiment comparisons, due to the dependence of the observable on experimental inefficiencies and the kinematic acceptance used to determine the net asymmetry. We propose another observable that is free from these deficiencies. It also provides possibilities for differential measurements clarifying the interpretation of the results. We use this new observable to study the effect of the local charge conservation that can mimic the effect of the CMW in charge dependent flow measurements.

  1. Spreading of triboelectrically charged granular matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deepak Kumar; A. Sane; Smita Gohil; P. R. Bandaru; S. Bhattacharya; Shankar Ghosh

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the spreading of triboelectrically charged glass particles on an oppositely charged surface of a plastic cylindrical container in the presence of a constant mechanical agitation. The particles spread via sticking, as a monolayer on the cylinder's surface. Continued agitation initiates a sequence of instabilities of this monolayer, which first forms periodic wavy-stripe-shaped transverse density modulation in the monolayer and then ejects narrow and long particle-jets from the tips of these stripes. These jets finally coalesce laterally to form a homogeneous spreading front that is layered along the spreading direction. These remarkable growth patterns are related to a time evolving frictional drag between the moving charged glass particles and the countercharges on the plastic container. The results provide insight into the multiscale time-dependent tribolelectric processes and motivates further investigation into the microscopic causes of these macroscopic dynamical instabilities and spatial structures.

  2. Electrostatic wire for stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, Daniel S. (Livermore, CA); Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Briggs, Richard J. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  3. Transport in Charged Colloids Driven by Thermoelectricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alois Wrger

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermal diffusion coefficient DT of a charged colloid in a temperature gradient, and find that it is to a large extent determined by the thermoelectric response of the electrolyte solution. The thermally induced salinity gradient leads in general to a strong increase with temperature. The difference of the heat of transport of coions and counterions gives rise to a thermoelectric field that drives the colloid to the cold or to the warm, depending on the sign of its charge. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental findings on thermophoresis in colloidal suspensions.

  4. Quantacell: Powerful charging of quantum batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix C. Binder; Sai Vinjanampathy; Kavan Modi; John Goold

    2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the problem of charging a quantum battery in finite time. We demonstrate an analytical optimal protocol for the case of a single qubit. Extending this analysis to an array of N qubits, we demonstrate that an N-fold advantage in power per qubit can be achieved when global operations are permitted. The exemplary analytic argument for this quantum advantage in the charging power is backed up by numerical analysis using optimal control techniques. It is demonstrated that the quantum advantage for power holds when, with cyclic operation in mind, initial and final states are required to be separable.

  5. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, Lewis A. (Danville, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  6. Static charged fluid spheres in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2001-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Interior perfect fluid solutions for the Reissner-Nordstrom metric are studied on the basis of a new classification scheme. It specifies which two of the fluid's characteristics are given functions and picks up accordingly one of the three main field equations, the other two being universal. General formulae are found for charged de Sitter solutions, the case of constant energy component of the energy-momentum tensor, the case of known pressure (including charged dust) and the case of linear equation of state. Explicit new global solutions, mainly in elementary functions, are given as illustrations. Known solutions are briefly reviewed and corrected.

  7. Noncommutative magnetic moment of charged particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adorno, T. C.; Gitman, D. M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Shabad, A. E. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vassilevich, D. V. [CMCC - Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, S.P. (Brazil); Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been argued that in noncommutative field theories, the sizes of physical objects cannot be taken smaller than an ''elementary length'' related to noncommutativity parameters. By gauge covariantly extending field equations of noncommutative U(1){sub *} theory to cover the presence of external sources, we find electric and magnetic fields produced by an extended static charge. We find that such a charge, apart from being an ordinary electric monopole, is also a magnetic dipole. By writing off the existing experimental clearance in the value of the lepton magnetic moments for the present effect, we get the bound on noncommutativity at the level of 10{sup 4} TeV.

  8. New developments in pipeline charging preheated coal at Inland Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, S.M. Jr.; Arsenault, A.A.; Rupp, P.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first commercial installation of a new pipeline oven charging system for preheated coal, designed by Dynamic Air, Inc., was made at Inland Steel's C Battery in October 1979. With the Dynamic Air charging sytem, production losses due to pipeline delays have been virtually eliminated, pipeline maintenance requirements have been reduced by 90%, conveying steam requirements have been significantly reduced, and oven charge weights have been increased by 500 kg (1000 lb). A test program was subsequently conducted during November and December 1980, to evaluate the use of nitrogen as a conveying medium for pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system. The test results clearly demonstrated that the same weight of preheated coal could be charged into an oven by using either steam or nitrogen as the conveying medium. Moreover, it was found that pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system is a function of the mass flow rate of the conveying medium. With nitrogen charging, an average 9% increase in oven charge rates was obtained at comparable conveying gas mass flow rates and charging bin pressures. In addition, average oven pressure during charging was reduced by approximately 40% and solids carryover was reduced by 100 kg (220 lb) per oven charge with nitrogen charging. It was found that solids carryover during pipeline oven charging is a function of the average pressure generated in the oven during charging, but it was also found that a large oven pressure surge at the end of the charge can produce excessive carryover to completely mask the effect.

  9. QEP WORKING GROUP CHARGES Assessment Working Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Paul

    and a framework that details timelines, leadership, resource allocation, and an assessment plan that is clearlyQEP WORKING GROUP CHARGES Assessment Working Group The topic of the QEP should fit should be supported by a thorough understanding of the institutional context and by assessment data

  10. Interaction of Gravitational Waves with Charged Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thulsi Wickramasinghe; Will Rhodes; Mitchell Revalski

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown here that a cloud of charged particles could in principle absorb energy from gravitational waves (GWs) incident upon it, resulting in wave attenuation. This could in turn have implications for the interpretation of future data from early universe GWs.

  11. Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,, Sohail Chatoor, Jaan Mannik, Marcel A. G an experimental study of 1/f noise in liquid-gated graphene transistors. We show that the gate dependence to the graphene, while at high carrier density it is consistent with noise due to scattering in the channel

  12. Conserved charges in 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The covariant canonical expression for the conserved charges, proposed by Nester, is tested on several solutions in three-dimensional gravity with or without torsion and topologically massive gravity. In each of these cases, the calculated values of energy momentum and angular momentum are found to satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics.

  13. Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge) The Task Force will advise the Chancellor and Campus Provost/Executive Vice Chancellor (CP/EVC) on current and past water use and provide recommendations on implementation of policies for potable water use reductions in support of The Regents Policy on Sustainable

  14. Short Communication Growth of charged micelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    nonlinearities suggests that Coulomb interactions result in an additional contribution to the free energy of an end-cap that modifies the growth law for the average micelle size. In some cases, the micelle size varies approximately as 03A6(1/2)(1+039B),where 039B > 0 depends on the renormalized coulomb charge

  15. Effective dynamics of a classical point charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polonyi, Janos, E-mail: polonyi@iphc.cnrs.fr

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective Lagrangian of a point charge is derived by eliminating the electromagnetic field within the framework of the classical closed time path formalism. The short distance singularity of the electromagnetic field is regulated by an UV cutoff. The AbrahamLorentz force is recovered and its similarity to quantum anomalies is underlined. The full cutoff-dependent linearized equation of motion is obtained, no runaway trajectories are found but the effective dynamics shows acausality if the cutoff is beyond the classical charge radius. The strength of the radiation reaction force displays a pole in its cutoff-dependence in a manner reminiscent of the Landau-pole of perturbative QED. Similarity between the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance and dynamical symmetry breaking is pointed out. -- Highlights: Extension of the classical action principle for dissipative systems. New derivation of the AbrahamLorentz force for a point charge. Absence of a runaway solution of the AbrahamLorentz force. Acausality in classical electrodynamics. Renormalization of classical electrodynamics of point charges.

  16. Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this price decrease in mind and does an economic study on the feasibility of using photovoltaic cells to charge electric fork lift trucks, at different costs per peak watt. This particular idea could be used as a measure of energy conservation for industrial...

  17. CP and charge asymmetries at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morello, Michael; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for B0 and B0s decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pions or kaons). We report also the first observation of B0s->DsK mode and the measurement of its branching fraction.

  18. Rigidly rotating cylinders of charged dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The gravitational field of a rigidly rotating cylinder of charged dust is found analytically. The general and all regular solutions are divided into three classes. The acceleration and the vorticity of the dust are given, as well as the conditions for the appearance of closed timelike curves.

  19. Quantum Entropy of Charged Rotating Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1996-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss a method for obtaining the one-loop quantum corrections to the tree-level entropy for a charged Kerr black hole. Divergences which appear can be removed by renormalization of couplings in the tree-level gravitational action in a manner similar to that for a static black hole.

  20. Three-dimensional charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  1. Process for fabricating a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  2. Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this price decrease in mind and does an economic study on the feasibility of using photovoltaic cells to charge electric fork lift trucks, at different costs per peak watt. This particular idea could be used as a measure of energy conservation for industrial...

  3. Molecular-scale investigations of structures and surface charge distribution of surfactant aggregates by three-dimensional force mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Oyabu, Noriaki; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kei [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)] [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface charges on nanoscale structures in liquids, such as biomolecules and nano-micelles, play an essentially important role in their structural stability as well as their chemical activities. These structures interact with each other through electric double layers (EDLs) formed by the counter ions in electrolyte solution. Although static-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) including colloidal-probe AFM is a powerful technique for surface charge density measurements and EDL analysis on a submicron scale in liquids, precise surface charge density analysis with single-nanometer resolution has not been made because of its limitation of the resolution and the detection sensitivity. Here we demonstrate molecular-scale surface charge measurements of self-assembled micellar structures, molecular hemicylinders of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), by three-dimensional (3D) force mapping based on frequency modulation AFM. The SDS hemicylindrical structures with a diameter of 4.8 nm on a graphite surface were clearly imaged. We have succeeded in visualizing 3D EDL forces on the SDS hemicylinder surfaces and obtaining the molecular-scale charge density for the first time. The results showed that the surface charge on the trench regions between the hemicylinders was much smaller than that on the hemicylinder tops. The method can be applied to a wide variety of local charge distribution studies, such as spatial charge variation on a single protein molecule.

  4. On the use of charged-track information to subtract neutral pileup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteo Cacciari; Gavin P. Salam; Gregory Soyez

    2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of charged pileup tracks in a jet to predict the neutral pileup component in that same jet could potentially lead to improved pileup removal techniques, provided there is a strong local correlation between charged and neutral pileup. In Monte Carlo simulation we find that the correlation is however moderate, a feature that we attribute to characteristics of the underlying non-perturbative dynamics. Consequently, `neutral-proportional-to-charge' (NpC) pileup mitigation approaches do not outperform existing, area-based, pileup removal methods. This finding contrasts with the arguments made in favour of a new method, "jet cleansing", in part based on the NpC approach. We identify the critical differences between the performances of linear cleansing and trimmed NpC as being due to the former's rejection of subjets that have no charged tracks from the leading vertex, a procedure that we name "zeroing". Zeroing, an extreme version of the "charged-track trimming" proposed by ATLAS, can be combined with a range of pileup-mitigation methods, and appears to have both benefits and drawbacks. We show how the latter can be straightforwardly alleviated. We also discuss the limited potential for improvement that can be obtained by linear combinations of the NpC and area-subtraction methods.

  5. Modeling the effects of Refrigerant Charging on Air Conditioner Performance Characteristics For Three Expansion Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, Mohsen

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a small refrigerant charge. A new heat exchanger model based on tube-by-tube simulation was developed and integrated into the ORNL heat pump model. The model was capable of simulating the steady state response of a vapor compression air-to-air heat...

  6. Possible scaling behaviour of the multiplicities ratio in leptoproduction of charged pions in nuclear medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akopov, N; Akopov, Z

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper it is demonstrated that based on two-dimensional distributions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) data, obtained recently by the HERMES experiment at DESY on different nuclei, which contains data for charged pions produced in $z$ slices as a function of $\

  7. Possible scaling behaviour of the multiplicities ratio in leptoproduction of charged pions in nuclear medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Akopov; L. Grigoryan; Z. Akopov

    2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper it is demonstrated that based on two-dimensional distributions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) data, obtained recently by the HERMES experiment at DESY on different nuclei, which contains data for charged pions produced in $z$ slices as a function of $\

  8. Optimizing small wind turbine performance in battery charging applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drouilhet, S; Muljadi, E; Holz, R [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Wind Technology Div.; Gevorgian, V [State Engineering Univ. of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many small wind turbine generators (10 kW or less) consist of a variable speed rotor driving a permanent magnet synchronous generator (alternator). One application of such wind turbines is battery charging, in which the generator is connected through a rectifier to a battery bank. The wind turbine electrical interface is essentially the same whether the turbine is part of a remote power supply for telecommunications, a standalone residential power system, or a hybrid village power system, in short, any system in which the wind generator output is rectified and fed into a DC bus. Field experience with such applications has shown that both the peak power output and the total energy capture of the wind turbine often fall short of expectations based on rotor size and generator rating. In this paper, the authors present a simple analytical model of the typical wind generator battery charging system that allows one to calculate actual power curves if the generator and rotor properties are known. The model clearly illustrates how the load characteristics affect the generator output. In the second part of this paper, the authors present four approaches to maximizing energy capture from wind turbines in battery charging applications. The first of these is to determine the optimal battery bank voltage for a given WTG. The second consists of adding capacitors in series with the generator. The third approach is to place an optimizing DC/DC voltage converter between the rectifier and the battery bank. The fourth is a combination of the series capacitors and the optimizing voltage controller. They also discuss both the limitations and the potential performance gain associated with each of the four configurations.

  9. Charge migration in organic materials: Can propagating charges affect the key physical quantities controlling their motion?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollub, C; Gutierrez, R; Berlin, Y; Cuniberti, G

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge migration is a ubiquitous phenomenon with profound implications throughout many areas of chemistry, physics, biology and materials science. The long-term vision of designing functional materials with tailored molecular scale properties has triggered an increasing quest to identify prototypical systems where truly molecular conduction pathways play a fundamental role. Such pathways can be formed due to the molecular organization of various organic materials and are widely used to discuss electronic properties at the nanometer scale. Here, we present a computational methodology to study charge propagation in organic molecular stacks at nano and sub-nanoscales and exploit this methodology to demonstrate that moving charge carriers strongly affect the values of the physical quantities controlling their motion. The approach is also expected to find broad application in the field of charge migration in soft matter systems.

