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Sample records for balancing authority balancing

  1. Cooperation Among Balancing Authorities Offers Greater Use of Renewable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy with Lower Integration Costs | Department of Energy Cooperation Among Balancing Authorities Offers Greater Use of Renewable Energy with Lower Integration Costs Cooperation Among Balancing Authorities Offers Greater Use of Renewable Energy with Lower Integration Costs May 1, 2012 - 3:10pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Second Quarter 2012 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. Since February 2010, the Variable Generation Subcommittee at the Western Electricity

  2. EIA-930 Hourly and Daily Balancing Authority Operations Reports - Instructions Page

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    930 Hourly and Daily Balancing Authority Operations Reports - Instructions Page 1 of 3 You must have an EIA Data xChange account to use these instructions HOURLY AND DAILY BALANCING AUTHORITY OPERATIONS REPORT DATA XCHANGE TRANSMITTAL INSTRUCTIONS EIA-930 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

  3. Analysis Methodology for Balancing Authority Cooperation in High Penetration of Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Malhara, Sunita V.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Du, Pengwei; Sastry, Chellury

    2010-02-01

    With the rapidly growing penetration level of wind and solar generation, the challenges of managing variability and the uncertainty of intermittent renewable generation become more and more significant. The problem of power variability and uncertainty gets exacerbated when each balancing authority (BA) works locally and separately to balance its own subsystem. The virtual BA concept means various forms of collaboration between individual BAs must manage power variability and uncertainty. The virtual BA will have a wide area control capability in managing its operational balancing requirements in different time frames. This coordination results in the improvement of efficiency and reliability of power system operation while facilitating the high level integration of green, intermittent energy resources. Several strategies for virtual BA implementation, such as ACE diversity interchange (ADI), wind only BA, BA consolidation, dynamic scheduling, regulation and load following sharing, extreme event impact study are discussed in this report. The objective of such strategies is to allow individual BAs within a large power grid to help each other deal with power variability. Innovative methods have been developed to simulate the balancing operation of BAs. These methods evaluate the BA operation through a number of metrics such as capacity, ramp rate, ramp duration, energy and cycling requirements to evaluate the performances of different virtual BA strategies. The report builds a systematic framework for evaluating BA consolidation and coordination. Results for case studies show that significant economic and reliability benefits can be gained. The merits and limitation of each virtual BA strategy are investigated. The report provides guidelines for the power industry to evaluate the coordination or consolidation method. The application of the developed strategies in cooperation with several regional BAs is in progress for several off-spring projects.

  4. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  5. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Decker, Derek E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A beamsplitter assembly that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting.

  6. Beyond Beginning Balances Presentation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Beyond Beginning Balances Peter Dessaules DOE/SO-62 Obligations Accounting Implementation Workshop Obligations Accounting Implementation Workshop January 13, 2004 January 13, 2004 Crowne Crowne Plaza Plaza Ravinia Ravinia Atlanta, Georgia Atlanta, Georgia Beginning Foreign Obligation Beginning Foreign Obligation Balances Balances * Why are they important? - United States Agreements for Cooperation hold Treaty status. - These Agreements require periodic reporting to the foreign countries. -

  7. Lithium Balance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Balance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lithium Balance Place: Copenhagen, Denmark Product: Lithium ion battery developer. References: Lithium Balance1 This article is a stub....

  8. Balancing coal pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earley, D.; Kirkenir, B.

    2009-11-15

    Balancing coal flow to the burners to optimise combustion by using real-time measurement systems (such as microwave mass measurement) is discussed. 3 figs.

  9. Self Supplied Balancing Reserves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Supplied-Balancing-Reserves Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  10. MATERIAL BALANCE REPORT

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    F 742 (08-98) Previous editions are obsolete. MANDATORY DATA COLLECTION AUTHORIZED BY 10 CFR 30, 40, 50, 70, 75, 150. Public Laws 83-703, 93-438, 95-91. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AND U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MATERIAL BALANCE REPORT 18 U.S.C. SECTION 1001; ACT OF JUNE 25, 1948; 62 STAT. 749; MAKES IT A CRIMINAL OFFENSE TO MAKE A WILLFULLY FALSE STATEMENT OR REPRESENTATION TO ANY DEPARTMENT OR AGENCY OF THE UNITED STATES AS TO ANY MATTER WITHIN ITS JURISDICTION. Printed with soy ink on

  11. ARM - Carbon Cycle Balance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Cycle Balance Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Carbon Cycle Balance The net result of this recycling is that our atmosphere now gains a total of 5 gigatonnes (1 gigatonne = 1x1012 kilograms) of carbon annually. Nearly all of this ends up in gases that are greenhouse

  12. Balance Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Balance Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Balance Energy Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92127-1874 Product: California-based end to end smart grid developer. References:...

  13. Three-Stage Production Cost Modeling Approach for Evaluating the Benefits of Intra-Hour Scheduling between Balancing Authorities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Hunsaker, Matthew; Guo, Tao

    2015-07-30

    This paper introduces a Production Cost Modeling (PCM) approach to evaluate the benefits of intra-hour scheduling between Balancing Authorities (BAs). The system operation is modeled in a three-stage sequential manner: day ahead (DA)-hour ahead (HA)-real time (RT). In addition to contingency reserve, each BA will need to carry out “up” and “down” load following and regulation reserve capacity requirements in the DA and HA time frames. In the real-time simulation, only contingency and regulation reserves are carried out as load following is deployed. To model current real-time operation with hourly schedules, a new constraint was introduced to force each BA net exchange schedule deviation from HA schedules to be within NERC ACE limits. Case studies that investigate the benefits of moving from hourly exchange schedules between WECC BAs into 10-min exchange schedules under two different levels of wind and solar penetration (11% and 33%) are presented.

  14. Work/Life Balance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workplace » Work/Life Balance /careers/_assets/images/careers-icon.jpg Work/Life Balance Explore the multiple dimensions of a career at Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. What our employees say: Health & Wellness "The Lab pays 80 percent of my family's medical premiums with Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Mexico." Retirement & Savings "With the Lab matching my

  15. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Leland, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  16. Balancing Item (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Balancing Item (Billion Cubic Feet) Balancing Item (Billion Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 140 143 41 166 30 -13 -8 -6 -26 -133 -76 -161 2002...

  17. Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance Ramón Espinasa, Ph.D. / Lead Specialist July 2014 The Energy Innovation Center Energy Division 3 The views expressed by the author do not reflect the views of the Inter- American Development Bank, its Management, its Board of Executive Directors or its member Governments. DISCLAIMER www.iadb.org Copyright © 2014 Interamerican Development Bank. All rights reserved; This document may be freely reproduced for non-commercial purposes. 4 United States Oil

  18. Co2balance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    balance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Co2balance Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon offset provider based in Somerset, UK. References: Co2balance1 This...

  19. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  20. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  1. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  2. ARM - Measurement - Surface energy balance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy balance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface energy balance The energy balance at the earth's surface between the net radiation and the sensible and latent heat fluxes and ground heat flux. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each

  3. Libra: Scalable Load Balance Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-09-16

    Libra is a tool for scalable analysis of load balance data from all processes in a parallel application. Libra contains an instrumentation module that collects model data from parallel applications and a parallel compression mechanism that uses distributed wavelet transforms to gather load balance model data in a scalable fashion. Data is output to files, and these files can be viewed in a GUI tool by Libra users. The GUI tool associates particular load balancemore » data with regions for code, emabling users to view the load balance properties of distributed "slices" of their application code.« less

  4. Mechanically balanced tapered plug valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anaya, Jose R. (Coacalco, MX)

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a novel hermetic tapered plug valve having a spring-like resilient mechanism for providing axial balance to the plug and thereby prevent valve lock up.

  5. Material Balance Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Material Balance Report Material Balance Report Form supports nuclear material control and accountability. PDF icon Material Balance Report More Documents & Publications DOE/NRC F 742 PHYSICAL INVENTORY LISTING DOE/NRC F 740M

  6. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, James H. (New Baltimore, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Lifecycle Energy Balance

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Lifecycle Energy Balance to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Lifecycle Energy Balance on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Lifecycle Energy Balance on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Lifecycle Energy Balance on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Lifecycle Energy Balance on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Lifecycle Energy

  8. Burner balancing Salem Harbor Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sload, A.W.; Dube, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    The traditional method of burner balancing is first to determine the fuel distribution, then to measure the economizer outlet excess oxygen distribution and to adjust the burners accordingly. Fuel distribution is typically measured by clean and dirty air probing. Coal pipe flow can then be adjusted, if necessary, through the use of coal pipe orificing or by other means. Primary air flow must be adjusted to meet the design criteria of the burner. Once coal pipe flow is balanced to within the desired criteria, secondary air flow to individual burners can be changed by adjusting windbox dampers, burner registers, shrouds or other devices in the secondary air stream. This paper discusses problems encountered in measuring excess O{sub 2} at the economizer outlet. It is important to recognize that O{sub 2} measurements at the economizer outlet, by themselves, can be very misleading. If measurement problems are suspected or encountered, an alternate approach similar to that described should be considered. The alternate method is not only useful for burner balancing but also can be used to help in calibrating the plant excess O{sub 2} instruments and provide an on line means of cross-checking excess air measurements. Balanced burners operate closer to their design stoichiometry, providing better NO{sub x} reduction. For Salem Harbor Station, this means a significant saving in urea consumption.

  9. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  10. Evaluation of Production Cost Savings from Consolidation of Balancing Authorities in the US Western Interconnection under High Wind and Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Tony B.; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-12-24

    This paper introduces a comprehensive analysis to quantify the potential savings in production cost due to consolidation of 32 US western interconnection Balancing Authorities (BAs). Three simulation scenarios are developed: current Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) BAs structure, full copper-sheet consolidation, and full consolidation with transmission congestion considered. The study uses WECC Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee (TEPPC) model that was developed for the year 2020. The model assumes 8% wind and 3% solar energy penetration as percentage of total WECC demand in 2020. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to assess the impact of transmission hurdle rates between WECC BAs on potential benefits. The study shows savings that ranges from $400 Million (2.4% of total one year production cost) to $600 Million (3.2%) per year in thermal units production cost due to consolidation can be achieved. The copper sheet consolidation scenario shows an extra savings of $240 Million (1.4%) per year.

  11. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  12. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand *

  13. Enhanced BPA Balancing Authority (EBBA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expand Finance & Rates Involvement & Outreach Expand Involvement & Outreach Doing Business Expand Doing Business Skip navigation links Initiatives Columbia River Treaty Non...

  14. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25

    Balancing Oil and EnvironmentResponsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion

  15. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Energy Balance Bowen Ratio System Estimates of surface energy fluxes are a primary product of the data collection systems at the ARM SGP CART site. Surface fluxes tell researchers a great deal about the effects of interactions between the sun's energy and Earth. Surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat can be estimated by measuring temperature and relative humidity gradients across a vertical distance. Sensible heat is what we feel coming from a warm sidewalk or a metal car door; it can be

  16. The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944-2009 | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Pits The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944-2009 The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944-2009 The United States has released an inventory of its plutonium balances...

  17. FY 2010 Annual Uncosted Balances Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Annual Uncosted Balances Reports FY 2010 Annual Uncosted Balances Report FY 2010 Annual Uncosted Balances Report This report represents an analysis of the Department's uncosted...

  18. Device for balancing parallel strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashikian, Matthew S. (Storrs, CT)

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means in association with each of the battery strings in the battery plant for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings by equalizing the voltage across each of the battery strings. Each of the magnetic circuit means generally comprises means for sensing the electrical current flow through one of the battery strings, and a saturable reactor having a main winding connected electrically in series with the battery string, a bias winding connected to a source of alternating current and a control winding connected to a variable source of direct current controlled by the sensing means. Each of the battery strings is formed by a plurality of batteries connected electrically in series, and these battery strings are connected electrically in parallel across common bus conductors.

  19. Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.2 - Balanced Scorecard Performance Assessment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Program - (March 2004) | Department of Energy 2 - Balanced Scorecard Performance Assessment Program - (March 2004) Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.2 - Balanced Scorecard Performance Assessment Program - (March 2004) This chapter provides a summary of HCA authorities based on statute, FAR, DEAR, and DOE Orders. It serves as a general guide to the authorities that may be conferred via a formal delegation of HCA authority from the Department of Energy Senior Procurement Executive. This formal

  20. Work and Life Balance | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Balancing Work with Life Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Flex Ability: Balancing Work with Life Achieving work/life balance is a much-talked-about topic. According to GE Healthcare's Kelly Piacsek, "GE hires people for what's inside their head-what they know-and the specific hours you spend at work

  1. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-14

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  2. Design of dynamic load-balancing tools for parallel applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devine, K.D.; Hendrickson, B.A.; Boman, E.G.; St. John, M.; Vaughan, C.T.

    2000-01-03

    The design of general-purpose dynamic load-balancing tools for parallel applications is more challenging than the design of static partitioning tools. Both algorithmic and software engineering issues arise. The authors have addressed many of these issues in the design of the Zoltan dynamic load-balancing library. Zoltan has an object-oriented interface that makes it easy to use and provides separation between the application and the load-balancing algorithms. It contains a suite of dynamic load-balancing algorithms, including both geometric and graph-based algorithms. Its design makes it valuable both as a partitioning tool for a variety of applications and as a research test-bed for new algorithmic development. In this paper, the authors describe Zoltan's design and demonstrate its use in an unstructured-mesh finite element application.

  3. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide (Conference) | SciTech Connect kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Authors: Armstrong, M R ; Zaug, J M ; Grant, C D ; Crowhurst, J C ; Bastea, S Publication Date: 2014-06-24 OSTI Identifier: 1149544 Report Number(s):

  4. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide (Conference) | SciTech Connect kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Authors: Armstrong, M R ; Zaug, J M ; Grant, C D ; Crowhurst, J C ; Bastea, S Publication Date: 2014-06-24 OSTI Identifier: 1149544 Report Number(s):

  5. Balance Calibration A Method for Assigning a Direct-Reading Uncertainty to an Electronic Balance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Stears

    2010-07-01

    Paper Title: Balance Calibration A method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to an electronic balance. Intended Audience: Those who calibrate or use electronic balances. Abstract: As a calibration facility, we provide on-site (at the customers location) calibrations of electronic balances for customers within our company. In our experience, most of our customers are not using their balance as a comparator, but simply putting an unknown quantity on the balance and reading the displayed mass value. Manufacturers specifications for balances typically include specifications such as readability, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity temperature drift, but what does this all mean when the balance user simply reads the displayed mass value and accepts the reading as the true value? This paper discusses a method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to a balance based upon the observed calibration data and the environment where the balance is being used. The method requires input from the customer regarding the environment where the balance is used and encourages discussion with the customer regarding sources of uncertainty and possible means for improvement; the calibration process becomes an educational opportunity for the balance user as well as calibration personnel. This paper will cover the uncertainty analysis applied to the calibration weights used for the field calibration of balances; the uncertainty is calculated over the range of environmental conditions typically encountered in the field and the resulting range of air density. The temperature stability in the area of the balance is discussed with the customer and the temperature range over which the balance calibration is valid is decided upon; the decision is based upon the uncertainty needs of the customer and the desired rigor in monitoring by the customer. Once the environmental limitations are decided, the calibration is performed and the measurement data is entered into a custom spreadsheet. The spreadsheet uses measurement results, along with the manufacturers specifications, to assign a direct-read measurement uncertainty to the balance. The fact that the assigned uncertainty is a best-case uncertainty is discussed with the customer; the assigned uncertainty contains no allowance for contributions associated with the unknown weighing sample, such as density, static charges, magnetism, etc. The attendee will learn uncertainty considerations associated with balance calibrations along with one method for assigning an uncertainty to a balance used for non-comparison measurements.

  6. Background-free balanced optical cross correlator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nejadmalayeri, Amir Hossein; Kaertner, Franz X

    2014-12-23

    A balanced optical cross correlator includes an optical waveguide, a first photodiode including a first n-type semiconductor and a first p-type semiconductor positioned about the optical waveguide on a first side of the optical waveguide's point of symmetry, and a second photodiode including a second n-type semiconductor and a second p-type semiconductor positioned about the optical waveguide on a second side of the optical waveguide's point of symmetry. A balanced receiver including first and second inputs is configured to produce an output current or voltage that reflects a difference in currents or voltages, originating from the first and the second photodiodes of the balanced cross correlator and fed to the first input and to the second input of the balanced receiver.

  7. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 1, 2011, DOE announced $42.4 million in funding over three years for the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) funding opportunity. Part of the SunShot Systems...

  8. FY 2007 Report on Uncosted Balances

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Report on Uncosted Balances For Fiscal Year Ended September 30,2007 August 2008 Prepared by: Office of the Chief Financial Officer TABLE OF CONTENTS Purpose.. . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . , . . , . , , . . . . , Executive Summary ... . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .... .. .... .... .. Threshold Analysis - Approach and Background

  9. Annual Uncosted Balances Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual Uncosted Balances Reports Annual Uncosted Balances Reports Section 2307 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 13526) requires the Department of Energy (Department or DOE) to submit an annual report to Congress on the state of the Department's uncosted obligations. The section requires the report to identify the uncosted obligations at the end of the previous fiscal year (FY), describe the purpose of those funds, and describe the effect the information had on the annual budget

  10. Balanced Scorecard Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Balanced Scorecard Program Balanced Scorecard Program I. Introduction The BSC is a conceptual framework for translating an organization's vision into a set of performance indicators distributed among four perspectives: Financial, Customer, Internal Business Processes, and Learning and Growth. Indicators are maintained to measure an organization's progress toward achieving its vision; other indicators are maintained to measure the long term drivers of success. Through the BSC, an organization

  11. FY 2011 Annual Uncosted Balances Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uncosted Balances Reports » FY 2011 Annual Uncosted Balances Report FY 2011 Annual Uncosted Balances Report This report represents an analysis of the Department's uncosted balances for FY 2011. In FY 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided the Department an additional $36.7 billion of funding. The FY 2011 uncosted balances associated with Recovery Act funding are separately presented but are not included in the additional analysis of uncosted balances in

  12. Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.3 - Balanced Scorecard Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 - Balanced Scorecard Assessment Program - (March 2004) Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.3 - Balanced Scorecard Assessment Program - (March 2004) Acquisition Guide...

  13. Microsoft Word - Energy balancing rate settlement signals commitment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    defines charges for balancing services, or generation inputs, that maintain a constant balance of the energy produced and energy consumed. "BPA and the parties involved in this...

  14. Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.2 - Balanced Scorecard Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 - Balanced Scorecard Performance Assessment Program - (March 2004) Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.2 - Balanced Scorecard Performance Assessment Program - (March 2004) This chapter ...

  15. IN OTHER CATEGORIES; MACHINERY; MASS BALANCE; MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    world Bracher, B. 42 ENGINEERING NOT INCLUDED IN OTHER CATEGORIES; MACHINERY; MASS BALANCE; MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS; MAINTENANCE; REPAIR Field balancing can achieve significant...

  16. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily ...

  17. Trends and balances: 1985-1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of Trends and Balances to be presented to the staff of Oak Ridge National (ORNL) and other interested parties. Each year at the end of the planning cycle the Laboratory publishes its official planning document, the Institutional Plan. Trends and Balances is brought out as a condensation of that more formal document and is intended to provide a reference to the kinds of plans that have occupied senior laboratory management over the past year. An institution as large as ORNL changes slowly, so some of the information in this document overlaps that contained in the previous edition of Trends and Balances. Much, however, is different. A new section, for example, describes what senior Laboratory management feels are five new directions for science and technology at ORNL. This document is intended to provide new insights into the programs and structure of the Laboratory.

  18. Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.3 - Balanced Scorecard Assessment Program -

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (March 2004) | Department of Energy 3 - Balanced Scorecard Assessment Program - (March 2004) Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.3 - Balanced Scorecard Assessment Program - (March 2004) Acquisition Guide -------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------Chapter 1.2 (March 2004) Balanced Scorecard Performance Assessment Program [This guidance was previously included in Acquisition Letter 98-10] Guiding Principle The Balanced Scorecard program ensures that there is an

  19. FY 2012 Annual Uncosted Balances Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual Uncosted Balances Reports » FY 2012 Annual Uncosted Balances Report FY 2012 Annual Uncosted Balances Report This report presents the results of the Department's annual analysis of uncosted balances for FY 2012. In FY 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided the Department an additional $36.7 billion of funding. The FY 2012 uncosted balances associated with Recovery Act funding are separately presented but are not included in the additional analysis

  20. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a larger number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  1. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.; Peierls, R.F.

    1995-08-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a large number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  2. Wind Integration Program: Balancing the Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Integration Program: Balancing the Future Initial Discussions 3072012 2 B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N Background BPA has implemented a number...

  3. Energy balance of ENDF/B-VI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1994-06-01

    ENDF/B-VI through Release 2 has been tested for neutron-photon energy balance using the Heater module of the NJOY nuclear data procesing system. The situation is much improved over ENDF/B-V, but there are still a number of maerials that show problems.

  4. Torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Donald M. (Sunnyside, WA)

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure describes a torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling for transmitting rotary motion without unwanted vibration into the spindle of a machine tool. A drive member drives a driven member using flexible connecting loops which are connected tangentially and at diametrically opposite connecting points through a free floating ring.

  5. Isorropia Partitioning and Load Balancing Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    Isorropia is a partitioning and load balancing package which interfaces with the Zoltan library. Isorropia can accept input objects such as matrices and matrix-graphs, and repartition/redistribute them into a better data distribution on parallel computers. Isorropia is primarily an interface package, utilizing graph and hypergraph partitioning algorithms that are in the Zoltan library which is a third-party library to Tilinos.

  6. Balanced pressure techniques applied to geothermal drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dareing, D.W.

    1981-08-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate balanced pressure drilling techniques for use in combating lost circulation in geothermal drilling. Drilling techniques evaluated are: aerated drilling mud, parasite tubing, concentric drill pipe, jet sub, and low density fluids. Based on the present state of the art of balanced pressure drilling techniques, drilling with aerated water has the best overall balance of performance, risk, availability, and cost. Aerated water with a 19:1 free air/water ratio reduce maximum pressure unbalance between wellbore and formation pressures from 1000 psi to 50 psi. This pressure unbalance is within acceptable operating limits; however, air pockets could form and cause pressure surges in the mud system due to high percent of air. Low density fluids used with parasite tubing has the greatest potential for combating lost circulation in geothermal drilling, when performance only is considered. The top portion of the hole would be aerated through the parasite tube at a 10:1 free air/mud ratio and the low density mud could be designed so that its pressure gradient exactly matches the formation pore pressure gradient. The main problem with this system at present is the high cost of ceramic beads needed to produce low density muds.

  7. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruch, Russell; Ludwig, Peter; Maurer, Tessa

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1F to 15.5F.

  8. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  9. Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems July 2, 2012 - 8:21pm Addthis Both...

  10. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:29pm Addthis Complete photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are ...

  11. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Balancing

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet) Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet) In multifamily building hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water

  12. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means.

  13. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  14. Heat Balance Study for Submersible Mixer Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.Y.

    2003-07-21

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on waste temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the Type-I SRS tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing long-shaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The model will also be used to provide input to the operation planning. This planning will be used as input to pump run duration in order to maintain temperature requirements within the tank during SMP operation.

  15. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Hudyma, Russell M.; Shafer, David R.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  16. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  17. Rotary engine cooling system with flow balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes a rotary internal combustion engine having a trochoid rotor housing section and having a group of cooling passages extending through a top-dead-center (TDC) region. The engine is characterized by: at least one passage of the group following a curved path which extends through a first hotter portion of the TDC region, by at least one further passage of the group following a substantially uncurved path through a second cooler portion of the TDC region, and by a fluid restriction for restricting fluid flow through the at least one further passage to balance coolant flow between the passages.

  18. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1981-03-05

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  19. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Bernard M. (Oak Park, IL); Miyano, Kenjiro (Downers Grove, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  20. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-11-08

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed. 5 figs.

  1. Solar Install Mount Production Labor Equipment Simple Balance of Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Install Mount Production Labor Equipment Simple Balance of Systems Solar Install Mount Production Labor Equipment Simple Balance of Systems GA Tech logo.jpg The Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation (GTARC/GTRI), Radiance Solar, a low cost solar integrator, and Suniva, a US based high efficiency, low cost cell and module manufacturer collaborate to develop a commercially ready, next generation solar PV balance of system design. The objective can be accomplished

  2. Balance of Plant Needs and Integration of Stack Components for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Needs and Integration of Stack Components for Stationary Power and CHP Applications Balance of Plant Needs and Integration of Stack Components for Stationary Power and CHP ...

  3. Power Electronics and Balance of System Hardware Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is targeting solar technology improvements related to power electronics and balance of system (BOS) hardware technologies to reduce the installed cost of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity and...

  4. Development of a Stiffness-Based Chemistry Load Balancing Scheme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a Stiffness-Based Chemistry Load Balancing Scheme, and Optimization of IO and Communication, to Enable Massively Parallel High-Fidelity Internal Combustion Engine Simulations...

  5. FY 2008 & FY 2009 Annual Uncosted Balances Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report presents a combined presentation and analysis of the Department’s uncosted balances for FY 2008 and FY 2009.

  6. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Monthly Supply and Disposition Balance"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly Supply and Disposition Balance" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  7. Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems Both grid-connected and off-grid home renewable energy systems require additional “balance-of-system” equipment. Both grid-connected and off-grid home renewable energy systems require additional "balance-of-system" equipment. Whether you decide to connect your home renewable energy system to the electric grid or not, you

  8. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  9. Balancing technique for Ross-type Stirling and other machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, J.G.; Ross, M.A.

    1992-09-15

    This patent describes an apparatus for balancing inertia forces and rocking couples resulting from the approximately parallel reciprocation of a pair of unequal piston masses linked to a crankshaft and reciprocating out of phase, it comprises: a first counter balance weight mounted to the crankshaft eccentrically of the crankshaft axis of rotation and at an angle which leads the crank throw by a lead angle of more than 180[degrees]; a balance shaft mounted for rotation about an axis parallel to the crankshaft axis and drivingly coupled to the crankshaft and a second counter balance weight mounted eccentrically to the balance shaft and having the product of its mass multiplied by the radial, eccentric offset of its center of mass equal to the product of the first counterbalance weight multiplied by the radial eccentric offset of its center of mass and positioned to lead the crank throw by the lead angle of the first counterbalance mass.

  10. Means and method of balancing multi-cylinder reciprocating machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A virtual balancing axis arrangement is described for multi-cylinder reciprocating piston machines for effectively balancing out imbalanced forces and minimizing residual imbalance moments acting on the crankshaft of such machines without requiring the use of additional parallel-arrayed balancing shafts or complex and expensive gear arrangements. The novel virtual balancing axis arrangement is capable of being designed into multi-cylinder reciprocating piston and crankshaft machines for substantially reducing vibrations induced during operation of such machines with only minimal number of additional component parts. Some of the required component parts may be available from parts already required for operation of auxiliary equipment, such as oil and water pumps used in certain types of reciprocating piston and crankshaft machine so that by appropriate location and dimensioning in accordance with the teachings of the invention, the virtual balancing axis arrangement can be built into the machine at little or no additional cost.

  11. OXALATE MASS BALANCE DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING IN TANK 6F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-22

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  12. Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

  13. Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Both grid-connected and off-grid home renewable energy systems require additional “balance-of-system” equipment. Both grid-connected and off-grid home renewable energy systems require additional "balance-of-system" equipment. Whether you decide to connect your home renewable energy system to the electric grid or not, you will need to invest in some additional equipment (called "balance-of-system") to condition the electricity, safely

  14. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock compression in an oxygen-balanced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock compression in an oxygen-balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock compression in an oxygen-balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Authors: Armstrong, M R ; Zaug, J M ; Grant, C D ; Crowhurst, J C ; Bastea, S Publication Date: 2014-03-03 OSTI

  15. Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Both grid-connected and off-grid home renewable energy systems require additional balance-of-system equipment. Both grid-connected and off-grid home renewable energy...

