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  1. Aruba: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aruba is a country in the Caribbean. External Links Aruba Renewable Energy Data from IEA Aruba Contacts from Climate-Eval LowCarbonWorld Profile for Aruba Retrieved from...

  2. Antigua and Barbuda-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Antigua and Barbuda-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name Antigua and Barbuda-Caribbean Community (CARICOM)...

  3. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Antigua and Barbuda; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-05-20

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Antigua and Barbuda, an independent nation in the Leeward Islands in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Antigua and Barbuda’s utility rates are approximately $0.37 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), which is above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  4. Assessing Pathways in Aruba | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, Inc | Department ofMarketing,1 Articles01AsianAruba

  5. Antigua and Barbuda: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYork Jump| Open EnergyNew Jersey:Antigua and Barbuda:

  6. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Aruba (Fact Sheet); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Aruba, an autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located off the coast of Venezuela.

  7. Bahamas-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bahamas-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name Bahamas-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and...

  8. Bahamas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ), created in order to serve as the primary governing body for electronic communications in the Bahamas. The URCA is to assume responsibility for the electricity...

  9. Countries with "low incidence" of tuberculosis. Students who have resided in any country other than those listed below in the past 5 years must check yes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    to have a tuberculin skin test. Albania Andorra Antigua and Barbuda Australia Austria Bahamas Barbados

  10. Succulent and spiny : the Bahamas' quest for a sustainable lobster fishery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rood, Jennifer E., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    The Caribbean spiny lobster fishery is one of the most important industries in the economy of the Bahamas, and in turn it is one of the largest lobster industries in the world. The natural geography of the Bahamas makes ...

  11. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Bahamas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas - a country consisting of more than 700 islands, cays, and islets - of which only 30 are actually inhabited. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  12. Sandia Energy - SNL-ESSC (Sandia National Laboratories - Extreme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana...

  13. SIT Workshops 1995 2011 Page 1 of 17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , MD General Standards and Conformity Assessment Antigua & Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Dominica Grenada Barbados Belize Bolivia Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominica Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana

  14. BAHAMAS: new SNIa analysis reveals inconsistencies with standard cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shariff, H; Trotta, R; van Dyk, D A

    2015-01-01

    We present results obtained by applying our BAyesian HierArchical Modeling for the Analysis of Supernova cosmology (BAHAMAS) software package to the 740 spectroscopically confirmed supernovae type Ia (SNIa) from the "Joint Light-curve Analysis" (JLA) dataset. We simultaneously determine cosmological parameters and standardization parameters, including host galaxy mass corrections, residual scatter and object-by-object intrinsic magnitudes. Combining JLA and Planck Cosmic Microwave Background data, we find significant discrepancies in cosmological parameter constraints with respect to the standard analysis: we find Omega_M = 0.399+/-0.027, 2.8\\sigma\\ higher than previously reported and w = -0.910+/-0.045, 1.6\\sigma\\ higher than the standard analysis. We determine the residual scatter to be sigma_res = 0.104+/-0.005. We confirm (at the 95% probability level) the existence of two sub-populations segregated by host galaxy mass, separated at log_{10}(M/M_solar) = 10, differing in mean intrinsic magnitude by 0.055+...

  15. Whose land is it anyway? : an analysis of the management and distribution of Crown Land in the Bahamas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Nakeischea Loi

    2007-01-01

    Like many islands throughout the Caribbean, The Bahamas are now experiencing rapid growth and development in the form of large-scale luxury resorts and second homes. Consistent with a long history going back to the colonial ...

  16. Can Ecotourism Help Achieve Sustainable Development? A SWOT Analysis of the Marine Ecotourism Sector on Andros Island, Bahamas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baller, Joshua

    2014-11-27

    sustainable development in small island states. This will be carried out through an analysis of the marine ecotourism sector on Andros Island, The Bahamas, using SWOT Analysis to determine whether or not ecotourism is viable as a sustainable development option...

  17. Assessing Pathways in Aruba

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research atDepartment of EnergyOF THE MANAGEMENT OFofAspinall2:

  18. Sedimentary iron cycling and the origin and preservation of magnetization in platform carbonate muds, Andros Island, Bahamas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschvink, Joseph L.

    carbonates provide, in their stratigraphy and sedimentology, a local record of changing environmental of Pleistocene aeolianites in the Triple Goose Creek region of northwest Andros Island, Bahamas. Sedimentological directions and magnetofossil stratigraphies. © 2007 Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: sedimentary

  19. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from

  20. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic 2011: Warning about the dangers of tobacco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WHO

    2011-01-01

    Barbuda, the Bahamas, the Comoros, Cook Islands, Ecuador,African Republic Chad Comoros Congo Côte d’Ivoire DemocraticAfrican Republic Chad Comoros Congo Côte d'Ivoire Democratic

  1. Evaluating the national HIV counseling and testing (CT) program of St. Lucia: a study to determine coverage, utilization, successes, and gaps in service delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asrat, Anjabebu S.

    2010-01-01

    quot;“""°5 ‘ -M ~ Barbados 0 200 Kilometers ‘ .Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada,Tobago 2.6% Guyana 2.4% Barbados 1.5% Jamaica 1.5% Dominican

  2. Three Essays On Agricultural and Forestry Offsets In Climate Change Mitigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Siyi

    2012-07-16

    , New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu 17 RCAM Antigua Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras...

  3. Deposition of carbonate mud beds within high-energy subtidal sand Dunes, Bahamas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dill, R.F.; Steinen, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Laminated, carbonate mud beds are being deposited in the interisland channels of the Exuma Cays in the Bahamas. They are associated with stromatolites and interbedded with ooid sands that form large migrating subtidal dunes on flood tidal deltas and bars. Currents up to 3 knots sweep in and out of the 4-8 m deep channels 3 hours out of every 6 hours, creating a high-energy bank margin environment not usually considered to be the site of mud-sized particle deposition. Mud deposits reach thicknesses of 1 m and have individual beds 2-5 cm thick. When exposed to flowing seawater, bed surfaces become encrusted with carbonate cement and algal mats. The white interior of mud beds between the crusts appears homogeneous, is soft, and has the consistency of ''tooth paste.'' Loose uncemented ooid sand is found above and below the mud beds, showing that both are occupying the same depositional environment. Rip-up clasts of the crusted mud beds, formed by scour of underlying sands, are carried throughout the channels and accumulate as a lag deposit within the troughs of migrating dunes. Some clasts are colonized by algal mats that trap ooid and skeletal sands forming stromatolite structures that can grow up to 2 m high.

  4. Temporal and spatial variability of ooid sand shoals: Comparison of Mississippian of Kentucky and Quaternary of Bahamas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, M.R. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA))

    1989-08-01

    An examination of the lithology and topography of Andros Island, Bahamas, reveals it is a Pleistocene ooid sand shoal. A comparison with Joulters Cays (a modern ooid sand shoal directly to the north) shows that much of the original depositional topography is preserved through at least one cycle of sea level highstand and lowstand. Both the Pleistocene and the Holocene ooid sand bodies are a few kilometers to tens of kilometers wide. The total vertical relief of a single episode of Quaternary ooid sand deposition is more than 10 m and includes accumulation in tidal channels, shallow flat areas, and eolian dunes. Today, much of Andros Island is within 2 m of present sea level and is the site of a belt several kilometers wide consisting of muddy tidal flat sediments overlying an exposure surface. The site of ooid sand deposition and shoal complex formation is not continuous along shorelines, especially windward margins, but shifts abruptly along the margins of platforms as a result of minor fluctuations of sea level. Thus, it should be expected that ooid sand shoals (ancient and modern) should be in direct lateral and vertical contact with lagoons, tidal flats, and reefs. The Mississippian Slade Formation contains many of the features of Quaternary ooid sand accumulation: abrupt vertical and lateral gradations between oolitic grainstones, packstones, and lime mudstones, vertical relief of individual oolitic sedimentary packages up to 30 m (perhaps with eolian dunes) and numerous exposure surfaces of varying intensities. These characteristics suggest that this formation represents a time of rapid fluctuations of relative sea level and abrupt shifts in the sites of ooid sand shoal complexes.

  5. Antigua and Barbuda-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC Jump to: navigation,Summaries | Open EnergyRoadmap and Strategy |

  6. Antigua and Barbuda-Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex A S Jump to:Angola on theAnselmo,Texas: Energy ResourcesChange

  7. Antigua and Barbuda: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYork Jump| Open EnergyNew Jersey:Antigua and

  8. Stromatolites, ooid dunes, hardgrounds, and crusted mud beds, all products of marine cementation and microbial mats in subtidal oceanic mixing zone on eastern margin of Great Bahama Bank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dill, R.F.; Kendall, C.S.C.G.; Steinen, R.P.

    1989-03-01

    The interisland channels along the eastern margin of the Great Bahamas Bank contain lithified structures that owe their origin to recent marine cementation. This cementation appears to be commonly associated with a complex microbial community of plants and microorganisms living within a bank-margin oceanographic mixing zone. In this region, reversing tidal and wind-driven currents flow up to 3 knots (150 cm/sec) three hours out of each six-hour tidal period. Here, marine-cement crusted, carbonate mud beds are found interbedded within migrating ooid sand bars and dunes and are associated with growing, lithified stromatolites up to 2 m in height. These laminated mud beds are found with thicknesses of up to 1 m in subtidal depths of 4 to 8 m (12 to 25 ft). The muds appear to be homogeneous, but closer examination by SEM and under a microscope reveals they are composed of pelletoid aggregates of needle-shaped aragonite crystals with diameters of up to 50 ..mu... The size of these soft pellets is similar to the smaller grains of ooid sands that are abundant in the area. This size similarity could explain why both the mud beds are found in similar high-energy hydraulic regimes as the ooid sands, but does not suggest how or why the aggregates of pure aragonite needles form. A high production of ooid sand within this bank margin environment permits the formation of natural levees along the margins of tidal channels. The back sides of these levees are being lithified by marine cements to form hardgrounds. Skeletal and ooid sand dunes stabilized by Thallasia in channel bottoms also are becoming lithified. Grapestones form at the distributaries of flood tidal deltas of ooid sand. All of these features have a common attribute: they are continually in contact with the turbulent mixing-zone waters.