  10. Dust acoustic solitons in a charge varying dusty plasma in the presence of ion nonthermality and background nonextensivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benzekka, Moufida; Tribeche, Mouloud [Faculty of Sciences-Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)] [Faculty of Sciences-Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust acoustic (DA) solitons are addressed in a charge varying dusty plasma in the presence of ion nonthermality and background nonextensivity. A physically meaningful nonthermal nonextensive ion distribution is outlined. The correct non-Maxwellian ion charging current is derived based on the orbit-limited motion theory. Under grain-current balance, the variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function. It is found that nonthermality and its nonextensive nature may act concurrently and influence the restoring force and hence the soliton profile. Due to the flexibility provided by the nonextensive parameter, we think that our model should provide a better fit of the space observations.

  11. Control Strategies for Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Using Renewables and Local Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castello, Charles C [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase of electric vehicle (EV) and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption creates a need for more EV supply equipment (EVSE) infrastructure (i.e., EV chargers). The impact of EVSE installations could be significant due to limitations in the electric grid and potential demand charges for residential and commercial customers. The use of renewables (e.g., solar) and local storage (e.g., battery bank) can mitigate loads caused by EVSE on the electric grid. This would eliminate costly upgrades needed by utilities and decrease demand charges for consumers. This paper aims to explore control systems that mitigate the impact of EVSE on the electric grid using solar energy and battery banks. Three control systems are investigated and compared in this study. The first control system discharges the battery bank at a constant rate during specific times of the day based on historical data. The second discharges the battery bank based on the number of EVs charging (linear) and the amount of solar energy being generated. The third discharges the battery bank based on a sigmoid function (non-linear) in response to the number of EVs charging, and also takes into consideration the amount of renewables being generated. The first and second control systems recharge the battery bank at night when demand charges are lowest. The third recharges the battery bank at night and during times of the day when there is an excess of solar. Experiments are conducted using data from a private site that has 25 solar-assisted charging stations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, TN and 4 at a public site in Nashville, TN. Results indicate the third control system having better performance, negating up to 71% of EVSE load, compared with the second control system (up to 61%) and the first control system (up to 58%).

  12. Removing Bonus Pay from a Fund Source In order to remove the bonus charges from a fund source, review the following instructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Robert M.

    1 Removing Bonus Pay from a Fund Source In order to remove the bonus charges from a fund source) has charged 25% of pay to costshare fund source 222380. When the bonus expenses were incurred, the bonus was distributed based on the same percentage as the biweekly pay. This resulted in bonus pay

  13. Effects of partial charge-transfer solute -- solvent interactions in absorption spectra of aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous and alcoholic solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Ar'ev; N. I. Lebovka; E. A. Solovieva

    2013-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for study of charge-transfer interactions between solute molecules and solvent based on the comparison of the ratios of spectral shifts of different electronic transitions in solute molecules in chemically inert solvent is proposed. The method is applicable to molecules that do not change their dipole moment on excitation. As an example, a presence of charge transfer interactions in higher electronic states of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, phenanthrene, and naphthalene) dissolved in water and alcohols was demonstrated.

  14. Direct observation of the topological charge of a terahertz vortex beam generated by a Tsurupica spiral phase plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, K., E-mail: k-miyamoto@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Suizu, K.; Akiba, T. [Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Omatsu, T. [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); CREST Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A terahertz (THz) spiral phase plate with high transmission (>90% after Fresnel correction) and low dispersion has been developed based on the Tsurupica olefin polymer. Direct observations of the topological charge (both magnitude and sign) of a THz vortex beam are performed by using a THz camera with tilted lens focusing and radial defect introduction. The vortex outputs with a topological charge of 1 (or 2) are obtained at a frequency of 2 (or 4) THz.

  15. Scaling of Temperature Dependence of Charge Mobility in Molecular Holstein Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Tikhonov; N. S. Fialko; E. V. Sobolev; V. D. Lakhno

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature dependence of a charge mobility in a model DNA based on Holstein Hamiltonian is calculated for 4 types of homogeneous sequences It has turned out that upon rescaling all 4 types are quite similar. Two types of rescaling, i.e. those for low and intermediate temperatures, are found. The curves obtained are approximated on a logarithmic scale by cubic polynomials. We believe that for model homogeneous biopolymers with parameters close to the designed ones, one can assess the value of the charge mobility without carrying out resource-intensive direct simulation, just by using a suitable approximating function.

  16. Photochemical charge separation in zeolites: Electron transfer dynamics, nanocrystals and zeolitic membranes. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminosilicate zeolites provide an excellent host for photochemical charge separation. Because of the constraints provided by the zeolite, the back electron transfer from the reduced acceptor to the oxidized sensitizer is slowed down. This provides the opportunity to separate the charge and use it in a subsequent reaction for water oxidation and reduction. Zeolite-based ruthenium oxide catalysts have been found to be efficient for the water splitting process. This project has demonstrated the usefulness of zeolite hosts for photolytic splitting of water.

  17. Structure and charging kinetics of electrical double layers at large electrode voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cagle, Clint [Clemson University; Feng, Guang [Clemson University; Qiao, Rui [Clemson University; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure and charging kinetics of electrical double layers (EDLs) at interfaces of NaCl solutions and planar electrodes are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) and Poisson Nernst Planck (PNP) simulations. Based on the MD results and prior experimental data, we show that counterion packing in planar EDLs does not reach the steric limit at electrode voltages below 1 V. In addition, we demonstrate that a PNP model, when complemented with a Stern model, can be effectively used to capture the overall charging kinetics. However, the PNP/Stern model can only give a qualitative description of the fine features of the EDL.

  18. Diagnostic resonant cavity for a charged particle accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barov, Nikolai (San Diego, CA)

    2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a diagnostic resonant cavity for determining characteristics of a charged particle beam, such as an electron beam, produced in a charged particle accelerator. The cavity is based on resonant quadrupole-mode and higher order cavities. Enhanced shunt impedance in such cavities is obtained by the incorporation of a set of four or more electrically conductive rods extending inwardly from either one or both of the end walls of the cavity, so as to form capacitive gaps near the outer radius of the beam tube. For typical diagnostic cavity applications, a five-fold increase in shunt impedance can be obtained. In alternative embodiments the cavity may include either four or more opposing pairs of rods which extend coaxially toward one another from the opposite end walls of the cavity and are spaced from one another to form capacitative gaps; or the cavity may include a single set of individual rods that extend from one end wall to a point adjacent the opposing end wall.

  19. Hawking Radiation of a Charged Black Hole in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ichiro Oda

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study black hole radiation of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole with an electric charge in the framework of quantum gravity. Based on a canonical quantization for a spherically symmetric geometry, under physically plausible assumptions, we solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the regions not only between the outer apparent horizon and the spatial infinity but also between the spacetime singularity and the inner apparent horizon, and then show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole due to thermal radiation agrees with the semiclassical result when we choose an integration constant properly by physical reasoning. Furthermore, we also solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the region between the inner Cauchy horizon and the outer apparent horizon, and show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole has the same expression. The present study is the natural generalization of the case of a Schwarzschild black hole to that of a charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole.

  20. Hawking Radiation of a Charged Black Hole in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oda, Ichiro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study black hole radiation of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole with an electric charge in the framework of quantum gravity. Based on a canonical quantization for a spherically symmetric geometry, under physically plausible assumptions, we solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the regions not only between the outer apparent horizon and the spatial infinity but also between the spacetime singularity and the inner apparent horizon, and then show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole due to thermal radiation agrees with the semiclassical result when we choose an integration constant properly by physical reasoning. Furthermore, we also solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the region between the inner Cauchy horizon and the outer apparent horizon, and show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole has the same expression. The present study is the natural generalization of the case of a Schwarzschild black hole to that of a charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole.

  1. Portunes: Privacy-Preserving Fast Authentication for Dynamic Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    a charging section, and the EV's battery is charged through magnetic induction between the coils simultaneously charge multiple EVs with different battery types and coils. While the micro charging pad approach charging parameters, such as the desired charging rate, battery type, coil type, etc. Second, the charging

  2. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer...

  3. Design and control of photoflash capacitor charging circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negrete, Michael G. (Michael George), 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops an optimal strategy for charging photoflash capacitors. Photoflash capacitors need to be charged to voltages as high as 350V in low-voltage battery-powered portable devices. With the decreasing size ...

  4. EV Project Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    days 2013 ECOtality 7302013 8:20:32 AM INLMIS-10-19479 4 of 116 Vehicles Charged Car sharing fleet Nissan Leaf Chevrolet Volt Unknown Percent of charging events 53% 6%...

  5. EV Project Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    all days 2012 ECOtality 212013 9:44:51 AM INLMIS-10-19479 4 of 89 Vehicles Charged Car sharing fleet Nissan Leaf Chevrolet Volt Unknown Percent of charging events 22% 20%...

  6. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Doubly and Singly Charged Group...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doubly and Singly Charged Group VIB Dimetalate Anions: M2O72-, MM'072-, and M207- (M, M'Cr, Mo, W Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Doubly and Singly Charged Group VIB Dimetalate...

  7. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Free Multiply Charged Keggin Anions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free Multiply Charged Keggin Anions ?-PM12O403- (M Mo, W) in the Gas Phase. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Free Multiply Charged Keggin Anions ?-PM12O403- (M Mo,...

  8. The calculation of electron chemical potential and ion charge state and their influence on plasma conductivity in electrical explosion of metal wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Zongqian; Wang, Kun; Li, Yao; Shi, Yuanjie; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shanxi 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shanxi 710049 (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron chemical potential and ion charge state (average ion charge and ion distribution) are important parameters in calculating plasma conductivity in electrical explosion of metal wire. In this paper, the calculating method of electron chemical potential and ion charge state is discussed at first. For the calculation of electron chemical potential, the ideal free electron gas model and Thomas-Fermi model are compared and analyzed in terms of the coupling constant of plasma. The Thomas-Fermi ionization model, which is used to calculate ion charge state, is compared with the method based on Saha equation. Furthermore, the influence of electron degenerated energy levels and ion excited states in Saha equation on the ion charge state is also analyzed. Then the influence of different calculating methods of electron chemical potential and ion charge state on plasma conductivity is discussed by applying them in the Lee-More conductivity model.

  9. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  10. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator includes an evacuated chamber having a gun for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam or ion beam. The beam is discharged through a beam exit in the chamber into a higher pressure region. A plasma interface is disposed at the beam exit and includes a plasma channel for bounding a plasma maintainable between a cathode and an anode disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel is coaxially aligned with the beam exit for propagating the beam from the chamber, through the plasma, and into the higher pressure region. The plasma is effective for pumping down the beam exit for preventing pressure increase in the chamber and provides magnetic focusing of the beam discharged into the higher pressure region 24. 7 figs.

  11. Entanglement Entropy at Large Central Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Hartman

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional conformal field theories with a large central charge and a small number of low-dimension operators are studied using the conformal block expansion. A universal formula is derived for the Renyi entropies of N disjoint intervals in the ground state, valid to all orders in a series expansion. This is possible because the full perturbative answer in this regime comes from the exchange of the stress tensor and other descendants of the vacuum state. Therefore, the Renyi entropy is related to the Virasoro vacuum block at large central charge. The entanglement entropy, computed from the Renyi entropy by an analytic continuation, decouples into a sum of single-interval entanglements. This field theory result agrees with the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for the holographic entanglement entropy of a 2d CFT, applied to any number of intervals, and thus can be interpreted as a microscopic calculation of the area of minimal surfaces in 3d gravity.

  12. State of charge indicators for a battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to state of charge indicators for a battery. One aspect of the present invention utilizes expansion and contraction displacements of an electrode plate of a battery to gauge the state of charge in the battery. One embodiment of a battery of the present invention includes an anodic plate; a cathodic plate; an electrolyte in contact with the anodic and cathodic plates; plural terminals individually coupled with one of the anodic and cathodic plates; a separator intermediate the anodic and cathodic plates; an indicator configured to indicate an energy level of the battery responsive to movement of the separator; and a casing configured to house the anodic and cathodic plates, electrolyte, and separator.

  13. Airblast environments from buried HE charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik - Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Kuhl, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the airblast environment generated by the detonation of buried HE charges. Spherical 0.5-g charges of Nitropenta were used as the HE source. Three ground materials were used: (1) a porous, crushable grout (YTONG, {rho} = 0.4 g/cm{sup 3}); (2) a water-saturated grout ({rho} {approx_equal} 0.7 g/Cm{sup 3}) to investigate the effects of density increase; and (3) a clay-loam material ({rho} {approx_equal} 1.8 g/cm{sup 3}) to simulate some of the previous field tests conducted in clay. Diagnostics consisted of 13 flush-mounted pressure gauges, and single-frame schlieren photography. A special shock isolation system was used to eliminate the acceleration effects on the gauges that were induced by the cratering process. Analysis of the pressure measurements resulted in an experimental definition of the airblast environment as a function of ground range (GR) and depth-of-burst (DOB). Synthesis of these results allowed one to construct airblast DOB curves, similar to the airblast height-of-burst curves that we published previously for Nitropenta charges. Variables analyzed were: peak pressure, arrival time, positive phase duration and impulse. As in field tests, we found that the airblast waveforms changed character with increasing DOB. The crater characteristics (e.a., depth, radius and volume) were also measured. The cube-root-scaled crater volume was in qualitative agreement with data from field tests (e.g., charge weights up to 10{sup 4} lbs.). Since the present scaled results compare well with data from large-scale HE tests, we conclude that the present experimental technique provides a useful tool for parametric investigations of explosion effects in the laboratory.

  14. Chiral anomaly, bosonization, and fractional charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.

    1985-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method to evaluate the Jacobian of chiral rotations, regulating determinants through the proper-time method and using Seeley's asymptotic expansion. With this method we compute easily the chiral anomaly for ..nu.. = 4,6 dimensions, discuss bosonization of some massless two-dimensional models, and handle the problem of charge fractionization. In addition, we comment on the general validity of Fujikawa's approach to regulate the Jacobian of chiral rotations with non-Hermitian operators.

  15. Longitudinal space charge effects near transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.C.

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) at Michigan State University revealed a fast, space-charge driven instability that did not fit the model of the negative mass instability. This paper proposes a simple analytical model explaining these results. Also, the paper compares the model to result s of experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in SIR.

  16. Charge Prediction of Lipid Fragments in Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrom, Brian T.; Kangas, Lars J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Metz, Thomas O.; Miller, John H.