  16. Wolfgang Eberhardt on Light Sources: Getting the Balance Right

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wolfgang Eberhardt on Light Sources: Getting the Balance Right Wolfgang Eberhardt on Light Sources: Getting the Balance Right Print Wolfgang Eberhardt at the Advanced Light Source, September 2015. Click the image to watch the video of his talk, "Diffraction Limited Storage Rings and Free Electron Lasers-Why Do We Need Both?" As a graduate student in the 1970s, Wolfgang Eberhardt conducted his first experiment at the old DESY synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany. A so-called

  17. Renewable portfolio standards in the states: balancing goals and rules

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Renewable portfolio standards in the states: balancing goals and rules Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Renewable portfolio standards in the states: balancing goals and rules Renewable portfolio standards establish a minimum percentage of electricity that retailers must provide from renewable energy sources. However, successful implementation must surmount the hurdle of RPS rules that vary from state to state along with their impacts on the

  18. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide (Conference) | SciTech Connect kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  19. Beginning Foreign Obligation Balances for the Power Reactors Presentation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Beginning Foreign Obligation Balances Beginning Foreign Obligation Balances for the Power Reactors for the Power Reactors Michael J. Smith Michael J. Smith NAC International NAC International Obligations Accounting Implementation Workshop Obligations Accounting Implementation Workshop January 13, 2004 January 13, 2004 Crowne Crowne Plaza Plaza Ravinia Ravinia Atlanta, Georgia Atlanta, Georgia Project Purpose Project Purpose * Bridge the gap in foreign obligated (FO) inventory tracking for US

  20. Smart Meters Help Balance Energy Consumption at Solar Decathlon |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Smart Meters Help Balance Energy Consumption at Solar Decathlon Smart Meters Help Balance Energy Consumption at Solar Decathlon September 28, 2011 - 10:57am Addthis The Team Tidewater Virginia smart meter, as seen on opening day, indicates the team generated 5 kW hours of electricity in the first several hours of the competition. | Image courtesy of Lachlan Fletcher, Studio 18a The Team Tidewater Virginia smart meter, as seen on opening day, indicates the team generated

  1. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  2. U.S. Natural Gas Balancing Item (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Balancing Item (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Balancing Item (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 634,809 -111,218 2000's -240,342 134,346 -13,339 -38,495 356,956 134,293 61,404 -196,323 33,472 -89,392 2010's 124,358 -130,108 -123,053 -15,729 -44,437 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  3. Steam Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2012-08-01

    Older heating systems often suffer from mis-investment--multiple contractors upgrading parts of systems in inadequate or inappropriate ways that reduce system functionality and efficiency--or from a lack of proper maintenance. This technical report addresses these barriers to information, contractor resources, and cost-savings. Building off of previous research, CNT Energy conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam; system balancing.

  4. Offshore Wind Balance-of-System Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maness, Michael; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Mone, Christopher

    2015-09-29

    Offshore wind balance-of-system (BOS) costs contribute up to 70% of installed capital costs. Thus, it is imperative to understand the impact of these costs on project economics as well as potential cost trends for new offshore wind technology developments. As a result, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and recently updated a BOS techno-economic model using project cost estimates created from wind energy industry sources.

  5. Cylinder To Cylinder Balancing Using Intake Valve Actuation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (East Peoria, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Kilkenny, Jonathan P. (Peoria, IL)

    2005-01-18

    A method and apparatus for balancing a combustion phasing between a plurality of cylinders located in an engine. The method and apparatus includes a determining a combustion timing in each cylinder, establishing a baseline parameter for a desired combustion timing, and varying actuation of at least one of a plurality of intake valves, each intake valve being in fluid communication with a corresponding cylinder, such that the combustion timing in each cylinder is substantially equal to the desired combustion timing.

  6. Greening the Grid Special Topic: Facilitating the Integration of Renewable Energy through Balancing Cooperation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, Jaquelin

    2016-01-01

    The Greening the Grid animation shows facilitating the integration of renewable energy through balancing cooperation step-by-step.

  7. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) Funding

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunity | Department of Energy Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) Funding Opportunity Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) Funding Opportunity Under the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) program, DOE is funding new components and system designs to overcome scientific, technological, and engineering barriers to achieving safe, very low-cost, high-reliability balance of system (BOS) hardware. BOS-X projects are focused on

  8. Arid site water balance: evapotranspiration modeling and measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-09-01

    In order to evaluate the magnitude of radionuclide transport at an aird site, a field and modeling study was conducted to measure and predict water movement under vegetated and bare soil conditions. Significant quantities of water were found to move below the roo of a shallow-rooted grass-covered area during wet years at the Hanford site. The unsaturated water flow model, UNSAT-1D, was resonably successful in simulating the transient behavior of the water balance at this site. The effects of layered soils on water balance were demonstrated using the model. Models used to evaluate water balance in arid regions should not rely on annual averages and assume that all precipitation is removed by evapotranspiration. The potential for drainage at arid sites exists under conditions where shallow rooted plants grow on coarse textured soils. This condition was observed at our study site at Hanford. Neutron probe data collected on a cheatgrass community at the Hanford site during a wet year indicated that over 5 cm of water drained below the 3.5-m depth. The unsaturated water flow model, UNSAT-1D, predicted water drainage of about 5 cm (single layer, 10 months) and 3.5 cm (two layers, 12 months) for the same time period. Additional field measurements of hydraulic conductivity will likely improve the drainage estimate made by UNSAT-1D. Additional information describing cheatgrass growth and water use at the grass site could improve model predictions of sink terms and subsequent calculations of water storage within the rooting zone. In arid areas where the major part of the annual precipitation occurs during months with low average potential evapotranspiration and where soils are vegetated but are coarse textured and well drained, significant drainage can occur. 31 references, 18 figures, 1 table.

  9. Detailed balance limit of power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Furube, Akihiro; Yoshida, Yuji

    2013-12-16

    A fundamental difference between inorganic photovoltaic (IPV) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells is that charges are generated at the interface in OPV cells, while free charges can be generated in the bulk in IPV cells. In OPV cells, charge generation involves intrinsic energy losses to dissociate excitons at the interface between the donor and acceptor. By taking into account the energy losses, we show the theoretical limits of the power conversion efficiency set by radiative recombination of the carriers on the basis of the detailed balance relation between radiation from the cell and black-body radiation.

  10. U.S. Natural Gas Monthly Supply and Disposition Balance

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Monthly Supply and Disposition Balance (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Monthly Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Data Series Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Gross Withdrawals 2,767 2,766 2,750 2,818 2,740 2,823 1973-2015 Marketed Production 2,459 2,474 2,407 2,456 2,372 2,440 1973-2015 NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent 146 148 144 153 149 151 1973-2015 Dry Production 2,314 2,326 2,263 2,303

  11. Fact #674: May 9, 2011 Petroleum Trade Balance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: May 9, 2011 Petroleum Trade Balance Fact #674: May 9, 2011 Petroleum Trade Balance The trade balance (exports minus imports) for petroleum has been negative for more than a quarter of a century, meaning that the U.S. imports more petroleum than it exports. The largest petroleum trade deficit was in 2008, when the U.S. imported $449.8 billion and exported only $61.6 billion. Petroleum Trade Balance, 1970-2010 Graph showing the petroleum trade balance from 1970 to 2010. The largest trade

  12. Fuzzy-probabilistic calculations of water-balance uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faybishenko, B.

    2009-10-01

    Hydrogeological systems are often characterized by imprecise, vague, inconsistent, incomplete, or subjective information, which may limit the application of conventional stochastic methods in predicting hydrogeologic conditions and associated uncertainty. Instead, redictions and uncertainty analysis can be made using uncertain input parameters expressed as probability boxes, intervals, and fuzzy numbers. The objective of this paper is to present the theory for, and a case study as an application of, the fuzzyprobabilistic approach, ombining probability and possibility theory for simulating soil water balance and assessing associated uncertainty in the components of a simple waterbalance equation. The application of this approach is demonstrated using calculations with the RAMAS Risk Calc code, to ssess the propagation of uncertainty in calculating potential evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, and infiltration-in a case study at the Hanford site, Washington, USA. Propagation of uncertainty into the results of water-balance calculations was evaluated by hanging he types of models of uncertainty incorporated into various input parameters. The results of these fuzzy-probabilistic calculations are compared to the conventional Monte Carlo simulation approach and estimates from field observations at the Hanford site.

  13. Development of Energy Balances for the State of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Sahtaye, Jayant

    2005-12-01

    Analysts assessing energy policies and energy modelers forecasting future trends need to have access to reliable and concise energy statistics. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory evaluated several sources of California energy data, primarily from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Energy Information Administration, to develop the California Energy Balance Database (CALEB). This database manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for each type of energy commodity from 1990 to the most recent year available (generally 2001) in the form of an energy balance, following the methodology used by the International Energy Agency. This report presents the data used for CALEB and provides information on how the various data sources were reconciled. CALEB offers the possibility of displaying all energy flows in numerous ways (e.g.,physical units, Btus, petajoules, different levels of aggregation), facilitating comparisons among the different types of energy commodities and different end-use sectors. In addition to displaying energy data, CALEB can also be used to calculate state-level energy-related carbon dioxide emissions using the methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  14. Analysis of reactor trips originating in balance of plant systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stetson, F.T.; Gallagher, D.W.; Le, P.T.; Ebert, M.W. )

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of balance-of-plant (BOP) related reactor trips at commercial US nuclear power plants of a 5-year period, from January 1, 1984, through December 31, 1988. The study was performed for the Plant Systems Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of the study were: to improve the level of understanding of BOP-related challenges to safety systems by identifying and categorizing such events; to prepare a computerized data base of BOP-related reactor trip events and use the data base to identify trends and patterns in the population of these events; to investigate the risk implications of BOP events that challenge safety systems; and to provide recommendations on how to address BOP-related concerns in regulatory context. 18 refs., 2 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energys Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the sites former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  16. Balancing Authority Cooperation Concepts - Intra-Hour Scheduling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsaker, Matthew; Samaan, Nader; Milligan, Michael; Guo, Tao; Liu, Guangjuan; Toolson, Jacob

    2013-03-29

    The overall objective of this study was to understand, on an Interconnection-wide basis, the effects intra-hour scheduling compared to hourly scheduling. Moreover, the study sought to understand how the benefits of intra-hour scheduling would change by altering the input assumptions in different scenarios. This report describes results of three separate scenarios with differing key assumptions and comparing the production costs between hourly scheduling and 10-minute scheduling performance. The different scenarios were chosen to provide insight into how the estimated benefits might change by altering input assumptions. Several key assumptions were different in the three scenarios, however most assumptions were similar and/or unchanged among the scenarios.

  17. Cooperation Among Balancing Authorities Offers Greater Use of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... between BAs and can provide access to additional existing physical response capability. ... Western Interconnection equals 11% of total expected 2020 demand, the research shows ...

  18. A new load-balancing strategy for the solution of dynamical large-tree

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    search problems using a hierarchical approach (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A new load-balancing strategy for the solution of dynamical large-tree search problems using a hierarchical approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new load-balancing strategy for the solution of dynamical large-tree search problems using a hierarchical approach We describe a new load-balancing strategy, applied here to the protein conformational search problem, for improving the

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration Presentation by Acumentrics Corporation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration March 16, 2010 PDF icon fuelcell_pre-solicitation_wkshop_mar10_bessette.pdf More Documents & Publications The Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap, December 2003 High Temperature BOP and Fuel Processing Ceramic Fuel Cells (SOFC)

  20. Relationship Between Wind Generation and Balancing Energy Market Prices in ERCOT: 2007-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, E.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-11-01

    This paper attempts to measure the average marginal effects of wind generation on the balancing-energy market price in ERCOT with the help of econometric analysis.

  1. Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and Corrective Measures

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    This special report examines an underlying cause of the seasonal pattern in the balancing item published in the Natural Gas Monthly.

  2. Low Temperature Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Balance-of-Plant Manufactur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Balance-of-Plant Manufacturing Needs Low Temperature Fuel Cell ... DC, August 11-12, 2011. PDF icon Low Temperature Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer ...

  3. Role of Large Balancing Areas In Integrating Solar Generation: Solar Integration Series. 3 of 3 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    The third out of a series of three fact sheets describing the role of large balancing areas in integrating solar generation.

  4. Large-amplitude solitons in gravitationally balanced quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-08-15

    Using the quantum fluid model for self-gravitating quantum plasmas with the Bernoulli pseudopotential method and taking into account the relativistic degeneracy effect, it is shown that gravity-induced large-amplitude density rarefaction solitons can exist in gravitationally balanced quantum plasmas. These nonlinear solitons are generated due to the force imbalance between the gravity and the quantum fluid pressure via local density perturbations, similar to that on shallow waters. It is found that both the fluid mass-density and the atomic-number of the constituent ions have significant effect on the amplitude and width of these solitonic profiles. Existence of a large-scale gravity-induced solitonic activities on neutron-star surface, for instance, can be a possible explanation for the recently proposed resonant shattering mechanism [D. Tsang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 011102 (2012)] causing the intense short gamma ray burst phenomenon, in which release of ?10{sup 46}10{sup 47} ergs would be possible from the surface. The resonant shattering of the crust in a neutron star has been previously attributed to the crust-core interface mode and the tidal surface tensions. We believe that current model can be a more natural explanation for the energy liberation by solitonic activities on the neutron star surfaces, without a requirement for external mergers like other neutron stars or black holes for the crustal shatter.

  5. Dual shell pressure balanced reactor vessel. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER) has previously provided support for the development of several chemical processes, including supercritical water oxidation, liquefaction, and aqueous hazardous waste destruction, where chemical and phase transformations are conducted at high pressure and temperature. These and many other commercial processes require a pressure vessel capable of operating in a corrosive environment where safety and economy are important requirements. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) engineers have recently developed and patented (U.S. patent 5,167,930 December 1, 1992) a concept for a novel Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) which could solve a number of these problems. The technology could be immediately useful in continuing commercialization of an R&D 100 award-winning technology, Sludge-to-oil Reactor System (STORS), originally developed through funding by OER. Innotek Corporation is a small business that would be one logical end-user of the DSPBV reactor technology. Innotek is working with several major U.S. engineering firms to evaluate the potential of this technology in the disposal of wastes from sewage treatment plants. PNL entered into a CRADA with Innotek to build a bench-scale demonstration reactor and test the system to advance the economic feasibility of a variety of high pressure chemical processes. Hydrothermal processing of corrosive substances on a large scale can now be made significantly safer and more economical through use of the DSPBV. Hydrothermal chemical reactions such as wet-air oxidation and supercritical water oxidation occur in a highly corrosive environment inside a pressure vessel. Average corrosion rates from 23 to 80 miles per year have been reported by Rice (1994) and Latanision (1993).

  6. Study of a double bubbler for material balance in liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugues Lambert

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential of a double bubbler to measure density and fluid level of the molten salt contained in an electrorefiner. Such in-situ real-time measurements can provide key information for material balances in the pyroprocessing of the nuclear spent fuel. This theoretical study showed this technique has a lot of promise. Four different experiments were designed and performed. The first three experiments studied the influence of a variety of factors such as depth difference between the two tubes, gas flow rate, the radius of the tubes and determining the best operating conditions. The last experiment purpose was to determine the precision and accuracy of the apparatus during specific conditions. The elected operating conditions for the characterization of the system were a difference of depth of 25 cm and a flow rate of 55 ml/min in each tube. The measured densities were between 1,000 g/l and 1,400g/l and the level between 34cm and 40 cm. The depth difference between the tubes is critical, the larger, the better. The experiments showed that the flow rate should be the same in each tube. The concordances with theoretical predictions were very good. The density precision was very satisfying (spread<0.1%) and the accuracy was about 1%. For the level determination, the precision was also very satisfying (spread<0.1%), but the accuracy was about 3%. However, those two biases could be corrected with calibration curves. In addition to the aqueous systems studied in the present work, future work will focus on examining the behavior of the double bubbler instrumentation in molten salt systems. The two main challenges which were identified in this work are the effect of the temperature and the variation of the superficial tension.

  7. Photovoltaic balance-of-system designs and costs at PVUSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, A.B.; Jennings, C.

    1995-05-01

    This report is one in a series of 1994-1995 PVUSA reports that document PVUSA lessons learned at demonstration sites in California and Texas. During the last 7 years (1988 to 1994), 16 PV systems ranging from 20 kW to 500 kW have been installed. Six 20-kW emerging module technology (EMT) arrays and three turnkey (i.e., vendor designed and integrated) utility-scale systems were procured and installed at PVUSA`s main test site in Davis, California. PVUSA host utilities have installed a total of seven EMT arrays and utility-scale systems in their service areas. Additional systems at Davis and host utility sites are planned. One of PVUSA`s key objectives is to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of PV balance-of-system (BOS). In the procurement stage PVUSA encouraged innovative design to improve upon present practice by reducing maintenance, improving reliability, or lowering manufacturing or construction costs. The project team worked closely with suppliers during the design stage not only to ensure designs met functional and safety specifications, but to provide suggestions for improvement. This report, intended for the photovoltaic (PV) industry and for utility project managers and engineers considering PV plant construction and ownership, documents PVUSA utility-scale system design and cost lessons learned. Complementary PVUSA topical reports document: construction and safety experience; five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid-support PV plant benefits; PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  8. Low Temperature Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Balance-of-Plant Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Needs | Department of Energy Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Balance-of-Plant Manufacturing Needs Low Temperature Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Balance-of-Plant Manufacturing Needs Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop in Washington, DC, August 11-12, 2011. PDF icon Low Temperature Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Balance-of-Plant Manufacturing Needs More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 10 kW and 25 kW Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte

  9. Fact #673: May 2, 2011 U.S. Trade Balance for Transportation Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3: May 2, 2011 U.S. Trade Balance for Transportation Vehicles Fact #673: May 2, 2011 U.S. Trade Balance for Transportation Vehicles Motor vehicles, aircraft, ships, and rail locomotives are imported to and exported from the U.S. The trade balance (exports minus imports) shows that the U.S. imports more motor vehicles and parts than it exports. However, aircraft, spacecraft, and parts are exported more often than imported. Comparatively few water and rail vehicles are

  10. Mass balance and separation factor of actinides through series process test on pyro-process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitawaki, Shinichi; Fukushima, Mineo; Yahagi, Noboru; Kurata, Masaki

    2007-07-01

    An electrolysis test in a sequential condition was performed using U-Pu alloy and liquid Cd as an anode and a cathode material, respectively, in which the anode and cathode was changed three times. Mass balance of U and Pu after three-time electrolysis was determined from both the chemical analysis of salt and anode residue, and the weight increase in the cathode. Approximately 95% of U and 100% of Pu was detected even after three times electrolysis. The loss of U is more significant than that of Pu. The mass balance was also evaluated for the intermediate steps of the sequence. More than 90% of U and Pu with respect to the initial amount were constantly caught up with in each step. The separation factor of U/Pu in three cathodes were varied 1.62-2.06. The chemical form of the anode residue was UO, PuOCl and PuO{sub 2}, which can be converted to the chloride by a reaction with ZrCl{sub 4}. (authors)

  11. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) Funding Opportunity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) program, DOE is funding new components and system designs to overcome scientific, technological, and engineering barriers to...

  12. Ideal balance of work, play makes outdoor enthusiast's James Miller life

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    enviable Ideal balance of work, play makes outdoor enthusiast's life enviable Ideal balance of work, play makes outdoor enthusiast's James Miller life enviable Nuclear engineer graduate research assistant gets valuable experience while taking advantage of local outdoor recreational activities. August 2, 2012 James Miller Miller first came to the Lab in 2006 as a summer student. His college advisor, a former Laboratory employee, found him an internship through the student programs office.

  13. Dynamic load balancing algorithm for molecular dynamics based on Voronoi cells domain decompositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattebert, J.-L.; Richards, D.F.; Glosli, J.N.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new algorithm for automatic parallel load balancing in classical molecular dynamics. It assumes a spatial domain decomposition of particles into Voronoi cells. It is a gradient method which attempts to minimize a cost function by displacing Voronoi sites associated with each processor/sub-domain along steepest descent directions. Excellent load balance has been obtained for quasi-2D and 3D practical applications, with up to 440106 particles on 65,536 MPI tasks.

  14. Balance of Plant Needs and Integration of Stack Components for Stationary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power and CHP Applications | Department of Energy Needs and Integration of Stack Components for Stationary Power and CHP Applications Balance of Plant Needs and Integration of Stack Components for Stationary Power and CHP Applications Presentation on Balance of Plant Needs and Integration of Stack Components for Stationary Power and CHP Applications for Fuel Cell Pre-solicitation Workshop March 10, 2010 PDF icon fuelcell_pre-solicitation_wkshop_mar10_ainscough.pdf More Documents &

  15. Solar Projects to Reduce Non-Hardware Balance of System Costs | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Soft Costs » Solar Projects to Reduce Non-Hardware Balance of System Costs Solar Projects to Reduce Non-Hardware Balance of System Costs Seven projects are focused on creating tools and developing methods to reduce the cost of non-hardware components for installed solar energy systems and reducing market barriers. These projects will develop software design tools and databases that can be used by local jurisdictions and installers, and tools to streamline building codes, zoning

  16. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine Planetary Gears Using an Extended Harmonic Balance Approach: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Parker, R. G.

    2012-06-01

    The dynamics of wind turbine planetary gears with gravity effects are investigated using an extended harmonic balance method that extends established harmonic balance formulations to include simultaneous internal and external excitations. The extended harmonic balance method with arc-length continuation and Floquet theory is applied to a lumped-parameter planetary gear model including gravity, fluctuating mesh stiffness, bearing clearance, and nonlinear tooth contact to obtain the planetary gear dynamic response. The calculated responses compare well with time domain integrated mathematical models and experimental results. Gravity is a fundamental vibration source in wind turbine planetary gears and plays an important role in system dynamics, causing hardening effects induced by tooth wedging and bearing-raceway contacts. Bearing clearance significantly reduces the lowest resonant frequencies of translational modes. Gravity and bearing clearance together lowers the speed at which tooth wedging occurs lower than the resonant frequency.

  17. DWPF coupled feed flowsheet material balance with batch one sludge and copper nitrate catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1993-09-28

    The SRTC has formally transmitted a recommendation to DWPF to replace copper formate with copper nitrate as the catalyst form during precipitate hydrolysis [1]. The SRTC was subsequently requested to formally document the technical bases for the recommendation. A memorandum was issued on August 23, 1993 detailing the activities (and responsible individuals) necessary to address the impact of this change in catalyst form on process compatibility, safety, processibility environmental impact and product glass quality [2]. One of the activities identified was the preparation of a material balance in which copper nitrate is substituted for copper formate and the identification of key comparisons between this material balance and the current Batch 1 sludge -- Late Wash material balance [3].

  18. Evaluating the Impact of Solar Generation on Balancing Requirements in Southern Nevada System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2012-07-26

    AbstractIn this paper, the impacts of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation on balancing requirements including regulation and load following in the Southern Nevada balancing area are analyzed. The methodology is based on the swinging door algorithm and a probability box method developed by PNNL. The regulation and load following signals are mimicking the systems scheduling and real-time dispatch processes. Load, solar PV generation and distributed PV generation (DG) data are used in the simulation. Different levels of solar PV generation and DG penetration profiles are used in the study. Sensitivity of the regulation requirements with respect to real-time solar PV generation forecast errors is analyzed.

  19. Verification Of Energy Balance In The Ansys V5.4 Thermal Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Marr; M.J. Anderson

    2001-02-08

    The objective of this calculation is to verify the energy balance of the thermal calculations analyzed by ANSYS Version (V) 5.4 solver (see Section 4). The scope of this calculation is limited to calculating the energy balance of a two-dimensional repository thermal representation using the temperatures obtained from ANSYS V5.4. The procedure, AP-3.124, Calculations (Ref. 3), and the Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA (Ref. 2) are used to develop this calculation. The associated activity is the development of engineering evaluations to support the Licensing Application design activities.

  20. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  1. A Framework for Load Balancing of Tensor Contraction Expressions via Dynamic Task Partitioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Pai-Wei; Stock, Kevin; Rajbhandari, Samyam; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2013-11-17

    In this paper, we introduce the Dynamic Load-balanced Tensor Contractions (DLTC), a domain-specific library for efficient task parallel execution of tensor contraction expressions, a class of computation encountered in quantum chemistry and physics. Our framework decomposes each contraction into smaller unit of tasks, represented by an abstraction referred to as iterators. We exploit an extra level of parallelism by having tasks across independent contractions executed concurrently through a dynamic load balancing run- time. We demonstrate the improved performance, scalability, and flexibility for the computation of tensor contraction expressions on parallel computers using examples from coupled cluster methods.

  2. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Monthly Supply and Disposition Balance"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly Supply and Disposition Balance" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Monthly Supply and Disposition Balance",9,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1973" ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/31/2016" ,"Excel

  3. The Role of Large Balancing Areas In Integrating Solar Generation: Solar Integration Series. 3 of 3 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-05-03

    The third out of a series of three fact sheets describing the role of large balancing areas in integrating solar generation.

  4. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  5. Balanced optical-microwave phase detector for sub-femtosecond optical-RF synchronization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Michael Y.; Kalaydzhyan, Aram; Krtner, Franz X.

    2014-10-23

    We demonstrate that balanced optical-microwave phase detectors (BOMPD) are capable of optical-RF synchronization with sub-femtosecond residual timing jitter for large-scale timing distribution systems. RF-to-optical synchronization is achieved with a long-term stability of moresuppression ratio with potential improvement via DC offset adjustment.less

  6. Project W-340 long reach arm retrieval system balance of plant instrumentation workshop engineering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study documents the results of a workshop held to resolve Issue No. 26 generated at a Arm Based Retrieval Functional Analysis Value Engineering Session. The issue deals with the scope of the Balance of Plant Instrumentation needs for the LRARS.

  7. National Assessment of Energy Storage for Grid Balancing and Arbitrage: Phase 1, WECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Balducci, Patrick J.; Colella, Whitney G.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Nguyen, Tony B.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    To examine the role that energy storage could play in mitigating the impacts of the stochastic variability of wind generation on regional grid operation, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) examined a hypothetical 2020 grid scenario in which additional wind generation capacity is built to meet renewable portfolio standard targets in the Western Interconnection. PNNL developed a stochastic model for estimating the balancing requirements using historical wind statistics and forecasting error, a detailed engineering model to analyze the dispatch of energy storage and fast-ramping generation devices for estimating size requirements of energy storage and generation systems for meeting new balancing requirements, and financial models for estimating the life-cycle cost of storage and generation systems in addressing the future balancing requirements for sub-regions in the Western Interconnection. Evaluated technologies include combustion turbines, sodium sulfur (Na-S) batteries, lithium ion batteries, pumped-hydro energy storage, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, redox flow batteries, and demand response. Distinct power and energy capacity requirements were estimated for each technology option, and battery size was optimized to minimize costs. Modeling results indicate that in a future power grid with high-penetration of renewables, the most cost competitive technologies for meeting balancing requirements include Na-S batteries and flywheels.

  8. Balanced Scorecard

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Satisfaction - Employee Alignment FINANCIAL - Optimum Cost Efficiency of Purchasing Operations - Financial Contributions of Procurement via Cost Savings MISSION VISION STRATEGY...

  9. Balanced Scorecard

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    INTERNAL BUSINESS PROCESSES - Effective Internal Controls - Effective Supplier Management - Use of Effective Competition - Effective Utilization of Alternate Procurement...

  10. Measure Guideline. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jayne; Ludwig, Peter; Brand, Larry

    2013-04-01

    This guideline provides building owners, professionals involved in multifamily audits, and contractors insights for improving the balance and tuning of steam systems. It provides readers an overview of one-pipe steam heating systems, guidelines for evaluating steam systems, typical costs and savings, and guidelines for ensuring quality installations. It also directs readers to additional resources for details not included here. Measures for balancing a distribution system that are covered include replacing main line vents and upgrading radiator vents. Also included is a discussion on upgrading boiler controls and the importance of tuning the settings on new or existing boiler controls. The guideline focuses on one-pipe steam systems, though many of the assessment methods can be generalized to two-pipe steam systems.

  11. Power balance in a high-density field reversed configuration plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renneke, R. M.; Intrator, T. P.; Hsu, S. C.; Wurden, G. A.; Waganaar, W. J.; Ruden, E. L.; Grabowski, T. C.

    2008-06-15

    A global power balance analysis has been performed for the Field Reversed Experiment with Liner high density (>5x10{sup 22} m{sup -3}) field reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The analysis was based on a zero-dimensional power balance model [D. J. Rey and M. Tuszewski, Phys. Fluids 27, 1514 (1984)]. The key findings are as follows. First, the percentage of radiative losses relative to total loss is an order of magnitude lower than previous lower density FRC experiments. Second, Ohmic heating was found to correlate with the poloidal flux trapping at FRC formation, suggesting that poloidal flux dissipation is primarily responsible for plasma heating. Third, high density FRCs analyzed in this work reinforce the low-density adiabatic scaling, which shows that particle confinement time and flux confinement time are approximately equal.

  12. Modular Approach for Continuous Cell-Level Balancing to Improve Performance of Large Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muneed ur Rehman, M.; Evzelman, M.; Hathaway, K.; Zane, R.; Plett, G. L.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Maksimovic, D.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage systems require battery cell balancing circuits to avoid divergence of cell state of charge (SOC). A modular approach based on distributed continuous cell-level control is presented that extends the balancing function to higher level pack performance objectives such as improving power capability and increasing pack lifetime. This is achieved by adding DC-DC converters in parallel with cells and using state estimation and control to autonomously bias individual cell SOC and SOC range, forcing healthier cells to be cycled deeper than weaker cells. The result is a pack with improved degradation characteristics and extended lifetime. The modular architecture and control concepts are developed and hardware results are demonstrated for a 91.2-Wh battery pack consisting of four series Li-ion battery cells and four dual active bridge (DAB) bypass DC-DC converters.

  13. Low-Level waste phase 1 melter testing off gas and mass balance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1996-06-28

    Commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994-95 as part of a multiphase program to test candidate technologies for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes were also tested. Various feed material samples, product glass samples, and process offgas streams were characterized to provide data for evaluation of process decontamination factors and material mass balances for each vitrification technology. This report describes the melter mass balance evaluations and results for six of the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor demonstration tests.

  14. Superconducting quantum interference device microsusceptometer balanced over a wide bandwidth for nuclear magnetic resonance applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinante, A. Falferi, P.; Mezzena, R.

    2014-10-15

    Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometers have been widely used to study magnetic properties of materials at microscale. As intrinsically balanced devices, they could also be exploited for direct SQUID-detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from micron sized samples, or for SQUID readout of mechanically detected NMR from submicron sized samples. Here, we demonstrate a double balancing technique that enables achievement of very low residual imbalance of a SQUID microsusceptometer over a wide bandwidth. In particular, we can generate ac magnetic fields within the SQUID loop as large as 1 mT, for frequencies ranging from dc up to a few MHz. As an application, we demonstrate direct detection of NMR from {sup 1}H spins in a glycerol droplet placed directly on top of the 20 ?m SQUID loops.

  15. Systems Engineering of Chemical Hydrogen Storage, Pressure Vessel and Balance of Plant for Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done with cryo-sorbent based and chemical-based hydrogen storage materials. Balance of plant components were developed, proof-of-concept testing performed, system costs estimated, and transient models validated as part of this work.

  16. Material Balance Assessment for Double-Shell Tank Waste Pipeline Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Hartley, Stacey A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; White, Mike

    2002-10-30

    PNNL developed a material balance assessment methodology based on conservation of mass for detecting leaks and mis-routings in pipeline transfer of double-shell tank waste at Hanford. The main factors causing uncertainty in these transfers are variable property and tank conditions of density, existence of crust, and surface disturbance due to mixer pump operation during the waste transfer. The methodology was applied to three waste transfers from Tanks AN-105 and AZ-102.

  17. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site - FY09 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Waichler, Scott R.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2009-09-28

    Recharge provides the primary driving force for transporting contaminants from the vadose zone to underlying aquifer systems. Quantification of recharge rates is important for assessing contaminant transport and fate and for evaluating remediation alternatives. This report describes the status of soil water balance and recharge monitoring performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site for Fiscal Year 2009. Previously reported data for Fiscal Years 2004 - 2008 are updated with data collected in Fiscal Year 2009 and summarized.

  18. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jayne; Ludwig, Peter; Brand, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Older heating systems often suffer from mis-investment--multiple contractors upgrading parts of systems in inadequate or inappropriate ways that reduce system functionality and efficiency--or from a lack of proper maintenance. This technical report addresses these barriers to information, contractor resources, and cost-savings. Building off of previous research, CNT Energy conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing.

  19. A New Slant on a Cellular Balancing Act - The Copper-sensing Repressor of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis New Slant on a Cellular Balancing Act - The Copper-sensing Repressor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Copper is a required micronutrient for all living cells, being an essential component of many metalloenzymes, but free intracellular copper is highly toxic. Because of this copper within cells is very tightly controlled, with specific copper ion pumps (both importers and exporters) located at the cell surface, which are coupled to highly specific metallochaperones

  20. Explicit spatial scattering for load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel discrete-event simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thulasidasan, Sunil; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Romero, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the problem of load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel, discrete-event simulations executed on high-performance computing clusters, focusing on simulations where computational and messaging load tend to be spatially clustered. Such domains are frequently characterized by the presence of geographic 'hot-spots' - regions that generate significantly more simulation events than others. Examples of such domains include simulation of urban regions, transportation networks and networks where interaction between entities is often constrained by physical proximity. Noting that in conservatively synchronized parallel simulations, the speed of execution of the simulation is determined by the slowest (i.e most heavily loaded) simulation process, we study different partitioning strategies in achieving equitable processor-load distribution in domains with spatially clustered load. In particular, we study the effectiveness of partitioning via spatial scattering to achieve optimal load balance. In this partitioning technique, nearby entities are explicitly assigned to different processors, thereby scattering the load across the cluster. This is motivated by two observations, namely, (i) since load is spatially clustered, spatial scattering should, intuitively, spread the load across the compute cluster, and (ii) in parallel simulations, equitable distribution of CPU load is a greater determinant of execution speed than message passing overhead. Through large-scale simulation experiments - both of abstracted and real simulation models - we observe that scatter partitioning, even with its greatly increased messaging overhead, significantly outperforms more conventional spatial partitioning techniques that seek to reduce messaging overhead. Further, even if hot-spots change over the course of the simulation, if the underlying feature of spatial clustering is retained, load continues to be balanced with spatial scattering leading us to the observation that spatial scattering can often obviate the need for dynamic load balancing.

  1. Upgrades to SNL-EFDC: A Tool to Balance Marine Hydrokinetic Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation Efficiency with Environmental Response Upgrades to SNL-EFDC: A Tool to Balance Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Generation Efficiency with Environmental Response - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy

  2. NREL to Partner with RES Americas on Wind Balance-of-Plant Research - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL to Partner with RES Americas on Wind Balance-of-Plant Research June 17, 2009 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Renewable Energy Systems Americas, Inc. (RES Americas) have announced a partnership to evaluate the design and performance of vital wind energy support systems. Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), NREL and RES Americas will investigate structural loads on foundations of operating wind

  3. Balance of Plant (BoP) Components Validation for Fuel Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy (BoP) Components Validation for Fuel Cells Balance of Plant (BoP) Components Validation for Fuel Cells Slides from the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Component and System Qualification Workshop held November 4, 2010 in Livermore, CA. PDF icon csqw_lakshmanan.pdf More Documents & Publications Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review An

  4. The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944-2009 | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration United States Plutonium Balance, 1944-2009 | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs

  5. Interfacial stress balances in structured continua and free surface flows in ferrofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaves, Arlex; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2014-04-15

    Interfacial linear and internal angular momentum balances are obtained for a structured continuum and for the special case of a ferrofluid, a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in a Newtonian fluid. The interfacial balance equations account for the effects of surface tension and surface tension gradient, magnetic surface excess forces, antisymmetric stresses, and couple stresses in driving interfacial flows in ferrofluids. Application of the interfacial balance equations is illustrated by obtaining analytical expressions for the translational and spin velocity profiles in a thin film of ferrofluid on an infinite flat plate when a rotating magnetic field is applied with axis of rotation parallel to the ferrofluid/air interface. The cases of zero and non-zero spin viscosity are considered for small applied magnetic field amplitude. Expressions for the maximum translational velocity, slope of the translational velocity profile at the ferrofluid/air interface, and volumetric flow rate are obtained and their use to test the relevance of spin viscosity and couple stresses in the flow situation under consideration is discussed.

  6. Greenland and Antarctic mass balances for present and doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} from the GENESIS version-2 global climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, S.L.; Pollard, D.

    1997-05-01

    As anthropogenic greenhouse warming occurs in the next century, changes in the mass balances of Greenland and Antarctica will probably accelerate and may have significant effects on global sea level. Recent trends and possible future changes in these mass balances have received considerable attention in the glaciological literature, but until recently relatively few general circulation modeling (GCM) studies have focused on the problem. However, there are two significant problems in using GCMs to predict mass balance distributions on ice sheets: (i) the relatively coarse GCM horizontal resolution truncates the topography of the ice-sheet flanks and smaller ice sheets such as Greenland, and (ii) the snow and ice physics in most GCMs does not include ice-sheet-specific processes such as the refreezing of meltwater. Two techniques are described that attack these problems, involving (i) an elevation-based correction to the surface meteorology and (ii) a simple a posteriori correction for the refreezing of meltwater following Pfeiffer et al. Using these techniques in a new version 2 of the Global Environmental and Ecological Simulation of Interactive Systems global climate model, the authors present global climate and ice-sheet mass-balance results from two equilibrated runs for present and doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2}. This GCM is well suited for ice-sheet mass-balance studies because (a) the surface can be represented at a finer resolution (2{degrees} lat x 2{degrees} long) than the atmospheric GCM, (b) the two correction techniques are included as part of the model, and the model`s mass balances for present-day Greenland and Antarctica are realistic. 131 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor balance of plant and supporting systems design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Memmott, M. J.; Stansbury, C.; Taylor, C.

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the second in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses, in particular, upon the supporting systems and the balance of plant (BOP) designs of the Westinghouse SMR. Several Westinghouse SMR systems are classified as safety, and are critical to the safe operation of the Westinghouse SMR. These include the protection and monitoring system (PMS), the passive core cooling system (PXS), and the spent fuel cooling system (SFS) including pools, valves, and piping. The Westinghouse SMR safety related systems include the instrumentation and controls (I and C) as well as redundant and physically separated safety trains with batteries, electrical systems, and switch gears. Several other incorporated systems are non-safety related, but provide functions for plant operations including defense-in-depth functions. These include the chemical volume control system (CVS), heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) systems, component cooling water system (CCS), normal residual heat removal system (RNS) and service water system (SWS). The integrated performance of the safety-related and non-safety related systems ensures the safe and efficient operation of the Westinghouse SMR through various conditions and transients. The turbine island consists of the turbine, electric generator, feedwater and steam systems, moisture separation systems, and the condensers. The BOP is designed to minimize assembly time, shipping challenges, and on-site testing requirements for all structures, systems, and components. (authors)

  8. Fact #871: May 4, 2015 Most Manufacturers Have Positive CAFE Credit Balances at the End of Model Year 2013 – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Most Manufacturers Have Positive CAFE Credit Balances at the End of Model Year 2013

  9. Effect of short-term material balances on the projected uranium measurement uncertainties for the gas centrifuge enrichment plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younkin, J.M.; Rushton, J.E.

    1980-02-05

    A program is under way to design an effective International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system that could be applied to the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP). This system would integrate nuclear material accountability with containment and surveillance. Uncertainties in material balances due to errors in the measurements of the declared uranium streams have been projected on a yearly basis for GCEP under such a system in a previous study. Because of the large uranium flows, the projected balance uncertainties were, in some cases, greater than the IAEA goal quantity of 75 kg of U-235 contained in low-enriched uranium. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the benefits of material balance periods of less than a year in order to improve the sensitivity and timeliness of the nuclear material accountability system. An analysis has been made of projected uranium measurement uncertainties for various short-term material balance periods. To simplify this analysis, only a material balance around the process area is considered and only the major UF/sub 6/ stream measurements are included. That is, storage areas are not considered and uranium waste streams are ignored. It is also assumed that variations in the cascade inventory are negligible compared to other terms in the balance so that the results obtained in this study are independent of the absolute cascade inventory. This study is intended to provide information that will serve as the basis for the future design of a dynamic materials accounting component of the IAEA safeguards system for GCEP.

  10. Tank 12H Acidic Chemical Cleaning Sample Analysis And Material Balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C. J.; Reboul, S. H.; Wiersma, B. J.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-11-08

    A process of Bulk Oxalic Acid (BOA) chemical cleaning was performed for Tank 12H during June and July of 2013 to remove all or a portion of the approximately 4400 gallon sludge heel. Three strikes of oxalic acid (nominally 4 wt % or 2 wt %) were used at 55 ?C and tank volumes of 96- to 140-thousand gallons. This report details the sample analysis of a scrape sample taken prior to BOA cleaning and dip samples taken during BOA cleaning. It also documents a rudimentary material balance for the Tank 12H cleaning results.

  11. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Annual Supply and Disposition Balance"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Supply and Disposition Balance" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Supply",5,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1930" ,"Data 2","Disposition",5,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1930" ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  12. Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian

    2014-10-28

    Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same direct relativistic mapping between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].

  13. NV Energy Solar Integration Study: Cycling and Movements of Conventional Generators for Balancing Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin

    2011-07-01

    With an increasing penetration level of solar power in the southern Nevada system, the impact of solar on system operations needs to be carefully studied from various perspectives. Qualitatively, it is expected that the balancing requirements to compensate for solar power variability will be larger in magnitude; meanwhile, generators providing load following and regulation services will be moved up or down more frequently. One of the most important tasks is to quantitatively evaluate the cycling and movements of conventional generators with solar power at different penetration levels. This study is focused on developing effective methodologies for this goal and providing a basis for evaluating the wear and tear of the conventional generators

  14. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2013-08-01

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.

  15. Aqueous precipitation: Population balance modeling and control in multi-cation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    Efficient separation of metal species from aqueous streams by precipitation techniques requires a fundamental understanding of the processes that occur during precipitation. These processes include particle nucleation, particle growth by solute deposition, agglomerate formation, and agglomerate breakup. Population balance method has been used to develop a kinetic model that accounts for these competing kinetic processes. The usefulness of the model is illustrated through its application to precipitation of yttrium hydroxynitrate, YHN. Kinetic parameters calculated from the model equations and system-specific solution chemistry are used to describe several aspects of the effect of pH on YHN precipitation. Implications for simultaneous precipitation of more than one cation type are discussed with examples. Effects of solution chemistry, precipitator design, and solvent choice are considered.

  16. Water and Heat Balance Model for Predicting Drainage Below the Plant Root Zone

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-11-01

    UNSAT-H Version 2.0 is a one-dimensional model that simulates the dynamic processes of infiltration, drainage, redistribution, surface evaporation, and the uptake of water from soil by plants. The model was developed for assessing the water dynamics of arid sites used or proposed for near-surface waste disposal. In particular, the model is used for simulating the water balance of cover systems over buried waste and for estimating the recharge rate (i.e., the drainage rate beneath themore » plant root zone when a sizable vadose zone is present). The mathematical base of the model are Richards'' equation for water flow, Ficks'' law for vapor diffusion, and Fouriers law for heat flow. The simulated profile can be homogeneous or layered. The boundary conditions can be controlled as either constant (potential or temperature) or flux conditions to reflect actual conditions at a given site.« less

  17. Disentangling Mechanisms That Mediate the Balance Between Stochastic and Deterministic Processes in Microbial Succession

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Stegen, James C.; van Elsas, Jan D.; Falcao Salles, Joana

    2015-03-17

    Despite growing recognition that deterministic and stochastic factors simultaneously influence bacterial communities, little is known about mechanisms shifting their relative importance. To better understand underlying mechanisms, we developed a conceptual model linking ecosystem development during primary succession to shifts in the stochastic/deterministic balance. To evaluate the conceptual model we coupled spatiotemporal data on soil bacterial communities with environmental conditions spanning 105 years of salt marsh development. At the local scale there was a progression from stochasticity to determinism due to Na accumulation with increasing ecosystem age, supporting a main element of the conceptual model. At the regional-scale, soil organic matter (SOM) governed the relative influence of stochasticity and the type of deterministic ecological selection, suggesting scale-dependency in how deterministic ecological selection is imposed. Analysis of a new ecological simulation model supported these conceptual inferences. Looking forward, we propose an extended conceptual model that integrates primary and secondary succession in microbial systems.

  18. Variable Renewable Generation can Provide Balancing Control to the Electric Power System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners. This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.

  19. Approach to IAEA material-balance verification at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, D.M.; Sanborn, J.B.; Younkin, J.M.; DeVito, V.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a potential approach by which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) might verify the nuclear-material balance at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP). The strategy makes use of the attributes and variables measurement verification approach, whereby the IAEA would perform independent measurements on a randomly selected subset of the items comprising the U-235 flows and inventories at the plant. In addition, the MUF-D statistic is used as the test statistic for the detection of diversion. The paper includes descriptions of the potential verification activities, as well as calculations of: (1) attributes and variables sample sizes for the various strata, (2) standard deviations of the relevant test statistics, and (3) the detection sensitivity which the IAEA might achieve by this verification strategy at GCEP.

  20. Electrical Power Grid Delivery Dynamic Analysis: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diana K. Grauer; Michael E. Reed

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  1. Kinetically balanced Gaussian basis-set approach to relativistic Compton profiles of atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, Prerit; Shukla, Alok

    2007-02-15

    Atomic Compton profiles (CPs) are a very important property which provide us information about the momentum distribution of atomic electrons. Therefore, for CPs of heavy atoms, relativistic effects are expected to be important, warranting a relativistic treatment of the problem. In this paper, we present an efficient approach aimed at ab initio calculations of atomic CPs within a Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) formalism, employing kinetically balanced Gaussian basis functions. The approach is used to compute the CPs of noble gases ranging from He to Rn, and the results have been compared to the experimental and other theoretical data, wherever possible. The influence of the quality of the basis set on the calculated CPs has also been systematically investigated.

  2. A mass balance model for the hydrologic response of fine-grained hillside soils to rainfall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haneberg, W.C. . New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources)

    1992-01-01

    For a sloping soil layer of uniform thickness D, length L, and angle of inclination B, slope-normal influx per unit breadth is given by Q[sub in] = R L cos B, where R is net recharge. Slope-parallel discharge is given by Q[sub out] = K D sin B, where K is saturated hydraulic conductivity. If the long-term ratio of discharge to influx is > 1, then the slope is self-draining. If the ratio is < 1, then the slope is self-filling. Self-filling slopes will be more susceptible to failure because they cannot easily dissipate infiltration-induced pore pressure increases. For time-variant recharge, the rate of change in volumetric soil moisture content is given by d[Theta]/dt = (R/D) cos B--(K/L) sin B. Calculations using data from a thin colluvium landslide along the Ohio River give an average annual steady-state value of Q[sub out]/Q[sub in] = 1.06. A finite difference solution of the transient mass balance equation agrees fairly well with observed daily mean pressure heads from spring 1988. Stochastic simulations using temporally uncorrelated rainfall distributions fitted to the observed data tend to produce smoother hydrographs than simulations using observed rainfall values. This is due to a mismatch between the observed and fitted distributions, which caused the frequency of large storms to be underestimated and the frequency of small storms to be overestimated. Long-term trends in the stochastic simulations, however, were self-draining in three out of five trials. The mildly self-draining nature of thin colluvium hillsides along the Ohio River may explain why these slopes are marginally stable to unstable, and the general agreement between observed and simulated values suggests that mass balance models may be useful for assessing the susceptibility of hillside soils to precipitation-induced landsliding.

  3. A comparison of two models for simulating the water balance of soil covers under semi-arid conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chammas, G.A.; Geddis, M.; McCaulou, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    Numerical water-balance modeling of store-and-release soil covers for hypothetical mine tailings was conducted using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and SoilCover models. The objective of the modeling was to compare the utility of both models in a semi-arid environment. Although values for input parameters were chosen to make simulations as identical as possible between models, differences in model solution methods and discretization led to different water-balance predictions. Specifically, SoilCover predicted less percolation than HELP, because HELP uses simplified water-routing algorithms which may over predict infiltration and under predict subsequent evapotranspiration. Since SoilCover explicitly solves physically based governing equations for heat and water flow, its predictions more accurately represent the water balance in semi-arid regions where evapotranspiration dominates, HELP can only conservatively predict percolation in dry environments.

  4. Quantification of uranium transport away from firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A mass balance approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    Investigations were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory to quantify the extent of migration of depleted uranium away from firing sites. Extensive sampling of air particles, soil, sediment, and water was conducted to establish the magnitude of uranium contamination throughout one watershed. The uranium source term was estimated, and mass balance calculations were performed to compare the percentage of migrated uranium with original expenditures. Mass balance calculations can be powerful in identification of the extent of waste migration and used as an aid in planning future waste investigations.

  5. Quantification of uranium transport away from firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A mass balance approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    Investigations were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory to quantify the extent of migration of depleted uranium away from firing sites. Extensive sampling of air particles, soil, sediment, and water was conducted to establish the magnitude of uranium contamination throughout one watershed. The uranium source term was estimated, and mass balance calculations were performed to compare the percentage of migrated uranium with original expenditures. Mass balance calculations can be powerful in identification of the extent of waste migration and used as an aid in planning future waste investigations.

  6. Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program's Fiscal Year 2009 Balance Sheet Audit, OAS-FS-12-08

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program's Fiscal Year 2009 Balance Sheet OAS-FS-12-08 March 2012 ISOTOPE DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION FOR RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS PROGRAM Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report and Balance Sheet September 30, 2009 i UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ISOTOPE DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION FOR RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS PROGRAM Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report and Balance Sheet Table of Contents Page Management's Discussion

  7. Analysis of Unit-Level Changes in Operations with Increased SPP Wind from EPRI/LCG Balancing Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2012-01-01

    Wind power development in the United States is outpacing previous estimates for many regions, particularly those with good wind resources. The pace of wind power deployment may soon outstrip regional capabilities to provide transmission and integration services to achieve the most economic power system operation. Conversely, regions such as the Southeastern United States do not have good wind resources and will have difficulty meeting proposed federal Renewable Portfolio Standards with local supply. There is a growing need to explore innovative solutions for collaborating between regions to achieve the least cost solution for meeting such a renewable energy mandate. The Department of Energy funded the project 'Integrating Midwest Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets' to be led by EPRI in coordination with the main authorities for the regions: SPP, Entergy, TVA, Southern Company and OPC. EPRI utilized several subcontractors for the project including LCG, the developers of the model UPLAN. The study aims to evaluate the operating cost benefits of coordination of scheduling and balancing for Southwest Power Pool (SPP) wind transfers to Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) Balancing Authorities (BAs). The primary objective of this project is to analyze the benefits of regional cooperation for integrating mid-western wind energy into southeast electricity markets. Scenarios were defined, modeled and investigated to address production variability and uncertainty and the associated balancing of large quantities of wind power in SPP and delivery to energy markets in the southern regions of the SERC. DOE funded Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide additional support to the project, including a review of results and any side analysis that may provide additional insight. This report is a unit-by-unit analysis of changes in operations due to the different scenarios used in the overall study. It focuses on the change in capacity factors and the number of start-ups required for each unit since those criteria summarize key aspects of plant operations, how often are they called upon and how much do they operate. The primary analysis of the overall project is based on security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) and economic dispatch (SCED) simulations of the SPP-SERC regions as modeled for the year 2022. The SCUC/SCED models utilized for the project were developed through extensive consultation with the project utility partners, to ensure the various regions and operational practices are represented as best as possible in the model. SPP, Entergy, Oglethorpe Power Company (OPC), Southern Company, and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) actively participated in the project providing input data for the models and review of simulation results and conclusions. While other SERC utility systems are modeled, the listed SERC utilities were explicitly included as active participants in the project due to the size of their load and relative proximity to SPP for importing wind energy.

  8. HLW flowsheet material balance for DWPF rad operation with Tank 51 sludge and ITP Cycle 1 precipitate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-04-19

    This document presents the details of the Savannah River Plant Flowsheet for the Rad Operation with Tank Sludge and ITP Cycle 1 Precipitate. Topics discussed include: material balance; radiolysis chemistry of tank precipitates; algorithm for ESP washing; chemistry of hydrogen and ammonia generation in CPC; batch sizes for processing feed; and total throughput of a streams during one cycle of operation.

  9. Global energy and water balance: Characteristics from finite-volume atmospheric model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Linjiong; Bao, Qing; Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Wang, Xiaocong; He, Bian; Yu, Haiyang; Li, Jiandong

    2015-03-01

    This paper documents version 1 of the Finite-volume Atmospheric Model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1), which has a flexible horizontal resolution up to a quarter of 1. The model, currently running on the Tianhe 1A supercomputer, is the atmospheric component of the third-generation Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land climate System model (FGOALS3) which will participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). In addition to describing the dynamical core and physical parameterizations of FAMIL1, this paper describes the simulated characteristics of energy and water balances and compares them with observational/reanalysis data. The comparisons indicate that the model simulates well the seasonal and geographical distributions of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface, as well as the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes. A major weakness in the energy balance is identified in the regions where extensive and persistent marine stratocumulus is present. Analysis of the global water balance also indicates realistic seasonal and geographical distributions with the global annual mean of evaporation minus precipitation being approximately 10?? mm d?. We also examine the connections between the global energy and water balance and discuss the possible link between the two within the context of the findings from the reanalysis data. Finally, the model biases as well as possible solutions are discussed.

  10. Global energy and water balance: Characteristics from finite-volume atmospheric model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Linjiong; Bao, Qing; Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Wang, Xiaocong; He, Bian; Yu, Haiyang; Li, Jiandong

    2015-03-01

    This paper documents version 1 of the Finite-volume Atmospheric Model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1), which has a flexible horizontal resolution up to a quarter of 1°. The model, currently running on the ‘‘Tianhe 1A’’ supercomputer, is the atmospheric component of the third-generation Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land climate System model (FGOALS3) which will participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). In addition to describing the dynamical core and physical parameterizations of FAMIL1, this paper describes the simulated characteristics of energy and water balances and compares them with observational/reanalysis data. The comparisons indicate that the model simulates well the seasonalmore » and geographical distributions of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface, as well as the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes. A major weakness in the energy balance is identified in the regions where extensive and persistent marine stratocumulus is present. Analysis of the global water balance also indicates realistic seasonal and geographical distributions with the global annual mean of evaporation minus precipitation being approximately 10⁻⁵ mm d⁻¹. We also examine the connections between the global energy and water balance and discuss the possible link between the two within the context of the findings from the reanalysis data. Finally, the model biases as well as possible solutions are discussed.« less

  11. A water balance study of four landfill cover designs varying in slope for semiarid regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Schofield, T.G.; Salazar, J.A.

    1997-02-01

    The goal of disposing of radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and to the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose a hazard. In order to achieve this, the performance of a landfill cover design without an engineered barrier (Conventional Design) was compared with three designs containing either a hydraulic barrier (EPA Design) or a capillary barrier (Loam and Clay Loam Capillary Barrier Designs). Water balance parameters were measured since 1991 at six-hour intervals for four different landfill cover designs in 1.0- by 10.0-m plots with downhill slopes of 5, 10, 15, and 25%. Whereas runoff generally accounted for only 2-3% of the precipitation losses on these designs, similar values for evapotranspiration ranged from 86% to 91%, with increased evapotranspiration occurring with increases in slope. Consequently, interflow and seepage usually decreased with increasing slope for each landfill cover design. Seepage consisted of up to 10% of the precipitation on the Conventional Design, whereas the hydraulic barrier in the EPA Design effectively controlled seepage at all slopes, and both of the capillary designs worked effectively to eliminate seepage at the higher slopes.

  12. Preliminary energy balance and economic of a farm-scale ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, D.; McKinnon, T.

    1980-05-01

    A small-scale ethanol plant was designed, built, tested, and modified over the past 18 months. The plant currently operating is the second design. A third, and probably final, design will be installed and operating within a few months. The current plant produces approximately 30 gal/hr of 190-proof alcohol on a continuous basis. The new plant will produce 50 gal/hr of 200-proof alcohol. A key feature is the relatively low process heat requirement, which is achieved by extensive use of waste-heat recovery heat exchangers. This is manifested in the low temperatures of the process output streams. Acting on the request of the Office of Alcohol Fuels, US Department of Energy, and at the invitation of the owners, representatives from the Solar Energy Research Institute evaluated the energy balance on the plant. The objective was to help clear up the controversy surrounding the net energy benefit of ethanol production. Although the study was site-specific to the plant and limited in scope, it is indicative of the potential performance of grain-to-ethanol plants in general.

  13. U.S. Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, B.

    2012-10-01

    With balance-of-system (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non?turbine costs has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from U.S. offshore wind plants.

  14. Offshore Wind Plant Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Maples, B.; Meadows, B.; Hand, M.; Musial, W.; Elkington, C.; Clayton, J.

    2012-09-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non-turbine costs associated with offshore turbine sizes ranging from 3 MW to 6 MW and offshore wind plant sizes ranging from 100 MW to 1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US offshore wind plants.

  15. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-04-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP.

  16. Anisotropic emission and photon-recycling in strain-balanced quantum well solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabrera, C. I.; Enciso, A.; Contreras-Solorio, D. A.; Hernandez, L.; Connolly, J. P.

    2014-04-28

    Strain-balanced quantum well solar cells (SB-QWSCs) extend the photon absorption edge beyond that of bulk GaAs by incorporation of quantum wells in the i-region of a pin device. Anisotropy arises from a splitting of the valence band due to compressive strain in the quantum wells, suppressing a transition which contributes to emission from the edge of the quantum wells. We have studied both the emission light polarized in the plane perpendicular (TM) to the quantum well which couples exclusively to the light hole transition and the emission polarized in the plane of the quantum wells (TE) which couples mainly to the heavy hole transition. It was found that the spontaneous emission rates TM and TE increase when the quantum wells are deeper. The addition of a distributed Bragg reflector can substantially increase the photocurrent while decreasing the radiative recombination current. We have examined the impact of the photon recycling effect on SB-QWSC performance. We have optimized SB-QWSC design to achieve single junction efficiencies above 30%.

  17. Contaminant Mass Balance for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, WA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crecelius, Eric A.; Johnston, Robert K.; Leather, Jim; Guerrero, Joel; Miller, Martin C.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2003-04-03

    Sinclair Inlet and Dyes Inlets have historically received contaminates from military installations, industrial activities, municipal outfalls, and other nonpoint sources. For the purpose of determining a ?total maximum daily load? (TMDL) of contaminants for the Inlets, a contaminant mass balance for the sediments is being developed. Sediment cores and traps were collected from depositional areas of the Inlets and surface sediment grabs were collected from fluvial deposits associated with major drainage areas into the Inlets. All sediment samples were screened using X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) for metals, UV fluorescence for organics (PAHs), and immunoassay for PCBs. A subset of split-samples was analyzed using ICP/MS for metals and GC/MS for phthalates, PAHs, and PCBs. Sediment cores were age-dated using radionuclides to determine the sedimentation rate and the history of sediment contamination. Streams and storm water outfalls were sampled in both the wet and dry seasons to assess loading from the watershed. Seawater samples collected from the marine waters of the Inlets and boundary passages to central Puget Sound were used to estimate the exchange of contaminates with central Puget Sound. The historical trends from the cores indicate that contamination was at a maximum in the middle of the 1900s and decreased significantly by the late 1900s. The thickness of the contaminated sediment is in the range of 30 to 50 cm.