  9. Macroalgal distribution at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jill Christie

    1997-01-01

    The preservation of coral reef communities has become a major concern to scientists and environmentalists due to the increase in coral diseases and reef degradation on a worldwide basis. As a result of coral mortality and the removal of herbivores...

  10. Cuba, Jamaica and the Bahama Islands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodd, Mead & Company

    1907-01-01

    in equine genomics and the genetics of athletic performance in humans have opened up the possibility of investigating this important trait in the Thoroughbred. Initially, 46 candidate genes associated with human athletic performance were mapped in the equine...

  11. Bahamas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex AAustriaBiofuels Brasil Jump to:Babette JeeBaca2EnergyBagnore

  12. BAHAMA ISLANDS Christian JUBERTHIE* and Thomas M. ILIFFE**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    , encouraging karst erosion. There are numerous caves and sinkholes, occasionally reaching depths of 100 m

  13. Bahamas-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC Jump to:Greece: EnergyMontana)DistrictTransport Jump to:Strategy |

  14. Bahamas-Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYorkColorado State Office JumpUtahPlcBackyardResilience

  15. IntroductIon Occasional Papers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Scott C.

    of Barbuda provides ample roosting sites and access to freshwater in caves, bluff faces, and sinkholes

  16. Society to 2050 AD: Anthropological Forecasts Extrapolating Correlates of Modernization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denton, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium BelizeBahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium BelizeBahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize

  17. Statistisches Bundesamt VIB/32134000 und VIB/32135100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Bahrain, auch Bahrein 460 Bangladesch 322 Barbados 320 Barbuda, Antigua und - 149 Bäreninsel, zu Norwegen

  18. The Impact of Climate Change on The Bahamas a Review of Early Forecasts By Neil Sealey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sealey, Kathleen Sullivan

    . Changes due to Sea Level Rise: Sea level will rise because more polar and glacial ice will melt than warming, it is not simply warming that causes glaciers to melt. All glaciers are melting to some degree at their terminuses, but whether they are advancing or retreating is determined by the balance between melting

  19. Underwater Mirror Exposure to Free-Ranging Naïve Atlantic Spotted Dolphins (Stenella frontalis) in the Bahamas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delfour, Fabienne; Herzing, Denise

    2013-01-01

    false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) and Californiafalse killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) and sea lions (

  20. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF TROPICAL REEF SYSTEMS: ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN THE EXUMA CAYS, BAHAMAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sealey, Kathleen Sullivan

    ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF TROPICAL REEF SYSTEMS: ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM destination in the wider Carib- bean and entertains two tourism markets: 1) cruise ship and resort (overnight to that which will sustain rather than destroy the environment, the very product marketed and sought. In order

  1. Organic matter preserved in modern ooids from Shark Bay and the Bahamas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillespie, Aimée L

    2013-01-01

    Ooids - small, concentrically laminated carbonate grains - are an important component of the sedimentary rock record, yet many details of their formation are not well understood. In particular, the role of microorganisms ...

  2. Tourism-related drivers of support for protection of fisheries resources on Andros Island, The Bahamas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerhans, Brian

    to create a poverty trap by providing a minimum income thereby removing incentive to invest in education or take risks necessary to escape poverty (Delacote, 2009). Protecting fisheries resources can ensure the poverty trap effect caused by overreliance on extraction. Fisheries protection measures (e.g., protected

  3. Novel Bacterial Diversity in an Anchialine Blue Hole on Abaco Island, Bahamas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    2012-02-14

    in the interior of the island (Raeisi and Mylroie, 1995). This mixing of water masses has aggressive dissolutional properties and aids in the forming of karstic features such as flank margin caves. Mylroie et al., (2001) proposed and developed the ?Carbonate... towards the geologic development and glacial eustatic events on the island. 10 Anchialine Environment Anchialine habitats are known to exist throughout the world often underground, forming a halocline where freshwater mixes with the intruding...

  4. Mapping bathymetry and depositional facies on Great Bahama PAUL M. (MITCH) HARRIS*, 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purkis, Sam

    of Earth and Life Sciences, Sedimentology and Marine Geology Group, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Associate. Sedimentology © 2014 International Association of Sedimentologists Sedimentology (2014) doi: 10.1111/sed.12159

  5. Stratigraphic Heterogeneity of a Holocene Ooid Tidal Sand Shoal: Lily Bank, Bahamas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Andrew

    2011-08-31

    ........................................................................................................................ 5 Regional Trends in Reflectors and Units .................................................................................................. 7 SEDIMENTOLOGY OF THE HOLOCENE SUCCESSION... ...................................................................... 8 Lagoon Sedimentology and Stratigraphy .................................................................................................. 8 Channel (Inter-bar) Sedimentology and Stratigraphy...

  6. Mapping bathymetry and depositional facies on Great Bahama PAUL M. (MITCH) HARRIS*, 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purkis, Sam

    of Earth and Life Sciences, Sedimentology and Marine Geology Group, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Associate. Sedimentology © 2014 International Association of Sedimentologists Sedimentology (2015) 62, 566­589 doi: 10

  7. What Can Open Access Do for Me? Personal Perspectives of KU Faculty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Greenberg, Marc L.; Torrance, Andrew W.; Goddard, Stephen

    2010-10-21

    , Belgium, Belarus, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Austria, Australia, Aruba, Argentina, Algeria, Albania … town@ku.edu ..., Belgium, Belarus, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Austria, Australia, Aruba, Argentina, Algeria, Albania … town@ku.edu ...

  8. International reserves management and the current account

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua

    2007-01-01

    Azerbaijan Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Bosnia & Herzegovinaand Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile CostaKingdom of Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin

  9. Life in the Living Laboratory: An Anthropological Investigation of Environmental Science, Tourism, and Design in the Contemporary Bahamas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    of what he calls positive “ modes of subject formation. ”These interdependent modes are 1) subject formation through

  10. Life in the Living Laboratory: An Anthropological Investigation of Environmental Science, Tourism, and Design in the Contemporary Bahamas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    the vulnerability of island systems, the geographicallymake a real impact in island energy systems and brand bothexpense of Eleuthera’s island energy system, and by the fact

  11. Foreign Fishery Developments u.s. Tuna Imports From

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caribbean Caribbean Bahamas! 529.7 Bahamas' $ 175.2 Barbados 680 Barbados $ 222.2 Bermuda' 6.300.7 4

  12. Empowering Women: The Role of Economic Development, Political Culture and Institutional Design in the World’s Societies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Amy C.

    2007-01-01

    Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bolivia, Botswana, Bulgaria,75 th Argentina, Bahamas Barbados, Belize Bolivia, BrazilUnited States Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Botswana,

  13. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic 2011: Warning about the dangers of tobacco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WHO

    2011-01-01

    Albania, Australia, Barbados*, Bhutan, Burkina Faso*,countries (Bahamas, Barbados, Iran, Panama, and Trinidad andArgentina Bahamas Barbados Belize Bolivia (Plurinational

  14. Security and United States Immigration Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Totten, Robbie James

    2012-01-01

    from the Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Jamaica, Mexico, andworkers were imported from Barbados, 18,423 workers werelaborers from the Bahamas, Barbados, Honduras, and Jamaica

  15. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    and Reuse Leachate Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MCL Standards and Un-Coated Coal Ash Leachate Results (MCL Standards and ARUBA Leachate Results (ppb) Introduction

  16. Phytologia (April 2008) 90(1) 103 THE EVOLUTION OF CARIBBEAN JUNIPERUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Robert P.

    (endemic to Bermuda); J. barbadensis (endemic to St. Lucia, extinct on Barbados); J. lucayana (Bahamas

  17. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.; GADGIL, ASHOK J.; ADDY, SUSAN E.A.; KOWOLIK, KRISTIN

    2010-06-01

    We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (~;;$0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6x10-6 mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90percent (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90percent of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than one hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R2>_ 0.99) increase from 2.4x105 to 7.2x105 g mol-1 min-1 as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and clarification, which is expected to be less expensive than filtration of micron-scale particles, further contributing to the affordability of a community-scale water treatment center.

  18. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna

    2009-01-07

    Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate?bottom ash from coal fired power plants?is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts ofBangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, andcontinues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA?s arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentrationof the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  19. WHO REPORT ON THE GLOBAL TOBACCO EPIDEMIC, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WHO World Health Organization

    2013-01-01

    Australia, Austria, Barbados, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada,Argentina*, Australia, Barbados, Bhutan, Brazil*, BruneiArgentina Bahamas Barbados Belize Bolivia (Plurinational

  20. CURRICULUM VITAE EUGENE C. RANKEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .C.RankeyC.V. October20132 2. Sparks, A.G., and Rankey, E.C., 2013, Relations between geomorphic form and sedimentologic a Holocene analogue, Little Bahama Bank, Bahamas: Sedimentology. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.2012.01338.x 4, Southeast Bahamas: An alternative to the humid channeled belt model: Sedimentology, 59, 1902-1925. 5. Rankey

  1. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

    2010-01-01

    from aqueous solutions by fly ash. Water Res. 1993, 27(12),of Cations in Class F Fly Ash. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003,ash particles become fly ash. A maximum ARUBA diameter size

  2. The Right to Life with Dignity: Economic and Social Rights Respect in the World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolp, Felicity Ann

    2010-01-01

    Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium BelizeRep. Albania Georgia Belgium Barbados Serbia and MontenegroIsrael Belgium Denmark Barbados Bulgaria France Hungary

  3. The Fear of French Negroes: Transcolonial Collaboration in the Revolutionary Americas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Sara E.

    2012-01-01

    apprentices in Montserrat and Barbados are free]” (June 9,their enterprises, from Barbados to South Carolina, forVincent, Trinidad, Anti- gua, Barbados, and the Bahamas. 11.

  4. Project 2012: Increasing Female Representation in Government

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLean, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    Panama Mongolia T.F.Y.R. of Macedonia Andorra Bahamas Cubambodia* eria e F.Y.R. of Macedonia ypt man* prus minican

  5. An alkaline spring system within the Del Puerto ophiolite (California USA): A Mars analog site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blank, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Eluthera Island, Bahamas). Sedimentology 51, 745–765. Eiler,and eukaryotic algae. Sedimentology 45, Friedman, I. , andPliocene, central Spain). Sedimentology 48, 897–915. Geets,

  6. TOOLS AND METHODS FOR STUDIES IN COASTAL ECOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sealey, Kathleen Sullivan

    TOOLS AND METHODS FOR STUDIES IN COASTAL ECOLOGY OF THE BAHAMAS Version 1.2. April 2006 #12;TOOLS Sealey, K, K. Semon, N. Cushion, E.Wright, C. Kaplan, and B. Carpenter. 2006. Tools and Methods for Coastal Ecological Studies of The Bahamas. University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fl. 33124. 111 pp. #12;TOOLS

  7. JOURNAL OF CRUSTACEAN BIOLOGY, 25(1): 8194, 2005 NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS TYPHLATYA (DECAPODA: ATYIDAE) FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    : ATYIDAE) FROM ANCHIALINE CAVES IN MEXICO, THE BAHAMAS, AND HONDURAS Fernando Alvarez, Thomas M. Iliffe Nacional Auto´noma de Me´xico, Apartado Postal 70-153, Me´xico 04510 D.F., Me´xico (FA, correspondence caves in Mexico (T. dzilamensis), the Bahamas (T. kakuki), and Honduras (T. utilaensis) are described

  8. Myodocopid Ostracoda (Halocypridina, Cladocopina)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    in the Bahamas, Canary Islands, and Mexico Louis S. Kornicker and Thomas M. Iliffe SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS (Halocypridina, Cladocopina)fromAnchialine Caves in the Bahamas, Canary Islands, and Mexico. Smithsonian, 1995, from a lava tube in Lanzarote, Canary Islands. One specimen of the cladocopid Polycopiellafromthe

  9. Jara S. D. Schnyder1 Gregor P. Eberli1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    ,Talence Cedex fig. 6 landslide duration fig. 7 terminal velocity slope failures potential for tsunami generation by submarine slope failures along the western Great Bahama Bank jschnyder@rsmas.miami.edu fig. 1 The western slope of Great Bahama Bank shows slope failures at various scales (fig. 1).Three land- slides were

  10. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Emirates 769 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non OPEC 18,415 0 65 3,136 0 692 692 Argentina 1,437 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 1,186 0 0 0 Australia 629 0 0 0 0 0 0 Brazil 953 0 0 0...

  11. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Emirates 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non OPEC 19,527 0 10 1,268 0 33 33 Argentina 1,101 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 748 0 0 0 Australia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Brazil 1,973 0 0 0 0...

  12. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 1,589 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non OPEC 153,258 0 694 13,749 0 7,347 7,347 Argentina 13,500 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 3,304 0 0 0 Australia 1,900 0 44 192 0 0 0 Brazil...

  13. College of Technology and Innovation, March 27, 2013 Vocational Training and Education for Clean Energy (VOCTEC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    technical trainers and technicians to install, operate, and troubleshoot off-grid solar photovoltaic (PV investments in the Pacific where failures often derail long term investment efforts in PV Solar. The first two and installation as well as basic principles of solar PV energy. Attendees are drawn from Aruba's two major utility

  14. DESIGN OF A RURAL WATER PROVISION SYSTEM TO DECREASE ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN BANGLADESH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agogino, Alice M.

    DESIGN OF A RURAL WATER PROVISION SYSTEM TO DECREASE ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN BANGLADESH Johanna Louise in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of Bangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips

  15. Somatic growth functions are critical parameters for understanding the life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    181300 Corpus Christi, Texas 78480 Wendy G. Teas Wayne N. Witzell Southeast Fisheries Science Center growth rates was tested in a population of green turtles, Chelonia mydas, in the south- ern Bahamas

  16. Blue Bonnet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Anchialine blue holes found in the interior of the Bahama Islands have distinct fresh and salt water layers, with vertical mixing, and dysoxic to anoxic conditions below the halocline. Scientific cave diving exploration and microbiological...

  17. Allan w. Stoner Kirsten C. Schwarte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    :171-179 (1994) Queen conch (Strombus gigas), once abundant throughout the Car- ibbean region, have been fished). To the west and south of the Cays lies the Great Bahama Bank, a shallow, sand- and seagrass-covered platform

  18. ELSEVIER Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 150 (1999) 223246 Marine saline ponds as sedimentary archives of late Holocene climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    ELSEVIER Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 150 (1999) 223­246 Marine saline ponds sedimentation is preserved in shallow ponds on Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas. Details throughout the remaining history of saline pond development. Foraminiferal isotope stratigraphy is compatible

  19. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2015: Raising taxes on tobacco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Health Organization

    2015-01-01

    Argentina, Australia, Barbados, Bhutan, Brazil, BruneiII From 15% to 19.9% Barbados Less than 15% Belize BoliviaArgentina Bahamas** Barbados WHO REPORT ON THE GLOBAL

  20. Novel Application of Metering Pump on Diesel Aftertreatment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guyan a The Bahamas Cuba Dominican Republic Panama Costa Rica Nicaragu a Honduras Guatemala El Salv ador T rinidad and Tobag o Jam. Haiti Puerto Rico (US) Greenland (Den.)...

  1. K. Sullivan Sealey 10/3/2006 What I did on my summer vacation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sealey, Kathleen Sullivan

    and submersible hangars, fully equipped machine shop, fume hoods, uninterruptable power supply, air conditioning more lab space that the entire College of The Bahamas, and likely more computing capacity! The power

  2. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  3. Biostromal Coral Facies -A Miocene Example from the Leitha Limestone (Austria) and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahamas (Andros,Exu- ma Cays)and theArabian Gulf(Dubai, UAE).Accordingto the model presented of benthic biota in the Arabian Gulf (JebelAli, Dubai, UAE)wasusedto illustrate the likely lateral, 1991;Piller et al.,1996).The coralsgrewona shoal or closeto a string of islands, in a relatively low

  4. Commercializing/Financing OTEC Dr. Ted Johnson, Executive Director and VP of OTEC/SDC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finance Architecture 6 (Baha Mar SDC Project & Bahamas Electricity Corporation OTEC power plants) Top (equivalent to ~42,000 tons CO2) per year, reducing electricity consumption by over 80% · Energy Services, LLC (NJ, USA) is a proven leader in the development of Central Energy Cooling, Combined Heat and Power

  5. ANCHIALINE ECOSYSTEMS Microbial hotspots in anchialine blue holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macalady, Jenn

    ANCHIALINE ECOSYSTEMS Microbial hotspots in anchialine blue holes: initial discoveries from+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract Inland blue holes of the Bahamas are anchialine ecosystems with distinct fresh and geomicrobiology exploration of blue holes are providing a first glimpse of the geochemistry and microbial life

  6. Animal vocal sequences: not the Markov chains we thought they were

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Bowles, Ann E.; Freeberg, Todd M.; Jin, Dezhe Z.; Lameira, Adriano R.; Bohn, Kirsten

    2014-08-20

    ://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/prsb Submitted to Proceedings of the Royal Society B: For Review Only Pilot whale permits: US NMFS 1121-1900, 981-1578, Bahamas 01/09, 02/07, 02/08; 425 funding: SERDP, ONR, NOAA, US Navy Environmental Readiness Division; call 426 classification: Laela Sayigh...

  7. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Turks & Caicos (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile presents a snapshot of the electricity generation and reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Turks and Caicos - a British overseas territory consisting of two groups of islands located southeast of the Bahamas. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  8. Insights on Psittacine Nutrition through the Study of Free-living Chicks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cornejo, Juan

    2012-07-16

    sampled the crops from free-living chicks of scarlet macaws and red-and-green macaws from southeastern Peru, Cuban parrots from the Bahamas, lilac-crowned parrots from northwestern Mexico, and thick-billed parrots from northern Mexico. The predicted...

  9. OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 101 PRELIMINARY REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Institutions, Inc., under contract with the National Science Foundation. Funding for the program is provided by the following agencies: Department of Energy, Mines and Resources (Canada) Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftOCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 101 PRELIMINARY REPORT BAHAMAS James A. Austin, Jr. Co-Chief Scientist

  10. BIOLOGY OF UNDERWATER CAVES by Tom IlifJe, PhD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    , Canary Islands and Western Australia. 63 #12;· Thermosbaenaceans - small (4 mm or less), eyeless or eye and volcanic caves, mostly on islands, around the Caribbean, Med- iterranean and Indo-Pacific. Seven of the ten marine, oxygen-deficient waters in caves in the Bahamas, Caicos Islands, Cuba, Yucatan Pen- insula

  11. Sustainable Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    . Policies (1/3) Create transportation systems compatible with native habitats and species and help restore-fossil light duty vehicles #12;#12;Hawaii's Many Challenges Most dependent on oil among 50 states... Big Island level #12;Island Population 1 Azores-San miguel 140,000 2 Bahamas-N.Providence 307,000 3 Big Island 148

  12. Characterization of tropical near-shore fish communities by coastal habitat status on spatially complex island systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sealey, Kathleen Sullivan

    complex island systems Vanessa L. Nero & Kathleen Sullivan Sealey Coastal Ecology Project, Department communities for Andros Island, Bahamas, a complex coastal-reef island system. Benthic assessments and beach available to fishes on island bank systems. Since habitat mapping is often incorpo- rated into marine

  13. 1) Comparative Sedimentology Laboratory, Miami, FL, United States; 2) Center for Applied Coastal Research, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    , Bordeaux, Talence cedex, France Potential for tsunami generation by submarine slope failures along the western Great Bahama Bank Introduction Multibeam and seismic data reveal repeated slope failures scars indicate slope instabilities that will lead to large-scale slope failures in the near future

  14. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  15. Bacterially induced precipitation of CaCO{sub 3}: An example from studies of cyanobacterial mats. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chafetz, H.S.

    1990-04-30

    Bacteria induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the laboratory and in nature by altering their chemical environment. Geologists are recognizing the possibility that bacterially induced precipitates may form significant mineral deposits, unfortunately, there are currently no sound criteria by which they can be recognized in recent sediments, or in the rock record. Cultures of aerobic and facultative bacteria from cyanobacterial mats on Andros Island, Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas, induced the precipitation of calcium carbonate under controlled conditions. Crusts, the largest features formed, are composed of 5--200{mu}m diameter bundles which are, in turn, composed of numerous individual crystals. The smallest observed features are 0.1--0.4{mu}m spheres and rods which comprise some individual crystals and crystal bundles. Crystal bundles resembling rhombohedra, tetragonal disphenoids, tetragonal dipyramids, and calcite dumbbells appear to be uniquely bacterial in origin, and they have all been observed in recent sediments. Swollen rods, discs, curved dumbbells, and 50--200{mu}m optically continuous crystals resembling brushes may be uniquely bacterial in origin, however, they have not been reported by other laboratories nor observed in natural settings. Presence of any of these forms in recent sediments should be taken as strong evidence for bacterial influence. Spheres and aragonite dumbbells have also been observed in natural environments, however, they are not always bacterial in origin. Precipitation of calcium carbonate occurs preferentially on dead cyanobacteria in the presence of bacteria. Lithification of algal mats to form stromatolites may take place in the zone of decaying organic matter due to bacterial activity.

  16. Bacterially induced precipitation of CaCO sub 3 : An example from studies of cyanobacterial mats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chafetz, H.S.

    1990-04-30

    Bacteria induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the laboratory and in nature by altering their chemical environment. Geologists are recognizing the possibility that bacterially induced precipitates may form significant mineral deposits, unfortunately, there are currently no sound criteria by which they can be recognized in recent sediments, or in the rock record. Cultures of aerobic and facultative bacteria from cyanobacterial mats on Andros Island, Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas, induced the precipitation of calcium carbonate under controlled conditions. Crusts, the largest features formed, are composed of 5--200{mu}m diameter bundles which are, in turn, composed of numerous individual crystals. The smallest observed features are 0.1--0.4{mu}m spheres and rods which comprise some individual crystals and crystal bundles. Crystal bundles resembling rhombohedra, tetragonal disphenoids, tetragonal dipyramids, and calcite dumbbells appear to be uniquely bacterial in origin, and they have all been observed in recent sediments. Swollen rods, discs, curved dumbbells, and 50--200{mu}m optically continuous crystals resembling brushes may be uniquely bacterial in origin, however, they have not been reported by other laboratories nor observed in natural settings. Presence of any of these forms in recent sediments should be taken as strong evidence for bacterial influence. Spheres and aragonite dumbbells have also been observed in natural environments, however, they are not always bacterial in origin. Precipitation of calcium carbonate occurs preferentially on dead cyanobacteria in the presence of bacteria. Lithification of algal mats to form stromatolites may take place in the zone of decaying organic matter due to bacterial activity.

  17. DE-EE0000319 Final Technical Report [National Open-ocean Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skemp, Susan

    2013-12-29

    Under the authorization provided by Section 634 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-140), in 2009 FAU was awarded U.S. Congressionally Directed Program (CDP) funding through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate and develop technologies to harness the energy of the Florida Current as a source of clean, renewable, base-load power for Florida and the U.S. A second CDP award in 2010 provided additional funding in order to enhance and extend FAU’s activities. These two CDPs in 2009 and 2010 were combined into a single DOE grant, DE-EE0000319, and are the subject of this report. Subsequently, in July 2010 funding was made available under a separate contract, DE-EE0004200. Under that funding, DOE’s Wind and Water Power Program designated FAU’s state of Florida marine renewable energy (MRE) center as the Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center (SNMREC). This report discusses SNMREC activities funded by the DE-EE0000319 grant, but will make reference, as appropriate, to activities that require further investigation under the follow-on grant. The concept of extracting energy from the motions of the oceans has a long history. However, implementation on large scales of the technologies to effect renewable energy recovery from waves, tides, and open-ocean currents is relatively recent. DOE’s establishment of SNMREC recognizes a significant potential for ocean current energy recovery associated with the (relatively) high-speed Florida Current, the reach of the Gulf Stream System flowing through the Straits of Florida, between the Florida Peninsula and the Bahamas Archipelago. The proximity of the very large electrical load center of southeast Florida’s metropolitan area to the resource itself makes this potential all the more attractive. As attractive as this potential energy source is, it is not without its challenges. Although the technology is conceptually simple, its design and implementation in a commercially-viable fashion presents a variety of challenges. Beyond the technology itself (and, especially, the effects on the technology of the harsh oceanic environment), it is important to consider the possible environmental impacts of commercial-scale implementation of oceanic energy extraction. Further, because such implementation represents a completely new undertaking, the human resources required do not exist, so education and training programs are critical to eventual success. This project, establishing a national open-ocean energy laboratory, was designed to address each of these three challenges in a flexible framework allowing for adaptive management as the project proceeded. In particular: ? the technology challenge, including resource assessment, evolved during the project to recognize and address the need for a national testing facility in the ocean for small-scale prototype MRE systems developed by industry; ? the environmental challenge became formalized and expanded during the permitting process for such a testing facility; and ? the human resources/societal challenges, both in terms of the need for education and training and in terms of public acceptance of MRE, stimulated a robust outreach program far beyond that originally envisioned at SNMREC. While all of these activities at SNMREC are ongoing, a number of significant milestones (in addition to the contributions listed in the appendices) were achieved under the auspices of this award. These include: ? Planning and site selection for the first-phase test facility, offshore of Dania Beach, FL, including some equipment for the facility, submission of an Interim Policy Lease Application to the U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and completion of an Environmental Assessment by BOEM and a positive Consistency Determination by the State of Florida; ? Measurements using acoustic profilers of the current structure and variability in the vicinity of the site under a variety of weather conditions, seasons and time durations; ? Design and implementation of instrument

  18. Geoscience Perspectives in Carbon Sequestration - Educational Training and Research Through Classroom, Field, and Laboratory Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wronkiewicz, David; Paul, Varum; Abousif, Alsedik; Ryback, Kyle

    2013-09-30

    The most effective mechanism to limit CO{sub 2} release from underground Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS) sites over multi-century time scales will be to convert the CO{sub 2} into solid carbonate minerals. This report describes the results from four independent research investigations on carbonate mineralization: 1) Colloidal calcite particles forming in Maramec Spring, Missouri, provide a natural analog to evaluate reactions that may occur in a leaking GCS site. The calcite crystals form as a result of physiochemical changes that occur as the spring water rises from a depth of more than 190'?. The resultant pressure decrease induces a loss of CO{sub 2} from the water, rise in pH, lowering of the solubility of Ca{sup 2+} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and calcite precipitation. Equilibrium modelling of the spring water resulted in a calculated undersaturated state with respect to calcite. The discontinuity between the observed occurrence of calcite and the model result predicting undersaturated conditions can be explained if bicarbonate ions (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) are directly involved in precipitation process rather than just carbonate ions (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). 2) Sedimentary rocks in the Oronto Group of the Midcontinent Rift (MCR) system contain an abundance of labile Ca-, Mg-, and Fe-silicate minerals that will neutralize carbonic acid and provide alkaline earth ions for carbonate mineralization. One of the challenges in using MCR rocks for GCS results from their low porosity and permeability. Oronto Group samples were reacted with both CO{sub 2}-saturated deionized water at 90°C, and a mildly acidic leachant solution in flow-through core-flooding reactor vessels at room temperature. Resulting leachate solutions often exceeded the saturation limit for calcite. Carbonate crystals were also detected in as little as six days of reaction with Oronto Group rocks at 90oC, as well as experiments with forsterite-olivine and augite, both being common minerals this sequence. The Oronto Group samples have poor reservoir rock characteristics, none ever exceeded a permeability value of 2.0 mD even after extensive dissolution of calcite cement during the experiments. The overlying Bayfield Group – Jacobsville Formation sandstones averaged 13.4 ± 4.3% porosity and a single sample tested by core-flooding revealed a permeability of ~340 mD. The high porosity-permeability characteristics of these sandstones will allow them to be used for GCS as a continuous aquifer unit with the overlying Mt. Simon Formation. 3) Anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) can enhance the conversion rate of CO{sub 2} into solid minerals and thereby improve long-term storage. SRB accelerated carbonate mineralization reactions between pCO{sub 2} values of 0.0059 and 14.7 psi. Hydrogen, lactate and formate served as suitable electron donors for SRB metabolism. The use of a {sup 13}CO{sub 2} spiked gas source also produced carbonate minerals with ~53% of the carbon being derived from the gas phase. The sulfate reducing activity of the microbial community was limited, however, at 20 psi pCO{sub 2} and carbonate mineralization did not occur. Inhibition of bacterial metabolism may have resulted from the acidic conditions or CO{sub 2} toxicity. 4) Microbialite communities forming in the high turbidity and hypersaline water of Storrs’ Lake, San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, were investigated for their distribution, mineralogy and microbial diversity. Molecular analysis of the organic mats on the microbialites indicate only a trace amount of cyanobacteria, while anaerobic and photosynthetic non-sulfur bacteria of the phyla Chloroflexi and purple sulfur bacteria of class Gammaproteobacteria were abundant.

  19. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which exhibits a characteristic set of reservoir properties obtained from outcrop analogs, cores, and geophysical logs. The Anasazi and Runway fields were selected for geostatistical modeling and reservoir compositional simulations. Models and simulations incorporated variations in carbonate lithotypes, porosity, and permeability to accurately predict reservoir responses. History matches tied previous production and reservoir pressure histories so that future reservoir performances could be confidently predicted. The simulation studies showed that despite most of the production being from the mound-core intervals, there were no corresponding decreases in the oil in place in these intervals. This behavior indicates gravity drainage of oil from the supra-mound intervals into the lower mound-core intervals from which the producing wells' major share of production arises. The key to increasing ultimate recovery from these fields (and similar fields in the basin) is to design either waterflood or CO{sub 2}-miscible flood projects capable of forcing oil from high-storage-capacity but low-recovery supra-mound units into the high-recovery mound-core units. Simulation of Anasazi field shows that a CO{sub 2} flood is technically superior to a waterflood and economically feasible. For Anasazi field, an optimized CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total 4.21 million barrels (0.67 million m3) of oil representing in excess of 89 percent of the original oil in place. For Runway field, the best CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total of 2.4 million barrels (0.38 million m3) of oil representing 71 percent of the original oil in place. If the CO{sub 2} flood performed as predicted, it is a financially robust process for increasing the reserves in the many small fields in the Paradox Basin. The results can be applied to other fields in the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent.