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  1. Cambodia-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cambodia-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Cambodia-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program Name Cambodia-UNEP...

  2. Cambodia-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Cambodia-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) Name Cambodia-Pilot Program for Climate...

  3. Cambodia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Cambodia Population 13,388,910 GDP 17,250,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.07 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KH 3-letter ISO code KHM Numeric ISO...

  4. Bangladesh S M Ullah

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    clock time hourly global radiation from daily values over Bangladesh S M Ullah 1 , S K Khadem, H R Ghosh, R K Mazumder and M Hussain Renewable Energy Research Center, University of...

  5. Cambodia-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name Cambodia-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  6. Cambodia-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change (cities, states, districts) Jump to: navigation, search Name Cambodia-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states, districts) AgencyCompany...

  7. CCAP-REDD+ Design in Cambodia, Indonesia, and Mexico: Lessons...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    REDD+ Design in Cambodia, Indonesia, and Mexico: Lessons to Inform International REDD+ Policy Development Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CCAP-REDD+...

  8. Renewable Energy Policy of Bangladesh | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Bangladesh Jump to: navigation, search Name Renewable Energy Policy of Bangladesh AgencyCompany Organization Government of Bangladesh Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy...

  9. Bangladesh-USAID Climate Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ourwork Country Bangladesh Southern Asia References Bangladesh1 "USAID's climate change activities in Bangladesh seek to improve energy sector performance through...

  10. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna

    2009-01-07

    Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate?bottom ash from coal fired power plants?is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts ofBangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, andcontinues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA?s arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentrationof the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  11. Colombia Ministry of Environment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia Ministry of Environment Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Colombia Ministry of Environment Name: Colombia Ministry of Environment Address: Calle 37 No. 8-40 - Bogot,...

  12. Low-Carbon Society Development: Towards 2025 in Bangladesh |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2025 in Bangladesh Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low-Carbon Society Development: Towards 2025 in Bangladesh AgencyCompany Organization: Kyoto...

  13. Bangladesh-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bangladesh-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Bangladesh-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program AgencyCompany Organization...

  14. A Synthesis of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh1 Overview "There is a plethora of policy strategy documents relevant to broad agriculture and rural development in Bangladesh. These...

  15. Bangladesh-GTZ Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTZ Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Programme Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Bangladesh-GTZ Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Programme Name Bangladesh-GTZ Renewable...

  16. Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan AgencyCompany...

  17. Policy Agenda for Addressing Climate Change in Bangladesh: Copenhagen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agenda for Addressing Climate Change in Bangladesh: Copenhagen and Beyond Jump to: navigation, search Name Policy Agenda for Addressing Climate Change in Bangladesh: Copenhagen and...

  18. Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program - Bangladesh ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program - Bangladesh Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program Retrieved from...

  19. Bangladesh: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Bangladesh Population 156,594,962 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.87 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BD 3-letter ISO code BGD Numeric ISO...

  20. Total All Countries Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Destination Destination: Total All Countries Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andora Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bahama Islands Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Bermuda Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech

  1. Total number of slots consumed in long_excl.q (exclusive nodes) will be

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Destination Destination: Total All Countries Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andora Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bahama Islands Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Bermuda Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech

  2. CDM Projects in Colombia | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Projects in Colombia Jump to: navigation, search Name CDM Projects in Colombia AgencyCompany Organization C-O2 Sector Energy, Land Topics Finance, Implementation, Market analysis...

  3. Transport Policy Note-Bangladesh | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Bangladesh Sector Energy Focus Area Transportation Topics Implementation, GHG inventory, Policiesdeployment programs, Background analysis Website http:...

  4. Colombia-Cartagena Vulnerability Assessment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia-Cartagena Vulnerability Assessment (Redirected from CDKN-Colombia-Cartagena Vulnerability Assessment) Jump to: navigation, search Name Colombia-CDKN-Cartagena...

  5. Bangladesh-DLR Resource Assessments | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to 2004 the German Aerospace Center (DLR) worked with Bangladesh on solar resource and GIS analysis as part of UNEP's Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) Programme....

  6. Bangladesh-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) Jump to: navigation, search Name Bangladesh-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector...

  7. Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Toward Motivating GHG Emission Reduction Strategies Jump to: navigation, search Name Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating GHG Emission Reduction...

  8. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addy, Susan Amrose

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  9. Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan Jump to: navigation, search Name Colombia-CDKN-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan Agency...

  10. Colombia-Cartagena Vulnerability Assessment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia-Cartagena Vulnerability Assessment Jump to: navigation, search Name Colombia-CDKN-Cartagena Vulnerability Assessment AgencyCompany Organization Climate and Development...

  11. Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan (Redirected from CDKN-Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan) Jump to: navigation,...

  12. Colombia-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Offset Project "The Colombia Rio Frio Carbon Offset Project aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions fro the wastewater treatment sector in Colombia by modernizing the Rio Frio...

  13. IDB-Colombia-Renwable Energy and Energy Efficiency Finance Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IDB-Colombia-Renwable Energy and Energy Efficiency Finance Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name IDB-Colombia-Renwable Energy and Energy Efficiency Finance Facility Agency...

  14. GEF-Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant Jump to: navigation, search Name GEF-Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant AgencyCompany Organization Global Environment Facility (GEF),...

  15. Colombia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tools Climate-Smart Agriculture Country Profiles Ecofys-Country Fact Sheets Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) An Enabling Framework for Wind Power in Colombia:...

  16. Asian Development Outlook 2010 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, South Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam,...

  17. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asaduzzaman, M.

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  18. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  19. An Energy Overview of Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site--each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Colombia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  20. Bangladesh-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 Jump to: navigation, search Name Bangladesh-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 AgencyCompany Organization National Institute for...

  1. Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development in Bangladesh (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01

    Bangladesh is widely considered to be one of the nations most threatened by climate change. With two-thirds of the country less than 20 feet above sea level, the intrusion of salt into freshwater wells, frequent flooding, and the displacement of people from their homes is an ongoing threat. At the same time, the country's cities are rapidly growing, and the demand for energy is increasing at a corresponding rate.

  2. Colombia-US Forest Service Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Forest Service Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Colombia-US Forest Service Program AgencyCompany Organization United States Forest Service Sector Land Focus Area...

  3. Colombia-UNDP Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and adaptation to climate change in the Colombian Massif National awareness campaign on climate change "Fall in love with your Planet", Colombia Strengthening the...

  4. Regulations, Policies and Strategies for LLRW Management in Bangladesh - 12368

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mollah, A.S.

    2012-07-01

    Low level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated from various nuclear applications in Bangladesh. The major sources of radioactive waste in the country are at present: (a) the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor; (b) the radioisotope production facility; (c) the medical, industrial and research facilities that use radionuclides; and (d) the industrial facility for processing monazite sands. Radioactive waste needs to be safely managed because it is potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. According to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Act-93, the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the governmental body responsible for the receipt and final disposal of radioactive wastes in the whole country. Waste management policy has become an important environmental, social, and economical issue for LLW in Bangladesh. Policy and strategies will serve as a basic guide for radioactive waste management in Bangladesh. The waste generator is responsible for on-site collection, conditioning and temporary storage of the waste arising from his practice. The Central Waste Processing and Storage Unit (CWPSU) of BAEC is the designated national facility with the requisite facility for the treatment, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste until a final disposal facility is established and becomes operational. The Regulatory Authority is responsible for the enforcement of compliance with provisions of the waste management regulation and other relevant requirements by the waste generator and the CWPSU. The objective of this paper is to present, in a concise form, basic information about the radioactive waste management infrastructure, regulations, policies and strategies including the total inventory of low level radioactive waste in the country. For improvement and strengthening in terms of operational capability, safety and security of RW including spent radioactive sources and overall security of the facility (CWPSF), the facility is expected to serve

  5. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  6. File:NREL-asia-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  7. File:NREL-asia-dir.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  8. File:NREL-asia-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  9. Microsoft Word - TOC Section I Conformed thru Mod 274.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nicaragua, or Singapore); (3) A least developed country (Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Central African...

  10. Southern Colombia's Putumayo basin deserves renewed attention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, A.J. ); Portilla, O. )

    1994-05-23

    The Putumayo basin lies in southern Colombia between the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes and the Guyana-Brazilian shield. It covers about 50,000 sq km between 0--3[degree]N. Lat. and 74--77[degree]W. Long. and extends southward into Ecuador and Peru as the productive Oriente basin. About 3,500 sq km of acreage in the basin is being offered for licensing in the first licensing round by competitive tender. A recent review of the available data from this area by Intera and Ecopetrol suggests that low risk prospects and leads remain to be tested. The paper describes the tectonic setting, stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon geology, reservoirs, and trap types.

  11. Production optimization in the Provincia field, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blann, J.; Jacobson, L.; Faber, C.

    1989-02-01

    Designing or redesigning production facilities for optimum operation usually results in the generation of maximum profit from an installation. But in older fields, or fields where a short life is expected, design changes may not be a viable option. In such cases, obtaining maximum production within the limits of existing facilities, thereby minimizing new investments, may be an attractive option. This paper discusses application of the latter technique in the Provincia field, Colombia, to optimize oil and gas production within constraints imposed by periodic temporary gas-compression-capacity restrictions and by the configuration of existing oil and gas facilities. The multistep optimization program used at Provincia included improvement of individual well performance, optimization of individual well facilities, fieldwide optimization of surface facilities, and optimization of the field production scheme.

  12. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bari, Quazi H.; Mahbub Hassan, K.; Haque, R.

    2012-12-15

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d{sup -1} solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  13. Slide 1

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Antonio, TX Agreements for Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation * Argentina * Australia * Bangladesh * Brazil * Canada * China * Colombia * Egypt * EURATOM * IAEA * Indonesia * Japan *...

  14. ElectroChemical Arsenic Removal (ECAR) for Rural Bangladesh--Merging Technology with Sustainable Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addy, Susan E.A.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Kostecki, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Today, 35-77 million Bangladeshis drink arsenic-contaminated groundwater from shallow tube wells. Arsenic remediation efforts have focused on the development and dissemination of household filters that frequently fall into disuse due to the amount of attention and maintenance that they require. A community scale clean water center has many advantages over household filters and allows for both chemical and electricity-based technologies to be beneficial to rural areas. Full cost recovery would enable the treatment center to be sustainable over time. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) is compatible with community scale water treatment for rural Bangladesh. We demonstrate the ability of ECAR to reduce arsenic levels> 500 ppb to less than 10 ppb in synthetic and real Bangladesh groundwater samples and examine the influence of several operating parameters on arsenic removal effectiveness. Operating cost and waste estimates are provided. Policy implication recommendations that encourage sustainable community treatment centers are discussed.

  15. Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh: Recent Fieldwork Results and Policy Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Addy, Susan E.A.

    2009-09-17

    ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) has proven effective at removing high concentrations of arsenic from drinking water in Bangladesh. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of the country, ARUBA reduced arsenic levels ranging from 200 to 900 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate--bottom ash from coal fired power plants--is a waste material readily available in South Asia. In comparison to similar technologies, ARUBA uses less media for arsenic removal due to its high surface area to volume ratio. Hence, less waste is produced. A number of experiments were conducted in Bangladesh to determine the effectiveness of various water treatment protocols. It was found that (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from water within five minutes of treatment, (2) ARUBA, that has settled at the bottom of a treatment vessel, continues to remove arsenic for 2-3 days, (3) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through sequential partial dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once), and (4) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic levels ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well. Our findings imply a number of tradeoffs between ARUBA's effective arsenic removal capacity, treatment system costs, and waste output. These tradeoffs, some a function of arsenic-related policies in Bangladesh (e.g., waste disposal regulations), must be considered when designing an arsenic removal system. We propose that the most attractive option is to use ARUBA in communityscale water treatment centers, installed as public-private partnerships, in Bangladeshi villages.

  16. U.S. and Colombia to Collaborate on First Solar Decathlon in Latin America

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Colombia to Collaborate on First Solar Decathlon in Latin America U.S. and Colombia to Collaborate on First Solar Decathlon in Latin America March 11, 2014 - 8:30am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - This week, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman, Colombia's Minister of Energy and Mines Amylkar Acosta, Mayor of Santiago de Calí Rodrigo Guerrero, and Director of Planning of Colombia Tatyana Orozco signed a Memorandum of Understanding

  17. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote...

  18. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, M.R.; Joardder, M.U.H.; Hasan, S.M.; Takai, K.; Haniu, H.

    2011-09-15

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  19. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  20. Environmental impact assessment in Colombia: Critical analysis and proposals for improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2010-07-15

    The evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems is a highly recommended strategy for enhancing their effectiveness and quality. This paper describes an evaluation of EIA in Colombia, using the model and the control mechanisms proposed and applied in other countries by Christopher Wood and Ortolano. The evaluation criteria used are based on Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment Best Practice, such as effectiveness and control features, and they were contrasted with the opinions of a panel of Colombian EIA experts as a means of validating the results of the study. The results found that EIA regulations in Colombia were ineffective because of limited scope, inadequate administrative support and the inexistence of effective control mechanisms and public participation. This analysis resulted in a series of recommendations regarding the further development of the EIA system in Colombia with a view to improving its quality and effectiveness.

  1. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matter, Anne; Ahsan, Mehedi; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Bangladesh’s industry and population are growing rapidly, producing more urban waste. • Recycling reduces the solid waste management burden of Municipalities. • A wide array of informal and formal actors is involved in collection and recycling. • Demand for recycled materials and renewable energy creates market incentives. • Policy incentives exist, but they only reach the formal industry. - Abstract: Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents’ living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization

  2. "Note: All Others includes Cambodia, Czech Republic, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Turkey Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.'"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2014" "(peak kilowatts)" "Country","Total","Percent of U.S. total" "Canada",61078,0.01 "China",3323297,0.57 "Germany",154800,0.03 "Japan",12593,0 "India",47192,0.01 "South Korea",251105,0.04 "All Others",2008612,0.34 "Total",5858677,1 "Note: All Others includes Cambodia, Czech Republic, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Mexico,

  3. Obligations Notification Cycle and New Obligations Presentation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... 37 Czech Republic 36 People's Republic of China 35 Japan 34 Euratom 33 Canada 32 Australia ... Bangladesh * Brazil * Bulgaria * Canada * China * Colombia * Czech Republic * Egypt * ...

  4. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2_MITCH_HEMBREE_NMMSS_2014_Obligations...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Bangladesh Brazil Canada China Colombia Egypt European Atomic ... Euratom 34 Japan 35 People's Republic of China 37 Switzerland 38 Argentina 39 Brazil 40 ...

  5. Mercury levels in muscle of some fish species from the Dique Channel, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivero, J.; Navas, V.; Perez, A.

    1997-06-01

    Gold mining is an activity that has been increasing during the last ten years in Colombia. Most mining activities are carried out using mercury for gold amalgamation. In a recent publication we stated that in the Sur de Bolivar, the main gold mining zone in Colombia, the highest mercury concentration in hair was observed in fishermen. The Magdalena River, the largest and most important river in Colombia, receives all this contamination and carries it to the Atlantic Ocean through two means: The main river course and the Dique Channel. The Dique Channel is surrounded by many marshes, which are a major source of fish for nearly two hundred thousands people in northwestern Colombia. The goal of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the content of mercury in muscle tissue of the four most popular fish species purchased in some towns along the Dique Channel, to establish whether these concentrations fall within the WHO guidelines, and to identify those species which can be consumed with less risk. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.

  7. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase inmore » the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.« less

  8. 105(scaled land 215%)7-22-05

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cntrl African Rep. Chad Chile China Colombia Dem. Rep. Congo Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark ...

  9. How do rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations behave under seasonal water stress in northeastern Thailand and central Cambodia?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan G.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Liu, Wen; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson M.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2015-11-01

    Plantation rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mll. Arg.) is a viable economic resource for Southeast Asian countries. Consequently, rubber plantations are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially changing the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with the traditional land covers they are replacing. Delineating the characteristics of biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations is therefore important to understanding the impacts of such land use change on environmental processes. We have conducted eddy flux measurements in two rubber plantation sites: (1) Som Sanuk (SS), located northern Thailand; and (2) Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI), central Cambodia. Both sites have a distinct dry season. Measurements were made over a 3-year period. We used combination of actual evapotranspiration (ET) flux measurements and an inversed version of a simple 2-layer ET model for estimating the mean canopy stomatal conductances (gs), which is among the most effective measures for describing water and energy exchanges and tree water use characteristics. A main novelty in this analysis is that the rubber canopy conductance can be extracted from total surface conductance (including the canopy and the vegetation floor effects) and hence environmental and biological controls on rubber tree gs are explicitly compared at each site in different seasons and years. It is demonstrated how each studied rubber plantation copes with each strong seasonal drought via tree water use strategies. Potential tree water use deficit (precipitation (P) potential evaporation (ET_POT)) for each season (i.e., December-February: DJF, March-May: MAM, June-August: JJA, and September-November: SON) revealed in which season and how the water use should be controlled. We found that in seasons when actual tree water use deficit (P E

  10. Laboratory Enrichment of Radioactive Assemblages and Estimation of Thorium and Uranium Radioactivity in Fractions Separated from Placer Sands in Southeast Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Rajib, Mohammad; Akiyoshi, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Taishi; Takagi, Ikuji; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Zaman, Md. Mashrur

    2015-06-15

    The present study reports the likely first attempt of separating radioactive minerals for estimation of activity concentration in the beach placer sands of Bangladesh. Several sand samples from heavy mineral deposits located at the south-eastern coastal belt of Bangladesh were processed to physically upgrade their radioactivity concentrations using plant and laboratory equipment. Following some modified flow procedure, individual fractions were separated and investigated using gamma-ray spectrometry and powder-XRD analysis. The radioactivity measurements indicated contributions of the thorium and uranium radioactive series and of {sup 40}K. The maximum values of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, estimated from the radioactivity of {sup 208}Tl and {sup 234}Th in secular equilibrium, were found to be 152,000 and 63,300 Bq/kg, respectively. The fraction of the moderately conductive part in electric separation contained thorium predominantly, while that of the non-conductive part was found to be uranium rich. The present arrangement of the pilot plant cascade and the fine tuning of setting parameters were found to be effective and economic separation process of the radioactive minerals from placer sands in Bangladesh. Probable radiological impacts and extraction potentiality of such radioactive materials are also discussed.

  11. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima–media thickness in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Islam, Tariqul; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Jiang, Jieying; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; and others

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima–media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = − 5.1 μm, 95% CI = − 31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = − 3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings. - Highlights: • Nine SNPs had a nominally significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. • Three SNPs in AS3MT showed nominally significant interactions with urinary arsenic. • cIMT was much higher among subjects with higher arsenic exposure and AS3MT

  12. CENTRAL STORAGE FACILITY PROJECT IN COLOMBIA TO PROVIDE THE SAFE STORAGE AND PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, Raymond; Wright, Kyle A.; McCaw, Erica E.; Vallejo, Jorge

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. Internationally, over 40 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance the security of these materials. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials, including orphaned and disused high-activity sources. GTRI began cooperation with the Republic of Colombia in April 2004. This cooperation has been a resounding success by securing forty high-risk sites, consolidating disused/orphan sources at an interim secure national storage facility, and developing a comprehensive approach to security, training, and sustainability. In 2005 the Colombian Ministry of Mines and Energy requested the Department of Energys support in the construction of a new Central Storage Facility (CSF). In December 2005, the Ministry selected to construct this facility at the Institute of Geology and Mining (Ingeominas) site in Bogota. This site already served as Colombias national repository, where disused sources were housed in various buildings around the complex. The CSF project was placed under contract in May 2006, but environmental issues and public protests, which led to a class action lawsuit against the Colombian Government, forced the Ministry to quickly suspend activities, thereby placing the project in jeopardy. Despite these challenges, however, the Ministry of Mines and Energy worked closely with public and environmental authorities to resolve these issues, and continued to be a strong advocate of the GTRI program. In June 2008, the Ministry of Mines and Energy was granted the construction and environmental licenses. As a result, construction immediately resumed and the CSF was completed by December 2008. A commissioning ceremony was held for the new facility in January 2009, which was attended by representatives from the Department of Energy, U.S. Embassy, and

  13. Petroleum resources of South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report is an analysis of discovered crude oil reserves, undiscovered recoverable crude oil resources, and estimated annual oil field production. The countries analyzed are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All of the countries in this report have a history of petroleum exploration and development. Also, they maintain policies which support the search for, and exploitation of, petroleum resources. This systematic assessment provides estimates of the quantities of remaining known petroleum reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources. The future feasible production rates from the respective countries are also discussed. The FESAP assessments are limited to petroleum resources recoverable by conventional primary and secondary extraction technology. It is estimated that over 29.4 billion barrels of recoverable oil (both discovered and undiscovered) originally existed within the sedimentary basins of these countries, as follows: Argentina (9.4 billion barrels); Brazil (6.5 billion barrels); Colombia (5.0 billion barrels); Peru (3.6 billion barrels); Ecuador (over 3.0 billion barrels); Chile (1.1 billion barrels); and Bolivia (over 0.8 billion barrels). Through 1982, about 10.2 billion barrels of the oil had been produced. Thus, some 19.2 billion barrels constitute the remaining recoverable petroleum resource base. It is estimated that the most likely volume of crude oil remaining to be found in the seven countries is 12 billion barrels. 91 refs., 59 figs., 82 tabs.

  14. Mining machinery/equipment/parts/services. Oil and Gas field equipment/machinery/parts/supplies (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Trinidad and Tobago)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This 7-part set includes separate reports on market possibilities for field production equipment, drilling equipment, refinery equipment, and auxiliary equipment in the following countries: Argentina, Brazil (2 reports), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. Each report has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Multiple plates subducting beneath Colombia, as illuminated by seismicity and velocity from the joint inversion of seismic and gravity data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Syracuse, Ellen M.; Maceira, Monica; Prieto, German A.; Zhang, Haijiang; Ammon, Charles J.

    2016-04-12

    Subduction beneath the northernmost Andes in Colombia is complex. Based on seismicity distributions, multiple segments of slab appear to be subducting, and arc volcanism ceases north of 5° N. Here, we illuminate the subduction system through hypocentral relocations and Vp and Vs models resulting from the joint inversion of local body wave arrivals, surface wave dispersion measurements, and gravity data. The simultaneous use of multiple data types takes advantage of the differing sensitivities of each data type, resulting in velocity models that have improved resolution at both shallower and deeper depths than would result from traditional travel time tomography alone.more » The relocated earthquake dataset and velocity model clearly indicate a tear in the Nazca slab at 5° N, corresponding to a 250-km shift in slab seismicity and the termination of arc volcanism. North of this tear, the slab is flat, and it comprises slabs of two sources: the Nazca and Caribbean plates. The Bucaramanga nest, a small region of among the most intense intermediate-depth seismicity globally, is associated with the boundary between these two plates and possibly with a zone of melting or elevated water content, based on reduced Vp and increased Vp/Vs. As a result, we also use relocated seismicity to identify two new faults in the South American plate, one related to plate convergence and one highlighted by induced seismicity.« less

  16. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF MEXICO, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, Nicholas; Watson, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Mexico, GTRI first made contact in 2005. The project then lost momentum and stalled. At the same time, GTRIs cooperation with the Republic of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRIs interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Mexico and to facilitate this cooperation, they offered to invite their Mexican counterparts to Colombia to observe its successful cooperation with GTRI. Shortly after that visit, the Government of Mexico agreed to move forward and requested that the cooperative efforts in Mexico be performed in a tripartite manner, leveraging the skills, experience, and resources of the Colombians. As a result, 22 of Mexicos largest radioactive sites have had security upgrades in place within 18 months of cooperation.

  17. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, Nicholas; McCaw, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.; Medina, Maximo

    2009-10-06

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Dominican Republic, the GTRI first received contact in 2008 from the Government of Dominican Republic. They requested cooperation that was similar to the tri-partite cooperation between Colombia, Mexico and the United States. Throughout the region it was widely known that the GTRIs cooperation with the Government of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The Government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. In 2007, Colombia was an integral component of GTRI multi-lateral cooperation initiation in Mexico. As a result, twenty two of Mexicos largest radioactive sites have been upgraded in the past eighteen months. These two endeavors served as catalysts for cooperation opportunities in the Dominican Republic. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRIs interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Dominican Republic and to facilitate this cooperation, they

  18. Bangladesh: Case Studies Bangladesh: Case Studies Renewable Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    one health center and one bazaar mosque. The responsibility of operation and maintenance has been entrusted with a local NGO, Shubashati. The private entrepreneur, Mr Azam...

  19. Total Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the U.S.

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: Total All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Afghanistan Albania Andora Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Cocos

  20. Cambodia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for GHG reductions, Build and institutionalize technical capacity for economic valuation of forest ecosystem services and monitoring changes in forest carbon stocks, and...

  1. Cambodia-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  2. UNDP/GEF-Cambodia-Sustainable Forest Management | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be carried out through community forestry activities to engage rural communities in nature conservation and create markets for sustainable bio-energy technologies to help curb...

  3. Cambodia-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in areas such as health, education, economic growth, poverty alleviation, agriculture, natural resource management, democracy, governance, human rights, and anti-trafficking in...

  4. Cambodia-Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The LEAD program supports and enhances country-led development programs, plans, and policies, and complements efforts of other...

  5. Bangladesh-NAMA Concepts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector Climate, Energy, Land Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Buildings, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Greenhouse Gas, Industry,...

  6. Cambodia-Low Carbon Asia Research Network (LoCARNet) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Greenhouse Gas, Hydrogen, Industry, Land Use, People and...

  7. Bangladesh-Feed the Future | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    year of the Global Hunger and Food Security Initiative. These plans represent a transition towards the development of multiyear strategies and are targeted at investments that...

  8. Bangladesh-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  9. Bangladesh-Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The LEAD program supports and enhances country-led development programs, plans, and policies, and complements efforts of other...

  10. Bangladesh-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    socioeconomic impact, monitoring and evaluation, environmental safeguards, and poverty reduction aspects of electricity provision; ) implementation of a free-for-service...

  11. Bangladesh-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can benefit poor farmers and to understand trade-offs among different dimensions of poverty and different groups of the poor (including between men and women). Special attention...

  12. Bangladesh-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  13. MHK Projects/Salvajina Colombia SHP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with other forms of energy production is being tested. These sources include a 1 kW solar panel, the public grid and a diesel generator. Along with the integration of...

  14. Colombia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

  15. Colombia-Climate Finance Readiness Programme | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    support from the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). The Programme will prepare developing countries to effectively and...

  16. Colombia-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  17. Colombia-Clean Technology Fund (CTF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Development, Inter-American Development Bank, World Bank Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Geothermal, Transportation Topics Background analysis,...

  18. Colombia-Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Initiative...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    emission development planning, -NAMA Resource Type Case studiesexamples, Guidemanual, Lessons learnedbest practices, Training materials, Workshop Website http:www.wri.org...

  19. Colombia-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  20. Colombia-The World Bank Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Morocco Implement climate change mitigation policy as part of National Plan against Global Warming. PMR Support: Establish MRV framework. Identify and develop crediting NAMAs...

  1. Colombia-Mitigation Action Plans and Scenarios (MAPS) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in an effort to build best practice, share tools and research and to create a growing body of knowledge, from a developing country perspective, that is accessible to the...

  2. The palynology of the Cerrejon Formation (upper Paleocene) of northern Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaramillo, C.A.; Pardo-Trujillo, A.; Rueda, M.; Torres, V.; Harrington, G.J.; Mora, G.

    2007-07-01

    A palynological study of the Cerrejon Formation was conducted in order to date the formation and understand the floristic composition and diversity of a Paleocene tropical site. The Cerrejon Formation outcrops in the Cerrejon Coal Mine, the largest open cast coal mine in the world. Two cores (725 m) were provided by Carbones del Cerrejon LLC for study. Two hundred samples were prepared for palynology, and at least 150 palynomorphs were counted per sample where possible. Several statistical techniques including rarefaction, species accumulation curves, detrended correspondence analysis, and Anosim were used to analyze the floristic composition and diversity of the palynofloras. Palynomorph assemblages indicate that the age of the Cerrejon Formation and the overlying Tabaco Formation is Middle to Late Paleocene (ca. 60-58 Ma). Major structural repetitions were not found in the Cerrejon Formation in the Cerrejon coal mine, and there is little floral variation throughout. The floral composition, diversity, and lithofacies do not change significantly. Lithofacies associations and floral composition indicate deposition fluctuating from an estuarine-influenced coastal plain at the base to a fluvial-influenced coastal plain at the top. There are, however, significant differences in the composition and diversity of coal and siliciclastic samples. Coal palynofloras have fewer morphospecies, and a distinct and more homogeneous floral assemblage compared to assemblages from the intervening sisliciclastic strata, suggesting that tropical swampy environments supported fewer plant species and had a distinct vegetation adapted to permanently wet environments.

  3. Characterization by XRD and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of waste materials from 'Cerro Matoso' Mine (Colombia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Y.; Carriazo, J.G.; Almanza, O. . E-mail: oaalmanzam@unal.edu.co

    2006-07-15

    Materials from a mining process, in which ferronickel metal extraction is the principal aim, were studied. The residual solid (scum) obtained in this process leads to large-scale accumulation of a vitreous material (pollutant) which creates an environmental problem. These materials were characterized by EPR, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The results indicate that the analyzed solids are rich in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO among other oxides. The scum material shows diffraction signals corresponding to the minerals enstatite (pyroxene) and {alpha}-alumina. Moreover, the scum EPR analysis showed a broad line around g = 2.1 corresponding to Fe{sup 3+} clusters in a complex glassy matrix. An analysis of EPR at different temperatures was also performed. The objective of this work, as a first exploratory stage, is to develop a better understanding of the residual solids in order to identify potential applications.

  4. Stratigraphic controls on the source rock distribution, Llanos Orientales Basin, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramon, J.C.; Fajardo, A.; Rubiano, J.; Reyes, A. )

    1996-01-01

    All available rock and oil geochemistry analyses were tied to a high-resolution stratigraphic framework for more than 50 wells in the Central Llanos Orientates Basin. New Tertiary generation input is proposed. The best source rock intervals are at the base and top of the Gacheta Formation (Upper Cretaceous) and in the middle of the Barco-Cuervos (Paleocene) and Mirador (Eocene) formations. These organic-rich zones contain type II and III kerogen. TOC contents range from about 1% up to 15%. The four source rock intervals occur within marine shales near condensed sections, at the position maximum accommodation/sediment-supply (A/S) ratios. The development of conditions that allow accumulation and preservation of anomalously high fractions of organic matter might be explained by two mechanisms. Increased A/S ratio results in retention of more sediment in the coastal plain, thus reducing the tendency for siliciclastic sediment to dilute the organic matter accumulating on the shelf. Also, deeper water might restrict circulation, enhancing bottom anoxic conditions. In the more transitional and continental sequences, increased A/S ratio is associated with higher phreatic water level. A high ground water table enhances preservation of coaly intervals. The sea-level rise brings marine water into valleys and low-gradient coastal plains. The resulting embayments, marsh and swampy areas are organic-prone, contributing to the source rock potential of strata associated with high conditions and base-level rise-to-fall turnaround positions.

  5. 4-D stratigraphic architecture and 3-D reservoir zonation of the Mirado Formation, Cusiana Field, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fajardo, A.A. ); Cross, T.A. )

    1996-01-01

    A high-resolution sequence stratigraphic study using 2300 feet of core calibrated with geophysical logs from 14 wells and 1800 measurements of porosity and permeability established the 4-D stratigraphy and 3-D reservoir zonation of the Mirador. Virtually all reservoir-quality facies are through cross-stratified sandstones which occur in channel facies successions in the lower Mirador, but in bay-head delta and estuarine channel facies successions in the upper Mirador. Petrophysical properties and the geometry, continuity and volume of reservoir-quality sandstones change regularly as function of their stratigraphic position. These vertical facies successions reflect increasing accommodation-to-sediment supply (A/S) ratio through each intermediate-term cycle. The upper long-term cycle comprises four intermediate-term, landward-stepping, symmetrical base-level cycles. These cycles consist of estuarine channel, bay-head to bay-fill facies successions. The transition from channel to bay-head to bay-fill facies successions represents an increase in A/S ratio, and the reverse transition indicates a decrease in A/S ratio. Sixteen reservoir zones were defined within the Cusiana field. Reservoirs within the upper and lower long-term cycles are separated by a continuous middle Mirador mudstone which creates two large reservoir divisions. At the second level of zonation, the reservoir compartments and fluid-flow retardants coincide with the intermediate-term stratigraphic cycles. A third level of reservoir compartmentalization follows the distribution of facies successions within the intermediate-term cycles. A strong stratigraphic control on reservoir properties occurs at the three scales of stratigraphic cyclicity. In all cases as A/S ratio increases, porosity and permeability decrease.

  6. 4-D stratigraphic architecture and 3-D reservoir zonation of the Mirado Formation, Cusiana Field, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fajardo, A.A.; Cross, T.A.

    1996-12-31

    A high-resolution sequence stratigraphic study using 2300 feet of core calibrated with geophysical logs from 14 wells and 1800 measurements of porosity and permeability established the 4-D stratigraphy and 3-D reservoir zonation of the Mirador. Virtually all reservoir-quality facies are through cross-stratified sandstones which occur in channel facies successions in the lower Mirador, but in bay-head delta and estuarine channel facies successions in the upper Mirador. Petrophysical properties and the geometry, continuity and volume of reservoir-quality sandstones change regularly as function of their stratigraphic position. These vertical facies successions reflect increasing accommodation-to-sediment supply (A/S) ratio through each intermediate-term cycle. The upper long-term cycle comprises four intermediate-term, landward-stepping, symmetrical base-level cycles. These cycles consist of estuarine channel, bay-head to bay-fill facies successions. The transition from channel to bay-head to bay-fill facies successions represents an increase in A/S ratio, and the reverse transition indicates a decrease in A/S ratio. Sixteen reservoir zones were defined within the Cusiana field. Reservoirs within the upper and lower long-term cycles are separated by a continuous middle Mirador mudstone which creates two large reservoir divisions. At the second level of zonation, the reservoir compartments and fluid-flow retardants coincide with the intermediate-term stratigraphic cycles. A third level of reservoir compartmentalization follows the distribution of facies successions within the intermediate-term cycles. A strong stratigraphic control on reservoir properties occurs at the three scales of stratigraphic cyclicity. In all cases as A/S ratio increases, porosity and permeability decrease.

  7. Stratigraphic controls on the source rock distribution, Llanos Orientales Basin, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramon, J.C.; Fajardo, A.; Rubiano, J.; Reyes, A.

    1996-12-31

    All available rock and oil geochemistry analyses were tied to a high-resolution stratigraphic framework for more than 50 wells in the Central Llanos Orientates Basin. New Tertiary generation input is proposed. The best source rock intervals are at the base and top of the Gacheta Formation (Upper Cretaceous) and in the middle of the Barco-Cuervos (Paleocene) and Mirador (Eocene) formations. These organic-rich zones contain type II and III kerogen. TOC contents range from about 1% up to 15%. The four source rock intervals occur within marine shales near condensed sections, at the position maximum accommodation/sediment-supply (A/S) ratios. The development of conditions that allow accumulation and preservation of anomalously high fractions of organic matter might be explained by two mechanisms. Increased A/S ratio results in retention of more sediment in the coastal plain, thus reducing the tendency for siliciclastic sediment to dilute the organic matter accumulating on the shelf. Also, deeper water might restrict circulation, enhancing bottom anoxic conditions. In the more transitional and continental sequences, increased A/S ratio is associated with higher phreatic water level. A high ground water table enhances preservation of coaly intervals. The sea-level rise brings marine water into valleys and low-gradient coastal plains. The resulting embayments, marsh and swampy areas are organic-prone, contributing to the source rock potential of strata associated with high conditions and base-level rise-to-fall turnaround positions.

  8. Flow of formation waters in the cretaceous-miocene succession of the Llanos basin, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villegas, M.E.; Ramon, J.C.; Bachu, S.; Underschultz, J.R.

    1994-12-01

    This study presents the hydrogeological characteristics and flow of formation waters in the post-Paleozoic succession of the Llanos basin, a mainly siliciclastic foreland sub-Andean sedimentary basin located in Columbia between the Cordillera Oriental and the Guyanan Precambrian shield. The porosity of the sandy formations is generally high, in the range of 16-20% on average, with a trend of decreasing values with depth. Permeabilities are also relatively high, in the 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 3} md range. THe salinity (total dissolved solids) of formation waters is generally low, in the 10,000-20,000 mg/L range, suggesting that at least some strata in the basin have been flushed by metoeoric water. The shaly units in the sedimentary succession are weak aquitards in the eastern and southern parts of the basin, but are strong in the central-western part. The pressure in the basin is close to or slightly subdepth, particularly in the central-western area. The flow of formation waters in the upper units is driven mainly by topography from highs in the southwest to lows in the northeast. Local systems from the foothills and from local topographic highs in the east feed into this flow system. The flow of formation waters in the lower units is driven by topography only in the southern, eastern, and northern parts of the basin. In the central-western part, the flow is downdip toward the thrust-fold belt, driven probably by pore-space rebound induced by erosional unloading, which also is the cause of underpressuring. Hydrocarbons generated in the Cretaceous organic-rich, shaly Gacheta Formation probably have migrated updip and to the north-northeast, driven by buoyancy and entrained by the topography-driven flow of formation waters in Cretaceous-Oligocene strata in the central-western part of the basin could have created conditions for hydrodynamic entrapment of hydrocarbons.

  9. An Enabling Framework for Wind Power in Colombia: What are the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Wind Topics: Market analysis, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learnedbest practices, Case studiesexamples Website: tech-action.org...

  10. Sedimentary structures and textures of Rio Orinoco channel sands, Venezuela and Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    The majority of the sedimentary structures in the channel sands of the Orinoco River are planar cross-strata that are products of sand-wave deposition. Sands in these deposits are mostly medium-grained. Eolian dunes form on top of the sand waves when they are exposed to the trade winds at low river stages. The windblown sands are typically fine-grained.

  11. Offshore Wind RD&D: Large Offshore Rotor Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Search Publications EC Publications Factsheets Press Releases Energy Research Highlights ... and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh ...

  12. EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Sciences, Reliability, Renewable Energy, Water Power, Wave Energy Tags ... Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh ...

  13. Numerical Manufacturing And Design Tool (NuMAD)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh ... Renewable Energy and Distributed Systems Integration Smart Grid Tools and Technology ...

  14. Energia Integral Andina | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Integral Andina Jump to: navigation, search Name: Energia Integral Andina Place: Bogota, Colombia Product: Colombia based company, focused on engineering and equipment supply....

  15. Benefits of Tropical Forest Management Under the New Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Tropical Forest Management Under the New Climate Change Agreement-A Case Study in Cambodia Jump to: navigation, search Name Benefits of Tropical Forest Management Under the New...

  16. File:SWERA-247.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search File File history File usage Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600...

  17. Nanoscientist Ayesha Arefin has heart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Student researcher helps construct bioethical artificial human organs Although Bangladesh has made strides in recent decades, the war-torn and poverty stricken South Asian ...

  18. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    outweigh the benefits, especially for net oil importers. In Bangladesh, Brazil, Brunei, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Malaysia, Burma (Myanmar), Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka,...

  19. Light Duty Vehicle Pathways

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Denmark, Greece, India, Japan, Germany, Mexico, Pakistan, Spain, Taiwan, U.K., U.S..... * "The rapid increase in CO2 ...

  20. CX-010258: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bangladesh Meteorological Instrumentation Installation CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 04/26/2013 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  1. Rahimafrooz Renewable Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rahimafrooz Renewable Energy Ltd. Place: Dhaka, Bangladesh Zip: 1212 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Renewable energy...

  2. Rural Energy Services Best Practices | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Energy Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy Topics Implementation Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:www.sari-energy.orgPro Country Bangladesh,...

  3. Status of U.S. Nuclear Outages - U.S. Energy Information Administratio...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  4. International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  5. Eia.gov BETA - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  6. Asian Age Enterprise Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Asian Age Enterprise Ltd Place: Dhaka, Bangladesh Zip: 1000 Product: Bangladeshi private project developer. References: Asian Age...

  7. Sandia Energy - SNL-ESSC (Sandia National Laboratories - Extreme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana...

  8. A Strategy to Engage the Private Sector in Climate Change Adaptation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to Engage the Private Sector in Climate Change Adaptation in Bangladesh Jump to: navigation, search Name A Strategy to Engage the Private Sector in Climate Change Adaptation in...

  9. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indonesia 10% Canada 9% Total 13.1 million short tons Canada 13% Colombia 73% Venezuela 6% Other 2% Indonesia 7% Colombia 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 ...

  10. DOE to Participate in Colombian Regional Energy Meeting Ahead...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a regional energy meeting hosted by the Colombian Ministry of Energy in Bogot, Colombia. ... of American States and the U.S.-Colombia Chamber of Commerce, to discuss the ...

  11. Connecting the Americas 2022 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    April 16, 2012 - 8:42am Addthis At the Sixth Summit of the Americas in Cartagena, Colombia, the United States joined Colombia and other leaders of the Western Hemisphere in ...

  12. OLADE-Latin American and Caribbean Energy Efficiency Seminar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  13. Energy-Economic Information System (SIEE) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  14. OLADE Sustainable Energy Planning Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  15. Legal Energy Information System (SIEL) Database | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  16. Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Switzerland, Albania, Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, New Zealand, China, Philippines,...

  17. Ecofys-Country Fact Sheets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Union,...

  18. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S

    2001-05-22

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other

  19. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas

  20. Microsoft Word - THE EFFECT OF OBSTACLE#4781.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    KHADEM 1 , J. BADGER*, S. M. ULLAH, S. K. ADITYA, H. R. GHOSH & M. HUSSAIN Renewable Energy Research Centre, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, e-mail: skkhadem@yahoo.com RISO...

  1. File:SWERA-248.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Solar: monthly latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600...

  2. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 7, No. 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-11-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on recent additions to the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Station Locator database, biodiesel buying co-ops, and developing the CNG infrastructure in Bangladesh. Also a memo from CIVITAS 2003.

  3. Microsoft Word - Measurement and Estima#4786.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ghosh 1 , S M Ullah, S K Khadem, N C Bhowmik and M Hussain Renewable Energy Research Center, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh E-mail: himuape@yahoo.com , rercdu@yahoo.com Abstract...

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 50 million people in Bangladesh drink arsenic-laden water, making it the largest case of mass poisoning in human history. ...

  5. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [June 21, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-06-21

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: Canada, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Argentina, Brazil, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Soviet Union, Belgium, France, Turkey, and the United Kingdom.

  6. Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tool: Steps for Moving a NAMA from Idea Towards Implementation Add Tool GIZ Programs Bangladesh-GTZ Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Programme Brazil-GTZ Renewable Energy and...

  7. Observatory of Renewable Energy for Latin America and the Caribbean...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay UN Region Caribbean, Central America, South America References...

  8. Andean Development Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bolivia Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador Jamaica Mexico Panama Paraguay Peru Spain Trinidad & Tobago Uruguay Venezuela and 14 private banks in the region....

  9. Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas Western Hemisphere Clean Energy Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Ministers of Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Panama and the United States announced the creation of a new Western Hemisphere Clean Energy Initiative.

  10. Understanding cirrus ice crystal number variability for different...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States) Univ. of Los Andes, Bogota (Colombia) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States) Georgia Inst. ...

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Thousand Barrels)","Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Imports by PADD of Processing from Colombia of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) ...

  12. 123 Agreements for Peaceful Cooperation | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    States that have Agreements for Cooperation with the United States: Argentina Australia Brazil Canada China Colombia Egypt European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom)1 International ...

  13. Velarde students score in RoboRAVE International at first try

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Competitors came from as far away as China and the Czech Republic June 1, 2015 Dylan ... and visiting competitors from China, Colombia, the Czech Republic and Mexico. ...

  14. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF FOSSIL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    national treatment for trade in natural gas with Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco,...

  15. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University and Californias Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; John Ellis (Colombia), of CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland; Belen...

  16. The Children's Investment Fund Foundation (CIFF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Action Plans and Scenarios (MAPS) Chile-Mitigation Action Plans and Scenarios (MAPS) Colombia-Mitigation Action Plans and Scenarios (MAPS) Peru-Mitigation Action Plans and...

  17. Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Management in Beijing: Mitigation of Emissions in Urban Transport Ci:grasp Colombia-Facility for Environmentally Friendly Transport Technology and Measures (TRANSfer)...

  18. Incubar del Caribe | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Incubar del Caribe Jump to: navigation, search Name: Incubar del Caribe Place: Colombia Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Charity Non-profit ...

  19. Fast Start Financing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the government of the Netherlands, with support from the governments of Costa Rica, Colombia, Denmark, Germany, Indonesia, the Marshall Islands, Mexico, Norway, the United...

  20. Property:Project Status | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SHP + Active + MHK ProjectsSadap Indonesia SHP + Inactive + MHK ProjectsSalvajina Colombia SHP + Active + Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:Projec...

  1. Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.ecpamericas.org Program Start 2010 Country Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, United States South...

  2. Energy News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy Initiative Energy Ministers of Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Panama and the United States announced the creation of a new Western Hemisphere Clean...

  3. Gateway:Amrica Latina/Centros Latinoamericanos | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    do Biodiesel- Privado BColombia.jpg Colombia Ministerio de Minas y Energas- Pblico Red Energas Alternativas- Privado BCuba.jpg Cuba Centro de Gestin de la Informacin y...

  4. Bogot Building A Sustainable City (Part 1 of 3) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    mayor of Bogota, Colombia, Enrique Penalosa was both revered and scorned for his urban planning and transportation policies. His public works projects, which largely favored the...

  5. Bogot Building A Sustainable City (Part 3 of 3) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    mayor of Bogota, Colombia, Enrique Penalosa was both revered and scorned for his urban planning and transportation policies. His public works projects, which largely favored the...

  6. Bogot Building A Sustainable City (Part 2 of 3) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    mayor of Bogota, Colombia, Enrique Penalosa was both revered and scorned for his urban planning and transportation policies. His public works projects, which largely favored the...

  7. U

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... AS - Australia; CN - Canada; CL - Colombia; ID - Indonesia; PL - Poland; RS - Russia; VZ - Venezuela; OT - Other. | || |INSTRUCTIONS continued|For Column 'f' Coal Mine County Code, ...

  8. U

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... AS - Australia; CN - Canada; CL - Colombia; ID - Indonesia; PL - Poland; RS - Russia; VZ - Venezuela; OT - Other. 4 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information Administration Form ...

  9. On the One-Year Anniversary of EPAct and Release of National...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Incremental production from Saudi Arabia as well as diverted shipments of crude oil from Ecuador, Colombia, and Mexico could offset some of the shortfall. We appreciate that oil ...

  10. Frequently Asked Questions About the Higgs Boson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Ecuador, France, Germany, India, Ireland, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, the United Kingdom and the United States. ...

  11. Federal Acquisition Regulation Federal Acquisition Circular 59

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    I. Prohibition on Contracting With Inverted Domestic Corporations 2012-013 II. Free Trade Agreement--Colombia 2012-012 III. Revision of Cost Accounting Standards Threshold...

  12. Microsoft Word - 91180786_2.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Australia, Bahrain, Colombia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Chile, Morocco, Canada, Mexico, Oman, Peru, Singapore, Republic of Korea, Jordan, ...

  13. Natural Ventilation in California Offices: Estimated Health Effects...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: ASHRAE IAQ 2013: Environmental Health in Low Energy Buildings, Vancouver, British Colombia, October 15-18, 2013 Research Org: Ernest Orlando Lawrence ...

  14. DOE/EA-1976 FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR PROPOSED CNG...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, Peru, Republic of Korea, and Singapore. ...

  15. Climate-Smart Agriculture Country Profiles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    featuredproductscsa-country-profiles Country: Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Grenada, Mexico, Peru Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Agriculture, country profiles,...

  16. How to Obtain Authorization to Import and/or Export Natural Gas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    natural gas with Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, Peru,...

  17. Peru-Planning for Climate Change (PlanCC) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    part of the MAPS program, a collaboration between developing countries (South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru) to support the establishment of an evidence base...

  18. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - San Andres and Providencia (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina (unpopulated), also known as San Andres and Providencia, which is equidistant between Costa Rica and Jamaica and 775 kilometers northwest of Colombia. The archipelago is part of Colombia, though Nicaragua has also laid claim to it.

  19. BPA-2014-00717-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 'WSP Colombia City: Phone: State: Zip: Ex. xxx-xxx-xxxx Please type your request here Hello I would like to ask You, if and where is possible to download a copy of Corona and...

  20. Notices

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Response Review of Greece 11. Mid-Term Review of Sweden 12. Outreach -APSAChileColombia 13. Association Update 14. Nexus Forum-Resilience Next Steps 15. Other Business ...

  1. BPA-2014-00617-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 In reply refer to: NN-1 Jorge Hernan Jaramillo Restrepo Interconexion Electrica Colombia-Panama S.A. Av. Aquilino de la Guardia, Torre Banesco Piso 11 Officina 1111 Ciudad de...

  2. Oil and gas developments in South Africa, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1985-10-01

    For the 25 countries described in the region, exploration activity continued to be centered in proven petroleum provinces in 1984. Exploration activity increased in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Important, successful exploration efforts continued in areas around Cano Limon field in Colombia, and Guafita and La Victoria fields in Venezuela. Notable discoveries in South America included the 42-46-1X San Martin Cretaceous discovery by Shell in the Ucayali basin in Peru, the significant oil and gas discovery at Palmar Largo ES-1 by YPF in Argentina, and the first offshore gas discovery, the Pecten 1-SPS-20 wildcat in the Santo basin in Brazil. Oil production increased in Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. A notable increase (40%) in oil production occurred in Brazil. Gas production increased in Argentina, Barbados, Colombia, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. 8 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    Petroleum exploration in the region was generally less in 1983 than in 1982. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Barbados increased crude production, whereas Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and Trinidad-Tobago reported increases in gas production. Although drilling activities remained low compared to past years, significant oil discoveries were reported in Colombia, Mexico, and Brazil. In Colombia, Cano Limon field is reported to be the largest field found in the Llanos region. In Brazil, important oil discoveries were made offshore in the Para, Potiquas, and Ampos basins. In Mexico, discoveries were reported in the Cerro Azul, Poza Rica (Chicontepec, Villahermosa, and Tabasco) areas onshore and in the Bay of Campeche offshore. In Argentina, discoveries were made in the San Jorge basin and the Noreste Tarija basin. 10 figures, 11 tables.

  4. GREENING YOUR BUSINESS

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... * 12 Canada * 5 India * 3 Australia * 3 Ireland * 2 Spain * 2 United Kingdom * 2 Tunisia * 1 Belgium * 1 Chile * 1 Colombia * 1 Argentina * 1 Fiji * 1 Israel * 1 Indonesia * 1 St. ...

  5. Coordinating Low Emission Development in Columbia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Colombia's economy has grown more than 4 percent per year for a decade, but climate change is posing new risks to sustaining that development. With the nation's coastal areas, mountain ranges, rain forests, plains, and river basins vulnerable to changing weather patterns and growing seasons, Colombia is building resilience to climate change while working to curb emissions and pursue new options for low emission development.

  6. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction, Argentina, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Bourkina (Upper Volta), Brazil, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields, Appendix II, Phytomass Files, and References.

  7. CX-100064 Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NREL – Bangladesh Wind Resources Assessment Project: NREL Tracking No. 14-020 Award Number: DE-AC36-08GO28308 CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 09/11/2014 Location(s): Colorado Office(s): Golden Field Office

  8. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [May 23, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-05-23

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) Japan, (2) China, (3) South Korea, (4) Czechoslovakia, Poland, (5) Argentina, Brazil, (6) Bangladesh, India, Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, (7) Soviet Union, and (8) Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, United Kingdom, France.

  9. Genome Sequence of the Historical Clinical Isolate Burkholderia pseudomallei PHLS 6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    D’haeseleer, Patrik; Johnson, Shannon L.; Davenport, Karen W.; Chain, Patrick S.; Schoeniger, Joe; Ray, Debjit; Sinha, Anupama; Williams, Kelly P.; Peña, José; Branda, Steven S.; et al

    2016-06-30

    We present the draft genome sequence ofBurkholderia pseudomalleiPHLS 6, a virulent clinical strain isolated from a melioidosis patient in Bangladesh in 1960. This draft genome consists of 39 contigs and is 7,322,181 bp long.

  10. Country Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country Total Percent of U.S. total Canada 61,078 1% China 3,323,297 57% Germany 154,800 3% Japan 12,593 0% India 47,192 1% South Korea 251,105 4% All Others 2,008,612 34% Total 5,858,677 100% Table 7 . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2014 (peak kilowatts) Note: All Others includes Cambodia, Czech Republic, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Turkey Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic

  11. Crude Oil Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Country Total Percent of U.S. total Canada 61,078 1% China 3,323,297 57% Germany 154,800 3% Japan 12,593 0% India 47,192 1% South Korea 251,105 4% All Others 2,008,612 34% Total 5,858,677 100% Table 7 . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2014 (peak kilowatts) Note: All Others includes Cambodia, Czech Republic, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Turkey Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic

  12. Oil discoveries and basin resource prediction in Latin America: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronman, G.E.; Aleman, A.M.; Rushworth, S.W. )

    1993-02-01

    Over 350 oil discoveries were made in Latin America during the 1980s. About 12% are estimated to contain reserves greater than 100 MMBO. Several of the larger finds (>500 MMBO), such as Cusiana (Colombia), Furrial/Musipan (Venezuela), Cano Lima (Colombia) and Marlim (Brazil) represent an important part of the giant field found worldwide since 1980. Most of the larger discoveries were made by national oil companies in Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil. Undiscovered oil resources of 40-80 BBO are estimated to remain in the highest potential Latin American basins, including those in Mexico, based on historical field size data and current geological knowledge. Over 150 BBO of produced oil and proven reserves has been found in the same group of basins. The probability of finding large undiscovered oil and gas fields (>100 MMBOE) in selected established and mature Latin American basins is high. The Campos (Brazil), Llanos (Colombia), Magadalena (Colombia), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Marahon-Oriente-Putomayo (Peru-Ecuador-Colombia), Maturin (Venezuela), Reforma-Campeche (Mexico) and Ucayali (Peru) basins have the best possibility for such accumulations. Another tier of frontier and emerging basins may also contain significant resources, but limited data makes it difficult to estimate their undiscovered resources. Some of the higher potential basins in this group include the Sierra de Chiapas (Mexico/Guatemala), Huallaga (Peru), Yucatan (Mexico), Sabinas, and Burgos (Mexico) basins.

  13. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Reduction of ruminant methane emissions - a win-win-win opportunity for business, development, and the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes research efforts of The Global Livestock Producers Program (GLPP) in establishing self-sustaining enterprises for cost-effective technologies (i.e., animal nutrition and genetic improvement) and global methane emissions reductions in developing world nations. The US Environmental Protection Agency has funded several studies to examine the possibilities of reducing ruminant methane emissions in India, Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Brazil. The results of the studies showed that: (1) many developing countries` production systems are inefficient, and (2) great potential exists for decreasing global methane emissions through increasing animal productivity. From this effort, the GLPP established livestock development projects in India, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania, and is developing projects for Bangladesh, Nepal, and Brazil. The GLPP has developed a proven methodology for assessing ruminant methane and incorporating methane emissions monitoring into viable projects.

  15. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986 was considerably reduced compared to 1985. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Venezuela had increased oil production, with Colombia showing a dramatic 71% increase attributed mainly to bringing on-stream the pipeline connecting Occidental-Shell-Ecopetrol's Cano Limon complex to the port of Covenas. Significant discoveries were reported from Argentina in the Olmedo, Oran, and San Jorge basins; Brazil in the offshore Campos and Amazon basins; Colombia in the Llanos basin; Ecuador in the Oriente basin; Mexico in the Bay of Campeche; Peru in the Ucayali basin; and Venezuela in the Eastern Venezuela basin. Eastern Venezuela's Furrial discovery is reported to have recoverable reserves of more than 1 million bbl of oil, and Shell's Ucayali basin discovery is reported to hold more than 7 tcf of gas. 7 figures, 10 tables.

  16. NREL: Technology Deployment Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Deployment Photo of a man with a blue hard hat on installing instrumentation on an 80 meter meteorological tower used to measure the wind resource in Bangladesh. With support from NREL, developing countries are realizing the benefits of Low Emission Development Strategies. Full story. More success stories. NREL provides market expertise and tools to governments, utilities, tribes, and industry to implement clean energy solutions. Learn how NREL's integrated technology deployment

  17. Costing and pricing electricity in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munasinghe, M.; Rungta, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles the papers presented at a conference on costing and pricing electricity in developing countries. The topics discussed include: Power tariffs, an overview; electricity tariff policy; estimating and using marginal cost pricing concepts; power tariff policy of Philippines, India, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan; Inter-American Development Bank-Electricity tariffs, policies and practices; and costs of supplying electricity and tariff policy in some other countries.

  18. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscientist Ayesha Arefin has heart August 27, 2013 » Return to homepage Student researcher helps construct bioethical artificial human organs Although Bangladesh has made strides in recent decades, the war-torn and poverty stricken South Asian nation-with the world's second lowest percentage of female scientists-provides few opportunities for brilliant women. But in 2011, Los Alamos researcher Chris Detter discovered geneticist Ayesha Arefin's potential during a visit to her Bangladeshi

  19. Global Solutions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Solutions Our Vision National User Facilities Research Areas In Focus Global Solutions ⇒ Navigate Section Our Vision National User Facilities Research Areas In Focus Global Solutions A-Z Index Berkeley Lab masthead U.S. Department of Energy logo Phone Book Jobs Search BANGLADESH INDIA CHINA DAYA BAY CHINA RUSSIA SIBERIA JAPAN SAMOA HAWAII SOUTH POLE ANTARCTICA NEW MEXICO SOUTH DAKOTA TEXAS GULF OF MEXICO NEW YORK PUERTO RICO AMAZON RAIN FOREST CANARY ISLANDS SWITZERLAND ETHIOPIA

  20. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Non-OPEC OPEC Persian Gulf 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 Billion Dollars Nations 72.5 47.1 40.6 32.6 31.7 14.5 7.4 2.3 1.6 Canada Saudi Arabia Mexico Nigeria Venezuela Colombia ...

  2. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rien, Thomas A.; Beiningen, Kirk T.

    1997-07-01

    This project began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state, and tribal fisheries entities to determine (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Colombia and Snake rivers.

  3. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.S.

    1983-10-01

    Petroleum developments in the region in 1982 had a more varied pattern than in 1981 when all aspects were upbeat with varying degrees of increases. In 1982, Brazil, Mexico, and Guatemala had striking increases in oil production; Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia had moderate increases; and Argentina, Trinidad, and Venezuela reported declines. In exploration, Argentina reported several additional offshore Tierra del Fuego discoveries in the Cretaceous Springhill and 2 more encouraging gas discoveries in the Noroeste basin. Bolivia reported an oil discovery from Silurian rocks more generally considered a gas objective. Brazil extended and confirmed the Western Amazonas gas area with 2 discoveries. Colombia added 2 more spectacular oil discoveries in the Llanos basin to follow up 2 similar finds in 1981. Several countries reported that discoveries have increased the national reserves of hydrocarbons. Considering the social, political, and economic problems in several countries, along with the worldwide depression and petroleum surplus, developments in the region have been on the whole favorable.

  4. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt

  5. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt

  6. NREL: Technology Deployment - Developing Countries Demonstrate Impacts of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Emission Development Strategies Developing Countries Demonstrate Impacts of Low Emission Development Strategies News EC-LEDS Highlights Renewable Energy Resource Data at COP21 Vietnam Makes Strides to Lower Emissions Thru Green Building Code, High-Performance Buildings Colombia Makes Major Strides in Low Emission Development Payments for Forest Environmental Services in Vietnam Preserves Forests, Engages Communities Presidential Engagement on Low Emission Development Strategies in Gabon

  7. Rural health clinics infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, K.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses programs which were directed at the installation of photovoltaic power systems in rural health clinics. The objectives included: vaccine refrigeration; ice pack freezing; lighting; communications; medical appliances; sterilization; water purification; and income generation. The paper discusses two case histories, one in the Dominican Republic and one in Colombia. The author summarizes the results of the programs, both successes and failures, and offers an array of conclusions with regard to the implementation of future programs of this general nature.

  8. Good prospects overcome domestic politics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados.

  9. South America: Investment target of the world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses investment in the oil and gas industries of South America. For Venezuela, first-round profit sharing, marginal field agreements, and drilling and production activities are described. Exploration, resource development, and production are also described for Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Trinidad and Tobago, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and the Falkland Islands. Political problems in Ecuador, licensing in Trinidad and Tobago, and the privatization of Petroperu are also mentioned.

  10. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  11. South America: everybody is drilling almost everywhere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    A group of studies describes accomplishments in 1980 in South America drilling and producing. There may be 3285 wells drilled during 1980, with the majority in Venezuela, Argentina and Peru, compared with a 2934 total for all countries on the continent in 1979. Reserves at the end of 1979 in South America exceeded 27 billion bbl, and production averaged 3.8 million bpd. Individual country reports are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil, Trinidad, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Urauguay, and Guyana.

  12. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Projectiondata

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Current Issues & Trends Composition of trade influences goods output, shaping industrial sector energy intensity exportsimportsindustrialAEO2016 (Annual Energy Outlook 2016) 8/19/2016 World tight oil production to more than double from 2015 to 2040 productioninternationalUnited StatesCanadaMexicoRussiatight oilInternational Energy Outlook relatedAEO2016 (Annual Energy Outlook 2016) AustraliaColombia 8/12/2016 Renewables share of North America electricity mix expected to rise

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Quantity and Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports by Origin, 2010 - 2016" "(short tons and dollars per short ton)" "Year and Quarter","Australia","Canada","Colombia","Indonesia","China","Venezuela","Other","Total" ,,,,,,,"Countries" 2010,380404,1766896,14583950,1904040,52869,581700,82828,19352687 2011,61745,1680490,9500387,856038,22128,778887,187931,13087606

  14. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Issuestrends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Current Issues & Trends Composition of trade influences goods output, shaping industrial sector energy intensity exportsimportsindustrialAEO2016 (Annual Energy Outlook 2016) 8/19/2016 World tight oil production to more than double from 2015 to 2040 productioninternationalUnited StatesCanadaMexicoRussiatight oilInternational Energy Outlook relatedAEO2016 (Annual Energy Outlook 2016) AustraliaColombia 8/12/2016 Renewables share of North America electricity mix expected to rise

  15. The increased concentration of SO{sub 2} and threat to the largest mangrove forest of the world - the Sundarbans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, J.U.; Ullah, S.S.; Carmichael, G.R.; Haque, R.

    1996-12-31

    The atmospheric concentration of SO{sub 2} was monitored in two different sites, Khulna and Savar in Bangladesh as a part of Rains Asia Atmos Module, Phase I Project. The results show that the winter concentration of SO{sub 2} in Khulna is 3 to 4 times higher than the summer concentrations, which is also higher compared to measurements at Savar which is adjacent to Dhaka city. Based on these facts and seasonal wind pattern, trans-boundary air pollution has been suggested. Khulna is in the southwestern part of Bangladesh and this area harbors the largest mangrove forest of the world, the Sundarbans. Sundari trees are the main trees of the Sundarban ecosystem. During the last few years, many of the Sundari trees, which are quite susceptible to pH stress, are dying from the top. The unusual winter increase of atmospheric sulphurdioxide has been assigned to be one of the reasons for the top dying. Other factors might be the increase of salinity and diminished flow of water.

  16. Basic needs, rural financial markets, and appropriate technology: Toward a solution of analytical and policy issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farooq, M.O.

    1988-01-01

    The failure of the standard Growth Approach to economic development to solve the problems of underdevelopment in LDCs has caused an alternative approach, Basic Needs Approach (BNA), to attain prominence in development thought. BNA emphasizes poverty-minimizing growth. Its strategy of direct attack on poverty has better potential for LDCs' development and fulfillment of their populations' basic needs than the trickle-down mechanism of the Growth Approach. BNA requires, among other things, (a) suitable rural financial markets (RFMs) as parts of the overall financial system, and (b) indigenous technological capabilities. The financial system, if it functions as a central element in an institutionalized technology policy, can link technology-related institutions that generate, evaluate, and promote appropriate technologies (ATs) with RFMs that can support adoption and diffusion of ATs in the agro-rural sector. The above argument uses Bangladesh as a case for illustration. In the light of an institutional framework presented, examined, and extended in this dissertation, it is found that Bangladesh currently does not have an institutionalized technology policy. The current organizational framework and policies related to technological development are not conducive to BNA.

  17. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism in lead exposed Bangladeshi children and its effect on urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasmin, Saira; Furusawa, Hana; Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-15

    Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7 µg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. - Highlights: • High blood lead level for the environmentally exposed schoolchildren. • BPb was significantly correlated with U-ALA and Hb. • Effect of ALAD genotype on U-ALA is differed by sex. • Lower U-ALA in ALAD2 than ALAD1 carriers only for boys at same exposure.

  18. Marginal cost of natural gas in developing countries: concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashayekhi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Many developing nations are facing complex questions regarding the best strategy for developing their domestic gas reserves. The World Bank has addressed these questions in studies on the cost and prices of gas and its optimal allocation among different markets. Based on the average incremental method, an estimate of the marginal cost of natural gas in 10 developing countries proved to be $0.61-1.79/1000 CF or $3.59-10.54/bbl of oil equivalent, far below the border prices of competing fuels in these nations. Moreover, the cost of gas is not expected to rise in these countries within the next 20 years while the reserves/production ratios remain high. The sample involves a variety of gas compositions and production conditions among the countries of Bangladesh, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Tunisia.

  19. Physical Market Conditions, Paper Market Activity,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    163,868 182,222 184,167 191,219 197,491 195,868 1981-2015 Albania 165 220 467 267 2012-2015 Algeria 0 0 0 2001-2012 Angola 0 2001-2011 Argentina 0 412 1 1 201 3 1993-2015 Aruba 0 2014-2014 Australia 3,167 3,229 2,841 2,715 2,560 2,477 1993-2015 Austria 1995-2007 Azerbaijan 0 5 2 2010-2015 Bangladesh 0 2014-2014 Bahama Islands 0 2000-2010 Bahrain 116 713 299 563 0 1993-2014 Barbados 33 169 179 121 163 158 2007-2015 Belarus 2004-2004 Belgium 3,295 3,337 2,463 2,098 2,572 2,161 1993-2015 Belize 4 2

  20. Petroleum Coke Exports by Destination

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    163,868 182,222 184,167 191,219 197,491 195,868 1981-2015 Albania 165 220 467 267 2012-2015 Algeria 0 0 0 2001-2012 Angola 0 2001-2011 Argentina 0 412 1 1 201 3 1993-2015 Aruba 0 2014-2014 Australia 3,167 3,229 2,841 2,715 2,560 2,477 1993-2015 Austria 1995-2007 Azerbaijan 0 5 2 2010-2015 Bangladesh 0 2014-2014 Bahama Islands 0 2000-2010 Bahrain 116 713 299 563 0 1993-2014 Barbados 33 169 179 121 163 158 2007-2015 Belarus 2004-2004 Belgium 3,295 3,337 2,463 2,098 2,572 2,161 1993-2015 Belize 4 2

  1. Strategies of Asian oil-importing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.

    1997-04-01

    Various strategies are used by oil-importing countries to reduce their economic dependence on imported oil: national oil production, energy conservation, and the change of economic structures from high energy intensity sectors to low ones. In this article, the roles of these different strategies have been identified for 10 selected oil-importing countries in Asia: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Hong Kong, R.O Korea, and Taiwan. The results show that most of the selected countries (although Hong Kong and Taiwan are independent economic entities, for simplicity, the author refers to them as countries) have succeeded in reducing their national economy dependence on imported oil since 1973. Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and India are among the most successful countries, with more than 40% reduction in their economic dependence on imported oil.

  2. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, Terri; Rai, Neha; Esterly, Sean; Cox, Sadie; Reber, Tim; Muzammil, Maliha; Mahmood, Tasfiq; Kaur, Nanki; Tesfaye, Lidya; Mamuye, Simret; Knuckles, James; Morris, Ellen; de Been, Merijn; Steinbach, Dave; Acharya, Sunil; Chhetri, Raju Pandit; Bhushal, Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  3. Pfutzner_1987.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    163,868 182,222 184,167 191,219 197,491 195,868 1981-2015 Albania 165 220 467 267 2012-2015 Algeria 0 0 0 2001-2012 Angola 0 2001-2011 Argentina 0 412 1 1 201 3 1993-2015 Aruba 0 2014-2014 Australia 3,167 3,229 2,841 2,715 2,560 2,477 1993-2015 Austria 1995-2007 Azerbaijan 0 5 2 2010-2015 Bangladesh 0 2014-2014 Bahama Islands 0 2000-2010 Bahrain 116 713 299 563 0 1993-2014 Barbados 33 169 179 121 163 158 2007-2015 Belarus 2004-2004 Belgium 3,295 3,337 2,463 2,098 2,572 2,161 1993-2015 Belize 4 2

  4. CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Southeast Asia and the USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Vishaldeep; Fricke, Brian A; Bansal, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the annual energy consumption of these refrigeration systems in eighty eight cities from all climate zones in Southeast Asia. Also, the performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems is compared to the baseline R404A multiplex direct expansion (DX) system. Finally, the overall performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems in various climatic conditions in Southeast Asia is compared to that in the United States. For the refrigeration systems investigated, it was found that the Transcritical Booster System with Bypass Compressor (TBS-BC) performs better or equivalent to the R404A multiplex DX system in the northern regions of Southeast Asia (China and Japan). In the southern regions of Southeast Asia (India, Bangladesh, Burma), the R404A multiplex DX system and the Combined Secondary Cascade (CSC) system performs better than the TBS-BC.

  5. Non-OPEC oil supply continues to grow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, D.H.

    1995-12-25

    Global reserves of crude oil remain at 1 trillion bbl, according to OGJ`s annual survey of producing countries. Significant gains are in Brazil, Colombia, Congo, Egypt, Libya, Nigeria, Oman, and Papua New Guinea. Decreases were reported by Indonesia, Norway, the U.K., Iran, Canada, Mexico, and the US. Natural gas reserves slipped to 4.9 quadrillion cu ft. The major production trend is a lasting surge from outside of OPEC. This year`s Worldwide Production report begins with a detailed analysis of this crucial development by an international authority. This article discusses the OECD outlook by region and the turnaround in production in the former Soviet Union.

  6. Accounting for social impacts and costs in the forest industry, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gale, Robert . E-mail: rgale@web.net; Gale, Fred . E-mail: fred.gale@utas.edu.au

    2006-03-15

    Business reviews of the forest industry in British Colombia, Canada, typically portray an unequivocally positive picture of its financial and economic health. In doing so, they fail to consider the following six categories of social impacts and costs: (1) direct and indirect subsidies; (2) government support through investment; (3) community dependence; (4) the maintenance of public order; (5) aboriginal title; and (6) the overestimation of employment. Our findings show that conventional economic and financial accounting methods inflate the industry's net contribution to the economy. We make a number of recommendations to address this shortcoming to improve future accounting and reporting procedures.

  7. A new species of antipatharian coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opresko, Dennis M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2010-09-01

    A new species of black coral, Aphanipathes colombiana (Cnidaria:Antipatharia) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described. The species forms small flabellate colonies with anisomorphic polypar spines. It is morphologically similar to the western Atlantic species A. thyoides (Pourtales) but its hypostomal polypar spines are not reduced in size. The new species also resembles the Indo-Pacific species A. reticulata van Pesch but it has smooth-surfaced polypar spines, whereas in A. reticulata these spines have small tubercles on their surface

  8. South America: Producers brace for hard times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The outlook for South American petroleum development is the topic of this review. Observations include: Brazil confirms giant discovery, continues drive for deepwater production; Eastern Llanos fields propel Colombia into ranks of oil-exporting nations; Venezuela's PdVSA revamps, goes overseas in search of downstream integration; Production downturn in Argentina while YPF staggers under debt load, mismanagement; Peru renegotiates contracts, nationalizes one operator and asks others to join search; Sharp drilling decline in Trinidad, but production rises because of tax incentives; Ecuador breaks with Opec, adopts wide-open production strategy, flexible prices; Drilling, oil output increase in Bolivia, government moves to rein in YPFB.

  9. Venezuela No. 1 oil import source in S. America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-10

    This paper reports that with the exception of Venezuela, the U.S. is likely to import much oil from South American countries through 2010, the General Accounting Office reports. GAO, a congressional watchdog agency, noted the U.S. imports about 4% of its oil from Colombia, Ecuador, and Trinidad and Tobago and possibly could import from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Peru in the future. It the the eight countries' crude oil reserves are expected to increase about 30% by 2000, then slide about 2% by 2010. Their oil production is expected to climb about 21% over 1990 by 2000, then level off until 2010.

  10. New sources of debt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.

    1996-04-01

    Financing of power projects in Latin America is discussed in this article. Financial arrangements for a cogeneration project in Chile and a generating plant in Argentina are outlined. The Chilean project, Petropower Energia Limitada, is a subsidiary of Foster Wheeler Corporation and Chile`s state owned oil company. The Central Termica Patagonia generating plant in Argentina will be built by Amoco Power Resources Corporation in partnership with Camuzzi Argentina. Very brief descriptions of funding for projects in Bolivia, Colombia, Brazil, and Ecuador are also provided.

  11. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  12. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Administration (EIA) Analysis & Projections ‹ See all Coal Reports U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2010 Year in Review Release Date: June 1, 2011 | Next Release Date: Periodically | full report Exports and Imports Exports Total U.S. coal exports for 2010 increased by 38.3 percent to 81.7 million short tons (Figure 8). Figure Data This increase was largely due to two factors. First, heavy rains and flooding in Australia, Indonesia, and Colombia reduced world coal supply and

  13. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Carribbean area, and Mexico in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.S.

    1982-11-01

    Petroleum developments in 1981 continued in the pattern of recent years of increasing exploration and exploitation in response to the second catastrophic surge in crude oil prices thrust on the world economy in 1979. Production of crude oil increased in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico, whereas Venezuela, Trinidad, Peru, and Bolivia experienced declines. Exploratory surveys, exploratory drilling, and development drilling all increased in most of the countries reporting. Significant successful exploratory drilling is reported for several countries. In Argentina, the producing zone of the Austral basin has been extended farther offshore, and is reportedly productive in what is apparently the upper Malvinas basin. In Brazil, extensions to several producing areas are reported in the Campos basin. Also, the Jurua gas province of western Amazonas reportedly had an encouraging extension. Colombia had several discoveries in the Magdalena basins, but the 2 Llanos discoveries are considered much more significant. For a variety of reasons, several countries have undertaken or are undertaking changes in laws and regulations to attract foreign companies into exploration risk ventures. In some countries, exploitation ventures are also offered.

  14. Seismic acquisition and processing methodologies in overthrust areas: Some examples from Latin America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilander, N.G.; Mitchel, R..

    1996-08-01

    Overthrust areas represent some of the last frontiers in petroleum exploration today. Billion barrel discoveries in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and the Monagas fold-thrust belt of Venezuela during the past decade have highlighted the potential rewards for overthrust exploration. However the seismic data recorded in many overthrust areas is disappointingly poor. Challenges such as rough topography, complex subsurface structure, presence of high-velocity rocks at the surface, back-scattered energy and severe migration wavefronting continue to lower data quality and reduce interpretability. Lack of well/velocity control also reduces the reliability of depth estimations and migrated images. Failure to obtain satisfactory pre-drill structural images can easily result in costly wildcat failures. Advances in the methodologies used by Chevron for data acquisition, processing and interpretation have produced significant improvements in seismic data quality in Bolivia, Colombia and Trinidad. In this paper, seismic test results showing various swath geometries will be presented. We will also show recent examples of processing methods which have led to improved structural imaging. Rather than focusing on {open_quotes}black box{close_quotes} methodology, we will emphasize the cumulative effect of step-by-step improvements. Finally, the critical significance and interrelation of velocity measurements, modeling and depth migration will be explored. Pre-drill interpretations must ultimately encompass a variety of model solutions, and error bars should be established which realistically reflect the uncertainties in the data.

  15. Table 5.20 Value of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries, 1973-2011 (Thousand Dollars )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Value of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries, 1973-2011 (Thousand Dollars 1) Year Persian Gulf 3 Selected OPEC 2 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 2 Countries Total 5 Kuwait Nigeria Saudi Arabia Venezuela Total OPEC 4 Canada Colombia Mexico Norway United Kingdom Total Non-OPEC 4 1973 1,729,733 W 1,486,278 904,979 753,195 5,237,483 1,947,422 W – 0 0 2,351,931 7,589,414 1974 4,419,410 W 3,347,351 1,858,788 1,309,916 11,581,515 3,314,999 0 W – 0 4,054,475 15,635,990 1975 5,169,811 W 3,457,766

  16. Table 7.4 Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons) Year Australia New Zealand Canada Mexico Colombia Venezuela China India Indonesia Europe South Africa Other Total Norway Poland Russia Ukraine United Kingdom Other Total 2000 167,595 0 1,923,434 6,671 7,636,614 2,038,774 19,646 205 718,149 0 0 1,212 0 238 0 1,450 0 85 12,512,623 2001 315,870 24,178 2,571,415 8,325 11,176,191 3,335,258 109,877 1,169 882,455 15,933 514,166 219,077 0 75,704 12 824,892 440,408 97,261 19,787,299 2002 821,280 0

  17. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 7.4 Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Australia New Zealand Canada Mexico Colombia Venezuela China India Indonesia Europe South Africa Other Total Norway Poland Russia Ukraine United Kingdom Other Total 2000 0.2 0.0 1.9 (s) 7.6 2.0 (s) (s) 0.7 0.0 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 12.5 2001 .3 (s) 2.6 (s) 11.2 3.3 .1 (s) .9 (s) .5 .2 .0 .1 (s) .8 .4 .1 19.8 2002 .8 .0 2.1 (s) 9.2 3.3 .1 (s) 1.0 .0 .1 .1 .0 (s) (s) .2 .1 (s) 16.9 2003 .3 .1 2.1 .0 15.5

  18. World pipeline construction plans show increase into next century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koen, A.D.; True, W.R.

    1995-02-06

    Plans for worldwide pipeline construction into the next century increased in the past year, especially for developing regions of Latin America and Asia-Pacific. Many of the projects involve large capacity, international gas pipeline systems. By contrast, pipeline construction in Canada, The US, and Europe will decline. Those trends and others are revealed in the latest Oil and Gas Journal pipeline construction data, derived from a survey of world pipeline operators, industry sources, and published information. More than 61,000 miles of crude oil, product, and natural gas pipeline are to be built in 1995 and beyond. The paper discusses Europe's markets, North Sea pipelines, expansion of German pipeline, pipelines in the UK, European and African gas, the trans-Mediterranean gas pipeline, Caspian Sea pipeline, Middle East pipelines, Asia-Pacific activity, South American gas lines, pipelines in Colombia, TransCanada line, Gulf of Mexico pipelines, other Gulf activities, and other US activity.

  19. Pump packages for Colombian crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-05-01

    The Caterpillar Large Engine Center recently packaged ten engine-driven centrifugal pump packages for British Petroleum Exploration`s crude oil pipeline in South America. The ten sets, which use Ingersoll-Dresser centrifugal pumps, are designed to increase significantly the output of BP`s Central LLanos pipeline located in a remote region near Bogota, Colombia. BP anticipates that the addition of the new pump packages will increase daily volume from the current 100000 barrels to approximately 210000 barrels when the upgrade of the pipeline is completed in September. The ten sets are installed at three separate pumping stations. The stations are designed to operate continuously while unmanned, with only periodic maintenance required. The pump packages are powered by Caterpillar 3612 engines rated 3040 kW at 1000 r/min. The 12-cylinder engines are turbocharged and charge-air cooled and use the pipeline oil as both fuel and a cooling medium for the fuel injectors.

  20. Potential seen for doubling U. S. LNG imports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-21

    According to a U.S. Office of Technology Assessment report, Nigeria, Indonesia, Australia, Malaysia, Trinidad, Colombia, and Chile are the most likely sources of U.S. imports of LNG, although the areas with the greatest amounts of exportable surplus LNG are the Persian Gulf, with > 231 trillion cu ft/yr, and the U.S.S.R., with 439 trillion cu ft/yr. The import of LNG would increase the U.S. balance of payments deficit, but LNG imports seem preferable to oil imports. LNG producers have a tendency to sell to Europe or Japan, since these areas are closer to the LNG sources. Maritime Administration and Export-Import Bank programs favor the use of domestic rather than foreign LNG tankers, which tends to reduce the financial stake of foreign suppliers in uninterrupted deliveries. Exportable LNG surpluses (in trillions of cu ft/yr) include: Algeria, 8; Nigeria, 33; Southeast Asia, 41; and Western Hemisphere, 19.

  1. South American oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  2. Table 18. U.S. Coal Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. U.S. Coal Imports (short tons) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 240,168 341,205 171,698 240,168 171,698 39.9 Canada 239,440 341,189 171,631 239,440 171,631 39.5 Mexico 728 16 67 728 67 NM South America Total 2,196,295 2,163,485 2,347,074 2,196,295 2,347,074 -6.4 Colombia 2,190,869 2,133,033 2,299,716 2,190,869 2,299,716 -4.7 Peru 5,426 30,452 11,661 5,426 11,661 -53.5

  3. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 71.92 104.33 107.02 71.92 107.02 -32.8 Canada 71.93 104.32 107.01 71.93 107.01 -32.8 Mexico 66.79 360.25 113.43 66.79 113.43 -41.1 South America Total 64.73 64.18 70.82 64.73 70.82 -8.6 Colombia 64.73 63.86 70.58 64.73 70.58 -8.3 Peru 63.31 86.76 86.19 63.31 86.19 -26.5 Venezuela -

  4. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report (Abbreviated), Ja

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Quantity and Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports by Origin, 2010 - 2016 (short tons and dollars per short ton) Year and Quarter Australia Canada Colombia Indonesia China Venezuela Other Countries Total 2010 380,404 1,766,896 14,583,950 1,904,040 52,869 581,700 82,828 19,352,687 2011 61,745 1,680,490 9,500,387 856,038 22,128 778,887 187,931 13,087,606 2012 - 1,107,727 6,951,515 517,532 77,738 287,147 217,598 9,159,257 2013 22 1,116,076 6,575,927 886,920 51,944 42,428 233,108 8,906,425 2014 532

  5. International energy outlook. Volume 3. North and South America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Petroleum, coal, and hydropower resources are found, in varying degrees, throughout the Americas. Struggling to maintain or achieve energy self-sufficiency, many North and South American countries are undertaking major projects to develop these, and other, energy sources. This volume, Volume 3 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the development projects and energy trends in 12 countries of North and South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the United States and Venezuela. The range and detail of country coverage varies, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations and provides some historical background, its main emphasis is on estimates of future consumption and production, and descriptions of energy programs and plans. Plans in the Americas call for exploiting oil and gas where possible, and making major efforts to develop sources such as coal and hydropower that can be alternatives to imported petroleum. 33 references, 1 figure, 73 tables.

  6. Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline about to take off; seen as litmus test for Southern Cone gas grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-07

    After more than 4 decades of studies, plans, and shelved projects, the proposed Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline is finally about to get off the ground. The 3,700 km gas pipeline will require an investment of at least $2 billion and is viewed by many as a litmus test for the developing gas market and energy integration of South America`s Southern Cone countries. Overall, industry officials see eventual emergence of two large integrated gas grids serving South America: one for the northern countries and another for the Southern Cone. This will enable the six countries with gas surplus to their needs to export the surplus to neighboring, gas-short countries. The northern gas-long countries are Venezuela, Colombia, and Trinidad and Tobago; those in the Southern Cone are Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru. The paper discusses financial details, project details, pipeline construction, the Petrobras strategy, Argentine pipeline projects, and other pipeline proposals.

  7. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  8. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-15

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  9. Mesozoic-Cenozoic paleographic evolution of Northern South America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pindell, J. )

    1993-02-01

    A model for northern South American tectonic and stratigraphic evolution is presented in 14 detailed, palinspastic, paleogeographic plates showing paleosedimentation and paletectonic data. Main deformational, depositional, and basin forming events along with HC maturation/migration are outlined in relation to progressive tectonic evolution. A cause-and-effect relationship between Caribbean plate motions/associated basin development and hydrocarbon maturation and migration is clear. Triassic-Jurassic rifting from Yucatan/North America produced a northern segmented passive margin, and the Cocuy backarc basin in Colombia. To the west, at end Jurassic, a marginal seaway developed west of Central Cordillera which led to passive margin conditions along the Cocuy Basin/Central Cordillera, southward to Ecuador. The margin remained passive until Campanian, when Amaime-chaucha Terrane (leading edge of Caribbean crust) collided with east vergence (southwest-dipping subduction) with Central Cordillera, closing the marginal seaway. The Colon foredeep was thus established each of Central Cordillera; continued convergence occurred by east-dipping flat-slab subduction of Caribbean crust beneath Colombia. The northerly Caribbean crust continued eastward migration along north South America. Maastrichtian -Paleogene opening of Grenada Basin accomodated a southwest-direction of interplate thrusting of Lara Nappes, producing the north Maracaibo foredeep. Paleocene-Miocene sedimentation patterns record the eastward migration of (1) peripheral bulge uplift, (2) foredeep basin and oil kitchen, (3) allochthon emplacement, (4) erosion due to isostatic rebound caused by extension. Since Middle-Late Miocene, Maracaibo Block escaped northward from Eastern Cordillera convergence by >100 km, and the southeastern Caribbean region has become transtensional rather than transpressional.

  10. Nuclear energy: Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muslim, Dato’ Dr Noramly

    2015-04-29

    As Malaysia progresses towards 2020, the depleting resource of oil and gas has forced a re-look at alternatives to replace fossil fuels as energy sources. Among the viable options is nuclear energy, enabling us to meet energy needs and sustain national development in the twenty-first century. Three essential steps Malaysia must take to introduce nuclear power into its energy mix are: energy planning, infrastructure development, and deployment. Malaysia has to face a series of challenges, including public acceptance, waste management, minimizing proliferation risk, and ensuring the security of nuclear plants and materials. Timely development of qualified and competent manpower is a key limiting factor in the development and transfer of nuclear technologies — and education and training take time, effort and money. There is a need for political will. Within the Asian region, China, Korea and Japan are in the forefront in utilizing nuclear power to meet electricity demands. Countries such as UAE, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Turkey are moving ahead with the nuclear option for electricity generation and they have begun planning and construction of nuclear power plants. Against this backdrop, what are Malaysia’s moves? This paper discusses various options and challenges, obstacles and repercussions in meeting future energy demands.

  11. The impact of high-frequency sedimentation cycles on stratigraphic interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perlmutter, M.A.; Radovich, B.J.; Matthews, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Global cyclostratigraphy, a methodology that utilizes climate change to evaluate sediment flux, characterizes the impact of sediment cycles on stratigraphy. Climatic succession, sediment yield cycles, and the phase relationship of sediment cycles to eustatic cycles are all determined in the early stages of basin analysis. Sedimentologic information is then used to assist in sequence evaluations. Climatic successions are intrinsically associated with global position (paleogeography) and are not necessarily synchronous with glacioeustatic sea-level cycles. A preliminary evaluation of the effect of climate on sediment supply from modem river systems indicates that sediment yield may vary by well over two orders of magnitude during one climate cycle. Consequently, basins in different climatic belts can have distinctly different volumes and lithologies for systems tracts that have similar base-level changes. The stratigraphic computer program Sedpak was utilized to examine the possible impact of different sedimentation cycles on sequence interpretation and reservoir forecasts. The effect of sedimentation cycles on reservoir distribution in real world sequences is demonstrated with a comparison of the Miocene section of the Surma basin, Bangladesh, and the Plio-Pleistocene section of the Gulf of Mexico. In the Surma basin, reservoirs are most likely to occur in transgressive and highstand systems tracts, while reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico are more likely in lowstand prograding complexes.

  12. Grameen Bank`s experience with energy related microenterprise development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    Increased population and growth of industry have resulted in greater demand for energy worldwide. Most of this energy is derived from fossil fuel (coal, gas, oil and nuclear) which will soon be depleted. In this context the need for developing renewable sources of energy has taken on a greater sense of importance and urgency. Over the years significant technological advances have been made in the area of renewable energies especially in the field of solar photovoltaics (PV), wind energy and bio-gas technology. In addition, for remote rural areas where there exists no infrastructure for conventional energy supply, these forms of decentralized alternative energy systems will be far more adaptable and well suited. Grameen Shakti (Energy) is an addition to the family of companies of Grameen Bank, to promote and supply renewable energy sources to rural households. GS, a not-for-profit company, expects not only to supply renewable energy services, but also to create employment and income generation opportunities in rural Bangladesh. GS will focus on supply, marketing, sales, testing and development of renewable energy systems of solar pv, biogas, wind turbines and windpumps.

  13. Energy-conservation-investment decision making in developing countries: A review of project implementation in industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    Despite recent efforts in a number of developing countries to promote energy conservation (EC) and efficiency, only a fraction of EC potential has been captured, especially for projects that require significant investments. The document analyzes EC efforts in 11 countries where energy audit and/or feasibility study programs have been carried out (Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Pakistan, Panama, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka), covering some 1,500 EC projects involving 242 industrial companies. Cost and length of payback seem to be the determining factors for companies considering EC measures; no-cost or low-cost projects with paybacks of less than a year (such as power factor improvement projects) had the highest rate of implementation, while expensive, complicated projects (e.g., cogeneration or fuel substitution projects) were most often rejected. The document concludes, however, that the rate of implementation of EC programs has been quite high, and recommends that inexpensive, short-term projects be featured in future EC programs and increased levels of TA and financial assistance be made available to companies implementing long-term EC measures.

  14. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  15. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziegler, D.W. )

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  16. Use of Data Denial Experiments to Evaluate ESA Forecast Sensitivity Patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Manobianco, J; Waight, K; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area shown in Figure 1 that includes Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. The Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) approach uses data generated by a set (ensemble) of perturbed numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations for a sample time period to statistically diagnose the sensitivity of a specified forecast variable (metric) for a target location to parameters at other locations and prior times referred to as the initial condition (IC) or state variables. The ESA approach was tested on the large-scale atmospheric prediction problem by Ancell and Hakim 2007 and Torn and Hakim 2008. ESA was adapted and applied at the mesoscale by Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) to the Tehachapi Pass, CA (warm and cools seasons) and Mid-Colombia Basin (warm season only) wind generation regions. In order to apply the ESA approach at the resolution needed at the mesoscale, Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) developed the Multiple Observation Optimization Algorithm (MOOA). MOOA uses a multivariate regression on a few select IC parameters at one location to determine the incremental improvement of measuring multiple variables (representative of the IC parameters) at various locations. MOOA also determines how much information from each IC parameter contributes to the change in the metric variable at the target location. The Zack et al. studies (2010a, b, and c), demonstrated that forecast sensitivity can be characterized by well-defined, localized patterns for a number of IC variables such as 80-m

  17. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  18. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajen, Gauray

    1999-06-01

    The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy

  19. Sex-specific patterns and deregulation of endocrine pathways in the gene expression profiles of Bangladeshi adults exposed to arsenic contaminated drinking water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Chervona, Yana; Hall, Megan; Kluz, Thomas; Gamble, Mary V.; Costa, Max

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water occurs globally and is associated with numerous diseases including skin, lung and bladder cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research indicates that arsenic may be an endocrine disruptor. This study was conducted to evaluate the nature of gene expression changes among males and females exposed to arsenic contaminated water in Bangladesh at high and low doses. Twenty-nine (55% male) Bangladeshi adults with water arsenic exposure ranging from 50 to 1000 μg/L were selected from the Folic Acid Creatinine Trial. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells for gene expression profiling using Affymetrix 1.0 ST arrays. Differentially expressed genes were assessed between high and low exposure groups for males and females separately and findings were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. There were 534 and 645 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of males and females, respectively, when high and low water arsenic exposure groups were compared. Only 43 genes overlapped between the two sexes, with 29 changing in opposite directions. Despite the difference in gene sets both males and females exhibited common biological changes including deregulation of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, deregulation of genes downstream of Sp1 (specificity protein 1) transcription factor, and prediction of estrogen receptor alpha as a key hub in cardiovascular networks. Arsenic-exposed adults exhibit sex-specific gene expression profiles that implicate involvement of the endocrine system. Due to arsenic's possible role as an endocrine disruptor, exposure thresholds for arsenic may require different parameters for males and females. - Highlights: • Males and females exhibit unique gene expression changes in response to arsenic. • Only 23 genes are common among the differentially expressed genes for the sexes. • Male and female gene lists exhibit common biological

  20. Southeast Asia: `A robust market`

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pagano, S.S.

    1997-04-01

    Southeast Asia is emerging as a robust market for exploration and field development activities. While much of the worldwide attention is focused on lucrative deep water drilling and production in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Brazil, and West Africa, the burgeoning Pacific Rim region is very much in the spotlight. As the industry approaches the next century. Southeast Asia is a key growth area that will be the focus of extensive drilling and development. Regional licensing activity is buoyant as oil and gas companies continue to express interest in Southeast Asian opportunities. During 1996, about 75 new license awards were granted. This year, at least an equal number of licenses likely will be awarded to international major and independent oil companies. In the past five years, the number of production-sharing contracts and concessions awarded declined slightly as oil companies apparently opted to invest in other foreign markets. Brunei government officials plan to open offshore areas to licensing in 1997, including what may prove to be attractive deep water areas. Indonesia`s state oil company Pertamina will offer 26 offshore tracts under production-sharing and technical assistance contracts this year. Malaysia expects to attract international interest in some 30 blocks it will soon offer under production-sharing terms. Bangladesh expects to call for tenders for an unspecified number of concessions later this year. Nearby, bids were submitted earlier this year to the Australian government for rights to explore 38 offshore areas. Results are expected to be announced by mid-year.

  1. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification of

  2. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 5.20 Value of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries, 1973-2011 (Billion Dollars 1 ) Year Persian Gulf 3 Selected OPEC 2 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 2 Countries Total 5 Kuwait Nigeria Saudi Arabia Venezuela Total OPEC 4 Canada Colombia Mexico Norway United Kingdom Total Non-OPEC 4 1973 1.7 W 1.5 0.9 0.8 5.2 1.9 W - 0.0 0.0 2.4 7.6 1974 4.4 W 3.3 1.9 1.3 11.6 3.3 .0 W - .0 4.1 15.6 1975 5.2 W 3.5 3.2 1.8 14.9 2.8 .0 .3 .1 - 4.1 19.0 1976 8.7 W 5.1 5.8 1.0 22.2 1.8 - .4 .2 W 3.6 25.8

  3. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

  4. Quarterly Coal Report, April-June 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-10-18

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks in the United States. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. This issue shows detailed quarterly data for April-June 1985, aggregated quarterly historical and projected data for 1980 through 1986, and aggregated annual historical and projected data for 1960 through 1995. All data for 1984 and previous years are final. All 1985 data are preliminary and subject to revision. During the first and second quarters of 1985, the US coal industry continued to return to normal operations after the threat of a strike by US coal miners in 1984. For the first 6 months of 1985 the industry showed the following developments: Coal production was only 2.4% less than in the same period of 1984, when it reached a record January-June total. Coal exports were 10.0% higher than their 1984 level for the same time period. The United States imported 52.3% more coal than it did in the first 6 months of 1984, chiefly from Colombia. Domestic coal consumption reached a record-setting level for January-June, 3.6% greater than the previous record in 1984.

  5. Exploration into 1990s will still be shaped by politics, economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, J.

    1987-04-20

    Frontier exploration plays continue to yield sizable oil and gas discoveries, despite recent wide fluctuations in the price of crude that have altered exploration budgets and curtailed activity. Amauligak in Canada, Colombia's Cano Limon, Albacora and Marlim in Brazil, the Haltenbank prospects offshore Norway, North Yemen's Alif field, and lagifu in Papua New Guinea are all examples of the occasional reward of a giant field. With a stable oil price of between $15-18/bbl during 1987, international exploration levels will slowly recover. And it is likely that an average $18/bbl price for the year will be sufficient to put a number of deferred development projects back on track. Activity levels will still vary widely from region to region and country to country however, controlled by political as well as economic conditions. Exploration was hit especially hard in the U.S., where finding and development costs are high. Operators continued to spend a greater share of their exploration funds outside the U.S. in 1987.

  6. Experiences with energy prices in a deregulated market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebellon, P.

    1999-11-01

    The energy market was deregulated in Colombia back in 1994. Since then, an increasing share of energy has been traded at prices dictated essentially by market considerations, not always coherent with sound technical and commercial practices. This paper is based on the author`s experiences with the negotiation of a number of contracts for energy purchase between 1994 and 1997. It starts with a brief presentation of the Colombian power system, the key players and the structure of energy prices before the market was deregulated. An overview of the conditions that led to power shortages in 1992 is included. The document continues with the description of the operation of the Colombian deregulated energy market, as well as the available contracts and energy transactions. Then, the evolution of the energy bid prices submitted by different generating companies during the period 1994--1997 is developed in detail. The final part of the paper discusses the effects of the energy prices in the operation of the system; the financial impact for IPPs; the economic signals given to the market; and the overall performance of the national power system.

  7. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Duarte, Oscar; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-11-15

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.

  8. Source rocks of the Sub-Andean basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raedeke, L.D. )

    1993-02-01

    Seven source rock systems were mapped using a consistent methodology to allow basin comparison from Trinidad to southern Chile. Silurian and Devonian systems, deposited in passive margin and intracratonic settings, have fair-good original oil/gas potential from central and northern Bolivia to southern Peru. Kerogens range from mature in the foreland to overmature in the thrust belt. Permian to Carboniferous deposition in local restricted basins formed organic-rich shales and carbonates with very good original oil/gas potential, principally in northern Bolivia and southern Peru. Late Triassic to early Jurassic marine shales and limestones, deposited in deep, narrow, basins from Ecuador to north-central maturity. Locally, in the Cuyo rift basin of northern Argentina, a Triassic lacustrine unit is a very good, mature oil source. Early Cretaceous to Jurassic marine incursions into the back-arc basins of Chile-Argentina deposited shales and limestones. Although time transgressive (younging to the south), this system is the principal source in southern back-arc basins, with best potential in Neuquen, where three intervals are stacked A late Cretaceous marine transgressive shale is the most important source in northern South America. The unit includes the La Luna and equivalents extending from Trinidad through Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and into northern Peru. Elsewhere in South America upper Cretaceous marine-lacustrine rocks are a possible source in the Altiplano and Northwest basins of Bolivia and Argentina. Middle Miocene to Oligocene source system includes shallow marine, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments from Trinidad to northern Peru.

  9. The petroleum geology of the sub-Andean basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathalone, J.M.P.

    1996-08-01

    The sub-Andean trend of basins spans the entire length of South America from Venezuela in the north to Argentina in the south. All the basins produce hydrocarbons with the exception of the Argentinean Bolsones complex and the Peruvian Madro de Dios which is prospective but virtually unexplored. There have been some 119 billion barrels of oil and 190 TCF of gas discovered to date, comprising 93% of the continent`s oil reserves. The basins lie immediately east of the Andes mountain range and are mainly asymmetric Upper Tertiary, westerly dipping foreland basins that overlie a series of earlier Tertiary, Mesozoic and Paleozoic depocentres. All the basins have been compressively deformed as recently as the Upper Miocene, by the eastwards growth of the Andean Cordillera. Giant oil and gas fields sourced from shales of varying age, have been found along the whole trend of basins, with a predominance of gas in the south. The rich marine Upper Cretaceous La Luna and equivalent shales of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador have been responsible for generating 86% of the hydrocarbons discovered to date in the sub-Andean basins. Proven sources include Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic shales in the central area, comprising Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina. In southern Argentina, oils have been sourced from Uppermost Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous marine and lacustrine shales. Over 7500 wildcat wells have been drilled in basins along the trend, with a 15% success rate. Many of the basins are very lightly explored, with considerable potential for future discoveries.

  10. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    F.O.B.[a] costs of imported crude oil by selected country dollars per barrel Year month Selected countries Persian Gulf[b] Total OPEC[c] Non OPEC Angola Colombia Mexico Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Venezuela 1996 20.71 21.33 19.14 21.27 19.28 19.43 17.73 19.22 18.94 19.65 1997 18.81 18.85 16.72 19.43 15.16 18.59 15.33 15.24 16.26 17.51 1998 12.11 12.56 10.49 12.97 8.87 12.52 9.31 9.09 10.20 11.21 1999 17.46 17.20 15.89 17.32 17.65 19.14 14.33 17.15 15.90 16.84 2000 27.90 29.04 25.39 28.70

  11. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Landed costs of imported crude oil by selected country dollars per barrel Year month Selected countries Persian Gulf[a] Total OPEC[b] Non OPEC Angola Canada Colombia Mexico Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Venezuela 1996 21.86 19.94 22.02 19.64 21.95 20.49 20.88 18.59 20.45 20.14 20.47 1997 20.24 17.63 19.71 17.30 20.64 17.52 20.64 16.35 17.44 17.73 18.45 1998 13.37 11.62 13.26 11.04 14.14 11.16 13.55 10.16 11.18 11.46 12.22 1999 18.37 17.54 18.09 16.12 17.63 17.48 18.26 15.58 17.37 16.94

  12. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  13. The mediation of environmental assessment's influence: What role for power?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Axelsson, Anna

    2013-02-15

    Considerable empirical research has been conducted on why policy tools such as environmental assessment (EA) often appear to have 'little effect' (after Weiss) on policy decisions. This article revisits this debate but looks at a mediating factor that has received limited attention to-date in the context of EA - political power. Using a tripartite analytical framework, a comparative analysis of the influence and significance of power in mediating environmental policy integration is undertaken. Power is analysed, albeit partially, through an exploration of institutions that underpin social order. Empirically, the research examines the case of a new approach to policy-level EA (essentially a form of Strategic Environmental Assessment) developed by the World Bank and its trial application to urban environmental governance and planning in Dhaka mega-city, Bangladesh. The research results demonstrate that power was intimately involved in mediating the influence of the policy EA approach, in both positive (enabling) and negative (constraining) ways. It is suggested that the policy EA approach was ultimately a manifestation of a corporate strategy to maintain the powerful position of the World Bank as a leading authority on international development which focuses on knowledge generation. Furthermore, as constitutive of an institution and reflecting the worldviews of its proponents, the development of a new approach to EA also represents a significant power play. This leads us to, firstly, emphasise the concepts of strategy and intentionality in theorising how and why EA tools are employed, succeed and fail; and secondly, reflect on the reasons why power has received such limited attention to-date in EA scholarship. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conducts empirical research on the neglected issue of power. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Employs an interpretation of power in which it is viewed as a productive phenomenon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyses the

  14. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) for the Mid-Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Waight, K; Manobianco, J; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region, which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area (Figure 1) that includes the Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. There are two tasks in the current project effort designed to validate the Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) observational system deployment approach in order to move closer to the overall goal: (1) Perform an Observing System Experiment (OSE) using a data denial approach. The results of this task are presented in a separate report. (2) Conduct a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for the Mid-Colombia basin region. This report presents the results of the OSSE task. The specific objective is to test strategies for future deployment of observing systems in order to suggest the best and most efficient ways to improve wind forecasting at BPA wind farm locations. OSSEs have been used for many years in meteorology to evaluate the potential impact of proposed observing systems, determine tradeoffs in instrument design, and study the most effective data assimilation methodologies to incorporate the new observations into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models (Atlas 1997; Lord 1997). For this project, a series of OSSEs will allow consideration of the impact of new observing systems of various types and in various locations.

  15. Evaluating climate models: Should we use weather or climate observations?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oglesby, Robert J; Erickson III, David J

    2009-12-01

    Calling the numerical models that we use for simulations of climate change 'climate models' is a bit of a misnomer. These 'general circulation models' (GCMs, AKA global climate models) and their cousins the 'regional climate models' (RCMs) are actually physically-based weather simulators. That is, these models simulate, either globally or locally, daily weather patterns in response to some change in forcing or boundary condition. These simulated weather patterns are then aggregated into climate statistics, very much as we aggregate observations into 'real climate statistics'. Traditionally, the output of GCMs has been evaluated using climate statistics, as opposed to their ability to simulate realistic daily weather observations. At the coarse global scale this may be a reasonable approach, however, as RCM's downscale to increasingly higher resolutions, the conjunction between weather and climate becomes more problematic. We present results from a series of present-day climate simulations using the WRF ARW for domains that cover North America, much of Latin America, and South Asia. The basic domains are at a 12 km resolution, but several inner domains at 4 km have also been simulated. These include regions of complex topography in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Sri Lanka, as well as a region of low topography and fairly homogeneous land surface type (the U.S. Great Plains). Model evaluations are performed using standard climate analyses (e.g., reanalyses; NCDC data) but also using time series of daily station observations. Preliminary results suggest little difference in the assessment of long-term mean quantities, but the variability on seasonal and interannual timescales is better described. Furthermore, the value-added by using daily weather observations as an evaluation tool increases with the model resolution.

  16. Petroleum geology of Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America, from Guatemala to Ecuador

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scrutton, M.E.; Escalante, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exploration for hydrocarbons along the Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America has been limited and spasmodic. Less than 100 exploration wells have been drilled, with nearly 50 of these being in the Santa Elena, Progreso, and Guayas basins in Ecuador. Shows have been reported in some wells, and a few oil seeps are known. The only commercial production established to date has been from the Santa Elena Peninsula in Ecuador in the extreme south of the study area. Understanding of the geology in this part of the continental margin is incomplete at best. This paper reviews present-day knowledge in an attempt to define the sedimentary basins better, to characterize their structure and stratigraphy, and to assess their petroleum prospects. The area of continental margin reviewed is to the north, located northwest of the trench system where oceanic crust of the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, and to the south, where the northern part of the Nazca plate collides with the South American plate. This plate tectonic setting forms the framework on which local structural and sedimentary events have created a series of relatively small trench-slope and forearc basins in what is now the coastal plain and adjacent offshore area of Central and South America, south or west of a line of mountain ranges with active volcanism. Sedimentary fill is generally of Tertiary age. The basins and subbasins recognized and described include: in Ecuador - Guayas, Santa Elena, Progreso, Valdivia, Bajo Grande, Manta, Muisne-Esmeraldas, and Borbon; in Colombia - Choco-Pacific; in Panama - Gulf of Panama basin complex (Santiago, Tonosi, Sambu), and Burica-Chiriqui; in Costa Rica - Terraba and Coronado/Tempisque; in Nicaragua - San Juan del Sur; and in the Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala - the Pacific coastal basin.

  17. Mesozoic and cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Maranon Basin in Southeastern Columbia, Eastern Ecuador and Northeastern Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleman, A.M.; Marksteiner, M. )

    1993-02-01

    The Late Triassic to Early Jurassic in the Maranon was characterized by tectonic quiescence and carbonate shelf deposition. During Middle to Late Jurassic, a northeast-southwest extensional event occurred which is documented by the presence of northwest oriented grabens filled with red beds and volcaniclastic rocks. Cretaceous deposition commenced during the Aptian and continued to the Early Campanian within the vast South America Cretaceous Seaway (SACS) that extended from Venezuela to Central Peru. These strata comprised of shallow marine clastics sources from the Brazilian and Guyana cratons to the east. Retreat of the SACS resulted from the Late Cretaceous (Peruvian) phase of the Andean Orogeny. Deposition became largely continental with sediments derived from the west. The deformation was comtemporaneous with oblique collision and accretion of an allochthonous terrain present in Colombia and Ecuador, as well as uplift of the Putumayo, Napo, Cutucu and Cenepa (PNCC) Mountains, westward erosion of the Napo/Chonta Formations, widespread deposition of red beds, volcanic activity in the foreland and the subtle inversion of half grabens. The Middle Eocene (Inca) phase of the Andean Orogeny, correlated to a relative increase in convergence rates along the western margin of South America (SA). This orogeny was characterized by the development of folds and reverse faults within a narrow and elongated belt, the reactivation of the PNCC Uplifts, the deposition of varicolored fluviatile deposits, the renewed inversion of half grabens, and volcanic activity close to the hinterland. The three main pulses of the Late Miocene to Pliocene phase of the Andean Orogeny correlate with high rates of convergence along the SA margin. This orogenic phase was characterized by thick fluviatile deposition, reactivation of the PNCC uplifts, eastward propagation of the fold and thrust belt, renewed inversion of the half grabens and alkaline volcanism in the foreland.

  18. Exploration for stratigraphic traps in a foreland basin using a sequence stratigraphic simulation: Examples from the Eocene/Oligocene of the Apure-Llanos basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reistroffer, J.; Levine, P.A.; Kendall, C.G.; Finno, A.

    1996-12-31

    Foreland basin depositional sequences provide a sensitive record of the interaction between tectonism, eustatic sea level fluctuations, and sedimentation rates. Interplay between these controlling factors creates sedimentary geometries which are unique to this tectonic setting and form excellent stratigraphic hydrocarbon traps. Incised valley fill deposits, {open_quote}forced regression{close_quote} deposits, and combination structure-stratigraphic traps are the predominant reservoir types. In an effort to extend our understanding of the development of these traps, the sequence stratigraphy of a regional seismic transact through the Apure-Llanos basin was simulated. From the Late Eocene through Oligocene, the Apure-Llanos basin was Characterized by multiple phases of compression and a southeast migrating depocenter. Sands of the Mirador and Carbonera formations, which onlap the Arauca Arch to the southeast, were shed from the Guyana craton and were Cannibalized from sediments along the deformation front to the northwest. These sands comprise the principal reservoirs in the study area. Shales of the Leon Formation, which act as a regional seal, were deposited during rapid flexural subsidence and eustatic sea level rise during the early Oligocene. The Arauca Arch acted as a focal mechanism for east and southeast migrating hydrocarbons. Simulation results predict an important stratigraphic pinchout of the Mirador Formation sands against the Arauca Arch, which correlates with the Arauca Reid in Colombia to the southwest. Also, modeling indicates that minimal Tertiary oil production In the La Victoria Field to the east is due to the lack of an adequate seal. Our results provide a conceptual model which predicts hydrocarbon reservoir and seal relationships in a foreland basin setting with limited data control.

  19. Successful drilling of the first horizontal well in a mature field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marruffo, I.; Achong, C.

    1996-08-01

    This paper discusses how the decision to drill the first horizontal well of a reservoir was taken, based on Production acceleration and the incremental economy of cash flow. The reservoir is located in the Guafita-Norto Field in Western Venezuela, contiguous to the La Yuca-Cano Limon Fields in Colombia. Guafita-Norte has 183 million stb of remaining oil reserves with 26 production wells on electrical submergible pumps. The STOIP of this under saturated reservoir (bubble point pressure is 36 psi) is 160 million stb with an initial GOR of 10 stf/stb, having a permeability between 1.5-12 darcies with a strong water drive, water coning and sanding problems due to fines migration. During 1995, it was decided to drill the first horizontal well in the reservoir based on a 3-D numerical simulation with radial flow (for water coning) and local grid refinement (for horizontal wells) coupled to an economic analysis. The simulation predetermines an initial production rate for a horizontal well 2.5 times greater than for a vertical one, and the incremental cash flow for the horizontal well is 4.5 MM$ larger for the vertical one in four (4) years, with a ROR of 200%. The horizontal well was drilled with oil-based mud to avoid hole collapse, and it was completed open hole with a single screen pack. The well is currently producing between 2000 and 3500 stb/d, clean, on natural flow. This study has clearly shown that the ultimate and decisive parameter to be weighed before undertaking this type of project, is the economic analysis, which must be performed as extensively as the technical analysis.

  20. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, Keith L; Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Wolfe, Amy K; Perlack, Robert D; Dale, Virginia H

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of

  1. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64

  2. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando

    2009-02-15

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L{sup -1} and a concentration of CO{sub 2} of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} MPN mL{sup -1}). The acetogenic population was (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH{sub 4} (70%) were higher than CO{sub 2} (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L{sup -1}. Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and methanogenic bacteria (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified.

  3. A new phase of matter in Oakland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Spencer; Nystrand, Joakim

    2004-03-18

    , disappearance of back-to-back correlated high-pT particles (showing that produced particles underwent very strong energy loss before escaping from the medium), the strong elliptical flow (showing that the pressure was very high early in the collision), and the species dependent elliptical flow (showing behavior as an almost perfect fluid, as expected for a QGP). Data on deuterium-gold collisions presented at QM2004 provided important cross-checks, ruling out models that explained the observed phenomena as initial-state effects present in the undisturbed gold nuclei. Many of these signatures were reviewed in the 5 rapporteur talks covering high-pT and jets (Kirill Filimonov, LBNL), bulk properties and collective flow (Zhangbu Xu, BNL), correlations and HBT (Harald Appelhauser, GSI), leptons, photons and heavy quarks (Ralf Averbeck, Stony Brook) and theory (Ralf Rapp, Texas A & M). In addition, Mike Lisa (Ohio State), Miklos Gyulassy (Colombia) and Peter Braun-Munzinger (GSI) gave their personal views on the QGP.

  4. Scientific Solutions to Nuclear Waste Environmental Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Bradley R.

    2014-01-30

    The Hidden Cost of Nuclear Weapons The Cold War arms race drove an intense plutonium production program in the U.S. This campaign produced approximately 100 tons of plutonium over 40 years. The epicenter of plutonium production in the United States was the Hanford site, a 586 square mile reservation owned by the Department of Energy and located on the Colombia River in Southeastern Washington. Plutonium synthesis relied on nuclear reactors to convert uranium to plutonium within the reactor fuel rods. After a sufficient amount of conversion occurred, the rods were removed from the reactor and allowed to cool. They were then dissolved in an acid bath and chemically processed to separate and purify plutonium from the rest of the constituents in the used reactor fuel. The acidic waste was then neutralized using sodium hydroxide and the resulting mixture of liquids and precipitates (small insoluble particles) was stored in huge underground waste tanks. The byproducts of the U.S. plutonium production campaign include over 53 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 large underground tanks at Hanford and another 34 million gallons stored at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This legacy nuclear waste represents one of the largest environmental clean-up challenges facing the world today. The nuclear waste in the Hanford tanks is a mixture of liquids and precipitates that have settled into sludge. Some of these tanks are now over 60 years old and a small number of them are leaking radioactive waste into the ground and contaminating the environment. The solution to this nuclear waste challenge is to convert the mixture of solids and liquids into a durable material that won't disperse into the environment and create hazards to the biosphere. What makes this difficult is the fact that the radioactive half-lives of some of the radionuclides in the waste are thousands to millions of years long. (The half-life of a radioactive substance is the amount

  5. Product Quality Assurance for Off-Grid Lighting in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    World Bank; Mills, Evan; Mills, Evan

    2008-07-13

    Although the emergence of markets for high efficiency off-grid lighting technologies holds promise, realizing the potential of this opportunity on a long-term, sustainable basis requires careful attention to issues of product quality, consumer protection, and the potential for significant 'market spoiling', in anticipation of increases of sales of low cost, low performance off-grid lighting products. The goal of the Lighting Africa quality assurance workshop was to articulate strategies to mitigate the dangers of market spoiling and to explore ways to protect consumers from misleading advertising for sales of inferior, off-grid lighting products in the context of Lighting Africa's overarching objective to support the industry in developing a robust off-grid lighting market in Africa. The workshop resulted in the identification of two strategic approaches for meeting Lighting Africa quality assurance programmatic needs. The first strategy is intended to meet a short-term programmatic need for quality associated with requests for lighting products by bulk procurement agents, such as in a World Bank-financed project. The development of procurement specifications and test procedures that could be used in a quality/usability screening method in order to provide guidance for forthcoming large volume purchases emerged as the best solution to meet this need. Such approaches are used in World Bank-financed solar home systems (SHSs) projects in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and China, among others. However, unlike the SHSs which have multiple balance-of-system (BOS) components warranting the need for an array of specifications for individual components, stand alone lighting systems require specifications that are amenable to individual light points. To test this approach, Lighting Africa elected to use the technical specifications issued by the Photovoltaic Global Approval Program for solar lanterns that use CFL bulbs (PVRS11A) as the basis of qualifying such products. A contract