  18. Balancing Autonomy and Utilization of Solar Power and Battery Storage for Demand Based Microgrids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawder, Matthew T.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-04-01

    The growth of intermittent solar power has developed a need for energy storage systems in order to decouple generation and supply of energy. Microgrid (MG) systems comprising of solar arrays with battery energy storage studied in this paper desire high levels of autonomy, seeking to meet desired demand at all times. Large energy storage capacity is required for high levels of autonomy, but much of this expensive capacity goes unused for a majority of the year due to seasonal fluctuations of solar generation. In this paper, a model-based study of MGs comprised of solar generation and battery storage shows the relationship between system autonomy and battery utilization applied to multiple demand cases using a single particle battery model (SPM). The SPM allows for more accurate state-of-charge and utilization estimation of the battery than previous studies of renewably powered systems that have used empirical models. The increased accuracy of battery state estimation produces a better assessment of system performance. Battery utilization will depend on the amount of variation in solar insolation as well as the type of demand required by the MG. Consumers must balance autonomy and desired battery utilization of a system within the needs of their grid.

  19. Control and Size Energy Storage for Managing Energy balance of Variable Generation Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ke, Xinda; Lu, Ning; Jin, Chunlian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents control algorithms and sizing strategies for using energy storage to manage energy balance for variable generation resources. The control objective is to minimize the hourly generation imbalance between the actual and the scheduled generation of the wind farm. Three control algorithms are compared: tracking power imbalance, post-compensation, and pre-compensation. Measurement data from a wind farm located in South-central Washington State are used in the study. The results show that tracking power imbalance yields the best performance by keeping the hourly energy imbalances zero. However, the energy storage system (ESS) will be significantly oversized. Post-compensation reduces power rating of the ESS but the hourly imbalance may not be kept as zero when large and long-lasting energy imbalances occur. A linear regression forecasting algorithm is developed for the pre-compensation algorithm to pre-charge or pre-discharge the ESS based on predicted energy imbalances. The performance comparison shows that the pre-compensation method significantly reduces the size of the ESS while maintaining satisfactory performance.

  20. Land-Based Wind Plant Balance-of-System Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mone, C.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2014-04-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 30% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understand the BOS costs for wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by industry partners. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, foundations for various wind turbines, transportation, civil work, and electrical arrays. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and geographic characteristics. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non?turbine wind plant costs associated with turbine sizes ranging from 1-6 MW and wind plant sizes ranging from 100-1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the capital investment cost and the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrate the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US wind plants.

  1. Uncertainty in Modeling Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing from Size Parameterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chun; Chen, Siyu; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Kok, Jasper; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Huang, J.

    2013-11-05

    This study examines the uncertainties in simulating mass balance and radiative forcing of mineral dust due to biases in the aerosol size parameterization. Simulations are conducted quasi-globally (180oW-180oE and 60oS-70oN) using the WRF24 Chem model with three different approaches to represent aerosol size distribution (8-bin, 4-bin, and 3-mode). The biases in the 3-mode or 4-bin approaches against a relatively more accurate 8-bin approach in simulating dust mass balance and radiative forcing are identified. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach simulates similar but coarser size distributions of dust particles in the atmosphere, while the 3-mode pproach retains more fine dust particles but fewer coarse dust particles due to its prescribed og of each mode. Although the 3-mode approach yields up to 10 days longer dust mass lifetime over the remote oceanic regions than the 8-bin approach, the three size approaches produce similar dust mass lifetime (3.2 days to 3.5 days) on quasi-global average, reflecting that the global dust mass lifetime is mainly determined by the dust mass lifetime near the dust source regions. With the same global dust emission (~6000 Tg yr-1), the 8-bin approach produces a dust mass loading of 39 Tg, while the 4-bin and 3-mode approaches produce 3% (40.2 Tg) and 25% (49.1 Tg) higher dust mass loading, respectively. The difference in dust mass loading between the 8-bin approach and the 4-bin or 3-mode approaches has large spatial variations, with generally smaller relative difference (<10%) near the surface over the dust source regions. The three size approaches also result in significantly different dry and wet deposition fluxes and number concentrations of dust. The difference in dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) (a factor of 3) among the three size approaches is much larger than their difference (25%) in dust mass loading. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach yields stronger dust absorptivity, while the 3-mode approach yields weaker dust absorptivity. Overall, on quasi-global average, the three size parameterizations result in a significant difference of a factor of 2~3 in dust surface cooling (-1.02~-2.87 W m-2) and atmospheric warming (0.39~0.96 W m-2) and in a tremendous difference of a factor of ~10 in dust TOA cooling (-0.24~-2.20 W m-2). An uncertainty of a factor of 2 is quantified in dust emission estimation due to the different size parameterizations. This study also highlights the uncertainties in modeling dust mass and number loading, deposition fluxes, and radiative forcing resulting from different size parameterizations, and motivates further investigation of the impact of size parameterizations on modeling dust impacts on air quality, climate, and ecosystem.

  2. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, Rick; Harris, Jeff; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-08-13

    We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and ultimately reverse) the growth in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. Instead, policy makers need to return to an earlier emphasis on"conservation," with energy efficiency seen as a means rather than an end in itself. We briefly review the concept of"intensive" versus"extensive" variables (i.e., energy efficiency versus energy consumption), and why attention to both consumption and efficiency is essential for effective policy in a carbon- and oil-constrained world with increasingly brittle energy markets. To start, energy indicators and policy evaluation metrics need to reflect energy consumption as well as efficiency. We introduce the concept of"progressive efficiency," with the expected or required level of efficiency varying as a function of house size, appliance capacity, or more generally, the scale of energy services. We propose introducing progressive efficiency criteria first in consumer information programs (including appliance labeling categories) and then in voluntary rating and recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR. As acceptance grows, the concept could be extended to utility rebates, tax incentives, and ultimately to mandatory codes and standards. For these and other programs, incorporating criteria for consumption as well as efficiency offers a path for energy experts, policy-makers, and the public to begin building consensus on energy policies that recognize the limits of resources and global carrying-capacity. Ultimately, it is both necessary and, we believe, possible to manage energy consumption, not just efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift expectations away from perpetual growth and toward satisfaction with sufficiency.

  3. OPEC and lower oil prices: Impacts on production capacity, export refining, domestic demand and trade balances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Isaak, D.; Totto, L.; Wilson, T.

    1988-12-01

    The East-West Center has received a research grant from the US Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis to study the impact of lower oil prices on OPEC production capacity, on export refineries, and petroleum trade. The project was later extended to include balance-of-payments scenarios and impacts on OPEC domestic demand. As the study progressed, a number of preliminary presentations were made at the US Department of Energy in order to receive feedback from DOE officials and to refine the focus of our analysis. During one of the presentations on June 4, 1987, the then Director of Division of Oil and Gas, John Stanley-Miller, advised us to focus our work on the Persian Gulf countries, since these countries were of special interest to the United States Government. Since then, our team has visited Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia and obtained detailed information from other countries. The political turmoil in the Gulf, the Iran/Iraq war, and the active US military presence have all worked to delay the final submission of our report. Even in countries where the United States has close ties, access to information has been difficult. In most countries, even mundane information on petroleum issues are treated as national secrets. As a result of these difficulties, we requested a one-year no cost extension to the grant and submitted an Interim Report in May 1988. As part of our grant extension request, we proposed to undertake additional tasks which appear in this report. 20 figs., 21 tabs.

  4. Performance of the Lead-Alloy Cooled Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel Hejzlar; Cliff Davis

    2004-09-01

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners.

  5. Performance of the Lead-Alloy-Cooled Reactor Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejzlar, Pavel [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Davis, Cliff B. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

    2004-09-15

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners.

  6. Estimation of Groundwater Recharge at Pahute Mesa using the Chloride Mass-Balance Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Clay A; Hershey, Ronald L; Healey, John M; Lyles, Brad F

    2013-07-01

    Groundwater recharge on Pahute Mesa was estimated using the chloride mass-balance (CMB) method. This method relies on the conservative properties of chloride to trace its movement from the atmosphere as dry- and wet-deposition through the soil zone and ultimately to the saturated zone. Typically, the CMB method assumes no mixing of groundwater with different chloride concentrations; however, because groundwater is thought to flow into Pahute Mesa from valleys north of Pahute Mesa, groundwater flow rates (i.e., underflow) and chloride concentrations from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat were carefully considered. Precipitation was measured with bulk and tipping-bucket precipitation gauges installed for this study at six sites on Pahute Mesa. These data, along with historical precipitation amounts from gauges on Pahute Mesa and estimates from the PRISM model, were evaluated to estimate mean annual precipitation. Chloride deposition from the atmosphere was estimated by analyzing quarterly samples of wet- and dry-deposition for chloride in the bulk gauges and evaluating chloride wet-deposition amounts measured at other locations by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Mean chloride concentrations in groundwater were estimated using data from the UGTA Geochemistry Database, data from other reports, and data from samples collected from emplacement boreholes for this study. Calculations were conducted assuming both no underflow and underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. Model results estimate recharge to be 30 mm/yr with a standard deviation of 18 mm/yr on Pahute Mesa, for elevations >1800 m amsl. These estimates assume Pahute Mesa recharge mixes completely with underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. The model assumes that precipitation, chloride concentration in bulk deposition, underflow and its chloride concentration, have been constant over the length of time of recharge.

  7. Potential Reductions in Variability with Alternative Approaches to Balancing Area Cooperation with High Penetrations of Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Beuning, S.

    2010-08-01

    The work described in this report was performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (EERE DOE). This project is a joint project with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report evaluates the physical characteristics that improve the ability of the power system to absorb variable generation. It then uses evidence from electricity markets in the Eastern Interconnection of the United States to show how large, fast energy markets can help with integration. The concept of Virtual Balancing Area is introduced, a concept that covers a broad range of cooperative measures that can be undertaken by balancing areas to help manage variability.

  8. Generalized chloride mass balance: Forward and inverse solutions for one-dimensional tracer convection under transient flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginn, T.R.; Murphy, E.M.

    1996-12-01

    Forward and inverse solutions are provided for analysis of inert tracer profiles resulting from one-dimensional convective transport under fluxes which vary with time and space separately. The developments are displayed as an extension of conventional chloride mass balance (CMB) techniques to account for transient as well as space-dependent water fluxes. The conventional chloride mass balance has been used over two decades to estimate recharge over large time scales in arid environments. In this mass balance approach, the chloride concentration in the pore water, originating from atmospheric fallout, is inversely proportional to the flux of water through the sediments. The CMB method is especially applicable to arid and semi-arid regions where evapotranspirative enrichment of the pore water produces a distinct chloride profile in the unsaturated zone. The solutions presented allow incorporation of transient fluxes and boundary conditions in CMB analysis, and allow analysis of tracer profile data which is not constant with depth below extraction zone in terms of a rational water transport model. A closed-form inverse solution is derived which shows uniqueness of model parameter and boundary condition (including paleoprecipitation) estimation, for the specified flow model. Recent expressions of the conventional chloride mass balance technique are derived from the general model presented here; the conventional CMB is shown to be fully compatible with this transient flow model and it requires the steady-state assumption on chloride mass deposition only (and not on water fluxes or boundary conditions). The solutions and results are demonstrated on chloride profile data from west central New Mexico.

  9. Numerical power balance and free energy loss analysis for solar cells including optical, thermodynamic, and electrical aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greulich, Johannes Höffler, Hannes; Würfel, Uli; Rein, Stefan

    2013-11-28

    A method for analyzing the power losses of solar cells is presented, supplying a complete balance of the incident power, the optical, thermodynamic, and electrical power losses and the electrical output power. The involved quantities have the dimension of a power density (units: W/m{sup 2}), which permits their direct comparison. In order to avoid the over-representation of losses arising from the ultraviolet part of the solar spectrum, a method for the analysis of the electrical free energy losses is extended to include optical losses. This extended analysis does not focus on the incident solar power of, e.g., 1000 W/m{sup 2} and does not explicitly include the thermalization losses and losses due to the generation of entropy. Instead, the usable power, i.e., the free energy or electro-chemical potential of the electron-hole pairs is set as reference value, thereby, overcoming the ambiguities of the power balance. Both methods, the power balance and the free energy loss analysis, are carried out exemplarily for a monocrystalline p-type silicon metal wrap through solar cell with passivated emitter and rear (MWT-PERC) based on optical and electrical measurements and numerical modeling. The methods give interesting insights in photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion, provide quantitative analyses of all loss mechanisms, and supply the basis for the systematic technological improvement of the device.

  10. Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorog, John Peter; Hemrick, James Gordon; Walker, Harold; Leary, William R; Ellis, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, the industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading some thermal efficiency for increased uptime and capacity seems reasonable. This paper considers a number of refractory linings in an effort to develop optimized operating strategies that balance these factors. In addition to considering a range of refractory materials, the paper examines other factors such as the chain area, discharge dams and other operating variables that impact the service life of the refractory lining. The paper provides recommendations that will help mill personnel develop a strategy to select a refractory lining that is optimized for their specific situation.

  11. Density functional with full exact exchange, balanced nonlocality of correlations, and constraint satisfaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Jianmin; Perdew, John P; Staroverov, Viktor N; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2008-01-01

    We construct a nonlocal density functional approximation with full exact exchange, while preserving the constraint-satisfaction approach and justified error cancellations of simpler semilocal functionals. This is achieved by interpolating between different approximations suitable for two extreme regions of the electron density. In a 'normal' region, the exact exchange-correlation hole density around an electron is semilocal because its spatial range is reduced by correlation and because it integrates over a narrow range to -1. These regions are well described by popular semilocal approximations (many of which have been constructed nonempirically), because of proper accuracy for a slowly-varying density or because of error cancellation between exchange and correlation. 'Abnormal' regions, where non locality is unveiled, include those in which exchange can dominate correlation (one-electron, nonuniform high-density, and rapidly-varying limits), and those open subsystems of fluctuating electron number over which the exact exchange-correlation hole integrates to a value greater than -1. Regions between these extremes are described by a hybrid functional mixing exact and semi local exchange energy densities locally (i.e., with a mixing fraction that is a function of position r and a functional of the density). Because our mixing fraction tends to 1 in the high-density limit, we employ full exact exchange according to the rigorous definition of the exchange component of any exchange-correlation energy functional. Use of full exact exchange permits the satisfaction of many exact constraints, but the nonlocality of exchange also requires balanced nonlocality of correlation. We find that this nonlocality can demand at least five empirical parameters (corresponding roughly to the four kinds of abnormal regions). Our local hybrid functional is perhaps the first accurate size-consistent density functional with full exact exchange. It satisfies other known exact constraints, including exactness for all one-electron densities, and provides an excellent, fit 1.0 the 223 molecular enthalpies of formation of the G3/99 set and the 42 reaction barrier heights of the BH42/03 set, improving both (but especially the latter) over most semilocal functionals and global hybrids. Exact constraints, physical insights, and paradigm examples hopefully suppress 'overfitting'.

  12. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Wu, Ming-Long; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Shih, Yi-Yu; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 3 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 3.44 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 0.43 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 1.7)% to (20.9 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  13. Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor

    2002-08-31

    Significant uncertainty is associated with efforts to quantity recharge in arid regions such as southern Nevada. However, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are necessary to understanding the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and directions. Currently, the most widely accepted method for estimating recharge in southern Nevada is the Maxey and Eakin method. This method has been applied to most basins within Nevada and has been independently verified as a reconnaissance-level estimate of recharge through several studies. Recharge estimates derived from the Maxey and Eakin and other recharge methodologies ultimately based upon measures or estimates of groundwater discharge (outflow methods) should be augmented by a tracer-based aquifer-response method. The objective of this study was to improve an existing aquifer-response method that was based on the chloride mass-balance approach. Improvements were designed to incorporate spatial variability within recharge areas (rather than recharge as a lumped parameter), develop a more defendable lower limit of recharge, and differentiate local recharge from recharge emanating as interbasin flux. Seventeen springs, located in the Sheep Range, Spring Mountains, and on the Nevada Test Site were sampled during the course of this study and their discharge was measured. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the springs were determined. Discharge and chloride concentrations from these springs were compared to estimates provided by previously published reports. A literature search yielded previously published estimates of chloride flux to the land surface. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios and discharge rates of the three largest springs in the Amargosa Springs discharge area were compiled from various sources. This information was utilized to determine an effective chloride concentration for recharging precipitation and its associated uncertainty via Monte Carlo simulations. Previously developed isohyetal maps were utilized to determine the mean and standard deviation of precipitation within the area. A digital elevation model was obtained to provide elevation information. A geologic model was obtained to provide the spatial distribution of alluvial formations. Both were used to define the lower limit of recharge. In addition, 40 boreholes located in alluvial sediments were drilled and sampled in an attempt to support the argument that the areal distribution of alluvial sediments can be used to define a zone of negligible recharge. The data were compiled in a geographic information system and used in a Monte Carlo analysis to determine recharge occurring within the study area. Results of the analysis yielded estimates of the mean and standard deviation of recharge occurring within the study area (28.168 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 7.008 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}, and 26.838 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 6.928 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}) for two sets of simulations using alternate definitions of the lower limit of recharge. A sensitivity analysis determined the recharge estimates were most sensitive to uncertainty associated with the chloride concentration of the spring discharge. The second most sensitive parameter was the uncertainty associated with the mean precipitation within the recharge areas. Comparison of the analysis to previously published estimates of recharge revealed mixed results with the recharge estimates derived during the course of this project generally greater relative to previously published estimates.

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNLs R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are located downstream of control technologies and just before discharge to the atmosphere. The need for monitoring airborne emissions of hazardous chemicals is established in the Hanford Site Air Operating Permit and in notices of construction. Based on the current potential-to-emit, the Hanford Site Air Operating Permit does not contain general monitoring requirements for BOP facilities. However, the permit identifies monitoring requirements for specific projects and buildings. Needs for future monitoring will be established by future permits issued pursuant to the applicable state and federal regulations. A number of liquid-effluent discharge systems serve the BOP facilities: sanitary sewer, process sewer, retention process sewer, and aquaculture system. Only the latter system discharges to the environment; the rest either discharge to treatment plants or to long-term storage. Routine compliance sampling of liquid effluents is only required at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory. Liquid effluents from other BOP facilities may be sampled or monitored to characterize facility effluents or to investigate discharges of concern. Effluent sampling and monitoring for the BOP facilities depends on the inventories, activities, and environmental permits in place for each facility. A description of routine compliance monitoring for BOP facilities is described in the BOP FEMP.

  15. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article, which is based on a longer report from Berkeley Lab, examines how twelve western utilities - Avista, Idaho Power, NorthWestern Energy (NorthWestern or NWE), Portland General Electric (PGE), Puget Sound Energy (PSE), PacifiCorp, Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), Nevada Power, Sierra Pacific, Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) - treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. In reviewing these plans, our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. This article begins with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities in our sample, followed by an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  16. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Analytical Laboratory (LAB), Balance of Facilities (BOF) and Low-Activity Waste Vitrification Facilities (LAW)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2 Technology Readiness Assessment for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Analytical Laboratory, Balance of Facilities and LAW Waste Vitrification Facilities L. Holton D. Alexander C. Babel H. Sutter J. Young March 2007 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Richland, Washington, 99352 07-DESIGN-042 Technology Readiness Assessment for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Analytical Laboratory, Balance of Facilities and LAW Waste

  17. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings Location: Chicago, IL Partners: Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit www.gastechnology.org Building Component: Steam heating distribution system and controls Application: Retrofit; Multifamily Year Tested: 2011-2012 Applicable Climate Zone(s): Cold humid continental PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of

  18. Audit Report - Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program's Fiscal Year 2010 Balance Sheet Audit, OAS-FS-13-09

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Audits and Inspections Audit Report Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program's Fiscal Year 2010 Balance Sheet Audit OAS-FS-13-09 January 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF SCIENCE FROM: Daniel M. Weeber Assistant Inspector General for Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION Production for Research and Applications Program's Fiscal Year 2010 Balance Sheet Audit The attached report presents the results of the independent

  19. Management Letter on the Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program's Fiscal Year 2009 Balance Sheet Audit, OAS-FS-12-09

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    09 Balance Sheet Audit OAS-FS-12-09 June 2012 January 30, 2012 Mr. Gregory Friedman, Inspector General Dr. Jehanne Gillo, Director, Facilities and Project Management Division, Office of Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Dear Mr. Friedman and Dr. Gillo: We have audited the balance sheet of the United States Department of Energy's (Department or DOE) Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program (the Program) (a component of the Department)

  20. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

  1. Approach to IAEA material-balance verification with intermittent inspection at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, D.M.; Sanborn, J.B.

    1984-05-18

    This paper describes a potential approach by which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) might verify the nuclear-material balance at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) for the circumstance in which the IAEA inspections occur on an intermittent basis. The verification approach is a variation of the standard IAEA attributes/variables measurement-verification method. This alternative approach is useful and applicable at the Portsmouth GCEP, which will ship all its product and tails UF/sub 6/ to United States facilities not eligible for IAEA safeguards. The paper reviews some of the relevant results of the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), describes the standard IAEA material-balance-verification approach for bulk-handling facilities, and provides the procedures to be followed in handling and processing UF/sub 6/ cylinders at the Portsmouth GCEP. The paper then discusses the assumptions made in the approach, and derives a formula for the probability with which the IAEA could detect the diversion of a significant quantity of uranium (75 kg of U-235 in depleted, normal, and low-enriched uranium) if this method were applied. The paper also provides numerical examples of IAEA detection probability should the operator divert uranium from the feed, product, or tails streams for the Portsmouth GCEP with a capacity of 1100 tonnes of separative work per year.

  2. A new load-balancing strategy for the solution of dynamical large...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The strategy incurs minimal overhead and is scalable. Authors: Crivelli, Silvia ; Head-Gordon, Teresa Publication Date: 2004-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 836544 Report Number(s): ...

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Electrical Power Grid Delivery: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diana K. Grauer

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  4. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  5. Approach to IAEA verification of the nuclear-material balance at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, D.M.; Sanborn, J.B.; Younkin, J.M.; DeVito, V.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a potential approach by which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) might verify the nuclear-material balance at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP), should that plant be placed under IAEA safeguards. The strategy makes use of the attributes and variables measurement verification approach, whereby the IAEA would perform independent measurements on a randomly selected subset of the items comprising the U-235 flows and inventories at the plant. In addition, the MUF-D statistic is used as the test statistics for the detection of diversion. The paper includes descriptions of the potential verification activities, as well as calculations of (a) attributes and variables sample sizes for the various strata, (b) standard deviations of the relevant test statistics, and (c) the sensitivity for detection of diversion which the IAEA might achieve by this verification strategy at GCEP.

  6. Local hybrid functionals with orbital-free mixing functions and balanced elimination of self-interaction error

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, Piotr de E-mail: clemence.corminboeuf@epfl.ch; Corminboeuf, Clmence E-mail: clemence.corminboeuf@epfl.ch

    2015-02-21

    The recently introduced density overlap regions indicator (DORI) [P. de Silva and C. Corminboeuf, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10(9), 37453756 (2014)] is a density-dependent scalar field revealing regions of high density overlap between shells, atoms, and molecules. In this work, we exploit its properties to construct local hybrid exchange-correlation functionals aiming at balanced reduction of the self-interaction error. We show that DORI can successfully replace the ratio of the von Weizscker and exact positive-definite kinetic energy densities, which is commonly used in mixing functions of local hybrids. Additionally, we introduce several semi-empirical parameters to control the local and global admixture of exact exchange. The most promising of our local hybrids clearly outperforms the underlying semi-local functionals as well as their global hybrids.

  7. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results November 2012 Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No.

  8. Examination of the Regional Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity in the United States through 2015: Projecting from 2009 through 2015 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Hurlbut, D.; Donohoo, P.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-06-01

    This report examines the balance between the demand and supply of new renewable electricity in the United States on a regional basis through 2015. It expands on a 2007 NREL study that assessed the supply and demand balance on a national basis. As with the earlier study, this analysis relies on estimates of renewable energy supplies compared to demand for renewable energy generation needed to meet existing state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies in 28 states, as well as demand by consumers who voluntarily purchase renewable energy. However, it does not address demand by utilities that may procure cost-effective renewables through an integrated resource planning process or otherwise.

  9. Technical and economic assessments of electrochemical energy storage systems: Topical report on the potential for savings in load-leveling battery and balance of plant costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Binas, G.; Del Monaco, J.L.; Pandya, D.A.; Sharp, T.E.; Consiglio, J.A.

    1985-08-31

    The battery technologies considered in this study are zinc-bromide, lead-acid, zinc-chloride and sodium sulfur. Results of the study are presented in self contained sections in the following order: Balance of Plant, Zinc-Bromide, Lead-Acid, Zinc-chloride, and Sodium-Sulfur. The balance of plant cost estimates are examined first since the results of this section are utilized in the following battery sections to generate cost reductions in the battery plant costs for each of the battery technologies.

  10. Effective deployment of photovoltaics in the Mediterranean countries: Balancing policy risk and return

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luethi, S.

    2010-06-15

    Although the Mediterranean region is blessed with abundant solar resources, photovoltaic energy currently represents a very small share of power production. In Germany however, a much less sunny country, the photovoltaic (PV) industry is booming. This country has become a front runner in the adoption of PV because of effective policy incentives. Based on a cross-case study analysis of the German, Spanish and Greek PV markets, this paper investigates factors determining the effectiveness of PV policies. Our analysis shows that, above a certain level of return, risk-related factors (such as policy instability and administrative hurdles) play a more important role in influencing investment decisions than return-related factors (such as the level of a feed-in tariff). (author)

  11. Beyond Human Capital Development: Balanced Safeguards Workforce Metrics and the Next Generation Safeguards Workforce

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burbank, Roberta L.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Shergur, Jason M.; Scholz, Melissa A.; Undem, Halvor A.

    2014-03-28

    Since its establishment in 2008, the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has achieved a number of objectives under its five pillars: concepts and approaches, policy development and outreach, international nuclear safeguards engagement, technology development, and human capital development (HCD). As a result of these efforts, safeguards has become much more visible as a critical U.S. national security interest across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, limited budgets have since created challenges in a number of areas. Arguably, one of the more serious challenges involves NGSIs ability to integrate entry-level staff into safeguards projects. Laissez fair management of this issue across the complex can lead to wasteful project implementation and endanger NGSIs long-term sustainability. The authors provide a quantitative analysis of this problem, focusing on the demographics of the current safeguards workforce and compounding pressures to operate cost-effectively, transfer knowledge to the next generation of safeguards professionals, and sustain NGSI safeguards investments.

  12. The influence of air temperature inversions on snowmelt and glacier mass-balance simulations, Ammassalik island, SE Greenland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    In many applications, a realistic description of air temperature inversions is essential for accurate snow and glacier ice melt, and glacier mass-balance simulations. A physically based snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) was used to simulate eight years (1998/99 to 2005/06) of snow accumulation and snow and glacier ice ablation from numerous small coastal marginal glaciers on the SW-part of Ammassalik Island in SE Greenland. These glaciers are regularly influenced by inversions and sea breezes associated with the adjacent relatively low temperature and frequently ice-choked fjords and ocean. To account for the influence of these inversions on the spatiotemporal variation of air temperature and snow and glacier melt rates, temperature inversion routines were added to MircoMet, the meteorological distribution sub-model used in SnowModel. The inversions were observed and modeled to occur during 84% of the simulation period. Modeled inversions were defined not to occur during days with strong winds and high precipitation rates due to the potential of inversion break-up. Field observations showed inversions to extend from sea level to approximately 300 m a.s.l., and this inversion level was prescribed in the model simulations. Simulations with and without the inversion routines were compared. The inversion model produced air temperature distributions with warmer lower elevation areas and cooler higher elevation areas than without inversion routines due to the use of cold sea-breeze base temperature data from underneath the inversion. This yielded an up to 2 weeks earlier snowmelt in the lower areas and up to 1 to 3 weeks later snowmelt in the higher elevation areas of the simulation domain. Averaged mean annual modeled surface mass-balance for all glaciers (mainly located above the inversion layer) was -720 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} for inversion simulations, and -880 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} without the inversion routines, a difference of 160 mm w.eq. y{sup -1}. The annual glacier loss for the two simulations was 50.7 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} y{sup -1} and 64.4 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} y{sup -1} for all glaciers - a difference of {approx}21%. The average equilibrium line altitude (ELA) for all glaciers in the simulation domain was located at 875 m a.s.l. and at 900 m a.s.l. for simulations with or without inversion routines, respectively.

  13. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Feldman, D.; Ong, S.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents results from the first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs--often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs--for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems.