    2011-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An artificial neural network is developed for predicting which fragment is charged and which fragment is neutral for lipid fragment pairs produced from a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry simulation process. This charge predictor is integrated into software developed at PNNL for in silico spectra generation and identification of metabolites known as Met ISIS. To test the effect of including charge prediction in Met ISIS, 46 lipids are used which show a reduction in false positive identifications when the charge predictor is utilized.

  17. Diplme Inter Universitaire TUDE et PRISE en CHARGE des

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Universit de

    services de Mdecine et de Psychiatrie, amens participer la prise en charge des suicidants (infirmiers

  18. Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/{radical}(3)){<=}(a/M){<=}1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.

  19. Field theoretic description of charge regulation interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natasa Adzic; Rudolf Podgornik

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to find the exact form of the electrostatic interaction between two proteins with dissociable charge groups in aqueous solution, we have studied a model system composed of two macroscopic surfaces with charge dissociation sites immersed in a counterion-only ionic solution. Field-theoretic representation of the grand canonical partition function is derived and evaluated within the mean-field approximation, giving the Poisson-Boltzmann theory with the Ninham-Parsegian boundary condition. Gaussian fluctuations around the mean-field are then analyzed in the lowest order correction that we calculate analytically and exactly, using the path integral representation for the partition function of a harmonic oscillator with time-dependent frequency. The first order (one loop) free energy correction gives the interaction free energy that reduces to the zero-frequency van der Waals form in the appropriate limit but in general gives rise to a mono-polar fluctuation term due to charge fluctuation at the dissociation sites. Our formulation opens up the possibility to investigate the Kirkwood-Shumaker interaction in more general contexts where their original derivation fails.

  20. Theoretical model of charge mobility in DNA: The path integral approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sikarin Yoo-Kong; Watchara Liewrian

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of the charge-transfer process in DNA is investigated by using the Feynman path integral \\cite{FHIP,HP,TF,T}. The base-pairs' coordinates are eliminated resulting to the effective action of the system. The trial action is introduced in order to obtain the expectation value of the equation of motion. The electron will be in the equilibrium between lose and gain energy under the presence of an external electric field when the steady-state is reached. Using the result of the steady-state condition, the impedance function of the charge moving along the DNA chain is also studied. The mobility of charge moving in DNA was obtained and the limits at low and high temperature are also studied. The results of how the mobility depends on temperatures indicate that DNA may possibly be treated as a semiconductor qunatum wire.

  1. Charged-Higgs-boson production at the LHC: Next-to-leading-order supersymmetric QCD corrections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dittmaier, Stefan; Kraemer, Michael; Spira, Michael; Walser, Manuel [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dominant production process for heavy charged-Higgs bosons at the LHC is the associated production with heavy quarks. We have calculated the next-to-leading-order supersymmetric QCD corrections to charged-Higgs production through the parton processes qq,gg{yields}tbH{sup {+-}} and present results for total cross sections and differential distributions. The QCD corrections reduce the renormalization and factorization scale dependence and thus stabilize the theoretical predictions. We present a comparison of the next-to-leading-order results for the inclusive cross section with a calculation based on bottom-gluon fusion gb{yields}tH{sup {+-}} and discuss the impact of the next-to-leading-order corrections on charged-Higgs searches at the LHC.

  2. Electromagnetic field of a charge intersecting a cold plasma boundary in a waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekhina, Tatiana Yu.; Tyukhtin, Andrey V. [Radiophysics Department of St. Petersburg University, 1 Ulyanovskaya, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the electromagnetic field of a charge crossing a boundary between a vacuum and cold plasma in a waveguide. We obtain exact expressions for the field components and the spectral density of the transition radiation. With the steepest descent technique, we investigate the field components. We show that the electromagnetic field has a different structure in a vacuum than in cold plasma. We also develop an algorithm for the computation of the field based on a certain transformation of the integration path. The behavior of the field depending on distance and time and the spectral density depending on frequency are explored for different charge velocities. Some important physical effects are noted. A considerable increase and concentration of the field near the wave front in the plasma is observed for the case of ultrarelativistic particles. In the plasma, the mode envelopes and spectral density show zero points when the charge velocity is within certain limits.

  3. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilson, Erik

    plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond resonance. Keywords: Plasma focus; RF plasma; Beam charge neutralization 1. INTRODUCTION A possible heavyECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization PHILIP C. EFTHIMION,1 ERIK GILSON,1

  4. The Charging-Scheduling Problem for Electric Vehicle Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Charging-Scheduling Problem for Electric Vehicle Networks Ming Zhu, Xiao-Yang Liu, Linghe Kong}@sjtu.edu.cn Abstract--Electric vehicle (EV) is a promising transportation with plenty of advantages, e.g., low carbon method to reduce the total charging time for EVs. We study the Electric Vehicle Charging-Scheduling (EVCS

  5. Critical Nuclear Charges for N-Electron Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kais, Sabre

    Critical Nuclear Charges for N-Electron Atoms ALEXEI V. SERGEEV, SABRE KAIS Department of Chemistry, which is treated as a continuous parameter, approaches its critical value. The critical nuclear charge: critical nuclear charges; N-electron atoms; stability of atomic dianions Introduction he question

  6. Abstract adiabatic charge pumping Institut Fourier, Universite de Grenoble 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joye, Alain

    Abstract adiabatic charge pumping A. Joye, Institut Fourier, Universit´e de Grenoble 1 BP 74, 38402 This paper is devoted to the analysis of an abstract formula describing quantum adiabatic charge pumping with respect to , once integrated over some time interval, gives rise to a charge pumped through the system

  7. Evaluating charge noise acting on semiconductor quantum dots in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basset, J.; Stockklauser, A.; Jarausch, D.-D.; Frey, T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Wallraff, A.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the charge noise acting on a GaAs/GaAlAs based semiconductor double quantum dot dipole-coupled to the voltage oscillations of a superconducting transmission line resonator. The in-phase (I) and the quadrature (Q) components of the microwave tone transmitted through the resonator are sensitive to charging events in the surrounding environment of the double dot with an optimum sensitivity of 8.510{sup ?5}?e/?(Hz). A low frequency 1/f type noise spectrum combined with a white noise level of 6.610{sup ?6} e{sup 2}/Hz above 1?Hz is extracted, consistent with previous results obtained with quantum point contact charge detectors on similar heterostructures. The slope of the 1/f noise allows to extract a lower bound for the double-dot charge qubit dephasing rate which we compare to the one extracted from a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian approach. The two rates are found to be similar emphasizing that charge noise is the main source of dephasing in our system.

  8. High precision measurement of the proton charge radius: The PRad experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meziane, Mehdi [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Collaboration: PRad Collaboration

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent high precision measurements of the proton charge radius performed at PSI from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift puzzled the hadronic physics community. A value of 0.8418 0.0007 fm was extracted which is 7? smaller than the previous determinations obtained from electron-proton scattering experiments and based on precision spectroscopy of electronic hydrogen. An additional extraction of the proton charge radius from electron scattering at Mainz is also in good agreement with these 'electronic' determinations. An independent measurement of the proton charge radius from unpolarized elastic ep scattering using a magnetic spectrometer free method was proposed and fully approved at Jefferson Laboratory in June 2012. This novel technique uses the high precision calorimeter HyCal and a windowless hydrogen gas target which makes possible the extraction of the charge radius at very forward angles and thus very low momentum transfer Q{sup 2} up to 10{sup ?4} (GeV/c){sup 2} with an unprecedented sub-percent precision for this type of experiment. In this paper, after a review of the recent progress on the proton charge radius extraction and the new high precision experiment PRad will be presented.

  9. Electrostatic Potential of a Point Charge in a Brans-Dicke Reissner-Nordstrom Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maya Watanabe; A. W. C Lun

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the Brans-Dicke Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime in isotropic coordinates and the electrostatic field of an electric point charge placed outside its surface of inversion. We treat the static electric point charge as a linear perturbation on the Brans-Dicke Reissner-Nordstrom background. We develop a method based upon the Copson method to convert the governing Maxwell equation on the electrostatic potential generated by the static electric point charge into a solvable linear second order ordinary differential equation. We obtain a closed form fundamental solution of the curved space Laplace equation arising from the background metric, which is shown to be regular everywhere except at the point charge and its image point inside the surface of inversion. We also develop a method that demonstrates that the solution does not contain any other charge that may creep into the region that lies beyond the surface of inversion and which is not covered by the isotropic coordinates. The Brans-Dicke Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime therefore is linearly stable under electrostatic perturbations. This stability result includes the three degenerate cases of the fundamental solution that correspond to the Brans Type 1, the Reissner-Nordstrom and the Schwarzschild background spacetimes.

  10. Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4- Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge, a simplified electrochemical and thermal model of LiFePO4-graphite based Li-ion batteries is developed for battery management system (BMS) applications and comprehensive aging investigations. Based on a modified

  11. Rate constants for charge transfer across semiconductor-liquid interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fajardo, A.M.; Lewis, N.S. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Interfacial charge-transfer rate constants have been measured for n-type Si electrodes in contact with a series of viologen-based redox couples in methanol through analyses of the behavior of these junctions with respect to their current density versus potential and differential capacitance versus potential properties. The data allow evaluation of the maximum rate constant (and therefore the electronic coupling) for majority carriers in the solid as well as of the dependence of the rate constant on the driving force for transfer of delocalized electrons from the n-Si semiconducting electrode into the localized molecular redox species in the solution phase. The data are in good agreement with existing models of this interfacial electron transfer process and provide insight into the fundamental kinetic events underlying the use of semiconducting photoelectrodes in applications such as solar energy conversion. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  12. A Search for Charged Massive Stable Particles at D0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eads, Michael T

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for charged massive stable particles has been performed with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The signature is two particles reconstructed as muons, but with speed and invariant mass inconsistent with beam-produced muons. No excess of events is observed and limits are set on the production cross-section for pair-produced stable stau sleptons based on 390 pb{sup -1} of data. Limits vary from 0.06 pb to 0.62 pb, depending on the stau mass, and are the strictest Tevatron limits to date. Mass limits are also set for stable charginos. The limits are 140 GeV/c{sup 2} for a higgsino-like chargino and 174 GeV/c{sup 2} for a gaugino-like chargino. These are currently the best limits to date for stable charginos.

  13. Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics: Charge migration and charge transfer initiated near a conical intersection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendive-Tapia, David; Vacher, Morgane; Bearpark, Michael J.; Robb, Michael A. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, implemented using the Ehrenfest method, has been used to study charge migration with fixed nuclei, together with charge transfer when nuclei are allowed to move. Simulations were initiated at reference geometries of neutral benzene and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), and at geometries close to potential energy surface crossings in the cations. Cationic eigenstates, and the so-called sudden approximation, involving removal of an electron from a correlated ground-state wavefunction for the neutral species, were used as initial conditions. Charge migration without coupled nuclear motion could be observed if the Ehrenfest simulation, using the sudden approximation, was started near a conical intersection where the states were both strongly coupled and quasi-degenerate. Further, the main features associated with charge migration were still recognizable when the nuclear motion was allowed to couple. In the benzene radical cation, starting from the reference neutral geometry with the sudden approximation, one could observe sub-femtosecond charge migration with a small amplitude, which results from weak interaction with higher electronic states. However, we were able to engineer large amplitude charge migration, with a period between 10 and 100 fs, corresponding to oscillation of the electronic structure between the quinoid and anti-quinoid cationic electronic configurations, by distorting the geometry along the derivative coupling vector from the D{sub 6h} Jahn-Teller crossing to lower symmetry where the states are not degenerate. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, the period changes only slightly. In PEA, in an Ehrenfest trajectory starting from the D{sub 2} eigenstate and reference geometry, a partial charge transfer occurs after about 12 fs near the first crossing between D{sub 1}, D{sub 2} (N{sup +}-Phenyl, N-Phenyl{sup +}). If the Ehrenfest propagation is started near this point, using the sudden approximation without coupled nuclear motion, one observes an oscillation of the spin density charge migration between the N atom and the phenyl ring with a period of 4 fs. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, this oscillation persists in a damped form, followed by an effective charge transfer after 30 fs.

  14. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Monitoring Wells South of the Tuba City, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Title I Ste 05282013 B1.3 LM 01-13 Current and Future Actions Related to...

  15. Charged black holes in expanding Einstein-de Sitter universes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuela G. Rodrigues; Vilson T. Zanchin

    2015-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspired in a previous work by McClure and Dyer (Classical Quantum Gravity 23, 1971 (2006)), we analyze some solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which were originally written to describe charged black holes in cosmological backgrounds. A detailed analysis of the electromagnetic sources for a sufficiently general metric is performed, and then we focus on deriving the electromagnetic four-current as well as the conserved electric charge of each metric. The charged McVittie solution is revisited and a brief study of its causal structure is performed, showing that it may represent a charged black hole in an expanding universe, with the black hole horizon being formed at infinite late times. Charged versions of solutions originally put forward by Vaidya (Vd) and Sultana and Dyer (SD) are also analyzed. It is shown that the charged Sultana-Dyer metric requires a global electric current, besides a central (pointlike) electric charge. With the aim of comparing to the charged McVittie metric, new charged solutions of Vd and SD type are considered. In these cases, the original mass and charge parameters are replaced by particular functions of the cosmological time. In the new generalized charged Vaidya metric the black hole horizon never forms, whereas in the new generalized Sultana-Dyer case both the Cauchy and the black hole horizons develop at infinite late times. A charged version of the Thakurta metric is also studied here. It is also a new solution. As in the charged Sultana-Dyer case, the natural source of the electromagnetic field is a central electric charge with an additional global electric current. The global structure is briefly studied and it is verified that the corresponding spacetime may represent a charged black hole in a cosmological background. All the solutions present initial singularities as found in the McVittie metric.

  16. EIR Charging Policy The University can charge a fee for the provision of information requested under the Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, University of

    under the Environmental Information (Scotland) Regulations 2004. This policy is the UniversityEIR Charging Policy The University can charge a fee for the provision of information requested policy, the University will process the first 100 free of charge. Above the 100 threshold, fees

  17. Vehicle remote charge-all electric transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a pollution-free transportation system that utilizes technology from the defense industry combines two industries in a commercial venture. In conjunction with the abatement of pollution that an all-electric transportation system would realize, the defense industry is looking for a commercial market for the technology that it has developed over the years. This new transportation system will accomplish both these goals. To date, the most reliable electric source has been overhead tethered lines or on-ground tracks in public transportation. But these greatly reduce the convenience of route changes and are at the mercy of small traffic pattern changes which can cause traffic tie-ups. The ideal electric bus would have a completely mobile energy source, such as a battery pack. But the limited range of a battery powered vehicle has diminished its use to only specific cases. In private vehicles also, the limited range of zero-pollution battery power has reduced the desirability of all-electric transportation. The electric transportation system proposed here will eliminate these problems. Buses will be sent out on their routes with convenient in-route charging. There will be minimum route changes to accommodate vehicle recharging. The buses will have full mobility and can avoid any traffic tie-ups. The charging of these on-board electrical energy storage systems will take place via a wireless power transmission network that will be established along the roadside on existing power line (telephone) poles or new stand-alone poles that would be in conjunction with the existing poles. Radio frequency (RF) wavelengths such as a microwave or a millimeterwave system or optical frequencies (OF), a laser based system, are wireless energy transmission systems. Utilizing this means to establish a nationwide transportation system will take a technology that has been defense based and use it in a commercial application.

  18. How and why electrostatic charge of combustible nanoparticles can radically change the mechanism and rate of their oxidation in humid atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meshcheryakov, Oleg

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatically charged aerosol nanoparticles strongly attract surrounding polar gas molecules due to a charge-dipole interaction. In humid air, the substantial electrostatic attraction and acceleration of surrounding water vapour molecules towards charged combustible nanoparticles cause intense electrostatic hydration and preferential oxidation of these nanoparticles by accelerated water vapor molecules rather than non-polar oxygen molecules. In particular, electrostatic acceleration, acquired by surrounding water vapour molecules at a distance of their mean free path from the minimally charged iron metal nanoparticle can increase an oxidative activity of these polar molecules with respect to the nanoparticle by a factor of one million. Intense electrostatic hydration of charged metal nanoparticles converts the nanoparticle's oxide based shells into the hydroxide based electrolyte shells, transforming these nanoparticles into metal/air core-shell nanobatteries, periodically short-circuited by intra-particl...

  19. Monte Carlo beam capture and charge breeding simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J.S.; Liu, C.; Edgell, D.H.; Pardo, R. [FAR-TECH, Inc., 10350 Science Center Drive, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); FAR-TECH, Inc., 10350 Science Center Drive, San Diego, California 92121 (United States) and University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States)

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A full six-dimensional (6D) phase space Monte Carlo beam capture charge-breeding simulation code examines the beam capture processes of singly charged ion beams injected to an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder from entry to exit. The code traces injected beam ions in an ECR ion source (ECRIS) plasma including Coulomb collisions, ionization, and charge exchange. The background ECRIS plasma is modeled within the current frame work of the generalized ECR ion source model. A simple sample case of an oxygen background plasma with an injected Ar +1 ion beam produces lower charge breeding efficiencies than experimentally obtained. Possible reasons for discrepancies are discussed.

  20. Charge regulation and ionic screening of patchy surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niels Boon; Ren van Roij

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of surfaces with charge-regulated patches are studied using non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. Using a mode expansion to solve the non-linear problem efficiently, we reveal the charging behaviour of Debye-length sized patches. We find that patches charge up to higher charge densities if their size is relatively small and if the patches are well separated. The numerical results are used to construct a basic analytical model which predicts the average surface charge density on surfaces with patchy chargeable groups.

  1. Monte Carlo Tools for charged Higgs boson production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Kovarik

    2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In this short review we discuss two implementations of the charged Higgs boson production process in association with a top quark in Monte Carlo event generators at next-to-leading order in QCD. We introduce the MC@NLO and the POWHEG method of matching next-to-leading order matrix elements with parton showers and compare both methods analyzing the charged Higgs boson production process in association with a top quark. We shortly discuss the case of a light charged Higgs boson where the associated charged Higgs production interferes with the charged Higgs production via t tbar-production and subsequent decay of the top quark.

  2. AVTA: ChargePoint America Recovery Act project map of charging units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports describe the distribution of charging infrastructure through the Chargepoint America project, which deployed 4,600 public and home charging stations throughout the U.S. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  3. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  4. Pseudorapidity Distribution of Charged Particles in d + Au Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. B. Back

    2003-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The measured pseudorapidity distribution of primary charged particles in minimum-bias d + Au collisions at ${\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = \\rm {200 GeV}}$ is presented for the first time. This distribution falls off less rapidly in the gold direction as compared to the deuteron direction. The average value of the charged particle pseudorapidity density at midrapidity is ${\\rm _{\\mid \\eta \\mid \\le 0.6} = 9.4 \\pm 0.7(syst)}$ and the integrated primary charged particle multiplicity in the measured region is 82 $\\pm$ 6(syst). Estimates of the total charged particle production, based on extrapolations outside the measured pseudorapidity region, are also presented. The pseudorapidity distribution, normalized to the number of participants in d + Au collisions, is compared to those of Au + Au and ${\\rm p}+\\bar{\\rm p}$ systems at the same energy. The d + Au distribution is also compared to the predictions of the parton saturation model, as well as microscopic models.

  5. Charge Separation for Muon Collider Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, R.B.; Fernow; R.C.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Most schemes for six dimensional muon ionization cooling work for only one sign. It is then necessary to have charge separation prior to that cooling. Schemes of charge separation using bent solenoids are described, and their simulated performances reported. It is found that for efficient separation, it should take place at somewhat higher momenta than commonly used for the cooling. Charge separation using bent solenoids can be effective if carefully designed. Bent solenoids can generate dispersion from 'momentum drift', but can spoil emittance from 'amplitude drift'. Abrupt entry into a bent solenoid causes emittance growth, but matching using integral {lambda} lengths, or Norem's method, corrects this problem. Reverse bending removes the dispersion and reduces 'amplitude drift', but only if there is no rf until after all bending. The main problem is bunch lengthening and distortion from the long transports without rf. At 230 MeV/c, even with a higher field of 3 T, non-linearities increase the 6D emittance by 117% and give 13% loss, which is not acceptable. Raising the momentum from 230 to 300 MeV gives a 6D emittance growth of 38% and the loss 5%, which may be acceptable. Raising the momentum further to 400 MeV/c gives very good results: 6D growth of 24% and 2.5% loss. Further optimization should include the acceleration to the higher momenta prior to the separation, and the higher momentum cooling immediately after it. The longitudinal phase space prior to the separation should be rotated to minimize the total bunch lengthening.

  6. Semiconductor heterojunction band offsets and charge neutrality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chomsik

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    = 33&Pb = 3 3&PAB = 35 1 . aI M 0 A 0. ? 1 2. 0. Energy(eV) 1 2. 0 0. ? 1 0. Energy(eV) 1 2. Figure 4. 4. Local density of states, parameters for this case are s, = ? 7, s?= 1, s, = l&sp 7~Pa = 4~A = 4)DAB ? .35. -12. 0. Energy(eV) 0... Signature of APS Member Roland E. Allen Department of Physics'- Texas A&M University ' College Station, TX 77843 s p ~ CX3 SEMICONDUCTOR HETEROJUNCTION BAND OFFSETS AND CHARGE NEUTRALITY A Thesis by CHOMSIK LEE Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate...

  7. Quark star model with charge distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel Malaver

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we studied the behavior of relativistic objects with anisotropic matter distribution inthe presence of an electric field considering a gravitational potential Z(x) of Thirukkanesh and Ragel (2013) which depends on an adjustable parameter n. The equation of state presents a quadratic relation between the energy densityand the radial pressure. New exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell system are generated. A physical analysis of electromagnetic field indicates that is regular in the origin and well behaved. We show as a variation of the adjustable parameter n causes a modification in the charge density, the radial pressure and the mass of the stellar object.

  8. Seismic explosive charge loader and anchor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcreynolds, O.B.

    1981-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved seismic explosive charge loader and anchor for loading and anchoring explosives in cylindrical containers in bore holes is disclosed, which includes a snap in spring band shaped anchor which effectively anchors the loader in the well bore against upward movement, one aspect of the invention includes a snap lock threaded connection for securing an explosive container having interrupted threads to the loader and anchor, and the loader and anchor is constructed and arranged to maintain a detonator in place in the explosive container thereby assuring detonation of the explosive.

  9. ChargePoint America | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-DesertofSuccess Stories fromSteelsDieselChargePoint

  10. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >InternshipDepartmentNeutrino-Induced Charged-CurrentN N U AA Route toA

  11. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >InternshipDepartmentNeutrino-Induced Charged-CurrentN N U AA Route toAA

  12. Workplace Charging Challenge: Ambassadors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters |-- 9:00 AM Opening Plenary (PlazaWorkplace Charging

  13. American Battery Charging Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place:Alvan Blanch GreenAmeren Illinois CompanyCharging Inc

  14. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home and It'llMapping Particle Charges in Battery

  15. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home and It'llMapping Particle Charges in BatteryMapping

  16. AVTA Voltec AC Level 1 and Level 2 Charging Systems Testing Results...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eaton AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Aerovironment AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results...

  17. Formation of a condensate during charged collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariel Edery; Benjamin Constantineau

    2015-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We observe a condensate forming in the interior of a black hole (BH) during numerical simulations of gravitational collapse of a massless charged (complex) scalar field. The magnitude of the scalar field in the interior tends to a non-zero constant; spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry occurs and a condensate forms. This phenomena occurs in the presence of a BH without the standard symmetry breaking quartic potential; the breaking occurs via the dynamics of the system itself. We also observe that the scalar field in the interior rotates in the complex plane and show that it matches numerically the electric potential to within $1\\%$. That a charged scalar condensate can form near the horizon of a black hole in the Abelian Higgs model without the standard symmetry breaking potential had previously been shown analytically in an explicit model involving a massive scalar field in an $AdS_4$ background. Our numerical simulation lends strong support to this finding, although in our case the scalar field is massless and the spacetime is asymptotically flat.

  18. Nucleon tensor charges and electric dipole moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Pitschmann; Chien-Yeah Seng; Craig D. Roberts; Sebastian M. Schmidt

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A symmetry-preserving Dyson-Schwinger equation treatment of a vector-vector contact interaction is used to compute dressed-quark-core contributions to the nucleon $\\sigma$-term and tensor charges. The latter enable one to directly determine the effect of dressed-quark electric dipole moments (EDMs) on neutron and proton EDMs. The presence of strong scalar and axial-vector diquark correlations within ground-state baryons is a prediction of this approach. These correlations are active participants in all scattering events and thereby modify the contribution of the singly-represented valence-quark relative to that of the doubly-represented quark. Regarding the proton $\\sigma$-term and that part of the proton mass which owes to explicit chiral symmetry breaking, with a realistic $d$-$u$ mass splitting the singly-represented $d$-quark contributes 37% more than the doubly-represented $u$-quark; and in connection with the proton's tensor charges, $\\delta_T u$, $\\delta_T d$, the ratio $\\delta_T d/\\delta_T u$ is 18% larger than anticipated from simple quark models. Of particular note, the size of $\\delta_T u$ is a sensitive measure of the strength of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking; and $\\delta_T d$ measures the amount of axial-vector diquark correlation within the proton, vanishing if such correlations are absent.

  19. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY)

    1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator 14,14b includes an evacuated chamber 16a,b having a gun 18,18b for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam 12 or ion beam 12b. The beam 12,12b is discharged through a beam exit 22 in the chamber 16a,b into a higher pressure region 24. A plasma interface 34 is disposed at the beam exit 22 and includes a plasma channel 38 for bounding a plasma 40 maintainable between a cathode 42 and an anode 44 disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel 38 is coaxially aligned with the beam exit 22 for propagating the beam 12,12b from the chamber 16a,b, through the plasma 40, and into the higher pressure region 24. The plasma 40 is effective for pumping down the beam exit 22 for preventing pressure increase in the chamber 16a,b, and provides magnetic focusing of the beam 12,12b discharged into the higher pressure region 24.

  20. Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkat Bommisetty, South Dakota State University

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

  1. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies of Highly Charged Ions on Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draganic, Ilija N [ORNL; Seely, D. G. [Albion College; McCammon, D [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Havener, Charles C [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate studies of low energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H like, and He like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H like ions of C, N, O and fully stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV u 20 keV u) and compared to previous H oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV u 3.3 keV u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  2. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies Of Highly Charged Ions On Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draganic, I. N.; Havener, C. C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Seely, D. G. [Department of Physics, Albion College, Albion, MI 49224 (United States); McCammon, D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate studies of low-energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X-ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H-like, and He-like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H-like ions of C, N, O and fully-stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV/u-20 keV/u) and compared to previous H-oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged-beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV/u-3.3 keV/u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H-oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  3. Facilities OperationsFacilities Operations Service Fee/Charge GuidelinesService Fee/Charge Guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holsinger, Kent

    and all regional campuses ·· Repairs and preventive maintenance for buildingsRepairs and preventive charge) minor, corrective, preventive and statutory maintenance and related services for "academic. · Preventive Maintenance (PM) is maintenance which is carried out to prevent an item failing or wearing out

  4. PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING ONLY Must be ACTIVELY Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    have a valid UCSB parking permit displayed on my vehicle. Purchase a Power-only permit for the amount of time required to charge your vehicle. I do not have a valid UCSB parking permit. Purchase a Power. Valid UCSB parking permit holders pay for power only. Non-UCSB permit holders pay for power and parking

  5. Emissions-critical charge cooling using an organic rankine cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides a system including a Rankine power cycle cooling subsystem providing emissions-critical charge cooling of an input charge flow. The system includes a boiler fluidly coupled to the input charge flow, an energy conversion device fluidly coupled to the boiler, a condenser fluidly coupled to the energy conversion device, a pump fluidly coupled to the condenser and the boiler, an adjuster that adjusts at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle subsystem to change a temperature of the input charge exiting the boiler, and a sensor adapted to sense a temperature characteristic of the vaporized input charge. The system includes a controller that can determine a target temperature of the input charge sufficient to meet or exceed predetermined target emissions and cause the adjuster to adjust at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle to achieve the predetermined target emissions.

  6. Study of ?-charge correlation in heavy ion collisions, various approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prithwish Tribedy; Subhasis Chattopadhyay; Aihong Tang

    2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Event-by-event \\gamma-charge correlation is used in studying systems going through QCD chiral phase transition. In this paper various methods for measuring \\gamma-charge correlation in heavy ion collisions have been discussed. Dynamical fluctuation due to formation of domains of DCC that can affect \\gamma-charge correlation has been discussed. We study known detector and statistical effects involved in these measurements and suggest suitable robust observables \\Delta\

  7. System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

  8. Net-charge fluctuations and balance functions at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Weber; for the ALICE collaboration

    2012-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of event-by-event fluctuations and charge-dependent particle correlations are used to study properties of nuclear matter at high temperatures as produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We present results for event-by-event net-charge fluctuations and charge balance functions in \\Delta\\eta\\ and \\Delta\\phi\\ in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN)= 2.76 TeV.

  9. A particle accelerator employing transient space charge potentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1988-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides an accelerator for ions and charged particles. The plasma is generated and confined in a magnetic mirror field. The electrons of the plasma are heated to high temperatures. A series of local coils are placed along the axis of the magnetic mirror field. As an ion or particle beam is directed along the axis in sequence the coils are rapidly pulsed creating a space charge to accelerate and focus the beam of ions or charged particles. 3 figs.

  10. Fast and stable manipulation of a charged particle in a Penning trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kiely; J. P. L. McGuinness; J. G. Muga; A. Ruschhaupt

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose shortcuts to adiabaticity which achieve fast and stable control of the state of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field. In particular we design a non-adiabatic change of the magnetic field strength in a Penning trap which changes the radial spread without final excitations. We apply a streamlined version of the fast-forward formalism as well as an invariant based inverse engineering approach. We compare both methods and examine their stability.

  11. Delayed neutrons as a probe of nuclear charge distribution in fission of heavy nuclei by neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaev, S G; Piksaikin, V M; Roshchenko, V A

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of the determination of cumulative yields of delayed neutron precursors is developed. This method is based on the iterative least-square procedure applied to delayed neutron decay curves measured after irradiation of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U sample by thermal neutrons. Obtained cumulative yields in turns were used for deriving the values of the most probable charge in low-energy fission of the above-mentioned nucleus.

  12. High-k shallow traps observed by charge pumping with varying discharging times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Szu-Han; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lu, Ying-Hsin; Lo, Wen-Hung; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Wang, Bin-Wei; Cao, Xi-Xin [Department of Embedded System Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, P.R.China (China); Chen, Hua-Mao [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Chen, Tsai-Fu [Device Department, United Microelectronics Corporation, Tainan Science Park, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of falling time and base level time on high-k bulk shallow traps measured by charge pumping technique in n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with HfO{sub 2}/metal gate stacks. N{sub T}-V{sub high} {sub level} characteristic curves with different duty ratios indicate that the electron detrapping time dominates the value of N{sub T} for extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps. N{sub T} is the number of traps, and I{sub cp} is charge pumping current. By fitting discharge formula at different temperatures, the results show that extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps at high voltage are in fact high-k bulk shallow traps. This is also verified through a comparison of different interlayer thicknesses and different Ti{sub x}N{sub 1?x} metal gate concentrations. Next, N{sub T}-V{sub high} {sub level} characteristic curves with different falling times (t{sub falling} {sub time}) and base level times (t{sub base} {sub level}) show that extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps decrease with an increase in t{sub falling} {sub time}. By fitting discharge formula for different t{sub falling} {sub time}, the results show that electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps first discharge to the channel and then to source and drain during t{sub falling} {sub time}. This current cannot be measured by the charge pumping technique. Subsequent measurements of N{sub T} by charge pumping technique at t{sub base} {sub level} reveal a remainder of electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps.

  13. On Evolution of the Pair-Electromagnetic Pulse of a Charge Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remo Ruffini; Jay D. Salmonson; James R. Wilson; She-Sheng Xue

    1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Using hydrodynamic computer codes, we study the possible patterns of relativistic expansion of an enormous pair-electromagnetic-pulse (P.E.M. pulse); a hot, high density plasma composed of photons, electron-positron pairs and baryons deposited near a charged black hole (EMBH). On the bases of baryon-loading and energy conservation, we study the bulk Lorentz factor of expansion of the P.E.M. pulse by both numerical and analytical methods.

  14. Leptonic Decays of the Charged B Meson

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corwin, Luke A.; /Ohio State U.; ,

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present a search for the decay B{sup +} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{nu}{sub {ell}} ({ell} = {tau}, {mu}, or e) in (458.9 {+-} 5.1) x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) decays recorded with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B-Factory. A sample of events with one reconstructed exclusive semi-leptonic B decay (B{sup -} {yields} D{sup 0}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}X) is selected, and in the recoil a search for B{sup +} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{nu}{sub {ell}} signal is performed. The {tau} is identified in the following channels: {tau}{sup +} {yields} e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}, {tau}{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{nu}{sub {mu}}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}, {tau}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}, and {tau}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}. The analysis strategy and the statistical procedure is set up for branching fraction extraction or upper limit determination. They determine from the dataset a preliminary measurement of {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}}) = (1.8 {+-} 0.8 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -4}, which excludes zero at 2.4{sigma}, and f{sub B} = 255 {+-} 58 MeV. Combination with the hadronically tagged measurement yields {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}}) = (1.8 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -4}. They also set preliminary limits on the branching fractions at {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}) < 7.7 x 10{sup -6} (90% C.L.), {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{nu}{sub {mu}}) < 11 x 10{sup -6} (90% C.L.), and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}}) < 3.2 x 10{sup -4} (90% C.L.).

  15. Analysis of wind power for battery charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Drouilhet, S.; Holz, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, V. [University of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia). State Engineering

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One type of wind-powered battery charging will be explored in this paper. It consists of a wind turbine driving a permanent magnet alternator and operates at variable speed. The alternator is connected to a battery bank via a rectifier. The characteristic of the system depends on the wind turbine, the alternator, and the system configuration. If the electrical load does not match the wind turbine, the performance of the system will be degraded. By matching the electrical load to the wind turbine, the system can be improved significantly. This paper analyzes the properties of the system components. The effects of parameter variation and the system configuration on the system performance are investigated. Two basic methods of shaping the torque-speed characteristic of the generator are presented. The uncompensated as well as the compensated systems will be discussed. Control strategies to improve the system performance will be explored. Finally, a summary of the paper will be presented in the last section.

  16. Space charge emission in cylindrical diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres-Crdoba, Rafael; Martnez-Garca, Edgar [Universidad Autnoma de Cd. Jurez-IIT, Cd. Jurez, Chihuahua, Mxico (Mexico)] [Universidad Autnoma de Cd. Jurez-IIT, Cd. Jurez, Chihuahua, Mxico (Mexico)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a mathematical model to describe cylindrical electron current emissions through a physics approximation method is presented. The proposed mathematical approximation consists of analyzing and solving the nonlinear Poisson's equation, with some determined mathematical restrictions. Our findings tackle the problem when charge-space creates potential barrier that disable the steady-state of the beam propagation. In this problem, the potential barrier effects of electron's speed with zero velocity emitted through the virtual cathode happens. The interaction between particles and the virtual cathode have been to find the inter-atomic potentials as boundary conditions from a quantum mechanics perspective. Furthermore, a non-stationary spatial solution of the electrical potential between anode and cathode is presented. The proposed solution is a 2D differential equation that was linearized from the generalized Poisson equation. A single condition was used solely, throughout the radial boundary conditions of the current density formation.

  17. Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duval, B. P. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    For fusion, obtaining reliable measurements of basic plasma parameters like ion and electron densities and temperatures is a primary goal. For theory, measurements are needed as a function of time and space to understand plasma transport and confinement with the ultimate goal of achieving economic nuclear fusion power. Electron profile measurements and plasma spectroscopy for the plasma ions are introduced. With the advent of Neutral Beam auxiliary plasma heating, Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy provides accurate and time resolved measurements of the ions in large volume fusion devices. In acknowledgement of Nicol Peacock's role in the development of these techniques, still at the forefront of plasma fusion research, this paper describes the evolution of this diagnostic method.

  18. adiabatic dust charge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a transition between states. The first result Petta, Jason 12 Charging and Growth of Fractal Dust Grains CERN Preprints Summary: The structure and evolution of aggregate grains...

  19. Permit for Charging Equipment Installation: Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Jurisdiction's can use this template to develop a standard permit for residential charging stations that allows for quick, safe installation of EVSE.

  20. HCCI and Stratified-Charge CI Engine Combustion Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charg HCCI and Stratified-Char e CI Engine ge CI Engine Combustion Research Combustion Research John E. Dec, Magnus Sjberg, and Wontae Hwang Sandia National Laboratories DOE...

  1. Control of charge migration in molecules by ultrashort laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolay V. Golubev; Alexander I. Kuleff

    2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to electronic many-body effects, the ionization of a molecule can trigger ultrafast electron dynamics appearing as a migration of the created hole charge throughout the system. Here we propose a scheme for control of the charge migration dynamics with a single ultrashort laser pulse. We demonstrate by fully ab initio calculations on a molecule containing a chromophore and an amine moieties that simple pulses can be used for stopping the charge-migration oscillations and localizing the charge on the desired site of the system. We argue that this control may be used to predetermine the follow-up nuclear rearrangement and thus the molecular reactivity.

  2. Control of charge migration in molecules by ultrashort laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golubev, Nikolay V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to electronic many-body effects, the ionization of a molecule can trigger ultrafast electron dynamics appearing as a migration of the created hole charge throughout the system. Here we propose a scheme for control of the charge migration dynamics with a single ultrashort laser pulse. We demonstrate by fully ab initio calculations on a molecule containing a chromophore and an amine moieties that simple pulses can be used for stopping the charge-migration oscillations and localizing the charge on the desired site of the system. We argue that this control may be used to predetermine the follow-up nuclear rearrangement and thus the molecular reactivity.

  3. Long Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efthimion, P.C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    neutralizing plasma column the heavy ion beam can focus to aPlasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to focus

  4. Energy Distribution of a Charged Regular Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irina Radinschi

    2000-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the energy distribution of a charged regular black hole by using the energy-momentum complexes of Einstein and M{\\o}ller.

  5. Global geometry of space-time with the charged shell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Berezin; V. I. Dokuchaev

    2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    It is elaborated the complete classification of the possible types of the spherically symmetric global geometries for two types of electrically charged shells: (1) The charged shell as a single source of the gravitational field, when internal space-time is flat, and external space-time is the Reissner--Nordstr\\"om metric; (2) The neutralizing shell with an electric charge opposite to the charge of the internal source with the Reissner--Nordstr\\"om metric and with the Schwarzschild metric outside the shell.

  6. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp 2 hybridized carbon, is an outstanding material...

  7. Variable Charge Soils: Their Mineralogy, Chemistry and Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nik; Van Ranst, Eric; Noble, Andrew; Baert, Geert

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, the mineralogy, chemistry and management of variable charge soils that are spread throughout the world are treated in details.

  8. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Re-direct Destination: A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger...

  9. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Township High School District...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    School District 214 Workplace charging helps Township High School District 214's sustainability program by reducing its employees' carbon footprint in the community. The District...

  10. DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE Efficiency and Security Testing This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information PI:...

  11. On Possibility of Coulomb Interaction between Masses and Electrical Charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitriy Palatnik

    2005-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    From non-linear modification of Maxwell-Einstein theory, considered in (physics/9801031), follows modified Coulomb law for interaction between charged objects. Namely, if $(m, e)$ and $(m', e')$ are masses and charges of two objects, then the potential energy of interaction, $V(r) = [ee' - kmm' - \\sqrt{k}(em' + e'm)]/r $, where $k$ is Newtonian constant. It follows, that the Earth should possess negative electric charge, $Q_E = - \\sqrt{k} M_E$. Obtained result explains, why do primary cosmic rays consist mainly of positive charges.

  12. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Friday, January 30, 2015 Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp2 hybridized carbon, is...

  13. All spherically symmetric charged anisotropic solutions for compact star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurya, S K; Ray, Saibal

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present paper we develop an algorithm for all spherically symmetric anisotropic charged fluid distribution. Considering a new source function $\

  14. All spherically symmetric charged anisotropic solutions for compact star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. K. Maurya; Y. K. Gupta; Saibal Ray

    2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present paper we develop an algorithm for all spherically symmetric anisotropic charged fluid distribution. Considering a new source function $\

  15. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Washington Area New Automobile...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Association (WANADA) serves as the representative organization for all franchised new car dealers in the metropolitan Washington region. Workplace charging matches the vision...

  16. Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport Print Layered transition metal oxides are the focus of intense research efforts because they might clarify the...

  17. High Efficiency, Low EMI and Positioning Tolerant Wireless Charging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low EMI and Positioning Tolerant Wireless Charging of EVs 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wireless Charging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charging Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

  19. AVTA: EVSE Testing - NYSERDA Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    data below is from an electric vehicle charging infrastructure project run by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The reports describe...

  20. Microgrid V2G Charging Station Interconnection Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation by Mike Simpson of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes NREL's microgrid vehicle-to-grid charging station interconnection testing.

  1. Workplace Charging Challenge: Press Release template for Clean Cities coordinators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An editable press release that Clean Cities coordinators can use to announce local Partners' participation in the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge

  2. Workplace Charging Challenge: Press Release template for Ambassadors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An editable press release that Ambassador organizations can use to announce their and local Partners' participation in the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge

  3. 1 18 June 2009 Thermal excitation of large charge offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 18 June 2009 Thermal excitation of large charge offsets in a single-Cooper-pair transistor L.R.Simkins

  4. An artificial neural network application on nuclear charge radii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akkoyun, S; Kara, S O; Sinan, A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The artificial neural networks (ANNs) have emerged with successful applications in nuclear physics as well as in many fields of science in recent years. In this paper, by using (ANNs), we have constructed a formula for the nuclear charge radii. Statistical modeling of nuclear charge radii by using ANNs has been seen as to be successful. Also, the charge radii, binding energies and two-neutron separation energies of Sn isotopes have been calculated by implementing of the new formula in Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculations. The results of the study shows that the new formula is useful for describing nuclear charge radii.

  5. An artificial neural network application on nuclear charge radii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Akkoyun; T. Bayram; S. O. Kara; A. Sinan

    2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The artificial neural networks (ANNs) have emerged with successful applications in nuclear physics as well as in many fields of science in recent years. In this paper, by using (ANNs), we have constructed a formula for the nuclear charge radii. Statistical modeling of nuclear charge radii by using ANNs has been seen as to be successful. Also, the charge radii, binding energies and two-neutron separation energies of Sn isotopes have been calculated by implementing of the new formula in Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculations. The results of the study shows that the new formula is useful for describing nuclear charge radii.

  6. Non-contact Nondestructive Probing of Charge Carrier Conductivity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transport processes at interfaces is one of the most important subjects in organic electronics. Charge carriers are injected or extracted through metalsemiconductor...

  7. Softly landed electron-rich ions retain charge | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    insights into polyoxometalate anions to better control their performance in supercapacitors, which could lead to devices with more charge capacity for vehicles and portable...

  8. ambipolar charge carrier: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a charge carrier transfer under an action of a constant electric field in a complex medium. Generalizing previous theoretical approaches, we model the dynamical environment...

  9. accelerated charge carriers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a charge carrier transfer under an action of a constant electric field in a complex medium. Generalizing previous theoretical approaches, we model the dynamical environment...

  10. Influence of the Charge State on the Structures and Interactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Antibiotics with Cell-Wall Analogue Peptides: Influence of the Charge State on the Structures and Interactions of Vancomycin Antibiotics with Cell-Wall Analogue Peptides:...

  11. Charge Optimization Theory for Induced-Fit Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Yang

    The design of ligands with high affinity and specificity remains a fundamental challenge in understanding molecular recognition and developing therapeutic interventions. Charge optimization theory addresses this problem ...

  12. A General Relationship between Disorder, Aggregation, and Charge...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data, researchers from Stanford University, ETH Zurich (Switzerland), Imperial College London (UK) and SSRL have recently shown that trapping of charges caused by lattice disorder...

  13. electricity rates for military bases | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electricity rates for military bases Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hi, I was hoping to find rates for military bases, but have been unable to find anything. Are they just charged as...

  14. Charge exchange reactions and applications to astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Ha, Eunja; Kajino, T. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul, 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8589 (Japan) and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrino-induced reactions have been known to play important roles as the neutrino process on the nucleosynthesis in core collapsing supernovae (SNe) explosions because expected neutrino flux and energy are sufficiently high enough to excite many relevant nuclei in spite of small cross sections of the weak interaction. However, we do not have enough data for the neutrino reaction to be exploited in the network calculation. Only a sparse data in the relevant energy range is known, in specific, for {sup 12}C. Therefore we have to rely on theoretical estimation of the reaction, which has two different modes, charge current (CC) and neutral current (NC). In particular, CC reactions are closely related to charge exchange reactions (CEXRs) which are feasible in the experiment, such as, (p,n) or (n,p) reactions. These CEXRs are usually dominated by the Gamow-Teller (GT) transition in the lower energy region. In this respect, any theoretical approaches for the neutrino reaction should be investigated for the CEXR because we have and expect more useful experimental data. After confirming our models to the GT strength deduced from the CEXR, we calculated neutrino-induced reactions in the energy range below the quasielastic region for nuclei of astrophysical importance. Our calculations are carried out with the Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA), which successfully described the nuclear beta decays of relevant nuclei. To describe neutrino-nucleus reactions, general multipole transitions by the weak interaction are considered for CC and NC reactions. Both reactions are described in a theoretical framework. Our results are shown to well reproduce the data from CEXRs and the sparse experimental data related to the neutrino-induced reaction, and further extended for neutrino reactions on various nuclear targets. Parts of the results are reported in this talk.

  15. Low noise charge sensitive preamplifier DC stabilized without a physical resistor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertuccio, Giuseppe (Brianza, IT); Rehak, Pavel (Patchogue, NY); Xi, Deming (Beijing, CN)

    1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a novel charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP) which has no resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor. No resetting circuit is required to discharge the feedback capacitor. The DC stabilization of the preamplifier is obtained by means of a second feedback loop between the preamplifier output and the common base transistor of the input cascode. The input transistor of the preamplifier is a Junction Field Transistor (JFET) with the gate-source junction forward biased. The detector leakage current flows into this junction. This invention is concerned with a new circuit configuration for a charge sensitive preamplifier and a novel use of the input Field Effect Transistor of the CSP itself. In particular this invention, in addition to eliminating the feedback resistor, eliminates the need for external devices between the detector and the preamplifier, and it eliminates the need for external circuitry to sense the output voltage and reset the CSP. Furthermore, the noise level of the novel CSP is very low, comparable with the performance achieved with other solutions. Experimental tests prove that this configuration for the charge sensitive preamplifier permits an excellent noise performance at temperatures including room temperature. An equivalent noise charge of less than 20 electrons r.m.s. has been measured at room temperature by using a commercial JFET as input device of the preamplifier.

  16. The Emission of Electromagnetic Radiation from Charges Accelerated by Gravitational Waves and its Astrophysical Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell Revalski; Will Rhodes; Thulsi Wickramasinghe

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide calculations and theoretical arguments supporting the emission of electromagnetic radiation from charged particles accelerated by gravitational waves (GWs). These waves have significant indirect evidence to support their existence, yet they interact weakly with ordinary matter. We show that the induced oscillations of charged particles interacting with a GW, which lead to the emission of electromagnetic radiation, will also result in wave attenuation. These ideas are supported by a small body of literature, as well as additional arguments for particle acceleration based on GW memory effects. We derive order of magnitude power calculations for various initial charge distributions accelerated by GWs. The resulting power emission is extremely small for all but very strong GWs interacting with large quantities of charge. If the results here are confirmed and supplemented, significant consequences such as attenuation of early universe GWs could result. Additionally, this effect could extend GW detection techniques into the electromagnetic regime. These explorations are worthy of study to determine the presence of such radiation, as it is extremely important to refine our theoretical framework in an era of active GW astrophysics.

  17. A Novel Scheme to Search for Fractional Charge Particles in Low Energy Accelerator Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianguo Bian; Jiahui Wang

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Standard Model of particle physics, the quarks and anti-quarks have fractional charge equal to $\\pm1/3$ or $\\pm2/3$ of the electron's charge. There has been a large number of experiments searching for fractional charge, isolatable, elementary particles using a variety of methods, including $e^+e^-$ collisions using dE/dx ionization energy loss measurements, but no evidence has been found to confirm existence of free fractional charge particles, which leads to the quark confinement theory. In this paper, a proposal to search for this kind particles is presented, which is based on the conservation law of four-momentum. Thanks to the CLEOc and BESIII detectors' large coverage, good particle identification, precision measurements of tracks' momenta and their large recorded data samples, these features make the scheme feasible in practice. The advantage of the scheme is independent of any theoretical models and sensitive for a small fraction of the quarks transitioning to the unconfinement phase from the confinement phase.

  18. Low noise charge sensitive preamplifier DC stabilized without a physical resistor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertuccio, G.; Rehak, P.; Xi, D.

    1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a novel charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP) which has no resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor. No resetting circuit is required to discharge the feedback capacitor. The DC stabilization of the preamplifier is obtained by means of a second feedback loop between the preamplifier output and the common base transistor of the input cascode. The input transistor of the preamplifier is a Junction Field Transistor (JFET) with the gate-source junction forward biased. The detector leakage current flows into this junction. This invention is concerned with a new circuit configuration for a charge sensitive preamplifier and a novel use of the input Field Effect Transistor of the CSP itself. In particular this invention, in addition to eliminating the feedback resistor, eliminates the need for external devices between the detector and the preamplifier, and it eliminates the need for external circuitry to sense the output voltage and reset the CSP. Furthermore, the noise level of the novel CSP is very low, comparable with the performance achieved with other solutions. Experimental tests prove that this configuration for the charge sensitive preamplifier permits an excellent noise performance at temperatures including room temperature. An equivalent noise charge of less than 20 electrons r.m.s. has been measured at room temperature by using a commercial JFET as input device of the preamplifier. 6 figs.

  19. Transverse energy and charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions: From RHIC to LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghunath Sahoo; Aditya Nath Mishra

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the charged particle and transverse energy production mechanism from AGS, SPS, RHIC to LHC energies in the framework of nucleon and quark participants. At RHIC and LHC energies, the number of nucleons-normalized charged particle and transverse energy density in pseudorapidity, which shows a monotonic rise with centrality, turns out to be an almost centrality independent scaling behaviour when normalized to the number of participant quarks. A universal function which is a combination of logarithmic and power-law, describes well the charged particle and transverse energy production both at nucleon and quark participant level for the whole range of collision energies. Energy dependent production mechanisms are discussed both for nucleonic and partonic level. Predictions are made for the pseudorapidity densities of transverse energy, charged particle multiplicity and their ratio (the barometric observable, $\\frac{dE_{\\rm{T}}/d\\eta}{dN_{\\rm{ch}}/d\\eta} ~\\equiv \\frac{E_{\\rm{T}}}{N_{\\rm{ch}}}$) at mid-rapidity for Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}}=5.5$ TeV. A comparison with models based on gluon saturation and statistical hadron gas is made for the energy dependence of $\\frac{E_{\\rm{T}}}{N_{\\rm{ch}}}$.

  20. A Research Into a New Method of Refrigeration Charging and the Effects of Improper Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houcek, J.; Thedford, M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF outdoor 08, 80F DB167"F WB indoor) is generally acceptable depending upon the manufacturer's design specifications. TJess than this could result in a refrigerant floodback situation. More than this can cause premature com- pressor motor... best be defined as either a refrigerant overcharge or undercharge when compared with the manufacturer's charging specifications, at standard ARI rating conditions. Either condition will have a detrimental effect on the system, both in terms...

  1. Workplace Charging Case Study: Charging Station Utilization at a Work Site with AC Level 1, AC Level 2, and DC Fast Charging Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the use of electric vehicle charging stations installed at a large corporate office complex. It will be published to the INL website for viewing by the general public.

  2. Parametrization of extended Gaussian disorder models from microscopic charge transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    -size effects at small charge densities, the data is fitted to the uncorrelated and correlated extended Gaussian to compound synthesis. 1 Introduction The optimization of organic photovoltaic cells,1,2 light emitting diodes,3 and field effect tran- sistors4 requires the improvement of the charge-carrier mobility,

  3. Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    miles across all available vehicles, not only the one being studied. Find out where the "other" gasoline/needs, Important destinations, HOV usage Home and work charging infrastructure Electricity prices Purchase Charging behavior Location Time Frequency Power Level Efficiency Gasoline operation MPG

  4. Adsorption and depletion of polyelectrolytes from charged surfaces Adi Shafira)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andelman, David

    Adsorption and depletion of polyelectrolytes from charged surfaces Adi Shafira) and David Andelmanb and scaling arguments are presented to model polyelectrolyte adsorption from semidilute solutions onto charged surfaces. Using numerical solutions of the mean-field equations, we show that adsorption exists only

  5. adenylylate energy charge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    adenylylate energy charge First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The Energy of Charged Matter...

  6. Determination of Dusty Particle Charge Taking into Account Ion Drag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Amangaliyeva, R. Zh.; Orazbayev, S. A. [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, IETP, 96a Tole Bi St., Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan); Petrov, O. F.; Antipov, S. N. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of RAS, 13/19 Izhorskaya, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is devoted to the experimental estimation of charge of dust particle that levitates in the stratum of dc glow discharge. Particle charge is determined on the basis of the balance between ion drag force, gravitational and electric forces. Electric force is obtained from the axial distribution of the light intensity of strata.

  7. LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA 1. Abstract This report introduces how. Battery Pack 1 Cycle 1 : 2334 mAh Cycle 2: 2312 mAh #12;LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT 3 Cycle to handle the Powerizer Li-Ion rechargeable Battery Packs. It will bring reveal battery specifications

  8. Conserved Charges and Thermodynamics of the Spinning Goedel Black Hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnich, Glenn; Compere, Geoffrey [Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the mass, angular momenta, and charge of the Goedel-type rotating black hole solution to five-dimensional minimal supergravity. A generalized Smarr formula is derived, and the first law of thermodynamics is verified. The computation rests on a new approach to conserved charges in gauge theories that allows for their computation at finite radius.

  9. Characterized ideal LC circuit Charge, current and voltage vary sinusoidally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    resistance to LC circuit Oscillations become damped Charge, current and voltage still vary sinusoidally Oscillations Draw phasors for voltages of R, C and L at same time t Orient VR, VL, & VC phasors relativeReview Characterized ideal LC circuit Charge, current and voltage vary sinusoidally Added

  10. Mergers in the GB Electricity Market: effects on Retail Charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mergers in the GB Electricity Market: effects on Retail Charges N° 2006-08 Mai 2006 Evens SALIES OFCE hal-00972962,version1-3Apr2014 #12;Mergers in the GB Electricity Market: effects on Retail Charges-efficiency as variables relating to price and profitability. The retail electricity market is a case in point, as high

  11. Improved current and charge amplifiers for driving piezoelectric loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    circuit. Low frequency bandwidths in the milli-Hertz range can be achieved. Keywords: Current, Charge acceptance14 ". Although the circuit topology of a charge or current amplifier is much the same as a simple short circuit the load every 400 ms or so, thus periodically discharging the load capacitance

  12. Problems with Accurate Atomic Lfetime Measurements of Multiply Charged Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabert, E

    2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of recent atomic lifetime measurements on multiply charged ions have reported uncertainties lower than 1%. Such a level of accuracy challenges theory, which is a good thing. However, a few lessons learned from earlier precision lifetime measurements on atoms and singly charged ions suggest to remain cautious about the systematic errors of experimental techniques.

  13. Vacuum polarization induced by a uniformly accelerated charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Linet

    1995-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a point charge fixed in the Rindler coordinates which describe a uniformly accelerated frame. We determine an integral expression of the induced charge density due to the vacuum polarization at the first order in the fine structure constant. In the case where the acceleration is weak, we give explicitly the induced electrostatic potential.

  14. Competitive Charging Station Pricing for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    . To overcome this challenge, we develop a low-complexity algorithm that efficiently computes the pricingCompetitive Charging Station Pricing for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Wei Yuan, Member, IEEE, Jianwei considers the problem of charging station pricing and station selection of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs

  15. Head-Tail Modes for Strong Space Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burov, Alexey

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Head-tail modes are described here for the space charge tune shift significantly exceeding the synchrotron tune. General equation for the modes is derived. Spatial shapes of the modes, their frequencies, and coherent growth rates are explored. The Landau damping rates are also found. Suppression of the transverse mode coupling instability by the space charge is explained.

  16. GreenCharge: Managing Renewable Energy in Smart Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurose, Jim

    GreenCharge: Managing Renewable Energy in Smart Buildings Aditya Mishra, David Irwin, Prashant of buildings is challenging. In this paper, we explore an alternative approach that combines market show that GreenCharge's savings for a typical home today are near 20%, which are greater than

  17. Self-similar and charged spheres in the diffusion approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Barreto; A. Da Silva

    2005-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study spherical, charged and self--similar distributions of matter in the diffusion approximation. We propose a simple, dynamic but physically meaningful solution. For such a solution we obtain a model in which the distribution becomes static and changes to dust. The collapse is halted with damped mass oscillations about the absolute value of the total charge.

  18. Search for Long-Lived Massive Charged Particles in 1.96 TeV pp-bar Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Si

    We performed a signature-based search for long-lived charged massive particles produced in 1.0??fb[superscript -1] of pp? collisions at ?s=1.96??TeV, collected with the CDF II detector using a high transverse-momentum ...

  19. Experimental Validation of a Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation with an Extended Kalman Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Experimental Validation of a Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation with an Extended Kalman unobservable conditions as discussed in [3] and allow the application of an extended Kalman Filter (EKF) from Kalman Filter (EKF) based on the averaged model and the performance is shown experimentally in a 10 cell

  20. Measurement of the Electron Charge Asymmetry in Inclusive W Production in pp Collisions at ?s=7??TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Gerry P.

    A measurement of the electron charge asymmetry in inclusive pp?W+X?e?+X production at ?s=7??TeV is presented based on data recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of ...

  1. Determination of time zero from a charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Jesse Andrew (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method, system and computer program is used to determine a linear track having a good fit to a most likely or expected path of charged particle passing through a charged particle detector having a plurality of drift cells. Hit signals from the charged particle detector are associated with a particular charged particle track. An initial estimate of time zero is made from these hit signals and linear tracks are then fit to drift radii for each particular time-zero estimate. The linear track having the best fit is then searched and selected and errors in fit and tracking parameters computed. The use of large and expensive fast detectors needed to time zero in the charged particle detectors can be avoided by adopting this method and system.

  2. New charged shear-free relativistic models with heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Nyonyi; S. D. Maharaj; K. S. Govinder

    2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study shear-free spherically symmetric relativistic gravitating fluids with heat flow and electric charge. The solution to the Einstein-Maxwell system is governed by the generalised pressure isotropy condition which contains a contribution from the electric field. This condition is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation. We analyse this master equation using Lie's group theoretic approach. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the equation invariant are found. The first generator is independent of the electromagnetic field. The second generator depends critically on the form of the charge, which is determined explicitly in general. We provide exact solutions to the gravitational potentials using the symmetries admitted by the equation. Our new exact solutions contain earlier results without charge. We show that other charged solutions, related to the Lie symmetries, may be generated using the algorithm of Deng. This leads to new classes of charged Deng models which are generalisations of conformally flat metrics.

  3. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piyabut Burikham; Chatchai Promsiri

    2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma~(QGP) and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble respectively. In the nuclei and heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condensate and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  4. Homogenization of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations for Ion Transport in Charged Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Schmuck; Martin Z. Bazant

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations are derived for macroscopic ion transport in charged porous media under periodic fluid flow by an asymptotic multi-scale expansion with drift. The microscopic setting is a two-component periodic composite consisting of a dilute electrolyte continuum (described by standard PNP equations) and a continuous dielectric matrix, which is impermeable to the ions and carries a given surface charge. Four new features arise in the upscaled equations: (i) the effective ionic diffusivities and mobilities become tensors, related to the microstructure; (ii) the effective permittivity is also a tensor, depending on the electrolyte/matrix permittivity ratio and the ratio of the Debye screening length to the macroscopic length of the porous medium; (iii) the microscopic fluidic convection is replaced by a diffusion-dispersion correction in the effective diffusion tensor; and (iv) the surface charge per volume appears as a continuous "background charge density", as in classical membrane models. The coefficient tensors in the upscaled PNP equations can be calculated from periodic reference cell problems. For an insulating solid matrix, all gradients are corrected by the same tensor, and the Einstein relation holds at the macroscopic scale, which is not generally the case for a polarizable matrix, unless the permittivity and electric field are suitably defined. In the limit of thin double layers, Poisson's equation is replaced by macroscopic electroneutrality (balancing ionic and surface charges). The general form of the macroscopic PNP equations may also hold for concentrated solution theories, based on the local-density and mean-field approximations. These results have broad applicability to ion transport in porous electrodes, separators, membranes, ion-exchange resins, soils, porous rocks, and biological tissues.

  5. Charged anisotropic matter with linear or nonlinear equation of state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varela, Victor; Rahaman, Farook; Ray, Saibal; Chakraborty, Koushik; Kalam, Mehedi [Institute of Mathematics, Kings College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Department of Physics, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata 700 010, West Bengal (India); Department of Physics, Government Training College, Hooghly 712103 (India)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ivanov pointed out substantial analytical difficulties associated with self-gravitating, static, isotropic fluid spheres when pressure explicitly depends on matter density. Simplifications achieved with the introduction of electric charge were noticed as well. We deal with self-gravitating, charged, anisotropic fluids and get even more flexibility in solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations. In order to discuss analytical solutions we extend Krori and Barua's method to include pressure anisotropy and linear or nonlinear equations of state. The field equations are reduced to a system of three algebraic equations for the anisotropic pressures as well as matter and electrostatic energy densities. Attention is paid to compact sources characterized by positive matter density and positive radial pressure. Arising solutions satisfy the energy conditions of general relativity. Spheres with vanishing net charge contain fluid elements with unbounded proper charge density located at the fluid-vacuum interface. Notably the electric force acting on these fluid elements is finite, although the acting electric field is zero. Net charges can be huge (10{sup 19}C) and maximum electric field intensities are very large (10{sup 23}-10{sup 24} statvolt/cm) even in the case of zero net charge. Inward-directed fluid forces caused by pressure anisotropy may allow equilibrium configurations with larger net charges and electric field intensities than those found in studies of charged isotropic fluids. Links of these results with charged strange quark stars as well as models of dark matter including massive charged particles are highlighted. The van der Waals equation of state leading to matter densities constrained by cubic polynomial equations is briefly considered. The fundamental question of stability is left open.

  6. Confined energy distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jason, Andrew J. (Los Alamos, NM); Blind, Barbara (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam is formed to a relatively larger area beam which is well-contained and has a beam area which relatively uniformly deposits energy over a beam target. Linear optics receive an accelerator beam and output a first beam with a first waist defined by a relatively small size in a first dimension normal to a second dimension. Nonlinear optics, such as an octupole magnet, are located about the first waist and output a second beam having a phase-space distribution which folds the beam edges along the second dimension toward the beam core to develop a well-contained beam and a relatively uniform particle intensity across the beam core. The beam may then be expanded along the second dimension to form the uniform ribbon beam at a selected distance from the nonlinear optics. Alternately, the beam may be passed through a second set of nonlinear optics to fold the beam edges in the first dimension. The beam may then be uniformly expanded along the first and second dimensions to form a well-contained, two-dimensional beam for illuminating a two-dimensional target with a relatively uniform energy deposition.

  7. Charge symmetry breaking in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gal, Avraham

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The large charge symmetry breaking (CSB) implied by the $\\Lambda$ binding energy difference $\\Delta B^{4}_{\\Lambda}(0^+_{\\rm g.s.})\\equiv B_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4$He)$-$$B_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4$H) = 0.35$\\pm$0.06 MeV of the $A=4$ mirror hypernuclei ground states, determined from emulsion studies, has defied theoretical attempts to reproduce it in terms of CSB in hyperon masses and in hyperon-nucleon interactions, including one pion exchange arising from $\\Lambda-\\Sigma^0$ mixing. Using a schematic strong-interaction $\\Lambda N\\leftrightarrow\\Sigma N$ coupling model developed by Akaishi and collaborators for $s$-shell $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei, we revisit the evaluation of CSB in the $A=4$ $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei and extend it to $p$-shell mirror $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei. The model yields values of $\\Delta B^{4}_{\\Lambda} (0^+_{\\rm g.s.})\\sim 0.25$ MeV. Smaller size and mostly negative $p$-shell binding energy differences are calculated for the $A=7-10$ mirror hypernuclei, in rough agreement with the few available dat...

  8. Charge separation in photoredox reactions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevan, L.

    1993-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural aspects controlling charge separation in molecular photoionization reactions in organized molecular assemblies involving micelles, reverse micelles and vesicles are being studied by optical and electron magnetic resonance techniques including the time domain technique of deuterium electron spin echo modulation (ESEM) and matrix proton electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) to measure weak electron-nuclear dipolar interactions. ESEM and matrix ENDOR are particularly well adapted to the study of disordered systems as exemplified by micelles and vesicles. The photoionization yields of alkylphenothiazines in micelles and vesicles have been shown to depend on the alkyl chain length and to correlate with relative distances from the surfactant assembly interface measured by deuterium ESEM and matrix proton ENDOR. The photoionization of alkylmethylviologens versus alkyl chain length has also been studied in vesicles, micelles and reverse micelles. Nitroxide spin probes have been used to study the degree of water penetration into mixed ionic/nonionic poly(ethylene oxide) and cationic/anionic micelles by using ESEM methods and selectively deuterated surfactants. The effect of urea interaction at micellar interfaces on the interface hydration has also been evaluated by studying nitroxide probes with ESEM.

  9. A generalized multi-dimensional mathematical model for charging and discharging processes in a supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allu, Srikanth [ORNL] [ORNL; Velamur Asokan, Badri [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering] [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering; Shelton, William A [Louisiana State University] [Louisiana State University; Philip, Bobby [ORNL] [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized three dimensional computational model based on unied formulation of electrode- electrolyte-electrode system of a electric double layer supercapacitor has been developed. The model accounts for charge transport across the solid-liquid system. This formulation based on volume averaging process is a widely used concept for the multiphase ow equations ([28] [36]) and is analogous to porous media theory typically employed for electrochemical systems [22] [39] [12]. This formulation is extended to the electrochemical equations for a supercapacitor in a consistent fashion, which allows for a single-domain approach with no need for explicit interfacial boundary conditions as previously employed ([38]). In this model it is easy to introduce the spatio-temporal variations, anisotropies of physical properties and it is also conducive for introducing any upscaled parameters from lower length{scale simulations and experiments. Due to the irregular geometric congurations including porous electrode, the charge transport and subsequent performance characteristics of the super-capacitor can be easily captured in higher dimensions. A generalized model of this nature also provides insight into the applicability of 1D models ([38]) and where multidimensional eects need to be considered. In addition, simple sensitivity analysis on key input parameters is performed in order to ascertain the dependence of the charge and discharge processes on these parameters. Finally, we demonstarted how this new formulation can be applied to non-planar supercapacitors

  10. A stepped leader model for lightning including charge distribution in branched channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Wei; Zhang, Li [School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Li, Qingmin, E-mail: lqmeee@ncepu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Lab of HV and EMC, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); State Key Lab of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The stepped leader process in negative cloud-to-ground lightning plays a vital role in lightning protection analysis. As lightning discharge usually presents significant branched or tortuous channels, the charge distribution along the branched channels and the stochastic feature of stepped leader propagation were investigated in this paper. The charge density along the leader channel and the charge in the leader tip for each lightning branch were approximated by introducing branch correlation coefficients. In combination with geometric characteristics of natural lightning discharge, a stochastic stepped leader propagation model was presented based on the fractal theory. By comparing simulation results with the statistics of natural lightning discharges, it was found that the fractal dimension of lightning trajectory in simulation was in the range of that observed in nature and the calculation results of electric field at ground level were in good agreement with the measurements of a negative flash, which shows the validity of this proposed model. Furthermore, a new equation to estimate the lightning striking distance to flat ground was suggested based on the present model. The striking distance obtained by this new equation is smaller than the value estimated by previous equations, which indicates that the traditional equations may somewhat overestimate the attractive effect of the ground.

  11. Charged relativistic fluids and non-linear electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Dereli; R. W. Tucker

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The electromagnetic fields in Maxwell's theory satisfy linear equations in the classical vacuum. This is modified in classical non-linear electrodynamic theories. To date there has been little experimental evidence that any of these modified theories are tenable. However with the advent of high-intensity lasers and powerful laboratory magnetic fields this situation may be changing. We argue that an approach involving the self-consistent relativistic motion of a smooth fluid-like distribution of matter (composed of a large number of charged or neutral particles) in an electromagnetic field offers a viable theoretical framework in which to explore the experimental consequences of non-linear electrodynamics. We construct such a model based on the theory of Born and Infeld and suggest that a simple laboratory experiment involving the propagation of light in a static magnetic field could be used to place bounds on the fundamental coupling in that theory. Such a framework has many applications including a new description of the motion of particles in modern accelerators and plasmas as well as phenomena in astrophysical contexts such as in the environment of magnetars, quasars and gamma-ray bursts.

  12. Controllable spin-charge transport in strained graphene nanoribbon devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diniz, Ginetom S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Guassi, Marcos R. [Institute of Physics, University of Braslia, 70919-970, Braslia-DF (Brazil); Qu, Fanyao [Institute of Physics, University of Braslia, 70919-970, Braslia-DF (Brazil); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically investigate the spin-charge transport in two-terminal device of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of a uniform uniaxial strain, spin-orbit coupling, exchange field, and smooth staggered potential. We show that the direction of applied strain can efficiently tune strain-strength induced oscillation of band-gap of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR). It is also found that electronic conductance in both AGNR and zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) oscillates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling akin to the Datta-Das field effect transistor. Two distinct strain response regimes of electronic conductance as function of spin-orbit couplings magnitude are found. In the regime of small strain, conductance of ZGNR presents stronger strain dependence along the longitudinal direction of strain. Whereas for high values of strain shows larger effect for the transversal direction. Furthermore, the local density of states shows that depending on the smoothness of the staggered potential, the edge states of AGNR can either emerge or be suppressed. These emerging states can be determined experimentally by either spatially scanning tunneling microscope or by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Our findings open up new paradigms of manipulation and control of strained graphene based nanostructure for application on novel topological quantum devices.

  13. Point of zero charge determination in soils and minerals via traditional methods and detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    -specific ion adsorption as a function of pH and I (point of zero net charge), and (3) electroacoustic mobility Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Point of zero charge; Point of zero net charge; Point, or positive, or no charge. The pH where the net total particle charge is zero is called the point of zero

  14. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  15. A First Preliminary Look: Are Corridor Charging Stations Used to Extend the Range of Electric Vehicles in The EV Project?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary analysis of data from The EV Project was performed to begin answering the question: are corridor charging stations used to extend the range of electric vehicles? Data analyzed were collected from Blink brand electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) units based in California, Washington, and Oregon. Analysis was performed on data logged between October 1, 2012 and January 1, 2013. It should be noted that as additional AC Level 2 EVSE and DC fast chargers are deployed, and as drivers become more familiar with the use of public charging infrastructure, future analysis may have dissimilar conclusions.

  16. Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: kxu2006@sinano.ac.cn; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure.

  17. Production of multiply charged ion beams from solid substances with the mVINIS ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draganic, I.; Dobrosavljevic, A.; Nedeljkovic, T.; Siljegovic, M. [Laboratory of Physics, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box. 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The mVINIS ion source has enabled us to obtain multiply charged ion beams from gases as well as from solid materials. The solid substance ion beams were produced by using two techniques: (a) the evaporation of metals by using the inlet system based on a minioven and (b) the metal-ions-from-volatile-compounds method (MIVOC) by using the modified gas inlet system. Great efforts were made in the production of high current stable ion beams of solids with relatively high melting points (over 1000 deg. C). The B{sup 3+} ion-beam current of over 300 {mu}A was one of the most intensive beams extracted until now. The obtained multiply charged ion-beam spectra of solid substances (B, Fe, and Zn) are presented as well as some of the corresponding experimental results achieved during the modification of polymers, carbon materials, and fullerenes.

  18. Study of charge symmetry breaking in dd collisions with WASA-at-COSY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wronska, Aleksandra [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge symmetry is an approximate symmetry of the strong interaction. Studies of its breaking can yield information on the u and d quark mass difference. A theoretical collaboration is currently working on the description of charge symmetry breaking mechanisms for dd{yields}{alpha}{pi}{sup 0} and np{yields}d{pi}{sup 0} within Chiral Perturbation Theory, using the data from TRI-UMF and IUCF. One of the items in the program of the WASA-at-COSY collaboration is to extend the data base for the dd{yields}{alpha}{pi}{sup 0} reaction to higher energies, which would allow the extraction of the information on the p-wave. Status of the analysis of experimental data along with the preliminary results from the pilot run will be presented here.

  19. Snapshots of the retarded interaction of charge carriers with ultrafast fluctuations in cuprates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conte, S Dal; Gole, D; Mierzejewski, M; Soavi, G; Peli, S; Banfi, F; Ferrini, G; Comin, R; Ludbrook, B M; Chauviere, L; Zhigadlo, N D; Eisaki, H; Greven, M; Lupi, S; Damascelli, A; Brida, D; Capone, M; Bon?a, J; Cerullo, G; Giannetti, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the pivotal questions in the physics of high-temperature superconductors is whether the low-energy dynamics of the charge carriers is mediated by bosons with a characteristic timescale. This issue has remained elusive since electronic correlations are expected to dramatically speed up the electron-boson scattering processes, confining them to the very femtosecond timescale that is hard to access even with state-of-the-art ultrafast techniques. Here we simultaneously push the time resolution and the frequency range of transient reflectivity measurements up to an unprecedented level that enables us to directly observe the 16 fs build-up of the effective electron-boson interaction in hole-doped copper oxides. This extremely fast timescale is in agreement with numerical calculations based on the t-J model and the repulsive Hubbard model, in which the relaxation of the photo-excited charges is achieved via inelastic scattering with short-range antiferromagnetic excitations.

  20. A 2-D Implicit, Energy and Charge Conserving Particle In Cell Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPherson, Allen L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knoll, Dana A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cieren, Emmanuel B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feltman, Nicolas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leibs, Christopher A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCarthy, Colleen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murthy, Karthik S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yijie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, a fully implicit electrostatic 1D charge- and energy-conserving particle-in-cell algorithm was proposed and implemented by Chen et al ([2],[3]). Central to the algorithm is an advanced particle pusher. Particles are moved using an energy conserving scheme and are forced to stop at cell faces to conserve charge. Moreover, a time estimator is used to control errors in momentum. Here we implement and extend this advanced particle pusher to include 2D and electromagnetic fields. Derivations of all modifications made are presented in full. Special consideration is taken to ensure easy coupling into the implicit moment based method proposed by Taitano et al [19]. Focus is then given to optimizing the presented particle pusher on emerging architectures. Two multicore implementations, and one GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) implementation are discussed and analyzed.

  1. AVTA: ChargePoint AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 A Strategic26-OPAMATTENDEEES:of Energy ChargePoint AC Level 2

  2. Plasmons in inhomogeneously doped neutral and charged graphene nanodisks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silveiro, Ivn [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Javier Garca de Abajo, F., E-mail: javier.garciadeabajo@icfo.es [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Instituci Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanats, Passeig Llus Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study plasmons in graphene nanodisks including the effect of inhomogeneity in the distribution of the doping charge. Specifically, we discuss the following two configurations: charged disks containing a fixed amount of additional carriers, which are self-consistently distributed along the surface to produce a uniform DC potential; and neutral disks exposed to a neighboring external point charge. A suitable finite-element method is elaborated to compute the charge density associated with the plasmons in the electrostatic limit. For charged disks, we find dipolar plasmons similar to those of uniformly doped graphene structures, in which the plasmon induced charge piles up near the edges. In contrast, in neutral disks placed near an external point charge, plasmons are strongly localized away from the edges. Surprisingly, a single external electron is enough to trap plasmons. The disks also display axially symmetric dark-plasmons, which can be excited through external illumination by coupling them to a neighboring metallic element. Our results have practical relevance for graphene nanophotonics under inhomogeneous doping conditions.

  3. Charge-induced phase separation in lipid membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroki Himeno; Naofumi Shimokawa; Shigeyuki Komura; David Andelman; Tsutomu Hamada; Masahiro Takagi

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase separation in lipid bilayers that include negatively charged lipids is examined experimentally. We observed phase-separated structures and determined the membrane miscibility temperatures in several binary and ternary lipid mixtures of unsaturated neutral lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), saturated neutral lipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), unsaturated charged lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$), saturated charged lipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$), and cholesterol. In binary mixtures of saturated and unsaturated charged lipids, the combination of the charged head with the saturation of hydrocarbon tail is a dominant factor for the stability of membrane phase separation. DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$ enhances phase separation, while DOPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$ suppresses it. Furthermore, the addition of DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$ to a binary mixture of DPPC/cholesterol induces phase separation between DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$-rich and cholesterol-rich phases. This indicates that cholesterol localization depends strongly on the electric charge on the hydrophilic head group rather than on the ordering of the hydrocarbon tails. Finally, when DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$ was added to a neutral ternary system of DOPC/DPPC/Cholesterol (a conventional model of membrane rafts), a three-phase coexistence was produced. We conclude by discussing some qualitative features of the phase behaviour in charged membranes using a free energy approach.

  4. Pressure-induced amorphization of charge ordered spinel AlV{sub 2}O{sub 4} at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malavi, Pallavi S., E-mail: malavips@barc.gov.in; Karmakar, S., E-mail: malavips@barc.gov.in; Sharma, S. M. [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Maurizio, P. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural properties of charge ordered spinel AlV{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been investigated under high pressure at low temperature (80K) by synchrotron based x-ray diffraction measurements. It is observed that upon increasing pressure the structure becomes progressively disordered due to the distortion of the AlO{sub 4} tetrahedral unit and undergoes amorphization above ?12 GPa. While releasing pressure, the rhombohedral phase is only partially recovered at a much lower pressure (below 5 GPa). Within the stability of the rhombohedral phase, the distortion in the vanadium heptamer increases monotonically with pressure, suggesting enhanced charge ordering. This result is in sharp contrast with the recent observation of pressure-induced frustration in the charge ordered state leading to structural transition to the cubic phase at room temperature [JPCM 25, 292201, 2013].

  5. Electrically-Charged Lifshitz Spacetimes, and Hyperscaling Violations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong-Ying Fan; H. Lu

    2015-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically-charged Lifshitz spacetimes are hard to come by. In this paper, we construct a class of such solutions in five dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to Maxwell and $SU(2)$ Yang-Mills fields. The solutions are electrically-charged under the Maxwell field, whose equation is sourced by the Yang-Mills instanton(-like) configuration living in the hyperbolic four-space of the Lifshitz spacetime. We then introduce a dilaton and construct charged and colored Lifshitz spacetimes with hyperscaling violations. We obtain a class of exact Lifshitz black holes. We also perform similar constructions in four dimensions.

  6. The electrostatic charge generation characteristics of transformer oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James Rensselaer

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , reaching maximum values at 1. 9 X 10 " S/c, and then gradually decreasing as the conductivity continued to increase. CHARGE (x E-8 coulombs) 8 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 TIME (seconds) REYNOLDS NUMBER 3083 ~ 4404 ~ 5284 IB 7047 FIGURE 13 New... (x E-7 coulombs) 25 20 15 10 0 0 200 TIME (seconds) 300 400 REYNOLDS NUM8ER 3083 ~ 4404 ~ 5284 ~ 7047 FIGURE 15 New Transformer Oil Average Charge vs Time ]. . 9 X IQ ' 5/o 70 CHARGE (x E-7 coulombs) 60 5D 40 30 20 10 0 50 10D...

  7. Relativistic Dynamics of a Charged Particle in an Electroscalar Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Podgainy; O. A. Zaimidoroga

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This article devoted to relativistic dynamics of a charged massive particle in an electroscalar field. It represents a continuation of paper [1] where the authors constructed a non-relativistic theory which describes transverse electromagnetic waves along with longitudinal electroscalar ones, responsible for the wave transport of the Coulomb field. A new type of relativistic force exerted by electroscalar field on an electrically charged particle and the relativistic law of superposition of electromagnetic transverse and electroscalar longitudinal fields are established. Also, a relativistically invariant form of a Lagrangian describing the interaction between an electroscalar field and massive electrically charged particle is defined.

  8. Relativistic Dynamics of a Charged Particle in an Electroscalar Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgainy, D V

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article devoted to relativistic dynamics of a charged massive particle in an electroscalar field. It represents a continuation of paper [1] where the authors constructed a non-relativistic theory which describes transverse electromagnetic waves along with longitudinal electroscalar ones, responsible for the wave transport of the Coulomb field. A new type of relativistic force exerted by electroscalar field on an electrically charged particle and the relativistic law of superposition of electromagnetic transverse and electroscalar longitudinal fields are established. Also, a relativistically invariant form of a Lagrangian describing the interaction between an electroscalar field and massive electrically charged particle is defined.

  9. Liouville theory with a central charge less than one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribault, Sylvain

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the spectrum and correlation functions of Liouville theory with a central charge less than (or equal) one. This completes the definition of Liouville theory for all complex values of the central charge. The spectrum is always spacelike, and there is no consistent timelike Liouville theory. We also study the non-analytic conformal field theories that exist at rational values of the central charge. Our claims are supported by numerical checks of crossing symmetry. We provide Python code for computing Virasoro conformal blocks, and correlation functions in Liouville theory and (generalized) minimal models.

  10. Liouville theory with a central charge less than one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvain Ribault; Raoul Santachiara

    2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the spectrum and correlation functions of Liouville theory with a central charge less than (or equal) one. This completes the definition of Liouville theory for all complex values of the central charge. The spectrum is always spacelike, and there is no consistent timelike Liouville theory. We also study the non-analytic conformal field theories that exist at rational values of the central charge. Our claims are supported by numerical checks of crossing symmetry. We provide Python code for computing Virasoro conformal blocks, and correlation functions in Liouville theory and (generalized) minimal models.

  11. Interaction of Hawking radiation and a static electric charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis C. B. Crispino; Atsushi Higuchi; George E. A. Matsas

    1998-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate whether the equality found for the response of static scalar sources interacting (i) with {\\em Hawking radiation in Schwarzschild spacetime} and (ii) with the Fulling-Davies-Unruh thermal bath in the Rindler wedge is maintained in the case of electric charges. We find a finite result in the Schwarzschild case, which is computed exactly, in contrast with the divergent result associated with the infrared catastrophe in the Rindler case, i.e. in the case of uniformly accelerated charges in Minkowski spacetime. Thus, the equality found for scalar sources does not hold for electric charges.

  12. Direct space-charge effects on the ILC damping rings: Task Force Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Venturini, First-Order Space-Charge Tuneshift in a Linearly59511 February 2006 Direct Space Charge E?ects on the ILCof the Task Force on space charge. (A slightly reduced

  13. Space-Charge Effects in the Super B-Factory LER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Marco

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. Oide, and A. Wolski, Space-Charge and EquilibriumVenturini and K. Oide, Direct Space-Charge E?ects on the ILCLBNL-62259 January 2007 Space-Charge E?ects in the Super B-

  14. Modeling Improvements for Air Source Heat Pumps using Different Expansion Devices at Varied Charge Levels Part II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes steady-state performance simulations performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. In total, 150 steady-state points were simulated, which covers refrigerant charge levels from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value, the outdoor temperatures at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C), indoor air flow rates from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate, and two types of expansion devices (fixed orifice and thermostatic expansion valve). A charge tuning method, which is to calibrate the charge inventory model based on measurements at two operation conditions, was applied and shown to improve the system simulation accuracy significantly in an extensive range of charge levels. In addition, we discuss the effects of suction line accumulator in modeling a heat pump system using either a fixed orifice or thermal expansion valve. Last, we identify the issue of refrigerant mass flow mal-distribution at low charge levels and propose an improved modeling approach.

  15. Tuning chargedischarge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ma, Jun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Hu, Enyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Gu, Lin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Nam, Kyung -Wan [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chen, Liquan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Wang, Zhaoxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Yang, Xiao -Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new unit cell breathing mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during chargedischarge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metalmetal bonding is used to explain such abnormal behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of MM bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking MO as controlling factor in normal materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Tuning chargedischarge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ma, Jun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Hu, Enyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Gu, Lin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Nam, Kyung -Wan [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chen, Liquan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Wang, Zhaoxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Yang, Xiao -Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new unit cell breathing mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during chargedischarge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metalmetal bonding is used to explain such abnormal behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of MM bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking MO as controlling factor in normal materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Tuning chargedischarge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new unit cell breathing mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during chargedischarge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metalmetal bonding is used to explain such abnormal behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of MM bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking MO as controlling factor in normal materials.moreThe cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.less

  18. Fuel effects in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angelos, John P. (John Phillip)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogenous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion is a new method of burning fuel in internal combustion (IC) engines. In an HCCI engine, the fuel and air are premixed prior to combustion, like in a spark-ignition ...

  19. Surface-Plasmon Assisted Exciton and Charge Carrier Transport...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface-Plasmon Assisted Exciton and Charge Carrier Transport in One Dimensional Nanostructures February 21, 2013 at 3pm36-428 Andrei Piryatinski Physics of Condensed Matter and...

  20. CHARACTERIZING COUPLED CHARGE TRANSPORT WITH MULTISCALE MOLECULAR DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, Jessica

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final progress report for Award DE-SC0004920, entitled 'Characterizing coupled charge transport with multi scale molecular dynamics'. The technical abstract will be provided in the uploaded report.