  14. A semi-analytic power balance model for low (L) to high (H) mode transition power threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, R., E-mail: rsingh129@yahoo.co.in [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar 2382 428 (India); Jhang, Hogun [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar 2382 428 (India); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States); Nordman, H. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gteborg (Sweden); Bourdelle, C. [Euratom-CEA Association, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon Sur Verdon, A. 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2014-06-15

    We present a semi-analytic model for low (L) to high (H) mode transition power threshold (P{sub th}). Two main assumptions are made in our study. First, high poloidal mode number drift resistive ballooning modes (high-m DRBM) are assumed to be the dominant turbulence driver in a narrow edge region near to last closed flux surface. Second, the pre-transition edge profile and turbulent diffusivity at the narrow edge region pertain to turbulent equipartition. An edge power balance relation is derived by calculating the dissipated power flux through both turbulent conduction and convection, and radiation in the edge region. P{sub th} is obtained by imposing the turbulence quench rule due to sheared E??B rotation. Evaluation of P{sub th} shows a good agreement with experimental results in existing machines. Increase of P{sub th} at low density (i.e., the existence of roll-over density in P{sub th} vs. density) is shown to originate from the longer scale length of the density profile than that of the temperature profile.

  15. Calculating Individual Resources Variability and Uncertainty Factors Based on Their Contributions to the Overall System Balancing Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Pai, M. A.; McManus, Bart

    2014-01-14

    The variability and uncertainty of wind power production requires increased flexibility in power systems, or more operational reserves to main a satisfactory level of reliability. The incremental increase in reserve requirement caused by wind power is often studied separately from the effects of loads. Accordingly, the cost in procuring reserves is allocated based on this simplification rather than a fair and transparent calculation of the different resources contribution to the reserve requirement. This work proposes a new allocation mechanism for intermittency and variability of resources regardless of their type. It is based on a new formula, called grid balancing metric (GBM). The proposed GBM has several distinct features: 1) it is directly linked to the control performance standard (CPS) scores and interconnection frequency performance, 2) it provides scientifically defined allocation factors for individual resources, 3) the sum of allocation factors within any group of resources is equal to the groups collective allocation factor (linearity), and 4) it distinguishes helpers and harmers. The paper illustrates and provides results of the new approach based on actual transmission system operator (TSO) data.

  16. Towards Balancing Power,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results drives computing - Nobody cares how fast an incorrect final result was * Resilience implications - 2-level checkpointrestart using burst buffer needed at many-PFs...

  17. Methane dissociative chemisorption and detailed balance on Pt(111): Dynamical constraints and the modest influence of tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald, S. B.; Navin, J. K.; Harrison, I.

    2013-12-07

    A dynamically biased (d-) precursor mediated microcanonical trapping (PMMT) model of the activated dissociative chemisorption of methane on Pt(111) is applied to a wide range of dissociative sticking experiments, and, by detailed balance, to the methane product state distributions from the thermal associative desorption of adsorbed hydrogen with coadsorbed methyl radicals. Tunneling pathways were incorporated into the d-PMMT model to better replicate the translational energy distribution of the desorbing methane product from the laser induced thermal reaction of coadsorbed hydrogen and methyl radicals occurring near T{sub s} = 395 K. Although tunneling is predicted to be inconsequential to the thermal dissociative chemisorption of CH{sub 4} on Pt(111) at the high temperatures of catalytic interest, once the temperature drops to 395 K the tunneling fraction of the reactive thermal flux reaches 15%, and as temperatures drop below 275 K the tunneling fraction exceeds 50%. The d-PMMT model parameters of (E{sub 0} = 58.9?kJ/mol,?s = 2,??{sub v} = 0.40) describe the apparent threshold energy for CH{sub 4}/Pt(111) dissociative chemisorption, the number of surface oscillators involved in the precursor complex, and the efficacy of molecular vibrational energy to promote reaction, relative to translational energy directed along the surface normal. Molecular translations parallel to the surface and rotations are treated as spectator degrees of freedom. Transition state vibrational frequencies are derived from generalized gradient approximation-density functional theory electronic structure calculations. The d-PMMT model replicates the diverse range of experimental data available with good fidelity, including some new effusive molecular beam and ambient gas dissociative sticking measurements. Nevertheless, there are some indications that closer agreement between theory and experiments could be achieved if a surface efficacy less than one was introduced into the modeling as an additional dynamical constraint.

  18. Band Structure of Strain-Balanced GaAsBi/GaAsN Super-lattices on GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, J.; Phillips, J. D.

    2011-05-31

    GaAs alloys with dilute content of Bi and N provide a large reduction in band-gap energy with increasing alloy composition. GaAsBi/GaAsN heterojunctions have a type-II band alignment, where superlattices based on these materials offer a wide range for designing effective band-gap energy by varying superlattice period and alloy composition. The miniband structure and effective band gap for strain-balanced GaAsBi/GaAsN superlattices with effective lattice match to GaAs are calculated for alloy compositions up to 5% Bi and N using the kp method. The effective band gap for these superlattices is found to vary between 0.89 and 1.32 eV for period thickness ranging from 10 to 100 . The joint density of states and optical absorption of a 40/40 GaAs0.96Bi0.04/GaAs0.98N0.02 superlattice are reported demonstrating a ground-state transition at 1.005 eV and first excited transition at 1.074 eV. The joint density of states is similar in magnitude to GaAs, while the optical absorption is approximately one order of magnitude lower due to the spatially indirect optical transition in the type-II structure. The GaAsBi/GaAsN system may provide a new material system with lattice match to GaAs in a spectral range of high importance for optoelectronic devices including solar cells, photodetectors, and light emitters.

  19. Building America Case Study: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Location: Chicago, IL area Partners: Elevate Energy elevateenergy.org/ Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit gastechnology.org/PARR Building Component: HVAC Application: Multifamily Year Tested: 2014 Applicable Climate Zones: 1, 2, 3 PERFORMANCE DATA Retrofit: Booster pump to increase flow in an underheated zone Cost of energy efficiency measure (including labor): $6,330 Temperature spread decrease:

  20. A Water Balance Study of Four Landfill Cover Designs at Material Disposal Area B in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David D. Breshears; Fairley J. Barnes; John W. Nyhan; Johnny A. Salazar

    1998-09-01

    The goal of disposing of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose an unacceptable hazard. In order to achieve this, the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Program is comparing the performance of several different surface covers at Material Disposal Area (MDA) B in Los Alamos. Two conventional landfill were compared with an improved cover designed to minimize plant and animal intrusion and to minimize water infiltration into the underlying wastes. The conventional covers varied in depth and both conventional and improved designs had different combinations of vegetation (grass verses shrub) and gravel mulch (no mulch verses mulch). These treatments were applied to each of 12 plots and water balance parameters were measured from March1987 through June 1995. Adding a gravel mulch significantly influenced the plant covered field plots receiving no gravel mulch averaged 21.2% shrub cover, while plots with gravel had a 20% larger percent cover of shrubs. However, the influence of gravel mulch on the grass cover was even larger than the influence on shrub cover, average grass cover on the plots with no gravel was 16.3%, compared with a 42% increase in grass cover due to gravel mulch. These cover relationships are important to reduce runoff on the landfill cover, as shown by a regression model that predicts that as ground cover is increased from 30 to 90%,annual runoff is reduced from 8.8 to 0.98 cm-a nine-fold increase. We also found that decreasing the slope of the landfill cover from 6 to 2% reduced runoff from the landfill cover by 2.7-fold. To minimize the risk of hazardous waste from landfills to humans, runoff and seepage need to be minimized and evapotranspiration maximized on the landfill cover. This has to be accomplished for dry and wet years at MDA B. Seepage consisted of 1.9% and 6.2% of the precipitation in the average and once in ten year events, respectively, whereas corresponding values for runoff were 13% and 16%; these changes were accompanied by corresponding decreases in evapotranspiration, which accounted for 86% and only 78% of the precipitation occurring on the average and once in ten year even~ respectively.

  1. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  2. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Annual report, March 1996--March 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Groshong, R.H.

    1997-08-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and produces oil from chalk of the Upper Cretaceous Selma Group and from sandstone of the Eutaw Formation along the southern margin of the Gilbertown fault system. Most of the field has been in primary recovery since establishment, but production has declined to marginally economic levels. This investigation applies advanced geologic concepts designed to aid implementation of improved recovery programs. The Gilbertown fault system is detached at the base of Jurassic salt. The fault system began forming as a half graben and evolved in to a full graben by the Late Cretaceous. Conventional trapping mechanisms are effective in Eutaw sandstone, whereas oil in Selma chalk is trapped in faults and fault-related fractures. Burial modeling establishes that the subsidence history of the Gilbertown area is typical of extensional basins and includes a major component of sediment loading and compaction. Surface mapping and fracture analysis indicate that faults offset strata as young as Miocene and that joints may be related to regional uplift postdating fault movement. Preliminary balanced structural models of the Gilbertown fault system indicate that synsedimentary growth factors need to be incorporated into the basic equations of area balance to model strain and predict fractures in Selma and Eutaw reservoirs.

  3. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems, Using a Bottom-Up Approach and Installer Survey - Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, B.; Ardani, K.; Feldman, D.; Citron, R.; Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents results from the second U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs -- for U.S. residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. In service to DOE's SunShot Initiative, annual expenditure and labor-hour-productivity data are analyzed to benchmark 2012 soft costs related to (1) customer acquisition and system design (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII). We also include an in-depth analysis of costs related to financing, overhead, and profit. Soft costs are both a major challenge and a major opportunity for reducing PV system prices and stimulating SunShot-level PV deployment in the United States. The data and analysis in this series of benchmarking reports are a step toward the more detailed understanding of PV soft costs required to track and accelerate these price reductions.

  4. Studies of dijet transverse momentum balance and pseudorapidity distributions in pPb collisions at $$\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02$$ $$\\,\\text {TeV}$$

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2014-07-23

    Dijet production has been measured in pPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. A data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 inverse-nanobarns was collected using the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The dijet transverse momentum balance, azimuthal angle correlations, and pseudorapidity distributions are studied as a function of the transverse energy in the forward calorimeters (more » $$E_T^{4\\lt |\\eta| \\lt 5.2}$$). For pPb collisions, the dijet transverse momentum ratio and the width of the distribution of dijet azimuthal angle difference are comparable to the same quantities obtained from a simulated pp reference and insensitive to $$E_T^{4\\lt |\\eta| \\lt 5.2}$$. In contrast, the mean value of the dijet pseudorapidity is found to change monotonically with increasing $$E_T^{4\\lt |\\eta| \\lt 5.2}$$, indicating a correlation between the energy emitted at large pseudorapidity and the longitudinal motion of the dijet frame. As a result, the pseudorapidity distribution of the dijet system is compared with next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD predictions obtained from both nucleon and nuclear parton distribution functions, and the data more closely match the latter.« less

  5. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  6. {gamma}-ray strength function for {sup 116,117}Sn with the pygmy dipole resonance balanced in the photoneutron and neutron capture channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Utsunomiya, H.; Kamata, M.; Kondo, T.; Itoh, O.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Goriely, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2009-11-15

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for {sup 117}Sn and {sup 116}Sn near the neutron thresholds at 6.94 and 9.56 MeV, respectively, with quasi-monochromatic laser-Compton scattering {gamma} rays. The {sup 117}Sn cross section, which is strongly enhanced near the low threshold, provides evidence for the presence of extra {gamma} strength in the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance. A coherent analysis of the photoneutron data for {sup 117}Sn together with the neutron capture on {sup 116}Sn shows that the {gamma}-ray strength function is balanced in the photoneutron and neutron capture channels in terms of the microscopic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov plus quasiparticle random-phase approximation model of E1 strength combined with a pygmy E1 resonance at 8.5 MeV. The high-energy part of the pygmy resonance is also suggested in the photoneutron cross section for {sup 116}Sn.

  7. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DC (United States)","42 ENGINEERING NOT INCLUDED IN OTHER CATEGORIES; MACHINERY; MASS BALANCE; MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS; MAINTENANCE; REPAIR",,"Field balancing can achieve...

  8. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the real world Bracher B ENGINEERING NOT INCLUDED IN OTHER CATEGORIES MACHINERY MASS BALANCE MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS MAINTENANCE REPAIR Field balancing can achieve significant...

  9. Operational Controls for Balancing Reserves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expand Finance & Rates Involvement & Outreach Expand Involvement & Outreach Doing Business Expand Doing Business Skip navigation links Initiatives Columbia River Treaty Non...

  10. Water-Balance Cover Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 Conference, February 27-March 3, 2011, Phoenix, AZ Design and Installation of a Disposal Cell Cover Field Test C.H. Benson University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin W.J. Waugh S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado W.H. Albright Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada G.M. Smith Geo-Smith Engineering, Grand Junction, Colorado R.P. Bush U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, Colorado ABSTRACT The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) initiated a

  11. Water-Balance Cover Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0 Conference, March 7-10, 2010, Phoenix, AZ Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Soil and Groundwater at the Monument Valley, Arizona, DOE Legacy Waste Site-10281 W.J. Waugh, D.E. Miller, S.A. Morris, and L.R. Sheader S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO E.P. Glenn, D. Moore, and K.C. Carroll University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ L. Benally and M. Roanhorse Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ R.P. Bush U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, CO ABSTRACT The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the

  12. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-29

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national and international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders’ interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear understanding of various requirements of public, regulators, investors, financial institutions, international community, operator and other important stakeholders. Ambiguities and uncertainties, especially with regards to certain conditions and requirements should be minimised by emulating good practices of experienced nuclear regulators. The imposition of various financial requirements such as funds for decommissioning, radioactive waste management, financial security, nuclear liabilities and licensing fees are necessary, but at the same time the quantum needs to be clearly defined. Concerns on absolute liability of the operators need to be addressed through a creation of necessary and proper nuclear insurance legislations to mitigate operator S nuclear liability obligations and other financial risks. Another major risk to investors is the possibility of public resistance which will not only can hinder the construction but can also stop operation of the nuclear power plant which will contribute to huge losses to investors and countries. This may require a provision in the legislation that provide proper compensation for these situations and at the same time to allow operators to engage in nuclear promotional activities, such as community benefit and public consultation as voluntary initiatives. Through proper planning, research, consultation and execution, the proposed nuclear law shall be able to promote good regulatory practices for public and investors’ confidence and benefit. Early involvement of various stakeholders is essential as a platform for regular communications between regulators and interested parties. Stakeholders’ participation in the NPP programme and law developments will also promote transparency of the projects while upholding the independency of the regulators.

  13. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. Final Project Report. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-01

    This report on the California Energy Balance version 2 (CALEB v2) database documents the latest update and improvements to CALEB version 1 (CALEB v1) and provides a complete picture of how energy is supplied and consumed in the State of California. The CALEB research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) performed the research and analysis described in this report. CALEB manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for about 40 different energy commodities, from 1990 to 2008. This report describes in detail California's energy use from supply through end-use consumption as well as the data sources used. The report also analyzes trends in energy demand for the "Manufacturing" and "Building" sectors. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption combined with measures of the activity driving that consumption quantifies the effects of factors that shape energy consumption trends. The study finds that a decrease in energy intensity has had a very significant impact on reducing energy demand over the past 20 years. The largest impact can be observed in the industry sector where energy demand would have had increased by 358 trillion British thermal units (TBtu) if subsectoral energy intensities had remained at 1997 levels. Instead, energy demand actually decreased by 70 TBtu. In the "Building" sector, combined results from the "Service" and "Residential" subsectors suggest that energy demand would have increased by 264 TBtu (121 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 143 TBtu in the "Residential" sector) during the same period, 1997 to 2008. However, energy demand increased at a lesser rate, by only 162 TBtu (92 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 70 TBtu in the "Residential" sector). These energy intensity reductions can be indicative of energyefficiency improvements during the past 10 years. The research presented in this report provides a basis for developing an energy-efficiency performance index to measure progress over time in the State of California.

  14. InGaAs/GaAsP strain balanced multi-quantum wires grown on misoriented GaAs substrates for high efficiency solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso-lvarez, D.; Thomas, T.; Fhrer, M.; Hylton, N. P.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J.; Lackner, D.; Philipps, S. P.; Bett, A. W.; Sodabanlu, H.; Fujii, H.; Watanabe, K.; Sugiyama, M.; Nasi, L.; Campanini, M.

    2014-08-25

    Quantum wires (QWRs) form naturally when growing strain balanced InGaAs/GaAsP multi-quantum wells (MQW) on GaAs [100] 6 misoriented substrates under the usual growth conditions. The presence of wires instead of wells could have several unexpected consequences for the performance of the MQW solar cells, both positive and negative, that need to be assessed to achieve high conversion efficiencies. In this letter, we study QWR properties from the point of view of their performance as solar cells by means of transmission electron microscopy, time resolved photoluminescence and external quantum efficiency (EQE) using polarised light. We find that these QWRs have longer lifetimes than nominally identical QWs grown on exact [100] GaAs substrates, of up to 1??s, at any level of illumination. We attribute this effect to an asymmetric carrier escape from the nanostructures leading to a strong 1D-photo-charging, keeping electrons confined along the wire and holes in the barriers. In principle, these extended lifetimes could be exploited to enhance carrier collection and reduce dark current losses. Light absorption by these QWRs is 1.6 times weaker than QWs, as revealed by EQE measurements, which emphasises the need for more layers of nanostructures or the use light trapping techniques. Contrary to what we expected, QWR show very low absorption anisotropy, only 3.5%, which was the main drawback a priori of this nanostructure. We attribute this to a reduced lateral confinement inside the wires. These results encourage further study and optimization of QWRs for high efficiency solar cells.

  15. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 110{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 110{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage and energy efficiency viewpoint. Our numerical approach and energy analysis will next be applied in designing and evaluating the performance of a planned full-scale pilot test of the proposed underground CAES concept.

  16. The influence of warm-season precipitation on the diel cycle of the surface energy balance and carbon dioxide at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burns, S. P.; Blanken, P. D.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Hu, J.; Monson, R. K.

    2015-12-15

    Precipitation changes the physical and biological characteristics of an ecosystem. Using a precipitation-based conditional sampling technique and a 14 year data set from a 25 m micrometeorological tower in a high-elevation subalpine forest, we examined how warm-season precipitation affected the above-canopy diel cycle of wind and turbulence, net radiation Rnet, ecosystem eddy covariance fluxes (sensible heat H, latent heat LE, and CO2 net ecosystem exchange NEE) and vertical profiles of scalars (air temperature Ta, specific humidity q, and CO2 dry mole fraction χc). This analysis allowed us to examine how precipitation modified these variables from hourly (i.e., the diel cycle)more » to multi-day time-scales (i.e., typical of a weather-system frontal passage). During mid-day we found the following: (i) even though precipitation caused mean changes on the order of 50–70 % to Rnet, H, and LE, the surface energy balance (SEB) was relatively insensitive to precipitation with mid-day closure values ranging between 90 and 110 %, and (ii) compared to a typical dry day, a day following a rainy day was characterized by increased ecosystem uptake of CO2 (NEE increased by ≈ 10 %), enhanced evaporative cooling (mid-day LE increased by ≈ 30 W m−2), and a smaller amount of sensible heat transfer (mid-day H decreased by ≈ 70 W m−2). Based on the mean diel cycle, the evaporative contribution to total evapotranspiration was, on average, around 6 % in dry conditions and between 15 and 25 % in partially wet conditions. Furthermore, increased LE lasted at least 18 h following a rain event. At night, even though precipitation (and accompanying clouds) reduced the magnitude of Rnet, LE increased from ≈ 10 to over 20 W m−2 due to increased evaporation. Any effect of precipitation on the nocturnal SEB closure and NEE was overshadowed by atmospheric phenomena such as horizontal advection and decoupling that create measurement difficulties. Above-canopy mean χc during wet conditions was found to be about 2–3 μmol mol−1 larger than χc on dry days. This difference was fairly constant over the full diel cycle suggesting that it was due to synoptic weather patterns (different air masses and/or effects of barometric pressure). Finally, the effect of clouds on the timing and magnitude of daytime ecosystem fluxes is described.« less

  17. The effect of warm-season precipitation on the diel cycle of the surface energy balance and carbon dioxide at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burns, S. P.; Blanken, P. D.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Monson, R. K.

    2015-06-16

    Precipitation changes the physical and biological characteristics of an ecosystem. Using a precipitation-based conditional sampling technique and a 14 year dataset from a 25 m micrometeorological tower in a high-elevation subalpine forest, we examined how warm-season precipitation affected the above-canopy diel cycle of wind and turbulence, net radiation Rnet, ecosystem eddy covariance fluxes (sensible heat H, latent heat LE, and CO2 net ecosystem exchange NEE) and vertical profiles of scalars (air temperature Ta, specific humidity q, and CO2 dry mole fraction ?c). This analysis allowed us to examine how precipitation modified these variables from hourly (i.e., the diel cycle) tomoremulti-day time-scales (i.e., typical of a weather-system frontal passage). During mid-day we found: (i) even though precipitation caused mean changes on the order of 5070% to Rnet, H, and LE, the surface energy balance (SEB) was relatively insensitive to precipitation with mid-day closure values ranging between 7080%, and (ii) compared to a typical dry day, a day following a rainy day was characterized by increased ecosystem uptake of CO2 (NEE increased by ≈ 10%), enhanced evaporative cooling (mid-day LE increased by ≈ 30 W m-2), and a smaller amount of sensible heat transfer (mid-day H decreased by ≈ 70 W m-2). Based on the mean diel cycle, the evaporative contribution to total evapotranspiration was, on average, around 6% in dry conditions and 20% in wet conditions. Furthermore, increased LE lasted at least 18 h following a rain event. At night, precipitation (and accompanying clouds) reduced Rnet and increased LE. Any effect of precipitation on the nocturnal SEB closure and NEE was overshadowed by atmospheric phenomena such as horizontal advection and decoupling that create measurement difficulties. Above-canopy mean ?c during wet conditions was found to be about 23 ?mol mol-1 larger than ?c on dry days. This difference was fairly constant over the full diel cycle suggesting that it was due to synoptic weather patterns (different air masses and/or effects of barometric pressure). In the evening hours during wet conditions, weakly stable conditions resulted in smaller vertical ?c differences compared to those in dry conditions. Finally, the effect of clouds on the timing and magnitude of daytime ecosystem fluxes is described.less

  18. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama -- Year 2. Annual report, March 1997--March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.

    1998-09-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and has produced oil from fractured chalk of the Cretaceous Selma Group and glauconitic sandstone of the Eutaw Formation. Nearly all of Gilbertown Field is still in primary recovery, although waterflooding has been attempted locally. The objective of this project is to analyze the geologic structure and burial history of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas in order to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. Indeed, the decline of oil production to marginally economic levels in recent years has made this type of analysis timely and practical. Key technical advancements being sought include understanding the relationship of requisite strain to production in Gilbertown reservoirs, incorporation of synsedimentary growth factors into models of area balance, quantification of the relationship between requisite strain and bed curvature, determination of the timing of hydrocarbon generation, and identification of the avenues and mechanisms of fluid transport.

  19. Impact of substrate temperature on the structural and optical properties of strain-balanced InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shi; Li, Hua; Cellek, Oray O.; Ding, Ding; Lin, Zhi-Yuan; Steenbergen, Elizabeth H.; He, Zhao-Yu; Johnson, Shane R.; Zhang, Yong-Hang; Center for Photonics Innovation, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 ; Shen, Xiao-Meng; School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 ; Fan, Jin; Smith, David J.; Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 ; Lu, Jing

    2013-02-18

    Molecular beam epitaxial growth of strain-balanced InAs/InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} type-II superlattices on GaSb substrates has been investigated for substrate temperatures from 400 Degree-Sign C to 450 Degree-Sign C. The Sb composition is found to vary linearly with substrate temperature at constant V/III ratios. For samples grown at the optimized substrate temperature (410 Degree-Sign C), superlattice zero-order peak full-width at half-maximums are routinely less than 25 arc sec using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images show the absence of any visible defects. Strong photoluminescence covers a wavelength range from 5.5 to 13 {mu}m at 12 K. Photoluminescence linewidth simulations show satisfactory agreement with experiments.

  20. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California. Predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Mendell, Mark J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Dutton, Spencer M.; Berkeley, Pam M.; Spears, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Through mass-balance modeling of various ventilation scenarios that might satisfy the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Procedure, we estimate indoor concentrations of contaminants of concern (COCs) in California big box stores, compare estimates to available thresholds, and for selected scenarios estimate differences in energy consumption. Findings are intended to inform decisions on adding performance-based approaches to ventilation rate (VR) standards for commercial buildings. Using multi-zone mass-balance models and available contaminant source rates, we estimated concentrations of 34 COCs for multiple ventilation scenarios: VRmin (0.04 cfm/ft2 ), VRmax (0.24 cfm/ft2 ), and VRmid (0.14 cfm/ft2 ). We compared COC concentrations with available health, olfactory, and irritant thresholds. We estimated building energy consumption at different VRs using a previously developed EnergyPlus model. VRmax did control all contaminants adequately, but VRmin did not, and VRmid did so only marginally. Air cleaning and local ventilation near strong sources both showed promise. Higher VRs increased indoor concentrations of outdoor air pollutants. Lowering VRs in big box stores in California from VRmax to VRmid would reduce total energy use by an estimated 6.6% and energy costs by 2.5%. Reducing the required VRs in Californias big box stores could reduce energy use and costs, but poses challenges for health and comfort of occupants. Source removal, air cleaning, and local ventilation may be needed at reduced VRs, and even at current recommended VRs. Also, alternative ventilation strategies taking climate and season into account in ventilation schedules may provide greater energy cost savings than constant ventilation rates, while improving IAQ.

  1. Balanced link for dry coal extrusion pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bebejian, Maral

    2013-10-22

    A link which defines a link body that includes a multiple of link plates integral with a link body, the link body disposed at least partially forward of a forward edge of the multiple of link plates.

  2. Balance of Systems and Soft Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water ... Infrastructure Hydrogen Production Market Transformation ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC ...

  3. The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944 - 2009

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    is capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction and is used in nuclear weapons and for nuclear power production. The measures of plutonium are total element weight 1 in metric...

  4. FY 2011 Report on Unobligated Balances

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  5. Balance of Systems and Soft Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems and Soft Costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  6. Pressure balanced drag turbine mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dacus, Michael W. (Gilbert, AR); Cole, Jack H. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1982-01-01

    The density of the fluid flowing through a tubular member may be measured by a device comprising a rotor assembly suspended within the tubular member, a fluid bearing medium for the rotor assembly shaft, independent fluid flow lines to each bearing chamber, and a scheme for detection of any difference between the upstream and downstream bearing fluid pressures. The rotor assembly reacts to fluid flow both by rotation and axial displacement; therefore concurrent measurements may be made of the velocity of blade rotation and also bearing pressure changes, where the pressure changes may be equated to the fluid momentum flux imparted to the rotor blades. From these parameters the flow velocity and density of the fluid may be deduced.

  7. FY 2007 Annual Uncosted Balances Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In FY 2007, the Department faced significant challenges in executing its funding due to the unusually long Continuing Resolution (CR), which extended until April 2007.

  8. Gas cooler sets the perfect balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilder, M.; Aubry, L.; Schwartz, G.; Anderson, R.; Burkhardt, C. ); Wilson, J.; Vallort, J.; Ransick, M.F. )

    1993-05-20

    In July 1991, a 65-ton electric chiller was in need of major repair at NutraSweet's R and D facility outside of Chicago. Instead of automatically repairing or replacing that chiller, NutraSweet engineers Larry Aubry and Gerald Schwartz began to look at other alternatives. What they discovered was that a natural gas absorption chiller was a cost-effective, environmentally safe alternative effective, environmentally safe alternative perfectly suited for their application. The benefits for NutraSweet are straightforward: energy bills have been cut by more than [dollar sign]70,000 annually, existing boiler capacity is better utilized, existing electrical cooling system life is extended, maintenance costs are reduced, and no-ozone-depleting CFCs are utilized by the natural gas chiller. Simple payback on the unit, originally expected to be almost four years, has been reduced to closer to three.

  9. The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944 - 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-06-01

    This report updates the report -Plutonium: The first 50 years- which was released by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) in 1996. The topic of both reports is plutonium, sometimes referred to as Pu-239, which is capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction and is used in nuclear weapons and for nuclear power production. This report updates 1994 data through 2009. The four most significant changes since 1994 include: (a) the completion of cleanup activities at the Rocky Flats Plant in 2005; (b) material consolidation and disposition activities, especially shipments from Hanford to the Savannah River Site; (c) the 2007 declaration of an additional 9.0 MT of weapons grade plutonium to be surplus to defense needs in the coming decades; and (d) the opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in 1999.

  10. ORNL trends and balances, 1987-1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview is given that covers the roles, organization, R and D sponsors, and recent achievements of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Current R and D programs are described in the areas of nuclear and engineering technologies, advanced energy systems, biomedical and environmental sciences, and basic physical sciences. ORNL's future activities are discussed. (LEW)

  11. Pressure balanced drag turbine mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dacus, M.W.; Cole, J.H.

    1980-04-23

    The density of the fluid flowing through a tubular member may be measured by a device comprising a rotor assembly suspended within the tubular member, a fluid bearing medium for the rotor assembly shaft, independent fluid flow lines to each bearing chamber, and a scheme for detection of any difference between the upstream and downstream bearing fluid pressures. The rotor assembly reacts to fluid flow both by rotation and axial displacement; therefore concurrent measurements may be made of the velocity of blade rotation and also bearing pressure changes, where the pressure changes may be equated to the fluid momentum flux imparted to the rotor blades. From these parameters the flow velocity and density of the fluid may be deduced.

  12. Work-Life Balance | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to my work, and when I go home, I'm able to have a life outside work. I used to play soccer, so I'm looking to join a women's soccer team in the Chicago suburbs." - Emily...

  13. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pertl, A.; Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G.

    2010-01-15

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO{sub 2}.

  14. FY 2010 Report on Uncosted Balances

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  15. Material Balance Report NRC 742u

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    *** Company Name and Address License Number RIS 10/01/2007 09/30/2008 20 / E4 A 1 COMPANY NAME RIS A 2 1 1 1 1 DATE SIGNATURE (See instructions for provisions on confidentiality) TITLE 54. SHIPMENTS -- MISC 65. ROUNDING ADJUSTMENT 58. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO U.S. GOVT BY OTHERS 59. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO OTHERS BY U.S. GOVT a. ICT b. ICT 72. DECAY 75. ACCIDENTAL LOSSES 73. FISSION AND TRANSMUTATION 74. NORMAL OPERATIONAL LOSSES/MEASURED DISCARDS 77. INVENTORY DIFFERENCE 82. TOTAL (lines 41-81)

  16. Material Balance Report NRC 742u

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    .a *** Company Name and Address License Number RIS 10/01/2007 09/30/2008 20 / E4 A 1 COMPANY NAME RIS A 2 1 1 1 1 COMPANY NAME RIS A 3 1 1 DATE SIGNATURE (See instructions for provisions on confidentiality) TITLE 54. SHIPMENTS -- MISC 65. ROUNDING ADJUSTMENT 58. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO U.S. GOVT BY OTHERS 59. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO OTHERS BY U.S. GOVT a. ICT b. ICT 72. DECAY 75. ACCIDENTAL LOSSES 73. FISSION AND TRANSMUTATION 74. NORMAL OPERATIONAL LOSSES/MEASURED DISCARDS 77. INVENTORY

  17. Material Balance Report NRC 742u

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2*** Company Name and Address License Number RIS A 10/01/2007 09/30/2008 20 / E4 1 1 1 COMPANY NAME RIS A 2 1 1 DATE SIGNATURE (See instructions for provisions on confidentiality) TITLE 54. SHIPMENTS -- MISC 65. ROUNDING ADJUSTMENT 58. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO U.S. GOVT BY OTHERS 59. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO OTHERS BY U.S. GOVT a. ICT b. ICT 72. DECAY 75. ACCIDENTAL LOSSES 73. FISSION AND TRANSMUTATION 74. NORMAL OPERATIONAL LOSSES/MEASURED DISCARDS 77. INVENTORY DIFFERENCE 82. TOTAL (lines 41-81)

  18. Material Balance Report NRC 742u

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    *** Company Name and Address License Number RIS A 10/01/2007 09/30/2008 20 / E4 1 1 1 Company 1 RIS A 2 1 1 COMPANY NAME RIS A 3 1 1 DATE SIGNATURE (See instructions for provisions on confidentiality) TITLE 54. SHIPMENTS -- MISC 65. ROUNDING ADJUSTMENT 58. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO U.S. GOVT BY OTHERS 59. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO OTHERS BY U.S. GOVT a. ICT b. ICT 72. DECAY 75. ACCIDENTAL LOSSES 73. FISSION AND TRANSMUTATION 74. NORMAL OPERATIONAL LOSSES/MEASURED DISCARDS 77. INVENTORY DIFFERENCE 82.

  19. Material Balance Report NRC 742u

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    .A *** Company Name and Address License Number RIS A 10/01/2007 09/30/2008 20 / E4 A 2 1 1 1 COMPANY NAME RIS A 3 1 1 2 2 DATE SIGNATURE (See instructions for provisions on confidentiality) TITLE 54. SHIPMENTS -- MISC 65. ROUNDING ADJUSTMENT 58. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO U.S. GOVT BY OTHERS 59. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO OTHERS BY U.S. GOVT a. ICT b. ICT 72. DECAY 75. ACCIDENTAL LOSSES 73. FISSION AND TRANSMUTATION 74. NORMAL OPERATIONAL LOSSES/MEASURED DISCARDS 77. INVENTORY DIFFERENCE 82. TOTAL

  20. Material Balance Report NRC 742u

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Example 4 *** Company Name and Address License Number RIS A 10/01/2007 09/30/2008 20 / E4 1 1 1 A 2 1 1 DATE SIGNATURE (See instructions for provisions on confidentiality) TITLE 54. SHIPMENTS -- MISC 65. ROUNDING ADJUSTMENT 58. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO U.S. GOVT BY OTHERS 59. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO OTHERS BY U.S. GOVT a. ICT b. ICT 72. DECAY 75. ACCIDENTAL LOSSES 73. FISSION AND TRANSMUTATION 74. NORMAL OPERATIONAL LOSSES/MEASURED DISCARDS 77. INVENTORY DIFFERENCE 82. TOTAL (lines 41-81) 80.

  1. Author(s).

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    98-3484 Approved rbrpublic release: dstribution is unlimitd. ?We. Author(s). Submitted to. DETONATION AND COMBUSTION OF EXPLOSIVES: 4 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Brigitta Dobratz 1 1 th International Detonation Symposium Snowwmass Conference Center Snowmass, Colorado August 30-September 4, 1998 Los Alamos N AT I 0 N A L LA 6 0 R A T 0 R Y Los Alamos National Laboratory, an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer, is operated by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy

  2. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. The new M-level inverter consists of (M-1)2...

  3. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditioning series compensation phase shifting voltage balancing fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing etc The new M level inverter consists of M single phase...

  4. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide","Armstrong, M R; Zaug, J M; Grant, C D; Crowhurst, J C; Bastea,...

  5. Author Select

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors Please use the pane on the left to start the selection process.

  6. Author Guidelines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Author Guidelines Author Guidelines Print All publications resulting from work done in whole, or in part, at the ALS must be recorded by the User Office for the Department of Energy (DOE). Authors of publications are required to report all ALS-related work, i.e., journal articles, conference presentations, books or book chapters, theses, contributed news articles, internal staff reports, general ALS publications, brochures, etc., at the Publications Menu. Acknowledgment Statement All

  7. Author Select

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Author Select Last Name First Name search Type in a name, or the first few letters of a name, in one or both of appropriate search boxes above and select "Go". An attempt will be made to match authors that most closely relate to the text you typed.

  8. Author Select

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Selection List Select "add" or "add all", which appear after author's names in the middle pane, to add to the search strategy that appears in this pane. Return to Search >>...

  9. Author Guidelines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Author Guidelines Print All publications resulting from work done in whole, or in part, at the ALS must be recorded by the User Office for the Department of Energy (DOE). Authors of publications are required to report all ALS-related work, i.e., journal articles, conference presentations, books or book chapters, theses, contributed news articles, internal staff reports, general ALS publications, brochures, etc., at the Publications Menu. Acknowledgment Statement All publications based on work

  10. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    subsequent to shock in an unreacted oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Armstrong M R Zaug J M Grant C D Crowhurst J C Bastea S CONDENSED MATTER...

  11. Distinguished Lecture Series - Balancing the Energy & Climate Budget

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    The average American uses 11400 Watts of power continuously. This is the equivalent of burning 114 x100 Watt light bulbs, all the time. The average person globally uses 2255 Watts of power, or a little less than 23 x100 Watt light bulbs.

  12. Renewable portfolio standards in the states: balancing goals...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Electricity Journal; Journal Volume: 20; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Country of Publication: United ...

  13. Micromachined force-balance feedback accelerometer with optical displacement detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Langlois, Eric; Baker, Michael; Okandan, Murat; Anderson, Robert

    2014-07-22

    An accelerometer includes a proof mass and a frame that are formed in a handle layer of a silicon-on-an-insulator (SOI). The proof mass is separated from the frame by a back-side trench that defines a boundary of the proof mass. The accelerometer also includes a reflector coupled to a top surface of the proof mass. An optical detector is located above the reflector at the device side. The accelerometer further includes at least one suspension spring. The suspension spring has a handle anchor that extends downwards from the device side to the handle layer to mechanically support upward and downward movement of the proof mass relative to a top surface of the proof mass.

  14. Offshore Wind Balance-of-System Cost Modeling (Poster), NREL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    parameters, can yield a rise in BOS cost, such as the spike near 500 megawatts. Figure 4. Offshore wind fixed substructure BOS costs decrease as turbine rating increases, which is...

  15. U.S. Natural Gas Annual Supply and Disposition Balance

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Area: U.S. Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia

  16. Balancing aggregation and smoothing errors in inverse models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.

    2015-01-13

    Inverse models use observations of a system (observation vector) to quantify the variables driving that system (state vector) by statistical optimization. When the observation vector is large, such as with satellite data, selecting a suitable dimension for the state vector is a challenge. A state vector that is too large cannot be effectively constrained by the observations, leading to smoothing error. However, reducing the dimension of the state vector leads to aggregation error as prior relationships between state vector elements are imposed rather than optimized. Here we present a method for quantifying aggregation and smoothing errors as a function ofmore » state vector dimension, so that a suitable dimension can be selected by minimizing the combined error. Reducing the state vector within the aggregation error constraints can have the added advantage of enabling analytical solution to the inverse problem with full error characterization. We compare three methods for reducing the dimension of the state vector from its native resolution: (1) merging adjacent elements (grid coarsening), (2) clustering with principal component analysis (PCA), and (3) applying a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with Gaussian pdfs as state vector elements on which the native-resolution state vector elements are projected using radial basis functions (RBFs). The GMM method leads to somewhat lower aggregation error than the other methods, but more importantly it retains resolution of major local features in the state vector while smoothing weak and broad features.« less

  17. Balancing aggregation and smoothing errors in inverse models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.

    2015-06-30

    Inverse models use observations of a system (observation vector) to quantify the variables driving that system (state vector) by statistical optimization. When the observation vector is large, such as with satellite data, selecting a suitable dimension for the state vector is a challenge. A state vector that is too large cannot be effectively constrained by the observations, leading to smoothing error. However, reducing the dimension of the state vector leads to aggregation error as prior relationships between state vector elements are imposed rather than optimized. Here we present a method for quantifying aggregation and smoothing errors as a function ofmore » state vector dimension, so that a suitable dimension can be selected by minimizing the combined error. Reducing the state vector within the aggregation error constraints can have the added advantage of enabling analytical solution to the inverse problem with full error characterization. We compare three methods for reducing the dimension of the state vector from its native resolution: (1) merging adjacent elements (grid coarsening), (2) clustering with principal component analysis (PCA), and (3) applying a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with Gaussian pdfs as state vector elements on which the native-resolution state vector elements are projected using radial basis functions (RBFs). The GMM method leads to somewhat lower aggregation error than the other methods, but more importantly it retains resolution of major local features in the state vector while smoothing weak and broad features.« less

  18. Smart Meters Help Balance Energy Consumption at Solar Decathlon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clouds, rain, thunderstorms… at Solar Decathlon Village? Oh my, you may say. But less-than-ideal weather conditions are no match for this year's teams, thanks to smart grid technology that is helping them monitor their energy consumption.

  19. Wolfgang Eberhardt on Light Sources: Getting the Balance Right

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Light Source, September 2015. Click the image to watch the video of his talk, "Diffraction Limited Storage Rings and Free Electron Lasers-Why Do We Need Both?" As a graduate...

  20. Balance of Plant System Analysis and Component Design of Turbo...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sets consist of a pair of turbinecompressor sets (high pressure and low pressure turbines with same-shaft compressor) and a power turbine coupled with a synchronous generator....

  1. Capacity Requirements to Support Inter-Balancing Area Wind Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2009-07-01

    Paper examines the capacity requirements that arise as wind generation is integrated into the power system and how those requirements change depending on where the wind energy is delivered.

  2. Sticky Thermals: Evidence for a Dominant Balance Between

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by studying thousands of cloud thermals in a high- resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) of deep convection. Schematically, the acceleration of a cloud thermal can be written...

  3. U.S. Natural Gas Annual Supply and Disposition Balance

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Gulf of Mexico Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Careers: Work-Life Balance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Move from full-time to part-time for personal or family reasons, such as dependent care, educational pursuits, and pre-retirement transitions. Time away from work Vacation....

  5. Dynamically balanced fuel nozzle and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Janus, Michael C. (Baltimore, MD); Robey, Edward H. (Westover, WV)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method of operation designed to reduce undesirably high pressure oscillations in lean premix combustion systems burning hydrocarbon fuels are provided. Natural combustion and nozzle acoustics are employed to generate multiple fuel pockets which, when burned in the combustor, counteract the oscillations caused by variations in heat release in the combustor. A hybrid of active and passive control techniques, the apparatus and method eliminate combustion oscillations over a wide operating range, without the use of moving parts or electronics.

  6. Work Life Balance | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is a proud member of the community. Employees participate in the United Way annual giving campaign and serve as volunteers for charitable groups in the communities where they live...

  7. Medium Power Lead Alloy Fast Reactor Balance of Plant Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaclav Dosta; Pavel Hejzlar; Neil E. Todreas; Jacopo Buongiorno

    2004-09-01

    Proper selection of the power conversion cycle is a very important step in the design of a nuclear reactor. Due to the higher core outlet temperature (~550C) compared to that of light water reactors (~300C), a wide portfolio of power cycles is available for the lead alloy fast reactor (LFR). Comparison of the following cycles for the LFR was performed: superheated steam (direct and indirect), supercritical steam, helium Brayton, and supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) recompression. Heat transfer from primary to secondary coolant was first analyzed and then the steam generators or heat exchangers were designed. The direct generation of steam in the lead alloy coolant was also evaluated. The resulting temperatures of the secondary fluids are in the range of 530-545C, dictated by the fixed space available for the heat exchangers in the reactor vessel. For the direct steam generation situation, the temperature is 312C. Optimization of each power cycle was carried out, yielding net plant efficiency of around 40% for the superheated steam cycle while the supercritical steam and S-CO2 cycles achieved net plant efficiency of 41%. The cycles were then compared based on their net plant efficiency and potential for low capital cost. The superheated steam cycle is a very good candidate cycle given its reasonably high net plant efficiency and ease of implementation based on the extensive knowledge and operating experience with this cycle. Although the supercritical steam cycle net plant efficiency is slightly better than that of the superheated steam cycle, its high complexity and high pressure result in higher capital cost, negatively affecting plant economics. The helium Brayton cycle achieves low net plant efficiency due to the low lead alloy core outlet temperature, and therefore, even though it is a simpler cycle than the steam cycles, its performance is mediocre in this application. The prime candidate, however, appears to be the S-CO2 recompression cycle, because it achieves about the same net plant efficiency as the supercritical steam cycle and is significantly simpler than the steam cycles. Moreover, the S-CO2 cycle offers a significantly higher potential for an increase in efficiency than steam cycles, after better materials allow the LFR operating temperatures to be increased. Therefore, the S-CO2 is chosen as the reference cycle for the LFR, with the superheated or supercritical steam cycles as backups if the S-CO2 cycle development efforts do not succeed.

  8. Wolfgang Eberhardt on Light Sources: Getting the Balance Right

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wolfgang Eberhardt conducted his first experiment at the old DESY synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany. A so-called "parasitic" operation on a high-energy physics ring, it had...

  9. A Balanced Lifestyle Makes Time for Exercise | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    like to share with you what my colleague Dr. Pengju Kang does to GetFit in Shanghai, China. Pengju Dr. Pengju Kang is the Technology Leader of Electrical Technologies & Systems...

  10. Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... The number is already available from other business processes. Therefore collection results in a minimal increase in reporting burden. In March 2010, EIA was granted Office of ...

  11. Chaotic time series analysis in economics: Balance and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faggini, Marisa

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the paper is not to review the large body of work concerning nonlinear time series analysis in economics, about which much has been written, but rather to focus on the new techniques developed to detect chaotic behaviours in economic data. More specifically, our attention will be devoted to reviewing some of these techniques and their application to economic and financial data in order to understand why chaos theory, after a period of growing interest, appears now not to be such an interesting and promising research area.

  12. FY 2008-2009 Report on Uncosted Balances

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  13. Acid mine drainage: Balancing environmental protection and mining realities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgill, B.J. Jr.; Poland, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    A major environmental concern leading to the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) was the degradation of streams and waterways from discharges of acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from coal mining operations. Although SMCRA and its regulatory scheme contains specific provisions addressing the drainage of acidic water from mine sites, as do various other agencies statutes and regulations, AMD from active and abandoned mines remains a major environmental problem in the Appalachian region. The formation of acidic water during coal mining operations is pervasive and some believe impossible to prevent.

  14. Disposal Authorization Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) is authorized to operate under this Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) (Revision 1). The revised DAS requirements ensure the facility does not pose a...

  15. AUTHORITY | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AUTHORITY More Documents & Publications Department of Energy No No AL/FAL 99-01

  16. Legal Authorities for UESC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Authorities for UESC Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida General UESC Authority * 42 U.S.C. 8256(c) -...

  17. Alaska Energy Authority Overview

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    * Grantees * Communities State Agencies * Alaska Housing Finance Corp. (AHFC) * Alaska Industrial Development & Export Authority (AIDEA) * Department of Education * ...

  18. Akenti Authorization System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-06-01

    Akenti is an authorization service for distributed resources. The authorization policy is kept in distributed certificates signed by one or more stakeholders for the resources. The package consists of the following components: Java GUI tools to create and sign the policy certificates C++ libraries to do make acess decisions based on the policy certificates A standalone authorization server that make access decisions C interfaces to the libraries and server

  19. Dine Power Authority (DPA)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    D D I N E ' P O W E R A U T H O R I T Y Diné Power Authority (DPA) Presentation Prepared for Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy TRIBAL ENERGY PROGRAM October 20, 2004 Presenter: Ben Hoisington Project Administrator, DPA Do not reproduce or distribute. 2 PA D D I N E ' P O W E R A U T H O R I T Y Major Dine Power Authority (DPA) Energy Projects DPA and New Transmission Development (NTD), an enterprise of Trans-Elect, Inc., are planning to develop the Navajo Transmission Project

  20. Work Authorization System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-04-20

    It establishes a work authorization and control process for work performed by designated management and operating (M&O), management and integrating (M&I), environmental restoration management contracts (ERMC) and other contracts determined by the Procurement Executive (hereafter referred to as M&O contractors). Cancels DOE O 5700.7C. Canceled by DOE O 412.1A.

  1. Work Authorization System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-04-21

    To establish a work authorization and control process for work performed by designated site and facility management contractors, and other contractors as determined by the procurement executive, consistent with the budget execution and program evaluation requirements of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Evaluation process. Cancels DOE O 412.1.

  2. Work Authorization System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-04-21

    To establish a work authorization and control process for work performed by designated site and facility management contractors, and other contractors as determined by the procurement executive, consistent with the budget execution and program evaluation requirements of the Department of Energy's Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Evaluation process. Admin Chg 1, dated 5-21-2014, cancels DOE O 412.1A.

  3. CASL - Tennessee Valley Authority

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tennessee Valley Authority Chattanooga, TN The nation's largest public power company, TVA plans to use more nuclear energy in achieving its vision to be one of the nation's leading providers of low-cost and cleaner energy. Key Contributions Physical reactor design Commercial nuclear plant and nuclear fuel operating data Support for testing and validation Key Outcomes Benchmark and test Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) with operating reactor data Facilitate early deployment of

  4. State authorization manual. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugler-Jones, S.

    1990-10-01

    The State Authorization Manual (SAM) (Vol. I) provides guidance for States applying for program revisions to their authorized RCRA State program. The SAM is an updated version of the 1988 State Consolidated RCRA Authorization Manual (SCRAM). It focuses on program revision applications rather than initial applications since most States have received initial authorization for the RCRA program. The SCRAM should continue to be used to assist States not yet authorized under the RCRA program.

  5. Export Authorizations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Export Authorizations Export Authorizations Below is a listing of export authorizations grouped by Canada and Mexico. Export Authorizations - Canada Export Authorizations - Mexico Export Authorizations - Canada BACK TO TOP Docket No. Company Date Issued EA-63-C Northern States Power 01/18/06 EA-64 Basin Electric Power 03/06/80 EA-64-A Basin Electric Power 12/18/09 EA-66-B Citizens Utilities 02/13/95 EA-82 Joint Owners of the Highgate Project 07/07/92 EA-97-B Portland General Electric 03/05/98

  6. AUTHORITY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Considerations Educational Institutions 92-2R 040893 Foreign Ownership, Control or Influence 92-3 051292 Contract Administration 92-5R 100192 Workplace Substance Abuse...

  7. Water balance relationships in four alternative cover designs for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.W.; Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States); Trujillo, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a field study to evaluate the relative hydrologic performance of various landfill capping technologies installed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Four cover designs (two Los Alamos capillary barrier designs, one modified EPA RCRA design, and one conventional design) were installed in large lysimeters instrumented to monitor the fate of natural precipitation between 01 January 1990 and 20 September 1993. After 45 months of study, results showed that the cover designs containing barrier layers were effective in reducing deep percolation as compared to a simple soil cap design. The RCRA cover, incorporating a clay hydraulic barrier, was the most effective of all cover designs in controlling percolation but was not 100% effective. Over 90% of all percolation and barrier lateral flow occurred during the months of February through May of each year, primarily as a result of snow melt, early spring rains and low evapotranspiration. Gravel mulch surface treatments (70--80% coverage) were effective in reducing runoff and erosion. The two plots receiving gravel mulch treatments exhibited equal but enhanced amounts of evapotranspiration despite the fact that one plot was planted with additional shrubs.

  8. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  9. Upgrades to SNL-EFDC: A Tool to Balance Marine Hydrokinetic Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility ... Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of Engines Transportation Energy Consortiums ...

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...itationwkshopmar10bessette.pdf More Documents & Publications The Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap, December 2003 High Temperature BOP and Fuel Processing Ceramic Fuel Cells (SOFC)

  11. Biotic Processes Regulating the Carbon Balance of Desert Ecosystems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, Robert S; Smith, Stanley D; Evans, Dave; Ogle, Kiona; Fenstermaker, Lynn

    2012-12-13

    Our results from the 10-year elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration study at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) indicate that the Mojave Desert is a dynamic ecosystem with the capacity to respond quickly to environmental changes. The Mojave Desert ecosystem is accumulating carbon (C), and over the 10-year experiment, C accumulation was significantly greater under elevated [CO{sub 2}] than under ambient, despite great fluctuations in C inputs from year to year and even apparent reversals in which [CO{sub 2}] treatment had greater C accumulations.

  12. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site FY 2010 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana

    2010-10-27

    This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

  13. Measure Guideline: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2013-04-01

    This report was written as a resource for professionals involved in multifamily audits, retrofit delivery, and program design, as well as for building owners and contractors. It is intended to serve as a guide for those looking to evaluate and improve the efficiency and operation of one-pipe steam heating systems. In centrally heated multifamily buildings with steam or hydronic systems, the cost of heat for tenants is typically absorbed into the owner's operating costs. Highly variable and rising energy costs have placed a heavy burden on landlords. In the absence of well-designed and relevant efficiency efforts, increased operating costs would be passed on to tenants who often cannot afford those increases. Misinvestment is a common problem with older heating systems -- multiple contractors may inadequately or inappropriately upgrade parts of systems and reduce system functionality and efficiency, or the system has not been properly maintained.

  14. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jayne; Ludwig, Peter; Brand, Larry

    2013-08-01

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources.

  15. Dynamically balanced, hydraulically driven compressor/pump apparatus for resonant free piston Stirling engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1984-05-29

    A compressor, pump, or alternator apparatus is designed for use with a resonant free piston Stirling engine so as to isolate apparatus fluid from the periodically pressurized working fluid of the Stirling engine. The apparatus housing has a first side closed by a power coupling flexible diaphragm (the engine working member) and a second side closed by a flexible diaphragm gas spring. A reciprocally movable piston is disposed in a transverse cylinder in the housing and moves substantially at right angles relative to the flexible diaphragms. An incompressible fluid fills the housing which is divided into two separate chambers by suitable ports. One chamber provides fluid coupling between the power diaphragm of the RFPSE and the piston and the second chamber provides fluid coupling between the gas spring diaphragm and the opposite side of the piston. The working members of a gas compressor, pump, or alternator are driven by the piston. Sealing and wearing parts of the apparatus are mounted at the external ends of the transverse cylinder in a double acting arrangement for accessibility. An annular counterweight is mounted externally of the reciprocally movable piston and is driven by incompressible fluid coupling in a direction opposite to the piston so as to damp out transverse vibrations.

  16. RISK-INFORMED BALANCING OF SAFETY, NONPROLIFERATION, AND ECONOMICS FOR THE SFR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apostolakis, George; Driscoll, Michael; Golay, Michael; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil; Aldmir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Lineberry, Michael

    2011-10-20

    A substantial barrier to the implementation of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) technology in the short term is the perception that they would not be economically competitive with advanced light water reactors. With increased acceptance of risk-informed regulation, the opportunity exists to reduce the costs of a nuclear power plant at the design stage without applying excessive conservatism that is not needed in treating low risk events. In the report, NUREG-1860, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes developmental activities associated with a risk-informed, scenario-based technology neutral framework (TNF) for regulation. It provides quantitative yardsticks against which the adequacy of safety risks can be judged. We extend these concepts to treatment of proliferation risks. The objective of our project is to develop a risk-informed design process for minimizing the cost of electricity generation within constraints of adequate safety and proliferation risks. This report describes the design and use of this design optimization process within the context of reducing the capital cost and levelized cost of electricity production for a small (possibly modular) SFR. Our project provides not only an evaluation of the feasibility of a risk-informed design process but also a practical test of the applicability of the TNF to an actual advanced, non-LWR design. The report provides results of five safety related and one proliferation related case studies of innovative design alternatives. Applied to previously proposed SFR nuclear energy system concepts We find that the TNF provides a feasible initial basis for licensing new reactors. However, it is incomplete. We recommend improvements in terms of requiring acceptance standards for total safety risks, and we propose a framework for regulation of proliferation risks. We also demonstrate methods for evaluation of proliferation risks. We also suggest revisions to scenario-specific safety risk acceptance standards, particularly concerning seismic and aircraft impactrelated risks. Most importantly, within the context of the TNF historical SFR safety concerns about energetic core disruptive accidents are seen to be unimportant, but those of rare scenarios mentioned above are seen to be of dominant concern. In terms of proliferation risks the SFR energy system is seen not to be of considerably greater concern than with other nuclear power technologies, providing that highly effective safeguards are employed. We find the economic performance of proposed SFRs likely, due to the problems of using sodium as a coolant, to be inferior to those of LWRs unless they can be credited for services to improve nuclear waste disposal, nuclear fuel utilization and proliferation risk reductions. None of the design innovations investigated offers the promise to reverse this conclusion. The most promising innovation investigated is that of improving the plant's thermodynamic efficiency via use of the supercritical CO{sub 2} (rather than steam Rankine) power conversion system. We were unable to reach conclusions about the economic and proliferation risk implications of competing nuclear fuel processing methods, as available designs are too little developed to justify any such results. Overall, we find the SFR to be a promising alternative to LWRs should the conditions governing the valuation change substantially from current ones.

  17. Water balance in the Amazon basin from a land surface model ensemble

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Getirana, Augusto; Dutra, Emanuel; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Kam, Jonghun; Li, Hongyi; Decharme, Bertrand; Zhang, Zhengqiu J.; Ducharne, Agnes; Boone, Aaron; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Rodell, Matthew; Mounirou Toure, Ally; Xue, Yongkang; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Arsenault, Kristi Rae; Drapeau, Guillaume; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ronchail, Josyane; Sheffield, Justin

    2014-12-06

    Despite recent advances in modeling and remote sensing of land surfaces, estimates of the global water budget are still fairly uncertain. The objective of this study is to evaluate the water budget of the Amazon basin based on several state-of-the-art land surface model (LSM) outputs. Water budget variables [total water storage (TWS), evapotranspiration (ET), surface runoff (R) and baseflow (B)] are evaluated at the basin scale using both remote sensing and in situ data. Fourteen LSMs were run using meteorological forcings at a 3-hourly time step and 1-degree spatial resolution. Three experiments are performed using precipitation which has been rescaled to match monthly global GPCP and GPCC datasets and the daily HYBAM dataset for the Amazon basin. R and B are used to force the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme and simulated discharges are compared against observations at 165 gauges. Simulated ET and TWS are compared against FLUXNET and MOD16A2 evapotranspiration, and GRACE TWS estimates in different catchments. At the basin scale, simulated ET ranges from 2.39mm.d-1 to 3.26mm.d-1 and a low spatial correlation between ET and P indicates that evapotranspiration does not depend on water availability over most of the basin. Results also show that other simulated water budget variables vary significantly as a function of both the LSM and precipitation used, but simulated TWS generally agree at the basin scale. The best water budget simulations resulted from experiments using the HYBAM dataset, mostly explained by a denser rainfall gauge network the daily rescaling.

  18. Mass and momentum balance in the Brush Creek drainage flow determined from single-profile data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobosy, R.J.; Rao, K.S.; Przybylowicz, J.W.; Eckman, R.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Fluxes and flux-divergences of mass and momentum in Brush Creek Valley, computed from measurements taken by Tethersondes and Doppler sodars in the 1984 ASCOT experiment, are presented. Estimates of mass influx from open sidewalls in Brush Creek, derived from concurrent tower measurements, are also given. Mass and momentum fluxes calculated from single-profile data were within a factor of 1.5 of those obtained by integrating Doppler lidar data. Flux-divergences for budget calculations should be derived from a Doppler lidar or equivalent remote sensor data, because single-profile measurements were found to have sampling errors which are too large for reliable flux divergence estimates. The mass influx from the sidewalls was insufficient to account for the mass flux-divergence in the main valley. This imbalance in the drainage flow mass budget is speculated to be due to the inflow from the small box-canyon tributaries, rather than from subisdence of air above the main valley. {copyright}1989 American Meteorological Society

  19. Development and Application of Gas Sensing Technologies to Enable Boiler Balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Prabir

    2008-12-31

    Identifying gas species and their quantification is important for optimization of many industrial applications involving high temperatures, including combustion processes. CISM (Center for Industrial Sensors and Measurements) at the Ohio State University has developed CO, O{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2} sensors based on TiO{sub 2} semiconducting oxides, zirconia and lithium phosphate based electrochemical sensors and sensor arrays for high-temperature emission control. The underlying theme in our sensor development has been the use of materials science and chemistry to promote high-temperature performance with selectivity. A review article presenting key results of our studies on CO, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} sensors is described in: Akbar, Sheikh A.; Dutta, Prabir K. Development and Application of Gas Sensing Technologies for Combustion Processes, PowerPlant Chemistry, 9(1) 2006, 28-33.

  20. Balanced-activity improved inverse emulsion to inhibit brittle lutite hydration in oil fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmedo, E. P.; de J. Hernandez Alvarez, R.; Barrera, C. D.; Ramos, J. D. G.

    1984-10-02

    An improved inverse emulsion for use as a drilling fluid that inhibits brittle lutite hydration. The emulsion includes a heavy oil; brine; a viscosity agent with thermostabilizing properties; an emulsifying agent; a thickening agent; a gelatinizing additive; and an alkaline earth metal hydroxide. The emulsion avoids hole collapsing and improves well gage stability.

  1. Water and Energy Sustainability: A Balance of Government Action and Industry Innovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Grunewald

    2009-12-31

    By completing the tasks and subtasks of the project, the Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) through its state regulatory agency members and oil and gas industry partners, will bring attention to water quality and quantity issues and make progress toward water and energy sustainability though enhanced water protection and conservation thus enhancing the viability of the domestic fossil fuel industry. The project contains 4 major independent Tasks. Task 1 - Work Plan: Water-Energy Sustainability: A Symposium on Resource Viability. Task 2 - Work Plan: A Regional Assessment of Water and Energy Sustainability. Task 3 - Work Plan: Risk Based Data Management System-Water Water and Energy Module. Task 4 - Work Plan: Identification and Assessment of States Regulatory Programs Regarding Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems. Each task has a specific scope (details given).

  2. Balance of optical, structural, and electrical properties of textured liquid phase crystallized Si solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preidel, V. Amkreutz, D.; Haschke, J.; Wollgarten, M.; Rech, B.; Becker, C.

    2015-06-14

    Liquid phase crystallized Si thin-film solar cells on nanoimprint textured glass substrates exhibiting two characteristic, but distinct different surface structures are presented. The impact of the substrate texture on light absorption, the structural Si material properties, and the resulting solar cell performance is analyzed. A pronounced periodic substrate texture with a vertical feature size of about 1 μm enables excellent light scattering and light trapping. However, it also gives rise to an enhanced Si crystal defect formation deteriorating the solar cell performance. In contrast, a random pattern with a low surface roughness of 45 nm allows for the growth of Si thin films being comparable to Si layers on planar reference substrates. Amorphous Si/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells fabricated on the low-roughness texture exhibit a maximum open circuit voltage of 616 mV and internal quantum efficiency peak values exceeding 90%, resulting in an efficiency potential of 13.2%. This demonstrates that high quality crystalline Si thin films can be realized on nanoimprint patterned glass substrates by liquid phase crystallization inspiring the implementation of tailor-made nanophotonic light harvesting concepts into future liquid phase crystallized Si thin film solar cells on glass.

  3. Penetration and radial force balance in field-reversed configuration with large rotating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohnishi, M.; Fukuhara, M.; Masaki, T.; Osawa, H.; Chikano, T.; Hugrass, W.

    2008-10-15

    A field-reversed configuration (FRC) is formed by applying a rotating magnetic field (RMF) much larger than the axial magnetic field to a cylindrical glass vacuum chamber filled with 10 Pa argon gas without a preionization. The FRC with the plasma density 2.2x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, the temperature 8.0 eV, the separatrix length 0.45 m, and the separatrix radius 0.035 m is sustained for the notably long period of 40 ms. It is observed that the antenna current which produces the RMF is reduced by about half after the FRC is formed. The interaction between the plasma and the antenna circuit increases the antenna resistance and changes the inductance of the antenna so that the circuit becomes nonresonant. The RMF is sufficiently large to fully penetrate to the center during the period and drive the current with a rigid rotor profile. The RMF is shown to play a major role in sustaining the plasma pressure.

  4. Ex Ante Appraisal Carbon-Balance Tool (EX-ACT) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Support Division TCS" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., Investment Centre Division TCI"Investment Centre Division TCI" cannot be used as a page name...

  5. The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiricka, Alexandra Proebstl, Ulrike

    2013-01-15

    Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a 'Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007-13' (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

  6. Achieving Record Efficiency for Blue OLEDs by Controlling the Charge Balance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at the University of Florida (UF) have demonstrated a blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a peak power efficiency of 50 lm/W and an external quantum efficiency exceeding 20 percent at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m2, using no external light extraction techniques. This accomplishment is believed to be the world record in blue OLED efficiency.

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings, Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources.

  8. Using Electric Vehicles to Meet Balancing Requirements Associated with Wind Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-07-31

    Many states are deploying renewable generation sources at a significant rate to meet renewable portfolio standards. As part of this drive to meet renewable generation levels, significant additions of wind generation are planned. Due to the highly variable nature of wind generation, significant energy imbalances on the power system can be created and need to be handled. This report examines the impact on the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP) region for a 2019 expected wind scenario. One method for mitigating these imbalances is to utilize plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) or battery electric vehicles (BEVs) as assets to the grid. PHEVs and BEVs have the potential to meet this demand through both charging and discharging strategies. This report explores the usage of two different charging schemes: V2GHalf and V2GFull. In V2GHalf, PHEV/BEV charging is varied to absorb the additional imbalance from the wind generation, but never feeds power back into the grid. This scenario is highly desirable to automotive manufacturers, who harbor great concerns about battery warranty if vehicle-to-grid discharging is allowed. The second strategy, V2GFull, varies not only the charging of the vehicle battery, but also can vary the discharging of the battery back into the power grid. This scenario is currently less desirable to automotive manufacturers, but provides an additional resource benefit to PHEV/BEVs in meeting the additional imbalance imposed by wind. Key findings in the report relate to the PHEV/BEV population required to meet the additional imbalance when comparing V2GHalf to V2GFull populations, and when comparing home-only-charging and work-and-home-charging scenarios. Utilizing V2GFull strategies over V2GHalf resulted in a nearly 33% reduction in the number of vehicles required. This reduction indicates fewer vehicles are needed to meet the unhandled energy, but they would utilize discharging of the vehicle battery into the grid. This practice currently results in the voiding of automotive manufacturer's battery warranty, and is not feasible for many customers. The second key finding is the change in the required population when PHEV/BEV charging is available at both home and work. Allowing 10% of the vehicle population access to work charging resulted in nearly 80% of the grid benefit. Home-only charging requires, at best, 94% of the current NWPP light duty vehicle fleet to be a PHEV or BEV. With the introduction of full work charging availability, only 8% of the NWPP light duty vehicle fleet is required. Work charging has primarily been associated with mitigating range anxiety in new electric vehicle owners, but these studies indicate they have significant potential for improving grid reliability. The V2GHalf and V2GFull charging strategies of the report utilize grid frequency as an indication of the imbalance requirements. The introduction of public charging stations, as well as the potential for PHEV/BEVs to be used as a resource for renewable generation integration, creates conditions for additional products into the ancillary services market. In the United Kingdom, such a capability would be bid as a frequency product in the ancillary services market. Such a market could create the need for larger, third-party aggregators or services to manage the use of electric vehicles as a grid resource. Ultimately, customer adoption, usage patterns and habits, and feedback from the power and automotive industries will drive the need.

  9. Polymer alloys with balanced heat storage capacity and engineering attributes and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soroushian, Parviz (Lansing, MI)

    2002-01-01

    A thermoplastic polymer of relatively low melt temperature is blended with at least one of thermosets, elastomers, and thermoplastics of relatively high melt temperature in order to produce a polymer blend which absorbs relatively high quantities of latent heat without melting or major loss of physical and mechanical characteristics as temperature is raised above the melting temperature of the low-melt-temperature thermoplastic. The polymer blend can be modified by the addition of at least one of fillers, fibers, fire retardants, compatibilisers, colorants, and processing aids. The polymer blend may be used in applications where advantage can be taken of the absorption of excess heat by a component which remains solid and retains major fractions of its physical and mechanical characteristics while absorbing relatively high quantities of latent heat.

  10. Energy balances in the production and end-use of methanol derived from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-12-10

    Analysis is performed for three combinations of fuels, specifically: net petroleum gain (petroleum only); net premium fuel gain (natural gas and petroleum); and net energy gain (includes all fuels; does not include free energy from sun). The base case selected for evaluation was that of an energy-efficient coal-to-methanol plant located in Montana/Wyoming and using the Lurgi conversion process. The following variations of the base coal-methanol case are also analyzed: gasoline from coal with methanol as an intermediate step (Mobil-M); and methanol from coal (Texaco gasification process). For each process, computations are made for the product methanol as a replacement for unleaded gasoline in a conventional spark ignition engine and as a chemical feedstock. For the purpose of the energy analysis, computations are made for three situations regarding mileage of methanol/ gasoline compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline: mileage of the two fuels equal, mileage 4 percent better with gasohol, and mileage 4 percent worse with gasohol. The standard methodology described for the base case applies to all of the variations.

  11. Climate, Environmental, and Socioeconomic Change Weighing up the Balance in Vector-Borne Disease Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parham, Paul; Waldock, Johanna; Christophides, George; Hemming, Deborah; Agusto, Folashade; Evans, Katherine J; Fefferman, Nina; Gaff, Holly; Gumel, Abba; LaDeau, Shannon; Lenhart, Suzanne; Mickens, Ronald; Naumova, Elena; Ostfeld, Richard; Ready, Paul; Thomas, Matthew; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge; Edwin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is due not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but, perhaps most crucially, the multitude of epidemiological, ecological, and socioeconomic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the last 10-15 years. In this article, and Theme Issue, we seek to elucidate current knowledge around this topic, identify key themes and uncertainties, evaluate ongoing challenges and open research questions, and, crucially, offer some solutions for the field moving forwards. Although many of these challenges are ubiquitous across multiple VBDs, more specific issues also arise in different vector-pathogen systems. This Theme Issue seeks to cover both, reflected in the breadth and depth of the topics and VBD-systems considered, itself strongly indicative of the challenging, but necessary, multidisciplinary nature of this research field.

  12. CDF trigger final balance: Offline resolution at low level selections to fight against Tevatron increasing luminosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amerio, S.; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2010-01-01

    The CDF detector at Tevatron collider is at present the most long-lasting high energy physics experiment. Since its first data taking in 1992 it has produced many results of primary importance, such as the discovery of top quark and, more recently, the observations of Bs oscillations and single-top production. None of them would have been possible without a fast and efficient trigger system. Based on a three level architecture, the CDF trigger takes decisions on simple calorimetric and tracking objects and assures both high efficiency on signal events and low dead time. It reduces the data flow rate from 2.53 MHz, the collision rate, to 150 Hz, the current limit on tape writing and is flexible enough to be easily adapted to the continuously growing instantaneous luminosity. In the last years the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity has rapidly increased and is now reaching 4 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The CDF trigger system has been widely upgraded to cope with increasing trigger rates. The upgrade result is online reconstruction of missing transverse energy, jets and tracks with a quality comparable to the offline one. Jet energy and direction can be precisely determined and tracks can be subjected to 3-D reconstruction with good resolution. These upgrades reduce high trigger rates to acceptable levels and have provided invaluable tools to increase the purity of the collected samples. They also represent a helpful experience for LHC experiments where background rates will be much more demanding.

  13. Bonneville’s “Balanced Scorecard” Approach to Mitigation, Monitoring, and Adaptive Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This year Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), DOE’s power marketing organization in the Pacific Northwest, will spend more than $300 million on mitigation projects to meet its mandate under the 1980 Northwest Power Act to “protect, mitigate and enhance” fish and wildlife affected by construction and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. How is BPA meeting its responsibility to ratepayers to ensure that these mitigation funds are spent effectively?

  14. Simulating cyanobacterial phenotypes by integrating flux balance analysis, kinetics, and a light distribution function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Lian; Wu, Stephen G.; Wan, Ni; Reding, Adrienne C.; Tang, Yinjie J.

    2015-12-24

    In this study, genome-scale models (GSMs) are widely used to predict cyanobacterial phenotypes in photobioreactors (PBRs). However, stoichiometric GSMs mainly focus on fluxome that result in maximal yields. Cyanobacterial metabolism is controlled by both intracellular enzymes and photobioreactor conditions. To connect both intracellular and extracellular information and achieve a better understanding of PBRs productivities, this study integrates a genome-scale metabolic model of Synechocystis 6803 with growth kinetics, cell movements, and a light distribution function. The hybrid platform not only maps flux dynamics in cells of sub-populations but also predicts overall production titer and rate in PBRs. Analysis of the integratedmore » GSM demonstrates several results. First, cyanobacteria are capable of reaching high biomass concentration (>20 g/L in 21 days) in PBRs without light and CO2 mass transfer limitations. Second, fluxome in a single cyanobacterium may show stochastic changes due to random cell movements in PBRs. Third, insufficient light due to cell self-shading can activate the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in subpopulation cells. Fourth, the model indicates that the removal of glycogen synthesis pathway may not improve cyanobacterial bio-production in large-size PBRs, because glycogen can support cell growth in the dark zones. Based on experimental data, the integrated GSM estimates that Synechocystis 6803 in shake flask conditions has a photosynthesis efficiency of ~2.7 %. Conclusions: The multiple-scale integrated GSM, which examines both intracellular and extracellular domains, can be used to predict production yield/rate/titer in large-size PBRs. More importantly, genetic engineering strategies predicted by a traditional GSM may work well only in optimal growth conditions. In contrast, the integrated GSM may reveal mutant physiologies in diverse bioreactor conditions, leading to the design of robust strains with high chances of success in industrial settings.« less

  15. Medium-Power Lead-Alloy Fast Reactor Balance-of-Plant Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dostal, Vaclav [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Hejzlar, Pavel [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Todreas, Neil E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Proper selection of the power conversion cycle is a very important step in the design of a nuclear reactor. Due to the higher core outlet temperature ({approx}550 deg. C) compared to that of light water reactors ({approx}300 deg. C), a wide portfolio of power cycles is available for the lead alloy fast reactor (LFR). Comparison of the following cycles for the LFR was performed: superheated steam (direct and indirect), supercritical steam, helium Brayton, and supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) recompression. Heat transfer from primary to secondary coolant was first analyzed and then the steam generators or heat exchangers were designed. The direct generation of steam in the lead alloy coolant was also evaluated. The resulting temperatures of the secondary fluids are in the range of 530-545 deg. C, dictated by the fixed space available for the heat exchangers in the reactor vessel. For the direct steam generation situation, the temperature is 312 deg. C. Optimization of each power cycle was carried out, yielding net plant efficiency of around 40% for the superheated steam cycle while the supercritical steam and S-CO{sub 2} cycles achieved net plant efficiency of 41%. The cycles were then compared based on their net plant efficiency and potential for low capital cost. The superheated steam cycle is a very good candidate cycle given its reasonably high net plant efficiency and ease of implementation based on the extensive knowledge and operating experience with this cycle. Although the supercritical steam cycle net plant efficiency is slightly better than that of the superheated steam cycle, its high complexity and high pressure result in higher capital cost, negatively affecting plant economics. The helium Brayton cycle achieves low net plant efficiency due to the low lead alloy core outlet temperature, and therefore, even though it is a simpler cycle than the steam cycles, its performance is mediocre in this application. The prime candidate, however, appears to be the S-CO{sub 2} recompression cycle, because it achieves about the same net plant efficiency as the supercritical steam cycle and is significantly simpler than the steam cycles. Moreover, the S-CO{sub 2} cycle offers a significantly higher potential for an increase in efficiency than steam cycles, after better materials allow the LFR operating temperatures to be increased. Therefore, the S-CO{sub 2} is chosen as the reference cycle for the LFR, with the superheated or supercritical steam cycles as backups if the S-CO{sub 2} cycle development efforts do not succeed.

  16. Radiative Energy Balance in the Tropical Tropopause Layer: An Investigation with ARM Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Qiang

    2013-10-22

    The overall objective of this project is to use the ARM observational data to improve our understanding of cloud-radiation effects in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which is crucial for improving the simulation and prediction of climate and climate change. In last four and half years, we have been concentrating on (i) performing the comparison of the ice cloud properties from the ground-based lidar observations with those from the satellite CALIPSO lidar observations at the ARM TWP sites; (ii) analyzing TTL cirrus and its relation to the tropical planetary waves; (iii) calculating the radiative heating rates using retrieved cloud microphysical properties by combining the ground-based lidar and radar observations at the ARM TWP sites and comparing the results with those using cloud properties retrieved from CloudSat and CALIPSO observations; (iv) comparing macrophysical properties of tropical cirrus clouds from the CALIPSO satellite and from ground-based micropulse and Raman lidar observations; (v) improving the parameterization of optical properties of cirrus clouds with small effective ice particle sizes; and (vi) evaluating the enhanced maximum warming in the tropical upper troposphere simulated by the GCMs. The main results of our research efforts are reported in the 12 referred journal publications that acknowledge the DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER64769.

  17. Payroll Check Direct Deposit Authorization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Payroll Check Direct Deposit Authorization (for LANS non-craft salary & wage payments only) Note: Direct Deposit authorizations are available through Oracle LANL Worker Self Service with A-Level access. Limit 5 Direct Deposit authorization accounts per employee Financial Institution Name: Routing/Transit Number: (requires nine digits) Account Number: Type of Account (check one): Checking Savings A separate form is required for each account transaction. Type of Transacton Deposit Type (check

  18. FAQ for Case Study Authors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reviews FAQ for Case Study Authors Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background...

  19. Lower Colorado River Authority | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Lower Colorado River Authority's communications requirements

  20. author | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data, and helpful information for OpenEI wiki authors Enabling developers to use energy web services on OpenEI, REEGLE.info, Data.gov and across the web. We help developers find...

  1. Statement of Authorized Signatory Party

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Statement of Authorized Signatory Party (For submitting electronic certified payroll records) This form is to serve as a letter acknowledging that I, _______________________ will serve as the authorized signatory party for (Name/Title) weekly certified payroll reports for the following contract, ___________________. (Contract #/Your Company) The following personnel will be responsible for the weekly data entry of payroll reports through the electronic certified payroll system via iSupplier

  2. Statement of Authorized Signatory Party

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Authorized Signatory Party (For submitting electronic certified payroll records) This form is to serve as a letter acknowledging that I, will serve as the authorized signatory party for weekly certified payroll reports for the following Sandia Labs (Example 1484583) contract number, In order to setup the master payroll please provide the following: * Type of Fringe Benefits ( or ) * If Plan, provide Cash Plan Plan Name: * * Actual Construction End Date: The company official is required to

  3. FAQ for Case Study Authors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reviews » FAQ for Case Study Authors Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background Materials FAQ for Case Study Authors BER Requirements Review 2015 ASCR Requirements Review 2015 Previous Reviews Requirements Review Reports Case Studies Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems:

  4. Federal Authorities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Authorities Federal Authorities DOE is the Sector Specific Agency (SSA) for Energy and within the Department ISER oversees all activities associated with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and the Energy Sector Specific Plan (SSP). In doing so, ISER maintains a close partnership with the two Energy Sector Coordinating Councils (SCCs), the Electricity SCC and the Oil and Natural Gas SCC, and governmental partners through the Critical Infrastructure Protection Advisory

  5. Poster Title LA-UR Number Author(s) Thumbnail

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Individual Permit Posters 1 December 4, 2013 Poster Title LA-UR Number Author(s) Thumbnail Contributions of Nitrite-Nitrogen, Nitrate-Nitrogen, and Orthophosphate Levels in Surface Water Runoff from Wildfire Severity Classes from the Las Conchas Fire in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, 2012 July 2013 Student Symposium LA-UR-13-25819 Anita Lavadie Solid and Dissolved Phase Aluminum in Storm Water Runoff on the Pajarito Plateau July 2013 Student Symposium LA-UR-13-25505 Daria Cuthbertson

  6. Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) is based in San Jose, California, and provides service in and around Santa Clara county. VTA provides bus and light rail service in Santa Clara County, as well as congestion mitigation, highway improvement projects, and countywide transportation planning. VTA's 423 buses serve an annual ridership of more than 39 million and cover approximately 326 square miles.

  7. Pueblo of Laguna Utility Authority

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PUEBLO OF LAGUNA UTILITY AUTHORITY TRIBAL UTILITY FORMATION: REGULATION, FINANCE AND BUSINESS STRUCTURE FACTS ON LAGUNA PUEBLO * LAGUNA IS LOCATED ABOUT 45 MILES WEST OF ALBUQUERQUE ON INTERSTATE 40 * RESERVATION CONSISTS OF APPROX. 500,000 ACRES OF LAND SITUATED IN CIBOLA, VALENCIA AND BERNALILLO COUNTIES * SIX (6) VILLAGES, LAGUNA, MESITA, PAGUATE, SEAMA, ENCINAL, PARAJE ARE ALL WITHIN THE LAGUNA RESERVATION * 4,000+ TRIBAL MEMBERS LIVE ON THE RESERVATION * CASINOS, TRAVEL CENTERS, SUPERMARKET

  8. Authorizing Official (AO) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Authorizing Official (AO) keyboard-621831960720.jpg The Authorizing Official (AO) is the Senior Federal DOE management official with the authority to assume responsibility for ...

  9. Excepted Service Authorities | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Excepted Service Authorities Excepted Service Authorities Excepted Service Authorities for EJ and EK Pay Plans EJ and EK Pay plans are unique to DOE. They were established under:...

  10. Lower Colorado River Authority | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    from Lower Colorado River Authority on Smart Grid communications requirements

  11. REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY LEAVE BLANK (NARA use only) JOB NUMBER To: NATIONAL ARCHIVES & RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 8601 ADELPHI ROAD, COLLEGE PARK, MD 20740-6001 Date Received 1. FROM (Agency or establishment) NOTIFICATION TO AGENCY In accordance with the provisions of 44 U.S.C 3303a, the disposition request, including amendments is approved except for items that may be marked "disposition not approved" or "withdrawn" in column 10. 2. MAJOR SUB DIVISION 3.

  12. Authorizing Official Designated Representative (AODR) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designated Representative (AODR) Authorizing Official Designated Representative (AODR) student-849822960720.jpg The Authorizing Official Designated Representative (AODR) provides...

  13. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  14. Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Authority Name: Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Address: 10 Park Plaza, Suite 3910 Boston, MA 02116 Zip: 02116 Website: www.mbta.com Coordinates:...

  15. Technological Research and Development Authority (TRDA) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Research and Development Authority (TRDA) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Technological Research and Development Authority (TRDA) Name: Technological Research and Development...

  16. Peoria Tribe: Housing Authority- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Housing Authority of the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma (Peoria Housing Authority or PHA) will conduct the "PHA Weatherization Training Project."

  17. Tennessee Valley Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Authority Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tennessee Valley Authority Place: Tennessee Phone Number: (865) 632-2101 Website: www.tva.gov Twitter: @tvanewsroom Facebook: https:...

  18. Central Characterization Program (CCP) Transuranic Authorized...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Authorized Methods for Payload Control Central Characterization Program (CCP) Transuranic Authorized Methods for Payload Control This document was used to determine facts and...

  19. Biofuel Authority Rajasthan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Authority Rajasthan Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biofuel Authority Rajasthan Place: Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Zip: 302005 Sector: Biofuels Product: Jaipur-based local body to...

  20. Export Authorizations - Procedures | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Export Authorizations - Procedures Export Authorizations - Procedures Part II, Section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) states that exports of electric energy should be...

  1. Coordination of Federal Authorizations for Electric Transmission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coordination of Federal Authorizations for Electric Transmission Facilities: Federal Register Notice Volume 73, No. 183 - Sep. 19, 2008 Coordination of Federal Authorizations for...

  2. Obama Administration Announces Billions in Lending Authority...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Billions in Lending Authority for Renewable Energy Projects and to Modernize the Grid Obama Administration Announces Billions in Lending Authority for Renewable Energy Projects and...

  3. Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Authorized Injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Authorized Injection Systems Webpage Author Oregon Department of...

  4. Grand River Dam Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    River Dam Authority Place: Oklahoma Phone Number: 918-256-5545 Website: www.grda.com Twitter: @okgrda Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesGrand-River-Dam-Authority...

  5. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority Metro...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County Metropolitan Transportation Authority Metro Jump to: navigation, search Name: Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) Place: Los Angeles, California...

  6. Indian National CDM Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Indian National CDM Authority Place: New Delhi, India Zip: 110 003 Product: Designated National Authority for India - approves CDM projects...

  7. DISPOSITION AUTHORITIES FROZEN UNDER THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL MORATORIUM |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy DISPOSITION AUTHORITIES FROZEN UNDER THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL MORATORIUM DISPOSITION AUTHORITIES FROZEN UNDER THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL MORATORIUM Listed on this document are all the disposition authorities which are under the moratorium on the destruction of health related records as of March 2008. PDF icon DISPOSITION AUTHORITIES FROZEN UNDER THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL MORATORIUM More Documents & Publications ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 17: CARTOGRAPHIC, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHIC,

  8. Energy Management Mandates by Federal Legal Authority

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal agencies are required to meet energy management mandates outlined by the following federal legal authorities.

  9. Customer Training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joint Operating Committee Transmission Issues Policy Steering Committee Customer Training Interconnection Small Generator Interconnection Procedures (SGIP) Balancing Authority...

  10. Property:File/Author | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Author Jump to: navigation, search Property Name FileAuthor Property Type String Description Individual that created the original file. Note that this will often not be the same...

  11. Municipal Electric Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Authority Jump to: navigation, search Name: Municipal Electric Authority Place: Georgia Phone Number: 1-800-333-MEAG; 770-563-0300 Website: www.meagpower.org Twitter:...

  12. American Samoa Power Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Samoa Power Authority Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Samoa Power Authority Place: American Samoa References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA...

  13. Guam Power Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Authority Jump to: navigation, search Name: Guam Power Authority Place: Hagatna, GU References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 SGIC2 EIA Form 861...

  14. Work Authorization System | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Work Authorization System More Documents & Publications Policy Flash 2014-30 DOE Order 412.1a, Work Authorization System Administrative Change EERE Program Management Guide - Chapter 6 Cost-Shared Development of Innovative Small Modular Reactor Designs

  15. HIPAA Authorization for Release of Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HIPAA AUTHORIZATION FOR RELEASE OF INFORMATION I. Information about the Use or Disclosure I hereby authorize the use and disclosure of protected health information as described below. Patient's full name: Date of Birth: Persons/organizations (or class of persons/organizations) authorized to use and disclose the information: Argonne National Laboratory Employee Benefits Department Persons/organizations (or class of persons/organizations) authorized to receive and use the information: Specific

  16. GM-Ford-Chrysler: Allocating Loan Authority

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Statement from GM, Ford, and Chrysler: "Allocating the $25 Billion in Direct Loan Authority to Loan Applicants"

  17. Statutory Rules and Authorities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About » Statutory Rules and Authorities Statutory Rules and Authorities The United States Congress has mandated through various statutes that the Department of Energy (DOE) is to implement energy conservation standards and test procedures for residential products and commercial and industrial equipment. DOE has published regulations in the Code of Federal Regulations for more than 50 categories of appliance and equipment types. Statutory Authorities The authority to develop, revise, and

  18. State authorization manual. Volume 2. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugler-Jones, S.

    1990-10-01

    The document provides the supportive appendices for Volume 1 of the State Authorization Manual (SAM), which provides guidance for States applying for program revisions to their authorized RCRA State program. Among the appendices are: various program checklists, lists of revision checklists by cluster, model Federal Register Notices, guidance for State Authorization Files, and guidance for using Wordperfect files and for CFR files.

  19. Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles, Responsibilities, Authorities and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accountabilities | Department of Energy Partnership Ombudsman - Roles, Responsibilities, Authorities and Accountabilities Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles, Responsibilities, Authorities and Accountabilities PDF icon Revised Roles and Responsibilities August 9 2011 FINAL.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles, Responsibilities, Authorities and Accountabilities TT Coordinator Ltr dated May 13 2010 ADR Revised Policy

  20. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Appendix B, Flow sheets and material balances: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    This document accompanies a full report which describes the testing and evaluation of ten different methods for incinerating mixed low-level radioactive wastes. It consists of flowsheets and diagrams of a rotary kiln, pyrolysis methods, a plasma furnace, a fixed hearth, and thermal desorption methods.

  1. Balancing particle absorption with structural support of the muon beam stop in muons-to-electrons experimental chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majewski, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is seeking a full conversion from muon to electron. The design for Mu2e is based off MECO, another proposed experiment that sought a full conversion from muon to electron at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the 1990s. Mu2e will provide sensitivity that is four times the sensitivity of the previous experiment, SINDRUM II. Discovering muon to electron conversions could help explain physics beyond the standard model of the particle physics.

  2. Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W.; Wilson, John K.

    2011-11-01

    Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We report on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3C difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5C) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5C, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2C). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.

  3. Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W.; Wilson, John K.

    2011-11-01

    Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We reportmore » on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.« less

  4. Reactor Chamber and Balance-of-Plant Characteristics for a Fast-Ignition Heavy-Ion Fusion Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medin, Stanislav; Churazov, Mikhail; Koshkarev, Dmitri; Sharkov, Boris; Orlov, Yurii; Suslin, Viktor; Zemskov, Eugeni

    2003-05-15

    The concept of a fast-ignition heavy-ion fusion (FIHIF) power plant involves a cylindrical target and superhigh energy ion beams. The driver produces one plus/minus charge state multimass platinum ions with energy of 100 GeV. The driver efficiency and the target gain are taken as 0.25 and 100, respectively. The preliminary data on the energy fluxes delivered to the reactor chamber wall by the 500-MJ fusion yield are presented. The reactor chamber designed has two sections. In the first section, the microexplosions occur, and in the second section of bigger volume the expansion and condensation of vapors take place. The response of the blanket and the thin liquid film at the first-wall surface is evaluated. Lithium-lead eutectic is taken as a coolant. The evaporated mass and the condensation time are estimated, taking into account major thermophysical effects. The estimated neutron spectrum from the FIHIF target gives an average neutron energy of 11.9 MeV. The mechanical stresses in the construction material due to neutron energy release are evaluated. The outlet coolant chamber temperature is taken as 550 deg. C. The heat conversion system consisting of three coolant loops provides a net efficiency of the FIHIF power plant of 0.37.

  5. Balance of Plant System Analysis and Component Design of Turbo-Machinery for High Temperature Gas Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Ronald G.; Wang, Chun Yun; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil; Mirick, Bradley; Demetri, Eli; Koronowski, Martin

    2004-08-30

    The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor system (MPBR) requires a gas turbine cycle (Brayton cycle) as the power conversion system for it to achieve economic competitiveness as a Generation IV nuclear system. The availability of controllable helium turbomachinery and compact heat exchangers are thus the critical enabling technology for the gas turbine cycle. The development of an initial reference design for an indirect helium cycle has been accomplished with the overriding constraint that this design could be built with existing technology and complies with all current codes and standards. Using the initial reference design, limiting features were identified. Finally, an optimized reference design was developed by identifying key advances in the technology that could reasonably be expected to be achieved with limited R&D. This final reference design is an indirect, intercooled and recuperated cycle consisting of a three-shaft arrangement for the turbomachinery system. A critical part of the design process involved the interaction between individual component design and overall plant performance. The helium cycle overall efficiency is significantly influenced by performance of individual components. Changes in the design of one component, a turbine for example, often required changes in other components. To allow for the optimization of the overall design with these interdependencies, a detailed steady state and transient control model was developed. The use of the steady state and transient models as a part of an iterative design process represents a key contribution of this work. A dynamic model, MPBRSim, has been developed. The model integrates the reactor core and the power conversion system simultaneously. Physical parameters such as the heat exchangers; weights and practical performance maps such as the turbine characteristics and compressor characteristics are incorporated into the model. The individual component models as well as the fully integrated model of the power conversion system have been verified with an industry-standard general thermal-fluid code Flownet. With respect to the dynamic model, bypass valve control and inventory control have been used as the primary control methods for the power conversion system. By performing simulation using the dynamic model with the designed control scheme, the combination of bypass and inventory control was optimized to assure system stability within design temperature and pressure limits. Bypass control allows for rapid control system response while inventory control allows for ultimate steady state operation at part power very near the optimum operating point for the system. Load transients simulations show that the indirect, three-shaft arrangement gas turbine power conversion system is stable and controllable. For the indirect cycle the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is the interface between the reactor and the turbomachinery systems. As a part of the design effort the IHX was identified as the key component in the system. Two technologies, printed circuit and compact plate-fin, were investigated that have the promise of meeting the design requirements for the system. The reference design incorporates the possibility of using either technology although the compact plate-fin design was chosen for subsequent analysis. The thermal design and parametric analysis with an IHX and recuperator using the plate-fin configuration have been performed. As a three-shaft arrangement, the turbo-shaft sets consist of a pair of turbine/compressor sets (high pressure and low pressure turbines with same-shaft compressor) and a power turbine coupled with a synchronous generator. The turbines and compressors are all axial type and the shaft configuration is horizontal. The core outlet/inlet temperatures are 900/520 C, and the optimum pressure ratio in the power conversion cycle is 2.9. The design achieves a plant net efficiency of approximately 48%.

  6. Export Authorizations - Procedures | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Export Authorizations - Procedures Export Authorizations - Procedures Part II, Section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) states that exports of electric energy should be allowed unless the proposed export would impair the sufficiency of electric power supply within the U.S. or would impede or tend to impede the coordinated use of the U.S. power supply network. Based on these guidelines, DOE will grant authorization to export electric energy if it is determined that: 1.Sufficient generating

  7. Excepted Service Authority for Exceptionally Well Qualified ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Service Authority for Exceptionally Well Qualified (EWQ) EQ Pay Plan Employees by Erin Moore Functional areas: Excepted Service, EWQ Pay Plan Employees The order establishes...

  8. Wyoming Infrastructure Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Wyoming Infrastructure Authority Abbreviation: WIA Address: 200 E. 17th Street, Unit B Place: Cheyenne, WY Zip: 82001 Year Founded: 2004 Phone Number: (307) 635-3573...

  9. Montana Water Quality Permit Application, Nondegradation Authorization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Permit Application, Nondegradation Authorization, and Permit Fees Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance -...

  10. Tecumseh Utility Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Tecumseh Utility Authority Place: Oklahoma Phone Number: 405-598-2189 Website: tecumseh.squarespace.comutili Outage Hotline: After Hours 405-598-3755...

  11. Montana Produced Water General Permit - Example Authorization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Permit. Author Montana Department of Environmental Quality - Water Protection Bureau Published State of Montana, 052010 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability:...

  12. Montana Construction Dewatering General Permit - Example Authorization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Permit. Author Montana Department of Environmental Quality - Water Protection Bureau Published State of montana, 92010 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:...

  13. Laurentian Energy Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Laurentian Energy Authority Place: Minnesota Sector: Biomass Product: Joint venture between Hibbing and Virginia Public Utilities to develope, own and manage a...

  14. Brazos River Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Texas Phone Number: 1-888-922-6272 Website: www.brazos.org Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesBrazos-River-Authority126719790675809?frefts Outage Hotline:...

  15. Lower Colorado River Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Lower Colorado River Authority Place: Texas Website: www.lcra.orgPagesdefault.asp Twitter: @lcra Facebook: https:www.facebook.comlowercoloradoriverauthority Outage...

  16. Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles, Responsibilities, Authorities and

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Accountabilities | Department of Energy Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles, Responsibilities, Authorities and Accountabilities Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles, Responsibilities, Authorities and Accountabilities The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for the performance of the Technology Partnership Ombudsman function at the national laboratories and facilities within the Department of Energy, and to implement the requirements of the Technology Transfer

  17. Survey of Variable Generation Forecasting in the West: August 2011 - June 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2012-04-01

    This report surveyed Western Interconnection Balancing Authorities regarding their implementation of variable generation forecasting, the lessons learned to date, and recommendations they would offer to other Balancing Authorities who are considering variable generation forecasting. Our survey found that variable generation forecasting is at an early implementation stage in the West. Eight of the eleven Balancing Authorities interviewed began forecasting in 2008 or later. It also appears that less than one-half of the Balancing Authorities in the West are currently utilizing variable generation forecasting, suggesting that more Balancing Authorities in the West will engage in variable generation forecasting should more variable generation capacity be added.

  18. Peoria Tribal Housing Authority: Weatherization Training Project

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Program 2009 Program Review Denver Colorado  Jason Dollarhide, Second Chief  Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma  Deputy Director, Housing Authority of the Peoria Tribe  The Peoria Tribe is located in Miami, Oklahoma  We currently have an enrollment of 2,900 Tribal members  The Peoria Tribal operations and Housing Authority employ 39 persons.  The Peoria Tribe and Housing Authority work in partnership with the Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma. We manage 127 low-rent units in various

  19. PP-369 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PP-369 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority PP-369 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority Presidential Permit authorizing British Columbia and Power Authority to...

  20. Energy Department Authorizes Sabine Pass Liquefaction's Expansion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Sabine Pass LNG Terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana is authorized to export additional volumes of LNG up to the equivalent of 1.38 billion standard cubic feet per day (Bcfd) ...

  1. Energy Department Authorizes Corpus Christi Liquefaction Project...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ...LNG) to countries that do not have a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States. The Corpus Christi Liquefaction Project in Corpus Christi, Texas is authorized to export LNG ...

  2. Saint Paul Port Authority PACE Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     Note:  In 2010, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA), which has authority over mortgage underwriters Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, directed these enterprises against purchasing mortgages of...

  3. Safety Management Functions, Responsibilities, and Authorities Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-10-08

    This Manual defines safety management functions, responsibilities, and authorities for DOE senior management with responsibilities for line, support, oversight, and enforcement actions. Canceled by DOE M 411.1-1A. Does not cancel other directives.

  4. Tennessee Valley Authority (Mississippi) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Tennessee Valley Authority Place: Mississippi References: Energy Information Administration.1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 18642 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  5. Arizona Power Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arizona Power Authority Place: Arizona Phone Number: 602-368-4265 Website: www.powerauthority.org Outage Hotline: 602-368-4265 References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for...

  6. Safety Management Functions, Responsibilities, and Authorities Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-12-31

    This Manual defines safety management functions, responsibilities, and authorities for DOE senior management with responsibilities for line, support, oversight, and enforcement actions. Cancels DOE M 411.1-1B. Canceled by DOE O 450.2.

  7. Platte River Power Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Platte River Power Authority Place: Colorado Website: www.prpa.org Facebook: https:www.facebook.comPlatteRiverPower Outage Hotline: 1-888-748-5113 References:...

  8. 5.0 INTERFACE OF REGULATORY AUTHORITIES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5-1 5.0 INTERFACE OF REGULATORY AUTHORITIES 5.1 REGULATORY PROGRAMS The RCRA, CERCLA, and State Dangerous Waste Program overlap in many areas. In general, CERCLA was created by...

  9. Kissimmee Utility Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Kissimmee Utility Authority Place: Florida Phone Number: 407) 933-9800 or toll-free at (877) 582-7700 Website: www.kua.com Outage Hotline: 407) 933-9800 or toll-free at...

  10. Part 2: CERCLA Authority | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2: CERCLA Authority Part 2: CERCLA Authority Question: When is DOE response under CERCLA necessary? Answer: Response under CERCLA may be necessary when all of the following four thresholds are crossed: a hazardous substance is released or there is a substantial threat of a release into the environment, and response is necessary to protect public health, welfare, or the environment. These thresholds are established by CERCLA section 104(a) and most of the key terms are defined by CERCLA. There

  11. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regulatory Authorities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulatory Authorities About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Regulatory Authorities Beginning | Regulations Today | Coordinating Agencies | Regulation of Mergers and Acquisitions Beginning of Industry Restructuring In April 1992, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued its Order 636 and transformed the interstate natural gas transportation segment of the industry forever. Under it,

  12. ARM - Firearm Training and Authorization List

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AlaskaFirearm Training and Authorization List NSA Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Barrow Atqasuk Oliktok Point (AMF3) ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Visiting the Site NSA Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts Firearm Training and Authorization List As of November 5, 2007 Name Affiliation Firearms Safety Training (FST 100) Firearms Safety Training Refresher (FST 100R) Standard First Aid Training (MED 102) Heartsaver CPR

  13. Safety Management Functions, Responsibilities, and Authorities

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-05-22

    This Manual provides the responsibilities of Headquarters and field element offices required by DOE P 411.1, Safety Management Functions, Responsibilities and Authorities Policy, dated 1-28-97. It also contains detailed requirements to supplement the policy's direction for each DOE organization having safety management functions to establish and maintain separate documentation of their responsibilities and authorities. Cancels DOE M 411.1-1A. Canceled by DOE M 411.1-1C.

  14. Optimal spin-quantization axes for the polarization of dileptons...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the jet that provides most of the balancing transverse momentum. Authors: Braaten, Eric ; Kang, Daekyoung 1 ; Lee, Jungil ; Yu, Chaehyun 2 + Show Author Affiliations...

  15. Optimal spin-quantization axes for quarkonium with large transverse...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the jet that provides most of the balancing transverse momentum. Authors: Braaten, Eric ; Kang, Daekyoung 1 ; Lee, Jungil ; Yu, Chaehyun 2 + Show Author Affiliations...

  16. WPN 06-7: Delegation of Authority

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To delegate the authority formerly given to either Regional Office Director, Regional Support Office Director and/or Support Office Director under Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program to either the Manager, Golden Field Office or to the Director, Project Management Center.

  17. Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  18. The International Authority on Air Movement Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    International Authority on Air Movement Systems TO: expartecommunications@hq.doe.gov (sent via email) CC: Ashley.Armstrong@ee.doe.gov FROM: Mark Stevens, Executive Director of AMCA International DATE: November 9, 2015 RE: Memorandum Memorializing Ex Parte Communication, November 9, 2015 related to DOE impending coverage for commercial and industrial fans, blowers, and fume hoods, Docket No. EERE---2011---BT---DET---0045. Meeting Purpose: The meeting was requested by AMCA International to inform

  19. Title Preliminary Assessment of Geothermal Potential Author

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Preliminary Assessment of Geothermal Potential Author Harry Reid Center / PAI 101443 Document Date ERC Index number 12/30/94 05.09.487 Document Type Box Number Report 1667-1 Recipients DOE DE-FC08-93NV11399 NTSEIS ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL NEVADA TEST SITE j NYE COUNTY, NEVADA Prepared for: UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Prepared by: DIVISION OF EARTH SCIENCES HARRY REID CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA, LAS VEGAS LAS VEGAS,

  20. Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority Name: Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority Address: 1435...

  1. Long Island Power Authority Solar Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Island Power Authority Solar Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Long Island Power Authority Solar Project Facility Long Island Power Authority Solar Project Sector Solar...

  2. Cape Cod Regional Transit Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cod Regional Transit Authority Jump to: navigation, search Name Cape Cod Regional Transit Authority Facility Cape Cod Regional Transit Authority Sector Wind energy Facility Type...

  3. REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY RS-Weapons X-Rays PDF icon REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY More Documents & Publications...

  4. REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Request for Records Disposition Authority PDF icon REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY More Documents & Publications Request For Records Disposition Authority Request For Records Disposition Request For Records Disposition Authority

  5. Authorized limits for Fernald copper ingots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frink, N.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Chen, S. Y.

    1997-09-01

    This development document contains data and analysis to support the approval of authorized limits for the unrestricted release of 59 t of copper ingots containing residual radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The analysis presented in this document comply with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,{close_quotes} as well as the requirements of the proposed promulgation of this order as 10 CFR Part 834. The document was developed following the step-by-step process described in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material.

  6. Request For Records Disposition Authority | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Request For Records Disposition Authority Request For Records Disposition Authority National Archives Pacific Southwest Region PDF icon Request For Records Disposition Authority More Documents & Publications REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY Request For Records Disposition Autnority

  7. PP-30 New York Power Authority | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New York Power Authority PP-30 New York Power Authority Presidential permit authorizing New York Power Authority to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmissionf facilities at the U.S-Canada border. PDF icon PP-30 New York Power Authority More Documents & Publications PP-32 Eastern Maine Electric Cooperative Inc PP-10 Bonneville Power Administrator PP-10-1 Bonneville Power Administrator

  8. REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Power Plant Docket Records PDF icon REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY More Documents & Publications PIA - Savannah River Remediation Accreditation Boundary (SRR AB) REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY

  9. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: New York Power Authority | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy New York Power Authority Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: New York Power Authority Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: New York Power Authority Following their comprehensive sustainability plan, the New York Power Authority (NYPA) works to integrate sustainable programs and projects into all aspects of the Power Authority's operations. In 2013, as part of the Power Authority's workplace charging pilot program, NYPA has installed three charging stations strictly for employee

  10. Know How to Make Authorized JLab Procurements | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Know How to Make Authorized JLab Procurements An occasional question received in Procurement is: Who is authorized to buy an item or tell a subcontractor to go to work? The answer is: Those who have Procurement Authority, which is delegated in writing to authorized personnel by the Procurement Manager. The authority to obligate Jefferson Lab to standard business agreements, and to delegate this authority to others, is given to the Procurement Manager by the Lab Director. What is an Unauthorized

  11. Comments of the Lower Colorado River Authority | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Lower Colorado River Authority Comments of the Lower Colorado River Authority Comments of the Lower Colorado River Authority on Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy PDF icon Comments of the Lower Colorado River Authority More Documents & Publications Lower Colorado River Authority Lower Colorado River Authority NBP RFI: Communications Requirements- Comments of Meeker Cooperative Light

  12. Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Moves Forward with First Utility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Moves Forward with First Utility-Scale Solar Plant Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Moves Forward with First Utility-Scale Solar Plant January 14, ...

  13. Presidential Permits and Export Authorizations - About the Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    andor maintenance of electric transmission lines which cross the U.S. international border; and 2.Authorizing exports of electric energy to foreign countries. The authority to...

  14. EPA - State NPDES Program Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    states are authorized to oversee the National Pollutant Discharge Control system. Author Environmental Protection Agency Published Environmental Protection Agency, 2014 DOI Not...

  15. Project Reports for Peoria Tribe: Housing Authority- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Housing Authority of the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma (Peoria Housing Authority or PHA) will conduct the "PHA Weatherization Training Project."

  16. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #34B Direct Hire Authority for Contract...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4B Direct Hire Authority for Contract Specialist positions POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 34B Direct Hire Authority for Contract Specialist positions Policy Guidance Memorandum 34B...

  17. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #09A Direct Hire Authority for Acquisition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09A Direct Hire Authority for Acquisition Positions (Expired) POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 09A Direct Hire Authority for Acquisition Positions (Expired) THIS GUIDANCE HAS EXPIRED...

  18. New York State Energy Research and Development Authority NYSERDA...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Research and Development Authority NYSERDA Jump to: navigation, search Name: New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) Place: Albany, New York Zip: NY...

  19. New York State Energy Research and Development Authority | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Research and Development Authority Jump to: navigation, search Logo: New York State Energy Research and Development Authority Name: New York State Energy Research and Development...

  20. Nuclear Decommissioning Authority of the United Kingdom NDA ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Decommissioning Authority of the United Kingdom NDA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nuclear Decommissioning Authority of the United Kingdom (NDA) Place: Cumbria, England, United...

  1. NMOCD - Form G-104 - Certificate of Compliance and Authorization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: NMOCD - Form G-104 - Certificate of Compliance and Authorization to Produce Geothermal Resources Author...

  2. PP-56- Power Authority of the State of New York

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presidential Permit authorizing Power Authority of the State of New York to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S. - Canada Border.

  3. Orders Granting Natural Gas, LNG & CNG Authorizations Issued...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Orders Granting Natural Gas, LNG & CNG Authorizations Issued in 2014 Orders Granting Natural Gas, LNG & CNG Authorizations Issued in 2014 Order 3378 - Encana Natural Gas Inc. Order...

  4. ALASKA ENERGY AUTHORITY Alaska Geothermal Development: A Plan...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ALASKA ENERGY AUTHORITY Alaska Geothermal Development: A Plan Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: ALASKA ENERGY AUTHORITY Alaska Geothermal...

  5. National Training and Education Resource Authoring Course Participant Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Authoring Course Participant Guide NTER Authoring Participant Guide (01/2012 pw) 2 Table of Contents: OBJECTIVES .......................................................................................................................................... 4 OVERVIEW OF NTER ............................................................................................................................ 5 System Requirements

  6. Delegation of Safety Authorities (Jackson - EM) - DOE Directives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety Authorities (Jackson - EM) by jackson DelegationofSafetyAuthorities-JacksonEM.pdf -- PDF Document, 2.38 MB ID: NA Type: Organizations' Assignment of Responsibility...

  7. Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District -- Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San ...

  8. Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District Fuel Cell ...

  9. National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 3164...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 3164: Whistleblower Protection Program National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 3164: Whistleblower...

  10. Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH TRAMPAC) Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH TRAMPAC) This...

  11. REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: Cyclotron Records PDF icon REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY More Documents & Publications REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY...

  12. Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority Place: Cape May Court House, New Jersey Zip: 8210...

  13. New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY This presentation on the NYSERDA Hydrogen...

  14. Request For Records Disposition Authority | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Energy Equity Re-determination Records PDF icon Request For Records Disposition Authority More Documents & Publications REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY Inspection ...

  15. Presidential Permits and Export Authorizations- Frequently Asked Questions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Frequently asked questions about Presidential Permits, Export Authorizations, Self Certifications, and Annual Reports related to permitting.

  16. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #09A Direct Hire Authority for Acquisition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Positions (Expired) | Department of Energy 09A Direct Hire Authority for Acquisition Positions (Expired) POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #09A Direct Hire Authority for Acquisition Positions (Expired) THIS GUIDANCE HAS EXPIRED This Policy on Direct Hire Authority for Acquisition Positions has been replaced by POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #34B Direct Hire Authority for Contract Specialist Positions PDF icon POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #09A Direct Hire Authority for Acquisition Positions (Expired)

  17. PP-22 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, Amendment 1967 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hydro and Power Authority, Amendment 1967 PP-22 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, Amendment 1967 Presidential permit authorizing British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmision facilities at the U.S-Canadian border. PDF icon PP-22 British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority More Documents & Publications PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited, Amendment 1957 PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company,

  18. BPA Response to Customer Comments-EBBA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integration Team Responses to Customer Comments Received on BPA's Proposed Enhanced BPA Balancing Authority (EBBA) - 61212 Table of Contents 1. Market-based Mechanisms...

  19. Microsoft Word - Alcoa Extension EBT ROD Attachments - 2010-10...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    built in the Pacific Northwest is modeled to be consistent with Transmission Services' forecast of installed wind generation capacity in BPA's Balancing Authority Area. For...

  20. Statement of Peter Lyons Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    has adequate authority and leadership to execute its mission, and balances the need for independence of the organization with appropriate oversight mechanisms. Whatever form the...

  1. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Conference

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    turned out for EIA's 2015 Energy Conference, June 15 ... To be added to the mailing list to receive information about ... EIA-930 Hourly Electricity Balancing Authority Data ...

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reliability web page: http:www.eia.govcneafelectricitypageeia411eia411.html Net Energy for Load represents net Balancing Authority Area generation, plus energy...

  3. EPA Class V Permitting Authorities Website | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Authorities Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA Class V Permitting Authorities Website Abstract Provides overview of Class V...

  4. REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U. S. Atomic Energy Commision PDF icon REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY More Documents & Publications REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY DOE-HDBK-1109-97 DOE-HDBK-1109-97

  5. REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pacific Northwest Lab: Richland Operations Office PDF icon REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY More Documents & Publications REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY Request For Records Disposition Autnority ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 21:AUDIOVISUAL RECORDS (Revision 1)

  6. National Training and Education Resource Advanced Authoring Training

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Authoring Training Participant Guide NTER Advanced Authoring Training Participant Guide (03/2012 pw) 2 Contents OBJECTIVES ......................................................................................................................................... 3 HOW TO IMPORT POWERPOINT INTO NTER .................................................................................. 4 Several Ways to import PowerPoint

  7. Authorization basis status report (miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, R.G.

    1998-04-29

    This report presents the results of a systematic evaluation conducted to identify miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components with potential needed authorization basis upgrades. It provides the Authorization Basis upgrade plan for those miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components identified.

  8. Energy Department Authorizes Jordan Cove to Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Terminal in Coos Bay, Oregon Authorized to Export Liquefied Natural Gas to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries

  9. Fort Pierce Utilities Authority- Solar Water Heating Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Fort Pierce Utilities Authority has completed its rebate program for 2015. Check the website for updates.

  10. Leading the Charge: Akwesasne Housing Authority Director Retha Herne |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Akwesasne Housing Authority Director Retha Herne Leading the Charge: Akwesasne Housing Authority Director Retha Herne October 28, 2015 - 9:02am Addthis Energy-efficient homes in AHA’s Sunrise Acres Complex include such features as rooftop solar domestic hot water. Photo from Akwesasne Housing Authority. Energy-efficient homes in AHA's Sunrise Acres Complex include such features as rooftop solar domestic hot water. Photo from Akwesasne Housing Authority. Solar panels

  11. Attachment H: Delegation of Authority Memorandum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    H: Delegation of Authority Memorandum Attachment H: Delegation of Authority Memorandum United States Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: August 14, 1994 REPLY TO ATTN OF: EM-16 SUBJECT: Delegation of Authority TO: Manager, DOE Operations Offices Manager, Fernald Field Office Manager, Rocky Flats Office Manager, Golden Office On April 21, 1994, a memorandum delegating certain authorities related to financial assistance agreements was sent to you. I am expanding the original delegation to

  12. Electronic Funds Transfer Authorization Form 4/2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vendor Information Company Name or DBA: Address: City/State/Zip: Internal Use Only Electronic Funds Transfer Authorization Form I, an authorized signer on the below account, hereby authorize Los Alamos National Laboratory, hereinafter called the Laboratory, to originate Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) credits for invoice payments (vendors), travel reimbursements, small purchase reimbursements and royalty payments (employees). I further authorize the Laboratory to originate ACH debits to this

  13. NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000 NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000 An Act to authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2000 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe personnel strengths for such fiscal year for the Armed Forces, and for other purposes. PDF icon NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000 More Documents

  14. Authorizing Legislation: HR 3979, SEC. 3039 Manhattan Project National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Historical Park | Department of Energy Operational Management » History » Manhattan Project National Historical Park » Authorizing Legislation: HR 3979, SEC. 3039 Manhattan Project National Historical Park Authorizing Legislation: HR 3979, SEC. 3039 Manhattan Project National Historical Park Section 3039 from the 2015 National Defense Authorization Act, authorizing the Manhattan Project National Historical Park. File HR 3979 Park Bill.docx PDF icon mapr_540-108834-C_Sept 2012.pdf More

  15. REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AEC - Power Reactor Records, Summaries of Data and Statistics Useful in the Control of Operations, Source Records Utilized in Compiling Summaries and Reports in Operations Control, II-NNA-2110 PDF icon REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY More Documents & Publications REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY DOE F 1324.10 REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY

  16. Authorize_Changes_Contractor_Work_Force_Restructuring_Policy.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Authorize_Changes_Contractor_Work_Force_Restructuring_Policy.pdf Authorize_Changes_Contractor_Work_Force_Restructuring_Policy.pdf PDF icon Authorize_Changes_Contractor_Work_Force_Restructuring_Policy.pdf More Documents & Publications Workforce Restructuring Policy Draft Policy and Planning Guidance for Community Transition Activities General Workforce Restructuring Plan Template

  17. NTER Authoring Training Participant_Guide_2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NTER Authoring Training Participant_Guide_2012 NTER Authoring Training Participant_Guide_2012 PDF icon NTER Authoring Training Participant_Guide_2012.pdf More Documents & Publications NTERTraining Guides Creating a Test in NTER Participant_Guide_2012 RingCentral User Guide

  18. Confidentiality Agreement between the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    US Department of Energy | Department of Energy Services » Communication & Engagement » International Programs » Confidentiality Agreement between the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority and US Department of Energy Confidentiality Agreement between the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority and US Department of Energy Confidentiality Agreement between the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority in UK and US Department of Energy PDF icon Confidentiality Agreement between the Nuclear Decommissioning

  19. Western Area Power Administration Borrowing Authority, Recovery Act |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration Borrowing Authority, Recovery Act Western Area Power Administration Borrowing Authority, Recovery Act PDF icon Microsoft Word - PSRP May 15 2009 _WAPA Borrowing Authority_ Final.docx More Documents & Publications WAPA Recovery Act Implementation Appropriation Microsoft Word - PSRP Updates 6-25-10_v2 Bonneville Power Administration Program Specific Recovery Plan

  20. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Warren

    2014-07-03

    As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance.