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Sample records for bahamas belize bolivia

  1. Belize Electricity Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Belize Electricity Limited Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Belize Electricity Limited Name: Belize Electricity Limited Abbreviation: BEL Address: PO Box 327 Place: Belize City,...

  2. Status of U.S. Nuclear Outages - U.S. Energy Information Administratio...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  3. International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  4. Eia.gov BETA - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  5. Sandia Energy - SNL-ESSC (Sandia National Laboratories - Extreme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana...

  6. Belize-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Belize-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name Belize-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and...

  7. Bahamas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ), created in order to serve as the primary governing body for electronic communications in the Bahamas. The URCA is to assume responsibility for the electricity...

  8. Bahamas-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bahamas-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name Bahamas-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and...

  9. Belize: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Belize Population 324,528 GDP 1,554,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.02 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BZ 3-letter ISO code BLZ Numeric ISO...

  10. Bahamas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name The Bahamas Population 254,685 GDP 8,043,000,000 Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BS 3-letter ISO code BHS Numeric ISO code...

  11. Belize-OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment Jump to: navigation, search Name Belize-OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment AgencyCompany Organization Organization of American...

  12. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Bahamas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas - a country consisting of more than 700 islands, cays, and islets - of which only 30 are actually inhabited. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  13. Bolivia renewable energy development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.

    1997-12-01

    The author summarizes changes which have occurred in Bolivia in the past year which have had an impact on renewable energy source development. Political changes have included the privatization of power generation and power distribution, and resulted in a new role for state level government and participation by the individual. A National Rural Electrification Plan was adopted in 1996, which stresses the use of GIS analysis and emphasizes factors such as off grid, economic index, population density, maintenance risk, and local organizational structure. The USAID program has chosen to stress economic development, environmental programs, and health over village power programs. The national renewables program has adopted a new development direction, with state projects, geothermal projects, and private sector involvement stressed.

  14. Bolivia: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that, reflecting the trend in some of its neighbors, Bolivia has been moving toward ending state oil company YPFB's dominance over E and P. YPFB has controlled two-thirds of the oil fields, but that figure may decline in the future. A new petroleum law due for enactment this year would allow foreign companies to work in landlocked Bolivia either as risk operators or as in association with YPFB. Once a field is declared commercial, YPFB would come in to participate, but operators would be able to repatriate their earnings.

  15. New venture opportunities in Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, M.C.W. )

    1993-02-01

    Some parts of Bolivia are at a semi-mature level of exploration. Other large regions are underdrilled; some have not been drilled at all, for example the Altiplano (early discouragement) and Northern Bolivia (remoteness, unresolved stratigraphy and, in the Northern Subandes, structural complexity). Now that more geological data are becoming available and new contracts, favorable to overseas investors, have been formulated, an exploration renewal is underway, backed by the major and many leading independent companies. Half the former and current producing fields are located in the Southern Subandes-an area where until very recently no seismic exploration had been carried out. Modern seismic techniques allied to fold-thrust models applied successfully elsewhere by overseas companies are expected to yield a stream of new fields and deep pool discoveries in this region. Conditions are also favorable for production enhancement using horizontal drilling. In the adjacent Foothills, Boomerang and Chaco fields, the relationships between trap development and migration are being understood. Improved knowledge of potential reservoir distribution (particularly Silurian reefs and Cretaceous non-marine sands) will improve drilling success in these areas. Of the higher risk areas, the Altiplano is relatively accessible and straddles potential export routes but has escaped serious exploration until now, despite the presence of seeps and large structures. Northern Bolivia is one of the least explored segments of the Subandean chain but numerous seeps and recent discoveries demonstrate hydrocarbon availability.

  16. Belize-Low-Carbon Energy for Central America: Building a Regional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low-Carbon Energy for Central America: Building a Regional Model Jump to: navigation, search Name Belize-Low-Carbon Energy for Central America: Building a Regional Model Agency...

  17. Photovoltaic water pumping for Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, H.N.; Garvison, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the design, installation and performance of photovoltaically-powered water pumping systems which provide potable water to residents of three villages in the Altiplano region of Bolivia. The installation of these systems during August 1986 was the culmination of a cooperative effort between The World Bank, US Department of Energy and the Bolivian government. This project was configured to demonstrate, through pilot systems, the many potential benefits of using photovoltaic water pumping in developing countries. The lessons learned through the procurement and installation of these systems are discussed and the resulting benefits of the project to international lending institutions, US industry, and the Bolivian participants are examined.

  18. Bolivia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Bolivia Population 10,556,102 GDP 29,802 Energy Consumption 0.25 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BO 3-letter ISO code BOL Numeric ISO...

  19. An Energy Overview of Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    anon.

    2003-08-13

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy maintained a web site that was meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consisted of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There were also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these was a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Bolivia.

  20. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  1. Stump the Scientist Question Form | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Please Help Us Stump the Scientist Ask Your Question *Required fields Name* Email* School/Company* Twitter Handle Country* Select Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad

  2. Physical constraints on dolomite crust formation, Ambergris Cay Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell, B.A.; Bischoff, W.D.; Mazzullo, S.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomitic crusts forming on a peritidal flat on Ambergris Cay, Belize, occur beneath surface sediment adjacent to, but not within, small saline (60-90 ppt) ponds. Upper crusts, 2-12 cm thick forming at or slightly below the water table (approximately equivalent to lagoon water level) are areally restricted by (1) ponds where sediment lies below 20-50 cm of water, (2) high and relatively dry areas where sediment accumulation of more than 15 cm above water level supports diverse vegetation, and (3) low areas affected by mangrove encroachment where preexisting crusts are perforated by roots and displaced. The lower crusts occur immediately above the Pleistocene in lows beneath the Holocene sediment and on exposed Pleistocene surfaces. Estimates from x-ray diffraction analysis indicate 80-100% dolomite content within the upper crusts and 50-60% dolomite content in the lower crusts. Unlithified sediment above and below the upper crust contain up to 80% dolomite. Compositions range from Ca{sub 56}, Mg{sub 44} in the upper crusts to Ca{sub 60} Mg{sub 40} in the lower crusts. There is no correlation between stoichiometry and ordering in the dolomites; all are poorly ordered as indicated by very weak (015) and (021) superstructure peaks. Where crusts are not 100% dolomite, the dolomite is evident as euhedral cements within pores, especially within foraminiferal tests, and as micrite along algal laminations and walls of burrows. However, preliminary examinations with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray mapping show that magnesium enrichment is pervasive within these crusts and may represent Mg-enrichment of calcite as an intermediate stage in dolomite formation.

  3. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Belize; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Belize, a Central American country bordering Mexico to the north, Guatemala to the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea to the east. Although not an island nation, Belize is included in this energy snapshot series because it is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), an alliance of 15 Caribbean nations in the region.

  4. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project.

  5. Bolivia-USAID Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    USAID Climate Activities Jump to: navigation, search Name Bolivia-USAID Climate Activities AgencyCompany Organization U.S. Agency for International Development Sector Land Focus...

  6. Bolivia-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) Jump to: navigation, search Name Bolivia-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector...

  7. Limits of industrialization in the less-developed world: Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckstein, S.; Hagopian, F.

    1983-10-01

    This article examines structural conditions impeding industrialization in underdeveloped countries. Bolivia provides an especially valuable case for study because it is one of the few countries that experienced a revolution in which a new political group committed to diversifying and expanding the economy was ushered into power. The first section of this paper discusses alternative theses of industrial underdevelopment. Subsequent sections assess the extent to which each thesis helps explain industrial patterns in Bolivia since 1952. 70 references, 4 tables.

  8. Bolivia: rural electrification. Project impact evaluation report No. 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, E.; Poe, K.M.; Tendler, J.

    1980-12-01

    Two rural electrification systems initiated in Bolivia in 1973 and 1974 are the subject of this report. By 1979, all distribution networks were completed, except in the La Paz region. Power was supplied to 42,000 consumers and was used primarily for residential lighting. Although demand outpaced supply, consumption per household was lower than projected, and irrigation and industrial use was negligible. The preponderant positive impact of the projects was social. Household lighting improved the physical quality of life for 7% of Bolivia's rural population.

  9. Deposition of carbonate mud beds within high-energy subtidal sand Dunes, Bahamas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dill, R.F.; Steinen, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Laminated, carbonate mud beds are being deposited in the interisland channels of the Exuma Cays in the Bahamas. They are associated with stromatolites and interbedded with ooid sands that form large migrating subtidal dunes on flood tidal deltas and bars. Currents up to 3 knots sweep in and out of the 4-8 m deep channels 3 hours out of every 6 hours, creating a high-energy bank margin environment not usually considered to be the site of mud-sized particle deposition. Mud deposits reach thicknesses of 1 m and have individual beds 2-5 cm thick. When exposed to flowing seawater, bed surfaces become encrusted with carbonate cement and algal mats. The white interior of mud beds between the crusts appears homogeneous, is soft, and has the consistency of ''tooth paste.'' Loose uncemented ooid sand is found above and below the mud beds, showing that both are occupying the same depositional environment. Rip-up clasts of the crusted mud beds, formed by scour of underlying sands, are carried throughout the channels and accumulate as a lag deposit within the troughs of migrating dunes. Some clasts are colonized by algal mats that trap ooid and skeletal sands forming stromatolite structures that can grow up to 2 m high.

  10. New light on rural electrification: the evidence from Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tendler, J.

    1980-09-01

    In 1973-74, A.I.D. financed a project to expand existing municipal electrical systems in Bolivia to seven outlying rural areas with the aim of servicing an additional 81,000 rural customers within 10 years. This report evaluates the project's impact on the rural poor in terms of three project objectives: improving the quality of life; stimulating economic production; and creating viable electric utilities.

  11. Wide aperture seismic recording in offshore west Sicily and Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilander, N.G.; Lattimore, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    Seismic operations using the Wide Aperture Recording (WAR) technique were carried out in offshore west Sicily (16.5 km offsets) and in the Sub-Andean Cordillera of Bolivia (9.0 km offsets) where conventional offset data have traditionally proved inadequate for imaging complex subsurface structures. In both cases, noise-free wide aperture events were visible at long offsets, and were successfully stacked using both hyperbolic and linear moveout. In the Sicily datasets, the resulting seismic images disagree with earlier structural interpretations, but the lack of reliable ``calibration`` data in terms of well control or usable conventional seismic data make final evaluation and interpretation of the Sicily wide aperture data ambiguous. In Bolivia good quality seismic data are present across a portion of the WAR survey; the results show that the wide aperture technique may produce a valid structural image, provided the subsurface geometries are sufficiently broad and shallow. For tight structures, the technique is unlikely to produce valid images. In general, the authors` studies show that considerable effort is required at the data processing and interpretation stage, including full waveform and ray-trace modeling, in order to identify event arrivals and to attempt to validate the wide aperture structural images. Reliable calibration data in the form of well control or conventional seismic data are needed in order to provide an understanding of the WAR results.

  12. DIFFERENTIAL SPECTRUM OF NEUTRONS AT CHACALTAYA-BOLIVIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayta, R.; Zanini, A.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A.

    2009-04-30

    We describe the Neutron Spectrometer Experiment installed at Chacaltaya Cosmic Rays Observatory (68 deg. O, 16.2 deg. S), located in Bolivia, at 5230 m.a.s.l. This experimental system is constituted by passive detectors which register the flux of neutrons, in an energy range of 10 KeV-20 MeV. Using the unfolding code BUNTO a peak around 1 MeV of the characteristic spectrum of neutrons was obtained. Experimental values, observed during April of 2008, are compared with similar ones carried out in 1997 at the same place, in order to look for eventual changes due to local atmosphere. A similar experiment was also carried up at the Laboratory of Testa Grigia-Italy (45.56 deg. N, 7.42 deg. E,. 3480 m.a.l.s). Data of both stations allow us to compare the spectra in order to explain the difference of neutron flux of these two stations.

  13. Phaneorozoic sequence stratigraphy of Bolivia and adjacent regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sempere, T. )

    1993-02-01

    Phaneorozoic sequence stratigraphy of the Pacific margin of western South America, particularly the Bolivian section, has been completed and new interpretations and hypotheses have been proposed as a result of data analyses of this information. The Paleozoic margin was initially passive (late Cambrian-Llanvirn, [open quotes]Puna aulacogen[close quotes]), but became active during a middle Ordovician compressional episode. Most of late Cambrian to early Triassic Bolivian rocks are of marine origin, with dark shale units recording sea level rises, whereas middle Triassic to Recent rocks were mainly deposited in continental environments (except six restricted-marine ingressions in the late Cretaceous-Danian, and one in the late Miocene, all with hydrocarbon potential). A noteworthy similarity exists between the Devonian to Jurassic stratigraphies of Bolivia and the Parana basin, suggesting that Bolivia behaved as part of the Brazilian craton from late Cambrian to late Jurassic, when it was captured into the Pacific margin geotectonic system. Organic-rich units correlate with Paleozoic highstand deposits and younger ingressions. The Bolivian Phanerozoic strata is characterized by thick layers, partly due to middle Ordovician-Carboniferous and late Cretaceous-Cenozoic foreland basins. Paleozoic foreland geometries include northeastern onlaps and, potentially, stratigraphic traps. Hydrocarbon generation, migration and trapping mainly depended on Cenozoic structural loading and burial and on propagation of Andean deformation which are comprised of Paleozoic shale decollements. Precise knowledge of the evolution of the Phanerozoic geodynamic contexts and basin geometries through sedimentation and subsequent deformations is crucial for hydrocarbon exploration strategies in these regions.

  14. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  15. Basin development, petrology, and paleogeography - Early Permian carbonates, northwestern Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canter, K.L.; Isaacson, P.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Early Permian carbonate rocks of the Yaurichambi Formation in northwestern Bolivia demonstrate in-situ, low-paleolatitude development within a complexly interbedded sequence punctuated by siliciclastics apparently derived from a western source. The Yaurichambi Formation (Copacabana Group) occurs above a regional caliche surface that caps Upper Carboniferous quartzarenites. Lower beds of the formation are characterized by interbedded carbonate and quartz-rich lithologies. This interval is gradationally overlain by a shallowing-upward, carbonate-dominated sequence. Mud-rich wackestones and packstones grade upward to bioclastic packstones and grainstones. Common allochems in bioclastic-rich lithologies include echinoderms, brachiopods, fenestrate bryozoans, intraclasts, and less common corals. Uppermost beds contain abundant siliciclastic interbeds. Where exposed, this carbonate sequence is terminated by the Tiquina Sandstone. Permian rocks were deposited in a northwest-southeast-oriented basin. Siliciclastic flooding from the western and southwestern margin of the basin dominated throughout the Carboniferous and occurred intermittently during the Permian, with apparent shallowing to the south. A low-latitude paleogeographic setting for these rocks is indicated by the carbonate lithologies dominating the Lower Permian sequence. Sedimentary and diagenetic features diagnostic of semi-arid warm-water deposition include penecontemporaneous dolomites, fenestral fabric, and calcretes. Furthermore, the faunas are similar to those found in equivalent strata of the Permian basin area of west Texas, indicating that deposition occurred at relatively low latitudes.

  16. Temporal and spatial variability of ooid sand shoals: Comparison of Mississippian of Kentucky and Quaternary of Bahamas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, M.R. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA))

    1989-08-01

    An examination of the lithology and topography of Andros Island, Bahamas, reveals it is a Pleistocene ooid sand shoal. A comparison with Joulters Cays (a modern ooid sand shoal directly to the north) shows that much of the original depositional topography is preserved through at least one cycle of sea level highstand and lowstand. Both the Pleistocene and the Holocene ooid sand bodies are a few kilometers to tens of kilometers wide. The total vertical relief of a single episode of Quaternary ooid sand deposition is more than 10 m and includes accumulation in tidal channels, shallow flat areas, and eolian dunes. Today, much of Andros Island is within 2 m of present sea level and is the site of a belt several kilometers wide consisting of muddy tidal flat sediments overlying an exposure surface. The site of ooid sand deposition and shoal complex formation is not continuous along shorelines, especially windward margins, but shifts abruptly along the margins of platforms as a result of minor fluctuations of sea level. Thus, it should be expected that ooid sand shoals (ancient and modern) should be in direct lateral and vertical contact with lagoons, tidal flats, and reefs. The Mississippian Slade Formation contains many of the features of Quaternary ooid sand accumulation: abrupt vertical and lateral gradations between oolitic grainstones, packstones, and lime mudstones, vertical relief of individual oolitic sedimentary packages up to 30 m (perhaps with eolian dunes) and numerous exposure surfaces of varying intensities. These characteristics suggest that this formation represents a time of rapid fluctuations of relative sea level and abrupt shifts in the sites of ooid sand shoal complexes.

  17. Minerals Yearbook, 1988 international review. The mineral industries of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, I.E.; Gurmendi, A.C.; Velasco, P.

    1988-01-01

    All three countries in this Andean group have diversified mineral industries that play an important role in their respective domestic economies. Peru, as the largest country with a population of over 21 million, is the most diversified mineral producer with the highest value of total output. The values added by the mineral industries in 1988 were $2.78 billion for Peru, $1.98 billion for Ecuador, and $0.64 billion for Bolivia. Each value encompasses production of petroleum, natural gas, metals, and industrial minerals. During the period 1980-88, Ecuador's mineral output in terms of value expanded while that of Bolivia and Peru contracted.

  18. Confirmation of a late Oligocene-early Miocene age of the Deseadan Salla Beds of Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naeser, C.W.; McKee, E.H.; Johnson, N.M.; MacFadden, B.J.

    1987-11-01

    Three new fission-track (zircon) and four new K-Ar (biotite) dates corroborate a late Oligocene-early Miocene age (22-28 Ma) for the Salla Beds of Bolivia. These ages contrast markedly with the previously accepted age of about 35 Ma for these strata and their contained faunas, and recasts of order and chronology of interchange between New World and Old World mammals.

  19. Combined microbial, seismic surveys predict oil and gas occurrences in Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, J.P. ); Hitzman, D.; Tucker, J. )

    1994-10-24

    Microbial and geophysical surveys in the jungles of Bolivia's extensive Sub-Andean region have combined for three successful predictions of deep oil and gas reserves in as many tries. Hydrocarbon microseepage measured by microbial soil samples predicted the Carrasco, Katari, and Surubi structures of Bolivia's Chapare region in 1991--92, detecting traps with reserves at depths exceeding 4,500 m. Approximately 800 km of seismic lines covering 3,500 sq km was completed by Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) for evaluation of the YPFB reserve block. For 1 month each year at the end of the field season, seismic lines were quickly traversed by several microbial sampling teams. Using hand augers or shovels, the teams collected more than 3,200 samples approximately 20 cm (8 in.) deep at intervals of 250 m next to staked seismic locations. Microbial results were directly compared with seismic profiles for identification and ranking of traps and structures. The paper discusses the survey predictions and the microbial approach.

  20. The quest for better seismic imaging in the sub-Andean thrust belt of southern Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.F.; Nelson, K.J.

    1996-08-01

    Like many thrust belts around the world, the sub-Andean thrust belt of southern Bolivia is a difficult place to acquire good seismic data because of the challenges of complex geology, rugged topography, and remote access. This is further aggravated by the fact that we generally desire to image below the surface anticlines, where the conditions for acquiring good data are the worst. Near-surface, steeply-dipping beds also challenge some of the fundamental assumptions of seismic processing. Our approach has been to integrate detailed structural analysis of the surface and subsurface with the seismic interpretation. Seismic imaging of structural geometry is a fundamental risk element in thrust belt hydrocarbon exploration. Acquiring high-quality seismic data in mountainous terrain has been a difficult, time consuming, and costly task. We have exerted considerable effort into finding innovative ways to improve data quality. After an initial round of acquisition in Bolivia, we designed a seismic test program to optimize acquisition parameters. We found that standard parameters were acceptable in the valleys, but larger dynamite charges yielded better results in the mountainous areas where imaging had previously been poor. Additionally, a swath line layout (three parallel receiver lines 200 m apart) helped improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Better static solutions, detailed velocity analysis, and careful structural modeling and depth migrations all help to yield better data and a more reliable interpretation.

  1. Paint Rock and southwest Paint Rock fields, Concho County, Texas: Strawn analogs of modern island carbonate facies of Ambergris Cay, Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, A.M.; Mazzullo, S.J.

    1987-02-01

    Lower Strawn (Desmoinesian Goen Limestone) reservoirs at Paint Rock and Southwest Paint Rock fields are a complex of carbonate and associated facies interpreted as having been deposited in various environments on and around large, emergent islands on shallow carbonate shelves. The origin and geometries of the component lithofacies in these fields, and their reservoir diagenetic histories, are similar to those presently accumulating on Ambergris Cay, a linear island complex on the northern shelf of Belize. Paint Rock field originated as a narrow, elongate Chaetetes reef trend that formed the foundation on which the overlying island facies were deposited. As on Ambergris Cay, these reef limestones developed extensive porosity during postdepositional subaerial exposure due to meteoric leaching. In contrast, Southwest Paint Rock field is cored by older island deposits rather than reef limestones. With ensuing stillstand or subsequent sea level rise, beach grainstones were deposited along the windward and leeward margins of the foundation highs in these fields. Tight lagoonal micrites and coals (peat-swamp facies) comprise the inner island facies, and are locally associated with porous supratidal dolomites. These island complexes are transected locally by tidal channels that are filled with nonporous micrites. Repeated sea level fluctuations during the history of these fields resulted in a characteristic cyclic stratigraphy of stacked island facies and reservoirs. The reservoirs in the field are developed in the bedrock or older island cores, as well as in the overlying beach facies and supratidal dolomites. These fields are mappable as linear stratigraphic traps with low-relief closure, and are readily identified by subsurface geologic and facies analyses. Similar shelf island-type fields analogous to these strawn and Holocene Belizean examples are found throughout the Midland basin and Eastern shelf.

  2. Stromatolites, ooid dunes, hardgrounds, and crusted mud beds, all products of marine cementation and microbial mats in subtidal oceanic mixing zone on eastern margin of Great Bahama Bank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dill, R.F.; Kendall, C.S.C.G.; Steinen, R.P.

    1989-03-01

    The interisland channels along the eastern margin of the Great Bahamas Bank contain lithified structures that owe their origin to recent marine cementation. This cementation appears to be commonly associated with a complex microbial community of plants and microorganisms living within a bank-margin oceanographic mixing zone. In this region, reversing tidal and wind-driven currents flow up to 3 knots (150 cm/sec) three hours out of each six-hour tidal period. Here, marine-cement crusted, carbonate mud beds are found interbedded within migrating ooid sand bars and dunes and are associated with growing, lithified stromatolites up to 2 m in height. These laminated mud beds are found with thicknesses of up to 1 m in subtidal depths of 4 to 8 m (12 to 25 ft). The muds appear to be homogeneous, but closer examination by SEM and under a microscope reveals they are composed of pelletoid aggregates of needle-shaped aragonite crystals with diameters of up to 50 ..mu... The size of these soft pellets is similar to the smaller grains of ooid sands that are abundant in the area. This size similarity could explain why both the mud beds are found in similar high-energy hydraulic regimes as the ooid sands, but does not suggest how or why the aggregates of pure aragonite needles form. A high production of ooid sand within this bank margin environment permits the formation of natural levees along the margins of tidal channels. The back sides of these levees are being lithified by marine cements to form hardgrounds. Skeletal and ooid sand dunes stabilized by Thallasia in channel bottoms also are becoming lithified. Grapestones form at the distributaries of flood tidal deltas of ooid sand. All of these features have a common attribute: they are continually in contact with the turbulent mixing-zone waters.

  3. Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline about to take off; seen as litmus test for Southern Cone gas grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-07

    After more than 4 decades of studies, plans, and shelved projects, the proposed Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline is finally about to get off the ground. The 3,700 km gas pipeline will require an investment of at least $2 billion and is viewed by many as a litmus test for the developing gas market and energy integration of South America`s Southern Cone countries. Overall, industry officials see eventual emergence of two large integrated gas grids serving South America: one for the northern countries and another for the Southern Cone. This will enable the six countries with gas surplus to their needs to export the surplus to neighboring, gas-short countries. The northern gas-long countries are Venezuela, Colombia, and Trinidad and Tobago; those in the Southern Cone are Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru. The paper discusses financial details, project details, pipeline construction, the Petrobras strategy, Argentine pipeline projects, and other pipeline proposals.

  4. Exploration within the Sub-Andean Thrust Belt of Southern Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, K.J. )

    1993-02-01

    The Sub-Andean thrust belt of Southern Bolivia is a proven hydrocarbon province. Chevron began a regional study of the area in 1988 and chose the Caipipendi block due to its high potential for significant new oil reserves. A regional work program designed to acquire and integrate seismic data, geologic field data, geochemistry, and gravity data was used to generated structural models, evaluate regional risk components and to detail leads. The structural style within the Caipipendi block is interpreted as being an in sequence, thin skinned thrust belt with eastward verging folds and thrust faults. Tight surface anticlines associated with a Middle Devonian detachment have been later folded by deeper fault bend folds associated with the Silurian detachment. While the tight surface folds are presently producing oil, the deeper broader structures associated with the Silurian detachement have not been tested. Seismic data, utilized for the first time in this part of the Sub-Andean thrust belt, integrated with balanced structural cross sections, is the key to evaluating this new play. Geochemical analysis, including oil biomarker work, indicate that the oils are sourced from the Silurian-Devonian sequence. A generative oil system model formulated by integrating the geochemical analysis with maturation modeling indicates that the Devonian Los Monos formation is the primary oil source. Anticipated reservoirs for the new play are Carboniferous and Devonian sandstones which are also productive elsewhere in the basin.

  5. The oil and gas potential of southern Bolivia: Contributions from a dual source rock system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartshorn, K.G.

    1996-08-01

    The southern Sub-Andean and Chaco basins of Bolivia produce oil, gas and condensate from reservoirs ranging from Devonian to Tertiary in age. Geochemical evidence points to contributions from two Paleozoic source rocks: the Devonian Los Monos Formation and the Silurian Kirusillas Formation. Rock-Eval pyrolysis, biomarker data, microscopic kerogen analysis, and burial history modeling are used to assess the quality, distribution, and maturity of both source rock systems. The geochemical results are then integrated with the structural model for the area in order to determine the most likely pathways for migration of oil and gas in the thrust belt and its foreland. Geochemical analysis and modeling show that the primary source rock, shales of the Devonian Los Monos Formation, entered the oil window during the initial phase of thrusting in the sub-Andean belt. This provides ideal timing for oil accumulation in younger reservoirs of the thrust belt. The secondary source rock, although richer, consumed most of its oil generating capacity prior to the development of the thrust related structures. Depending on burial depth and location, however, the Silurian source still contributes gas, and some oil, to traps in the region.

  6. Geochemistry of oil from Santa Cruz basin, Bolivia: case study of migration-fractionation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illich, H.A.; Haney, F.R.; Mendoza, M.

    1981-11-01

    Geochemical studies provide important data relevant to the origin of the oils in the Santa Cruz basin, Bolivia. Production from this basin occurs from rocks of Devonian, Carboniferous, Cretaceous, and Tertiary ages. The productive structures are usually undisturbed by major faulting. The Devonian sediments are composed of sandstones and dark marine shales. The post-Devonian rocks are generally oxidized and probably nonmarine. The Tertiary and Cretaceous reservoirs usually contain the highest API/sup 0/ gravity oils. Comparison of geochemical data (N/sub 5/-N/sub 10/ molecular weight range) shows that the oils are very similar; however, systematic compositional trends occur as a function of API/sup 0/ gravity. These trends are interpreted from gross structural group data. Isoparaffins and cycloparaffins increase in relative abundance, while normal paraffins and aromatics decrease with increasing API/sup 0/ gravity. A model is proposed that rationalizes these compositional trends by a mechanism of accommodation in water. The model requires enrichment of hydrocarbons of intermediate solubility, partial exclusion of hydrocarbons of low solubility, and retention in solution of the more soluble hydrocarbons. Processes such as thermal fractionation and biodegradation fail to account satisfactorily for the observed compositional trends. The compositional interrelationships of the oils coupled with the geologic framework suggest that these oils have a common source, most probably the Devonian. Differences between the oils are attributed to fractionation occurring during migration. Exploration risk for areas such as the Santa Cruz basin can be substantially reduced by use of the knowledge derived from petroleum geochemistry.

  7. Paleozoic expulsion in Bolivia-its influence on field size and distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, J.A. ); Lopez, O. )

    1993-02-01

    Production within the Chaco Basin of Bolivia may be grouped into three areas: a northern area with several large fields (> 100 MMBOE), a central area nearly devoid of fields, and a southern area with numerous small fields. Models for the timing of hydrocarbon charge suggest that field size and distribution can be tied to spatial variation in the magnitude of a Paleozoic expulsion event. In the central Chaco, the Devonian Los Monos Formation source rock interval was deeply buried beneath a Carboniferous depocenter (1600 to 2000 m of sediment). An in-house thermal modeling program, constrained by vitrinite reflectance data, indicates that the source rock interval entered the oil window as early as 270 Ma. Basal Los Monos kerogen was completely converted to oil prior to Neogene trap formation, making oil accumulations impossible. In the southern Chaco, an intermediate Carboniferous thickness (1300-1600 m) resulted in a less pronounced pre-Cenzoic expulsion event. Expulsion began at 150 Ma, with 80% of basal Los Monos kerogen converted to oil prior to trap formation. The southern Chaco thus has limited exploration opportunity for large accumulations. The northern Chaco has a thin Carboniferous veneer (01300 m), and experienced insignificant pre-Cenozoic expulsion. As a result, 90% of the basal Los Monos kerogen was available for conversion to oil at the time of trap formation, and large accumulations were possible. Given the relationship between field presence/size and subsidence history, a Carboniferous isopach map is a powerful exploration tool. Where there is a thin Carboniferous section, unconverted Devonian source rocks are able to charge Cenozoic structures. One area that meets this criterium is the western Subandean, a relatively unexplored province adjacent to the Chaco Basin.

  8. Late Cenozoic paleomagnetism and chronology of Andean basins of Bolivia: Evidence for possible oroclinal bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacFadden, B.J. ); Anaya, F.; Perez, H. ); Naeser, C.W. ); Zeitler, P.K. ); Campbell, K.E. Jr. )

    1990-07-01

    New paleomagnetic and radioisotopic data are reported from two late Tertiary high-elevation, non-marine basins in the eastern Cordillera of Bolivia. (1) Quebrada Honda, located at 22{degree}S lat., consists of a 300 m thick section containing abundant Santacrucian or Friasian (middle Miocene) fossil mammals. This locality is constrained by mean {sup 40}K/{sup 40}Ar ages of 12.83 {plus minus} 0.11 Ma and 11.96 {plus minus} 0.11 Ma, and the local magnetostratigraphy is correlated to chrons C5AA through C5A on the Magnetic Polarity Time Scale (MPTS). The fossil mammals from Quebrada Honda have an extrapolated age of about 13.0 to 12.7 Ma. (2) Micana, located at 17{degree}S lat., consists of a 205 m thick section containing late Miocene fossil mammals, including a megatheriid sloth and the tiny mesothere Microtypotherium cf. M. choquecotense. The locality is constrained by a fission-track age determination of 6.9 {plus minus} 1.1 Ma, and the local magnetostratigraphy is correlated to Chron 7 on the MPTS. The fossil mammals from this section have an extrapolated age of about 7.3 to 7.4 Ma. In conjunction with two other published data sets (Ocros, 13{degree}S, and Salla, 17{degree}S), these late Tertiary Andean localities indicate counterclockwise rotation at 13{degree}S, negligible rotation at 17{degree}S, and clockwise rotation at 22{degree}S. These data could represent local small-block rotations on a scale greater than about 6 km{sup 2}. However, these data are also consistent with a model of late Neogene bending of the Bolivian Orocline.

  9. Petroleum resources of South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report is an analysis of discovered crude oil reserves, undiscovered recoverable crude oil resources, and estimated annual oil field production. The countries analyzed are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All of the countries in this report have a history of petroleum exploration and development. Also, they maintain policies which support the search for, and exploitation of, petroleum resources. This systematic assessment provides estimates of the quantities of remaining known petroleum reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources. The future feasible production rates from the respective countries are also discussed. The FESAP assessments are limited to petroleum resources recoverable by conventional primary and secondary extraction technology. It is estimated that over 29.4 billion barrels of recoverable oil (both discovered and undiscovered) originally existed within the sedimentary basins of these countries, as follows: Argentina (9.4 billion barrels); Brazil (6.5 billion barrels); Colombia (5.0 billion barrels); Peru (3.6 billion barrels); Ecuador (over 3.0 billion barrels); Chile (1.1 billion barrels); and Bolivia (over 0.8 billion barrels). Through 1982, about 10.2 billion barrels of the oil had been produced. Thus, some 19.2 billion barrels constitute the remaining recoverable petroleum resource base. It is estimated that the most likely volume of crude oil remaining to be found in the seven countries is 12 billion barrels. 91 refs., 59 figs., 82 tabs.

  10. Comparison of microbial and sorbed soil gas surgace geochemical techniques with seismic surveys from the Southern Altiplano, Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aranibar, O.R.; Tucker, J.D.; Hiltzman, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) undertook a large seismic evaluation in the southern Altiplano, Bolivia in 1994. As an additional layer of information, sorbed soil gas and Microbial Oil Survey Technique (MOST) geochemical surveys were conducted to evaluate the hydrocarbon microseepage potential. The Wara Sara Prospect had 387 sorbed soil gas samples, collected from one meter depth, and 539 shallow soil microbial samples, collected from 15 to 20 centimeter depth. The sorbed soil gas samples were collected every 500 meters and microbial samples every 250 meters along geochemical traverses spaced 1 km apart. The presence of anmalous hydrocarbon microseepage is indicated by (1) a single hydrocarbon source identified by gas crossplots, (2) the high gas values with a broad range, (3) the high overall gas average, (4) the clusters of elevated samples, and (5) the right hand skewed data distributions.

  11. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 94-0109-2494, Pan American Health Organization National Smelting Company, Oruro, Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sussell, A.; Singal, M.

    1995-03-01

    In response to a request from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), an investigation was begun into possible exposures to heavy metals and sulfur-dioxide at Empresa Metalurigica Vinto, a large tin smelter near Oruro, Bolivia. Fifteen workers were selected for exposure monitoring. Of the 15, 14 had exposures greater than the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit or the OSHA Permissible Exposure Level to arsentic; 11 had hazardous exposures to cadmium, and eight had hazardous exposures to sulfur-dioxide. Surfaces throughout the facility were highly contaminated with heavy metals. Fifteen workers participated in biological monitoring studies. The median value for urinary arsenic (UA) was 78 micrograms per gram creatinine. Nine of the 15 workers had UA levels exceeding the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Biological Exposure Index. The median blood lead level was 19 micrograms per deciliter.

  12. Exploration for deep gas in the Devonian Chaco Basin of Southern Bolivia: Sequence stratigraphy, predictions, and well results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.E.; Radovich, B.J.; Brett, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    In mid 1991, a team was assembled in Texaco`s Frontier Exploration Department (FED) to define the hydrocarbon potential of the Chaco Basin of Southern Bolivia. The Miraflores No. 1 was drilled in the fall of 1992, for stratigraphic objectives. The well confirmed the predicted stratigraphic trap in the Mid-Devonian, with gas discovered in two highstand and transgressive sands. They are low contrast and low resistivity sands that are found in a deep basin `tight gas` setting. Testing of the gas sands was complicated by drilling fluid interactions at the well bore. Subsequent analysis indicated that the existing porosity and permeability were reduced, such that a realistic test of reservoir capabilities was prevented.

  13. The challenges of exploring near the fringes of space: A case history of seismically exploring the Altiplano Basin of Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prideaux, B.R.; Bayne, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Obtaining the quality seismic data necessary to answer key exploration questions in the Altiplano Basin of Bolivia necessitated the use of turbo-charged vibrators, ground force control electronics, and state of the art processing techniques. Overcoming the structural complexity of the region, including steep surface dips (averaging 45{degree}--50{degree}), even steeper subsurface dips adjacent to areas of near-flat dip, as well as substantial surface variations, required optimal recording and processing parameters. A long far offset (3056.75 m) and a close trace spacing (12.5 m) was needed to acquire the most reliable data. Seven second records were also recorded to insure that information was acquired at depth. Several other factors helped account for an acquisition success for the project. A field computer system was used to quickly process brute and enhanced brute stacks, which provided greater quality control and allowed for in-field adjustments to optimize the acquisition parameters. Additionally, the processing of the data was able to minimize numerous problems. There was a high variance in the recorded data quality, mainly due to surface and near-surface conditions (statics), as well as a fairly high degree of background noise throughout. These noise problems eventually determined the processing sequence that was used. Some processes that were initially proposed deteriorated instead of enhanced the interpretability of the seismic data.

  14. Zongo-San Gaban zone: Eocene foreland boundary of the Central Andean orogen, northwest Bolivia and southeast Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, E.; Clark, A.H.; Kontak, D.J.; Archibald, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Discordant muscovite and biotite K-Ar dates of samples taken in six transects through the Cordillera Oriental of southeast Peru and northwest Bolivia, combined with /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age spectra, reveal a northwest-trending, structurally cryptic, tectonothermal zone of late Eocene age (ca. 38 Ma) that overprints Triassic and older igneous and metamorphic rocks. The zone is at least 450 km long but is less than 25 km wide; temperatures along its northeast boundary are estimated to have reached 350/sup 0/C. No Paleogene magmatism has been recognized that could account for the thermal resetting of the K-Ar isotopic system. Uplift, erosion, and southwest-verging thrusting accompanied the development of this domain, which defined the foreland boundary of the orogen prior to inception of northeast-verging Andean thrusting in Miocene time. It is proposed that this tectonothermal zone, the Zongo-San Gaban zone (ZSGZ), which involves thrusting and basement shortening, is the southerly manifestation of the Incaic compressional deformation, which produced the thin-skinned Maranon thrust and fold belt (MTFB) north of the Abancay deflection of central Peru.

  15. Paleomagnetic isochrons, unsteadiness, and uniformity of sedimentation in Miocene intermontane basin sediments at Salla, eastern Andean cordillera, Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McRae, L.E. )

    1990-07-01

    Fine-scaled stratigraphic data are combined with chronologic information provided by paleomagnetic stratigraphy to document and analyze chronostratigraphic variability of the Salla Beds, a sequence of distal floodplain and lacustrine intermontane basin sediments within the eastern Andean cordillera of Bolivia. Unsteadiness in sediment accumulation is identified using a conceptual model of episodic accumulation in which simulated accumulation histories are constructed using estimated rates for various fluvial facies and taking into account gaps in deposition and possible effects of erosion. Variability in the Salla Beds is compared to that in sequence of Miocene fluvial sediments in northern Pakistan to evaluate controls on spatial and temporal stratigraphic variability. Sedimentation in the Salla sequence was generally steady over short time scales, but over longer intervals infrequent carbonates, associated with unusually long hiatuses, served to reduce the net sediment accumulation rate. In the Chinji sequence of Pakistan, unsteady accumulation evolved into a pattern of steadier sediment accumulation as recurring cycles of unsteadiness were superimposed on the overall sequence. The controls on sediment accumulation over time in these two sequences may be similarly related to the presence and extent of atypical and infrequent events of deposition, non-deposition, or erosion that exert a significant effect on net sediment accumulation. The discrepancy of short-term episodic and long-term net stratigraphic accumulation rates in both these sequences suggests that the decrease in net sediment accumulation rate with increasing time reflects the superimposed effects of different levels of local geomorphic and extrabasinal controls.

  16. Environmental and economic development consequences of forest and agricultural sector policies in Latin America (a synthesis of case studies of Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Bolivia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, R.; Gibson, D.

    1994-04-15

    This paper draws heavily on the results of case studies in Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Ecuador to explain how sectoral policies have tilted land use decisions against forestry and in favor of agriculture, and to present estimates of the economic development effects of those decisions. The paper summarizes information on forests and forest industries of the three countries, and it describes the framework within which policies are designed. It presents the effects of sectoral policies on land use and forest management, and then quantifies and discusses economic costs of relevant sectoral policies. Conclusions and recommendations for policy reform are offered.

  17. Financing is next step in Brazil-Bolivia natural gas project. [Economic costs and benefits of a new natural gas pipeline project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cajueiro Costa, A.S. )

    1993-11-01

    This paper reviews a new four billion dollar arrangement which would start a major gas network between Brazil and Bolivia. The proposed 2,200 mile long, 28 and 14 inch pipeline network would connect Bolivian reserves with the undeserved markets of southern Brazil. The paper briefly reviews the economic involvement and impacts on both countries and the current market for natural gas in Brazil. Because most of Brazil's energy is currently from hydroelectric power or petroleum, the new distribution network will have dramatic effects on industries which need this high-grade fuel source for operation. Financing of this project will be by Petrobras and 49 percent through stock options.

  18. Geochemistry, palynology, and regional geology of worldclass Upper Devonian source rocks in the Madre de Dios basin, Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, K.E.; Conrad, K.T.; Carpenter, D.G.; Wagner, J.B.

    1996-08-01

    Recent exploration drilling indicates the existence of world-class source rock in the Madre de Dios basin, Bolivia. In the Pando-1 X and -2X wells, over 200 m of poorly bioturbated, organic-rich (TOC = 3-16 wt.%) prodelta to shelf mudstones in the Frasnian-Famennian Tomachi Formation contain oil-prone organic matter (hydrogen index = 400-600 mg HC/g TOC). Our calculated source prolificity indices for this interval in these wells (SPI = 15-18 tons of hydrocarbons per square meter of source rock) exceed that for the Upper Jurassic in Central Saudi Arabia. The Tomachi interval is lithologically equivalent to the Colpacucho Formation in the northern Altiplano, the Iquiri Formation in the Cordillera Oriental, and is coeval with other excellent source rocks in North America, Africa, and Eurasia. All of these rocks were deposited under conditions favorable for accumulation of organic matter, including a global highstand and high productivity. However, the Madre de Dios basin was situated at high latitude during the Late Devonian and some of the deposits are interpreted to be of glacial origin, indicating conditions not generally associated with organic-rich deposition. A biomarker and palynological study of Upper Devonian rocks in the Pando-1X well suggests deposition under conditions similar to certain modern fjords. High productivity resulted in preservation of abundant organic matter in the bottom sediments despite a cold, toxic water column. Low-sulfur crude oil produced from the Pando-1X well is geochemically similar to, but more mature than, extracts from associated organic-rich Tomachi samples, and was generated from deeper equivalents of these rocks.

  19. Petroleum Coke Exports by Destination

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    163,868 182,222 184,167 191,219 197,491 195,868 1981-2015 Albania 165 220 467 267 2012-2015 Algeria 0 0 0 2001-2012 Angola 0 2001-2011 Argentina 0 412 1 1 201 3 1993-2015 Aruba 0 2014-2014 Australia 3,167 3,229 2,841 2,715 2,560 2,477 1993-2015 Austria 1995-2007 Azerbaijan 0 5 2 2010-2015 Bangladesh 0 2014-2014 Bahama Islands 0 2000-2010 Bahrain 116 713 299 563 0 1993-2014 Barbados 33 169 179 121 163 158 2007-2015 Belarus 2004-2004 Belgium 3,295 3,337 2,463 2,098 2,572 2,161 1993-2015 Belize 4 2

  20. Forest Cover and Deforestation in Belize: 1980-2010 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Latin America & the Caribbean (CATHALAC), National Aeronautics and Space Administration Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Co-benefits assessment, GHG inventory,...

  1. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Composition and thickness of the southern Altiplano crust, Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zandt, G.; Velasco, A.A. ); Beck, S.L. )

    1994-11-01

    Slant stacking of broadband seismograms recorded in the western United States for two 1993 intermediate-depth earthquakes that occurred near the Bolvia-Argentina-Chile borders reveals small but clear precursors to both the compressional (P) wave and shear (S) wave depth phases. We interpret and model these precursors as underside reflections from the thickened Andean Altiplano crust. We model the crustal structure of the Altiplano with a grid-search technique to match the timing and amplitudes of the depth phases and precursors in the waveforms of both the P wave and S wave. Our best-fit model has an average crust velocity of 5.9-6.0 km/s, a crustal V[sub p]/V[sub s] of 1.6, a crustal thickness of 75-80 km, and a high-velocity (V[sub p] = 8.4 km/s), high-V[sub p]/V[sub s] (1.9) mantle wedge. Assuming isotropy, the low V[sub p]/V[sub s] ratio of 1.6 for the crust corresponds to an anomalously low Poisson's ratio of 0.18. Such a low value, in conjunction with the low average V[sub p] estimate, is consistent only with a felsic composition and high upper-crustal temperatures. The finding of a thick felsic crust overlying a high-velocity mantle supports models of Altiplano uplift due predominantly to crustal shortening as opposed to mafic magmatic addition and is inconsistent with recent mantle delamination. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Kenko: An ultra fast track power plant for Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffs, E.

    1996-01-01

    A Bolivian utility wanted gas turbine capacity to cover growth in electricity demand, until a new hydro power station could be completed. They turned to Wood Group Power Systems to supply two reconditioned Avon gensets, which were brought on line in a record time of six months from the contract date. This paper describes the specifications, shipping and installation in brief. 2 figs.

  4. A 20,000-year record of environmental change from Laguna Kollpa Kkota, Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seltzer, G.O. . Mendenhall Lab.); Abbott, M.B. )

    1992-01-01

    Most records of paleoclimate in the Bolivian Andes date from the last glacial-to-interglacial transition. However, Laguna Kollpa Kkota and other lakes like it, formed more than 20,000 yr BP when glaciers retreated and moraines dammed the drainage of the valleys they are located in. These lakes were protected from subsequent periods of glaciation because the headwalls of these valleys are below the level of the late-Pleistocene glacial equilibrium-line altitude. The chemical, mineral, and microfossil stratigraphies of these glacial lakes provide continuous records of environmental change for the last 20,000 years that can be used to address several problems in paleoclimate specific to tropical-subtropical latitudes. Preliminary results from Laguna Kollpa Kkota indicate that glacial equilibrium-line altitudes were never depressed more than 600 m during the last 20,000 years, suggesting that temperatures were reduced only a few-degrees celsius over this time period. Sedimentation rates and the organic carbon stratigraphy of cores reflect an increase in moisture in the late Pleistocene just prior to the transition to a warmer and drier Holocene. The pollen and diatom concentrations in the sediments are sufficient to permit the high resolution analyses needed to address whether or not there were climatic reversals during the glacial-to-interglacial transition.

  5. Lower bound on the amount of crustal shortening in the central Bolivia Andes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffels, B.M. )

    1990-09-01

    Balanced cross sections across the Cordillera Oriental and Subandean zone of the central Bolivian Andes indicate that crustal shortening probably has played the dominant role in orogeny in this convergent margin setting. A minimum amount of shortening, 210 km, is documented, which can account for two-thirds of the present-day crustal cross-sectional area along a transect spanning the entire mountain range. Substantial crustal shortening may also require loss of the lower lithosphere to the asthenosphere. A large, minimum amount of crustal shortening in the Bolivian Andes shows, contrary to common assumptions about orogeny, that (1) magmatic addition may be volumetrically less important in orogeny in Andean-type margins and (2) crustal shortening is not uniquely associated with continental or island-arc collision.

  6. File:Central America 50m Wind Power.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date 20041022 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua UN Region Central America Coordinates 13.846614265322,...

  7. File:Cammetst 58.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date 20031210 Extent Central America Countries Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua UN Region Central America Regions Central America Coordinates...

  8. EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    inventorycapacitybuildingswtoo Country: Nicaragua, Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Belize Cost: Free Central America, Central America, Central America,...

  9. Caribbean-NREL Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    internatio Country Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Saint...

  10. Caribbean-GTZ Renewable Energy Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    enpraxis95 Country Antigua & Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Puerto...

  11. Climate and lake-level history of the northern Altiplano, Bolivia, as recorded in Holocene sediments of the Rio Desaguadero

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baucom, P.C.; Rigsby, C.A.

    1999-05-01

    Strata exposed in terraces and modern cutbanks along the Rio Desaguadero contain a variety of lithofacies that were deposited in four distinct facies associations. These facies associations document a history of aggradation and downcutting that is linked to Holocene climate change on the Altiplano. Braided-stream, meandering-stream, deltaic and shoreline, and lacustrine sediments preserved in multi-level terraces in the northern Rio Desaguadero valley record two high-water intervals: one between 4,500 and 3,900 yr BP and another between 2,000 and 2,200 yr BP. These wet periods were interrupted by three periods of fluvial downcutting, centered at approximately 4,000 yr BP, 3,600 yr BP, and after 2,000 yr BP. Braided-river sediments preserved in a single terrace level in the southern Rio Desaguadero valley record a history of nearly continuous fluvial sedimentation from at least 7,000 yr BP until approximately 3,200 yr BP that was followed by a single episode (post-3,210 yr BP) of down-cutting and lateral migration. The deposition and subsequent fluvial downcutting of the northern strata was controlled by changes in effective moisture that can be correlated to Holocene water-level fluctuations of Lake Titicaca. The deposition and dissection of braided-stream sediments to the south are more likely controlled by a combination of base-level change and sediment input from the Rio Mauri.

  12. Land use change and carbon exchange in the tropics. I. Detailed estimates for Costa Rice, Panama, Peru, and Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, C.A.S.; Detwiler, R.P.; Bogdonoff, P.; Underhill, S.

    1985-01-01

    This group, composed of modelers working in conjunction with tropical ecologists, has produced a simulation model that quantifies the net carbon exchange between tropical vegetation and the atmosphere due to land use change. The model calculates this net exchange by combining estimates of land use change with several estimates of the carbon stored in tropical vegetation and general assumptions about the fate of cleared vegetation. In this report, the authors use estimates of land use and carbon of land use and carbon storage organized into six life zone (sensu Holdridge) categories to calculate the exchange between the atmosphere and the vegetation of four tropical countries. Their analyses of these countries indicate that this life zone approach has several advantages because (a) the carbon content of vegetation varies significantly among life zones, (b) much of the land use change occurs in life zones of only moderate carbon storage, and (c) the fate of cleared vegetation varies among life zones. Their analyses also emphasize the importance of distinguishing between temporary and permanent land use change, as the recovery of vegetation on abandoned areas decreases the net release of carbon due to clearing. They include sensitivity analysis of those factors that they found to be important but are difficult to quantify at present.

  13. Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

    2009-01-07

    The Nature Conservancy participated in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project was 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration'. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Final Technical Report discusses the results of the six tasks that The Nature Conservancy undertook to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between July 1st 2001 and July 10th 2008. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. The project occurred in two phases. The first was a focused exploration of specific carbon measurement and monitoring methodologies and pre-selected carbon sequestration opportunities. The second was a more systematic and comprehensive approach to compare various competing measurement and monitoring methodologies, and assessment of a variety of carbon sequestration opportunities in order to find those that are the lowest cost with the greatest combined carbon and other environmental benefits. In the first phase we worked in the U.S., Brazil, Belize, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile to develop and refine specific carbon inventory methods, pioneering a new remote-sensing method for cost-effectively measuring and monitoring terrestrial carbon sequestration and system for developing carbon baselines for both avoided deforestation and afforestation/reforestation projects. We evaluated the costs and carbon benefits of a number of specific terrestrial carbon sequestration activities throughout the U.S., including reforestation of abandoned mined lands in southwest Virginia, grassland restoration in Arizona and Indiana, and reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. The most cost-effective U.S. terrestrial sequestration opportunity we found through these studies was reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. In Phase II we conducted a more systematic assessment and comparison of several different measurement and monitoring approaches in the Northern Cascades of California, and a broad 11-state Northeast regional assessment, rather than pre-selected and targeted, analysis of terrestrial sequestration costs and benefits. Work was carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA. Partners include the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, The Sampson Group, Programme for Belize, Society for Wildlife Conservation (SPVS), Universidad Austral de Chile, Michael Lefsky, Colorado State University, UC Berkeley, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ProNaturaleza, Ohio State University, Stephen F. Austin University, Geographical Modeling Services, Inc., WestWater, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Century Ecosystem Services, Mirant Corporation, General Motors, American Electric Power, Salt River Project, Applied Energy Systems, KeySpan, NiSource, and PSEG. This project, 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration', has resulted in over 50 presentations and reports, available publicly through the Department of Energy or by visiting the links listed in Appendix 1. More important than the reports, the project has helped to lead to the development of on-the-ground projects in Southwestern Virginia, Louisiana, and Chile while informing policy development in Virginia, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the California Climate Action Registry and U.S. and international programs.

  14. File:NREL-camdirjune.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  15. File:NREL-camdirsept.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  16. File:NREL-camdirapr.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  17. File:NREL-camdiraug.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  18. USAID Central America and Mexico Regional Climate Program (E...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analysis Website http:www.usaid.govourwork Country Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Belize, Costa Rica, Panama, Honduras Central America, Central America,...

  19. File:NREL-camdirmay.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  20. File:NREL-camdirjan.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  1. File:NREL-camdiroct.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  2. File:NREL-camdirmar.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  3. File:NREL-camdirdec.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  4. File:NREL-camgloann.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  5. File:NREL-camdirfeb.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  6. File:NREL-camdirann.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  7. File:NREL-camdirnov.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  8. File:NREL-camdirjuly.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  9. U.S. and Bahamian Governments to Cooperate on Detecting Illicit Shipments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Nuclear Material | Department of Energy Bahamian Governments to Cooperate on Detecting Illicit Shipments of Nuclear Material U.S. and Bahamian Governments to Cooperate on Detecting Illicit Shipments of Nuclear Material January 11, 2005 - 9:46am Addthis Bahamas to Become First Caribbean Country to Use Detection Equipment NASSAU, BAHAMAS -- In an effort to work together in the war on terrorism, the United States and the Commonwealth of the Bahamas recently signed an agreement to install

  10. Cape Systems Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cape Systems Limited Place: Rock Sound, Bahamas Sector: Services Product: Offers installation and site surveying services for clean...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    government. However, both projects await final approval from the Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology Commission for their environmental impact statements. Planning for a...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    government. However, both projects await final approval from the Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology Commission for their environmental impact statements. Planning for a...

  13. 2008 Feature Stories | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Golden sand, swaying palms, turquoise waters - it's a traveler's dream. But paradise has a price. Developed islands such as Hawaii, the Bahamas, New Zealand and Iceland rely almost ...

  14. Market Analysis Toolkit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Antigua and Barbuda-Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change Resilience Framework Bahamas-Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change...

  15. ARM - Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign-II (RHUBC...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of 5383 meters on Cerro Toco, a mountain near the border of Bolivia and Argentina. ... of 5383 meters on Cerro Toco, a mountain near the border of Bolivia and Argentina. ...

  16. OLADE-Latin American and Caribbean Energy Efficiency Seminar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  17. Energy-Economic Information System (SIEE) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  18. OLADE Sustainable Energy Planning Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  19. Legal Energy Information System (SIEL) Database | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  20. NREL: Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools - International...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bhutan.htm Central America Wind 50m Resolution (includes Belize, Cayman Islands, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua (Zip 2.4 MB) 02192009 Central America.htm Chile...

  1. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on weekly cruises originating from Miami Florida with port calls in the Bahamas, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and St. Thomas. The repeat track of the cruise provides for long-term...

  2. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, the Peoples Republic of China, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, the United Kingdom, the United States, and...

  3. Power to the people: rural electrification sector. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasserman, G.; Davenport, A.

    1983-12-01

    Results of studies of the impact of rural electrification (RE) programs in Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and the Philippines are summarized.

  4. Andean Development Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bolivia Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador Jamaica Mexico Panama Paraguay Peru Spain Trinidad & Tobago Uruguay Venezuela and 14 private banks in the region....

  5. Brunswick County, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Island, North Carolina Belville, North Carolina Boiling Spring Lakes, North Carolina Bolivia, North Carolina Calabash, North Carolina Carolina Shores, North Carolina Caswell...

  6. Analysis of Technology Transfer in CDM Projects | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    countries, including Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam and significantly lower...

  7. Baselines For Land-Use Change In The Tropics: Application ToAvoided Deforestation Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Sandra; Hall, Myrna; Andrasko, Ken; Ruiz, Fernando; Marzoli, Walter; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar; Dushku, Aaron; Dejong,Ben; Cornell, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Although forest conservation activities particularly in thetropics offer significant potential for mitigating carbon emissions,these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena causedby the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle,particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has twomain components: the projected land-use change and the correspondingcarbon stocks in the applicable pools such as vegetation, detritus,products and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult toaddress analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparingthree models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of pasttrends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth tomore complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicitmodels of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomicfactors. The three models of the latter category used in the analysis atregional scale are The Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use andCarbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD)model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropicalregions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions,population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) SantaCruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana State in Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico;(5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoacan, Mexico. A comparison of all modeloutputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quitedifferent deforestation baseline. In general, the simplest FAC model,applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highestamount of forest loss (four out of six) and the LUCS model the leastamount of loss (four out of five). Based on simulations of GEOMOD, wefound that readily observable physical and biological factors as well asdistance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as importantas either sociological/demographic or economic/infrastructure factors(less observable) in explaining empirical land-use patterns. We proposefrom the lessons learned, a methodology comprised of three main steps andsix tasks can be used to begin developing credible baselines. We alsopropose that the baselines be projected over a 10-year period because,although projections beyond 10 years are feasible, they are likely to beunrealistic for policy purposes. In the first step, an historic land-usechange and deforestation estimate is made by determining the analyticdomain (size of the region relative to the size of proposed project),obtaining historic data, analyzing candidate historic baseline drivers,and identifying three to four major drivers. In the second step, abaseline of where deforestation is likely to occur --a potential land-usechange (PLUC) map is produced using a spatial model such as GEOMOD thatuses the key drivers from step one. Then rates of deforestation areprojected over a 10-year baseline period using any of the three models.Using the PLUC maps, projected rates of deforestation, and carbon stockestimates, baselineprojections are developed that can be used for projectGHG accounting and crediting purposes: The final step proposes that, atagreed interval (eg, +10 years), the baseline assumptions about baselinedrivers be re-assessed. This step reviews the viability of the 10-yearbaseline in light of changes in one or more key baseline drivers (e.g.,new roads, new communities, new protected area, etc.). The potentialland-use change map and estimates of rates of deforestation could beredone at the agreed interval, allowing the rates and changes in spatialdrivers to be incorporated into a defense of the existing baseline, orderivation of a new baseline projection.

  8. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.PDF Table 32. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - 0 - 3 - 349 349 - - - Australia .............................. - 0 575 0 - 0 0 - - - Bahamas ............................ - 0 4 - - 179 179

  9. TABLE28.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, (Thousand Barrels) Destination Liquefied Finished Crude Pentanes Petroleum Motor Distillate Fuel Residual Oil a Plus Gases Gasoline Jet Fuel Kerosene Oil Fuel Oil January 1998 Argentina .............................................. 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 Australia ............................................... 0 0 (s) (s) 0 0 1 0 Bahama Islands ................................... 0 0 21 1 1 (s) 54 (s) Bahrain

  10. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 January 2016 Table 51. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, February 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - 0 0 98 - 175 175 - - - Australia .............................. - 0 0 0 - - - - - - Bahamas ............................ - 0 26

  11. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Turks & Caicos (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile presents a snapshot of the electricity generation and reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Turks and Caicos - a British overseas territory consisting of two groups of islands located southeast of the Bahamas. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  12. Terry Wallace: Protecting the globe and keeping an eye on seismicity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prior to Wallace's current role, he spent 20 years studying seismology as a professor with the University of Arizona and ran geology-related experiments in such places as Bolivia, ...

  13. International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Projects published on Beta are not final and may contain programming errors. They are for public testing and comment only. We welcome your feedback. For final products, please visit www.eia.gov. Read our feedback policy. Project Feedback Rea Give Us Your Feedback We welcome your feedback and insights on this project. Your Country: United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The

  14. East Coast (PADD 1) Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Import Area: East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Bosnia

  15. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 January 2016 Table 52. Year-to-Date Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, January-February 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - 0 0 98 - 279 279 - 0 0 Australia .............................. - 3 1 0 - - - - - - Bahamas

  16. International Services | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects published on Beta are not final and may contain programming errors. They are for public testing and comment only. We welcome your feedback. For final products, please visit www.eia.gov. Read our feedback policy. Project Feedback Rea Give Us Your Feedback We welcome your feedback and insights on this project. Your Country: United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The

  17. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - 3 249 381 - 2,403 2,403 - 0 0 Australia .............................. - 0 1,712 15 - 2 2 0 0 0 Bahamas ............................ - 2 735 537 - 3,131 3,131 1

  18. Valve, compressor contracts awarded for Western Hemisphere projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-19

    Major valve and compressor contracts have been let for projects in the Western Hemisphere. Petrobras has awarded Nuovo Pignone, Florence, a $10.5 million contract to supply 400 valves for the 1,975-mile natural-gas pipeline being constructed from Bolivia into Brazil. Additionally, Brazilian company Maritima Petroleo and TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, have awarded Nuovo Pignone separate contracts to supply turbocompressor packages. The Brazilian contract is for offshore Campos Basin; the Canadian, for a major expansion of TCPL`s system delivering natural gas out of Alberta. The paper discusses the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline, compressor orders, and the companies.

  19. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Hurricane Earl - Where Is It Headed and What Does It Have to Do With

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy? | Department of Energy Earl - Where Is It Headed and What Does It Have to Do With Energy? Hurricane Earl - Where Is It Headed and What Does It Have to Do With Energy? September 1, 2010 - 5:50pm Addthis Dr. Richard Newell Dr. Richard Newell Hurricane Earl has the East Coast of the United States in his sights. Earl is moving northward from the Bahamas, and is expected to skirt the U.S. Atlantic coast from Cape Hatteras to New England, before making landfall in Nova Scotia over the

  1. U.S. and New Zealand Take Steps to Launch International Partnership to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Further the Development of Clean Energy on Island Nations | Department of Energy New Zealand Take Steps to Launch International Partnership to Further the Development of Clean Energy on Island Nations U.S. and New Zealand Take Steps to Launch International Partnership to Further the Development of Clean Energy on Island Nations July 24, 2008 - 2:14pm Addthis U.S. to Work with New Zealand to Encourage Utilization of Natural Renewable Energy Resources NASSAU, BAHAMAS - The U.S. Department of

  2. Hybrid Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy? | Department of Energy Earl - Where Is It Headed and What Does It Have to Do With Energy? Hurricane Earl - Where Is It Headed and What Does It Have to Do With Energy? September 1, 2010 - 5:50pm Addthis Dr. Richard Newell Dr. Richard Newell Hurricane Earl has the East Coast of the United States in his sights. Earl is moving northward from the Bahamas, and is expected to skirt the U.S. Atlantic coast from Cape Hatteras to New England, before making landfall in Nova Scotia over the

  3. Consortium wins major Brazilian gas contract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Driscoll

    1994-08-16

    An international consortium of BHP of Australia, Tenneco Gas of the U.S. and British Gas was selected Monday by Petroleo Braileiro SA (Petrobras) to Monday by Petroleo Brasileiro SA (Petrobras) to develop a $2 billion natural gas pipeline linking reserves in Bolivia with markets in southern and southeastern Brazil.

  4. Review of South American mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    A general overview is presented of the mining activity and plans for South America. The countries which are presented are Columbia, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. The products of the mines include coal, bauxite, gold, iron, uranium, copper and numerous other minor materials. A discussion of current production, support and processing facilities, and mining strategies is also given.

  5. Six Latin American countries could join in new gas market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechelli, C.M. ); Brandt, R.D. )

    1991-10-21

    The development of a regional natural gas market in southern Latin America based on a common pipeline network is a clear possibility in the medium term. This paper is, therefore, important to summarize precisely the present status and outlook for the natural gas industry in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and Paraguay.

  6. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction, Argentina, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Bourkina (Upper Volta), Brazil, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields, Appendix II, Phytomass Files, and References.

  7. World class Devonian potential seen in eastern Madre de Dios basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, K.E.; Wagner, J.B.; Carpenter, D.G.; Conrad, K.T.

    1997-02-17

    The Madre de Dios basin in northern Bolivia contains thick, laterally extensive, organic-rich Upper Devonian source rocks that reached the oil-generative stage of thermal maturity after trap and seal formation. Despite these facts, less than one dozen exploration wells have been drilled in the Madre de Dios basin, and no significant reserves have been discovered. Mobil geoscientists conducted a regional geological, geophysical, and geochemical study of the Madre de Dios basin. The work reported here was designed to assess the distribution, richness, depositional environment, and thermal maturity of Devonian source rocks. It is supported by data from over 3,000 m of continuous slimhole core in two of the five Mobil wells in the basin. Source potential also exists in Cretaceous, Mississippian, and Permian intervals. The results of this study have important implications for future exploration in Bolivia and Peru.

  8. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.S.

    1983-10-01

    Petroleum developments in the region in 1982 had a more varied pattern than in 1981 when all aspects were upbeat with varying degrees of increases. In 1982, Brazil, Mexico, and Guatemala had striking increases in oil production; Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia had moderate increases; and Argentina, Trinidad, and Venezuela reported declines. In exploration, Argentina reported several additional offshore Tierra del Fuego discoveries in the Cretaceous Springhill and 2 more encouraging gas discoveries in the Noroeste basin. Bolivia reported an oil discovery from Silurian rocks more generally considered a gas objective. Brazil extended and confirmed the Western Amazonas gas area with 2 discoveries. Colombia added 2 more spectacular oil discoveries in the Llanos basin to follow up 2 similar finds in 1981. Several countries reported that discoveries have increased the national reserves of hydrocarbons. Considering the social, political, and economic problems in several countries, along with the worldwide depression and petroleum surplus, developments in the region have been on the whole favorable.

  9. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  10. South America: Growth in E and P opportunities keeps accelerating. [Oil and gas exploration and development in South America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes the oil and gas developments in Columbia, Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and other South American oil and gas producing countries during 1992 through 1993 and forecasts the future developments. The expanding exploration in these areas has resulted from the major new oil finds and the need for local countries to help stabilize their currency. The paper discusses exploration and drilling activity, production, and financial expenditures made on developing this regions reserves.

  11. Hanging tough for another year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This article described petroleum activity in South America. The article is accompanied by detailed charts on a country-by-country basis. The highlights are that Brazil's Petrobras has decreased its drilling activity by 33%. The major area of increased activity is in Argentina where there has been new acreage and better terms for foreign operators. Areas of stagnant activity include Bolivia and Trinidad and Tobago. Increases will also be shown in Columbia.

  12. South America: Investment target of the world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses investment in the oil and gas industries of South America. For Venezuela, first-round profit sharing, marginal field agreements, and drilling and production activities are described. Exploration, resource development, and production are also described for Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Trinidad and Tobago, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and the Falkland Islands. Political problems in Ecuador, licensing in Trinidad and Tobago, and the privatization of Petroperu are also mentioned.

  13. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 14th, San Jose, Costa Rica, April 23-30, 1980, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented on remote sensing applications in resource monitoring and management, data classification and modeling procedures, and the use of remote sensing techniques in developing nations. The subjects of land use/land cover, soil mapping, crop identification, mapping of geological resources, renewable resource analysis, and oceanographic applications are discussed. Papers from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, the Syrian Arab Republic, the People's Republic of China, the Phillipines, Italy, Upper Volta and the United States are included.

  14. Workshop on the utilization of coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels in the Andean Region. Volume 1. Summary report. Held in Lima, Peru on June 24-28, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1985-12-31

    The Workshop on the Utilization of Coal as an Alternative to Petroleum Fuels in the Andean Region was one regional effort to examine issues involved in developing coal as a major energy source. Held in Lima, Peru, June 24-28, 1985, and funded by the Government of Peru and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), the workshop examined technological measures and economic policy initiatives needed to promote coal development, particularly in Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador.

  15. Good prospects overcome domestic politics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados.

  16. South America: everybody is drilling almost everywhere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    A group of studies describes accomplishments in 1980 in South America drilling and producing. There may be 3285 wells drilled during 1980, with the majority in Venezuela, Argentina and Peru, compared with a 2934 total for all countries on the continent in 1979. Reserves at the end of 1979 in South America exceeded 27 billion bbl, and production averaged 3.8 million bpd. Individual country reports are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil, Trinidad, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Urauguay, and Guyana.

  17. Source rocks of the Sub-Andean basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raedeke, L.D. )

    1993-02-01

    Seven source rock systems were mapped using a consistent methodology to allow basin comparison from Trinidad to southern Chile. Silurian and Devonian systems, deposited in passive margin and intracratonic settings, have fair-good original oil/gas potential from central and northern Bolivia to southern Peru. Kerogens range from mature in the foreland to overmature in the thrust belt. Permian to Carboniferous deposition in local restricted basins formed organic-rich shales and carbonates with very good original oil/gas potential, principally in northern Bolivia and southern Peru. Late Triassic to early Jurassic marine shales and limestones, deposited in deep, narrow, basins from Ecuador to north-central maturity. Locally, in the Cuyo rift basin of northern Argentina, a Triassic lacustrine unit is a very good, mature oil source. Early Cretaceous to Jurassic marine incursions into the back-arc basins of Chile-Argentina deposited shales and limestones. Although time transgressive (younging to the south), this system is the principal source in southern back-arc basins, with best potential in Neuquen, where three intervals are stacked A late Cretaceous marine transgressive shale is the most important source in northern South America. The unit includes the La Luna and equivalents extending from Trinidad through Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and into northern Peru. Elsewhere in South America upper Cretaceous marine-lacustrine rocks are a possible source in the Altiplano and Northwest basins of Bolivia and Argentina. Middle Miocene to Oligocene source system includes shallow marine, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments from Trinidad to northern Peru.

  18. Pfutzner_1987.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Total All Countries 163,868 182,222 184,167 191,219 197,491 195,868 1981-2015 Albania 165 220 467 267 2012-2015 Algeria 0 0 0 2001-2012 Angola 0 2001-2011 Argentina 0 412 1 1 201 3 1993-2015 Aruba 0 2014-2014 Australia 3,167 3,229 2,841 2,715 2,560 2,477 1993-2015 Austria 1995-2007 Azerbaijan 0 5 2 2010-2015 Bangladesh 0 2014-2014 Bahama Islands 0 2000-2010 Bahrain 116 713 299 563 0 1993-2014 Barbados 33 169 179 121 163 158 2007-2015 Belarus 2004-2004

  19. Coexistence: Exploration and the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, P.S.; Winston, J.G.; Watt, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major challenges in our industry today is successfully meeting two needs of the planet that often appear to be conflicting: Meeting the economic needs of the people through sustainable development of natural resources while preserving the integrity and diversity of our environment. Nowhere is this more critical than in the world`s wetlands and rain forests. This presentation demonstrates the principles and practices that have fostered coexistence of environmental protection and sustainable development projects in wetlands and tropical forests in the Americas. Excerpts from two projects are shown. one in a national wildlife refuge in Louisiana, and one in the rain forests of Bolivia.

  20. New sources of debt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.

    1996-04-01

    Financing of power projects in Latin America is discussed in this article. Financial arrangements for a cogeneration project in Chile and a generating plant in Argentina are outlined. The Chilean project, Petropower Energia Limitada, is a subsidiary of Foster Wheeler Corporation and Chile`s state owned oil company. The Central Termica Patagonia generating plant in Argentina will be built by Amoco Power Resources Corporation in partnership with Camuzzi Argentina. Very brief descriptions of funding for projects in Bolivia, Colombia, Brazil, and Ecuador are also provided.

  1. Venezuela No. 1 oil import source in S. America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-10

    This paper reports that with the exception of Venezuela, the U.S. is likely to import much oil from South American countries through 2010, the General Accounting Office reports. GAO, a congressional watchdog agency, noted the U.S. imports about 4% of its oil from Colombia, Ecuador, and Trinidad and Tobago and possibly could import from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Peru in the future. It the the eight countries' crude oil reserves are expected to increase about 30% by 2000, then slide about 2% by 2010. Their oil production is expected to climb about 21% over 1990 by 2000, then level off until 2010.

  2. Reversal of the cosmic ray density gradient perpendicular to the ecliptic plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinson, D.B.; Kananen, H.

    1982-03-01

    Annual averages of the diurnal variation in cosmic ray intensity from neutron monitors in Deep River and Oulu and underground muon telescopes in Bolivia and at Embudo and Socorro, New Mexico, have been determined as a function of the sense of the interplantary magnetic field for the years 1965--1975. These data point to a cosmic ray density gradient, perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, pointing southward prior to 1969 and changing to a northward pointing gradient after the reversal of the sun's polar magnetic field in 1969--1971. This result supports numerical calculations for the prereversal and postreversal field configurations at intermediate and high cosmic ray rigidities.

  3. Feasibility studies for the development of petroleum areas. Integrated exploitation project of the fields in the area north of Santa Cruz. Volume 2. Tables and figures. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The report, generated by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. for Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos, documents the results of a feasibility study which addressed the viability of developing petroleum areas in Bolivia. The primary objective of the project was to describe the reservoirs that have been discovered and their reserves, describe which would be the best alternatives for development of these reservoirs, and to determine the best alternatives for development of all the reserves together. The report, volume 2 of 4 contains Tables and Figures.

  4. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  5. South America: Producers brace for hard times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The outlook for South American petroleum development is the topic of this review. Observations include: Brazil confirms giant discovery, continues drive for deepwater production; Eastern Llanos fields propel Colombia into ranks of oil-exporting nations; Venezuela's PdVSA revamps, goes overseas in search of downstream integration; Production downturn in Argentina while YPF staggers under debt load, mismanagement; Peru renegotiates contracts, nationalizes one operator and asks others to join search; Sharp drilling decline in Trinidad, but production rises because of tax incentives; Ecuador breaks with Opec, adopts wide-open production strategy, flexible prices; Drilling, oil output increase in Bolivia, government moves to rein in YPFB.

  6. Feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery for fields in decline. Export trade information (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The report, generated by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. for Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos, documents the results of a feasibility study which addressed the viability of developing petroleum areas in Bolivia. The primary objective of the project was to describe the reservoirs that have been discovered and their reserves, describe which would be the best alternatives for development of these reservoirs, and to determine the best alternatives for development of all the reserves together. The report, volume 4 of 4, concerns the feasibility of enhancing the oil or condensate recovery from a chosen group of fields (Yapacani, Humberto Suarez Roca, Vibora, La Pena, San Roque, and Camiri).

  7. Stratigraphy of the Santa Cruz area. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The report documents the results of a feasibility study which addressed the viability of developing petroleum areas in Bolivia. The objective of the report, volume 3 of 4, was to use both geologic modeling and seismic analysis to study the structures and stratigraphy of the specified oil fields to develop a regional picture to be used with sufficient certainty to drill stepout wells and explore for additional hydrocarbon producing structures. Along with the Introduction, Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations, the report discusses the Scope of Work, Objective, Geologic Setting, and the Seismic Stratigraphy for the following fields: Montecristo, La Pena, Rio Grande Norte, and Santa Cruz.

  8. the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertou, Xavier

    2009-04-30

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  9. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  10. Solar cooking trends--A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, B.L.

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses early results of research on trends in solar cooking worldwide and the key factors in those trends. It is based on household interviews in Belize, Honduras and Nicaragua and mail surveys from scattered individuals and promotion projects worldwide. Household interviews from six more countries will be included in future reports. Early data indicate that where solar cooking has been introduced an immediate, rapid increase in awareness and interest in solar cooking is followed by slow, sustained growth in actual solar cooking two or three years later, after an incubation period. Access to information and affordable materials for the cookers are important. Individual users and promoters both identify similar key elements for effective promotion projects, but in current projects many are often missing. Even so, successes of these small-scale efforts verify the benefits and acceptability of solar cooking to families in many regions, and should encourage much broader promotion efforts. Future reports will explore various economic, technical, cultural and environmental factors in solar cooking use as guides for larger efforts.

  11. Multiple dolomitization events in Triassic Latemar buildup, the Dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, E.N.

    1988-01-01

    Partially dolomitized grainstones of the Middle Triassic Latemar buildup (Dolomites, northern Italy) exhibit a range of texturally distinct dolomite types. Petrographic and field observations of spatial associations and cross-cutting relationships among dolomites allow unravelling of the paragenesis of dolomitization events. Three generations of dolomite are preserved in the Latemar. Microdolomite, the earliest generation, occurs as replacement of allochems and as cement in thin (5-15 cm) exposure caps of meter-scale subtidal cycles. These dolomite crusts are texturally and chemically analogous to the Holocene supratidal crusts of Florida and the Bahamas. Saddle dolomite cements, the second generation, fill or line pores and fractures through the platform. The final generation is massive replacement of limestone by coarse, crystalline dolomite, which occupies a 2-3 km/sup 3/ mushroom-shaped zone in the center of the buildup and includes a wide array of fabrics. Here, subtidal limestones are altered to porous sucrosic dolomite, while microdolomite caps are altered to dense dolomite mosaics. Saddle dolomite cements remain as relics surrounded by replacement rhombs. Two important conclusions are (1) early dolomite is preserved as poorly ordered microdolomite (unless overprinted by a later dolomitization event) and accounts for an insignificant volume of the Latemar dolomite, and (2) saddle dolomite cements, often regarded as late-stage burial, occur before massive replacement.

  12. Integrated geophysical and geomicrobial surveys, Chapare region, Sub-Andean Boliva

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widdoes, D.; Verteuil, N. de; Hitzman, D.

    1996-12-31

    Approximately 4800 square kilometers of the Chapare region of Sub-Andean, Bolivia were surveyed in 1994 using combined 2-D seismic and geomicrobial surface geochemistry. The Microbial Oil Survey Technique, M.O.S.T., measures evidence of hydrocarbon microseepage by evaluating surface soils for butane associated microorganisms. Approximately 615 kilometers of seismic and over 2500 soil samples were collected for this integrated reconnaissance survey. Elevated microbial populations of these specific microorganisms indicate anomalous hydrocarbon microseepage is leaking from hydrocarbon accumulations. Integration of the geomicrobial data with geological and geophysical data was completed. Parallel seismic and microbial traverses revealed significant areas of structural targets. A portion of the frontier study area demonstrates strong hydrocarbon microseepage which aligns with geophysical targets. A fault system identified from seismic interpretation was also mapped by distinct microbial anomalies at the surface. Comparative profiles and survey maps link microbial anomalies with geological and geophysical targets.

  13. Feasibility studies for the development of petroleum areas-integrated exploitation project of the fields in the area north of Santa Cruz. Volume 1. Text. Export trade information (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The report, generated by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. for Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos, documents the results of a feasibility study which addressed the viability of developing petroleum areas in Bolivia. The primary objective of the project was to describe the reservoirs that have been discovered and their reserves, describe which would be the best alternatives for development of these reservoirs, and to determine the best alternatives for development of all the reserves together. The report, volume 1 of 4, contains the main text which discusses: Objectives and Scope; Deliverables; Geology (Well Logs, Core Data, Dipmeters, Mudlogs, Database and Data Availability Problems, Procedure, Mapping, Results, Stratigraphic Considerations); and Petrophysics (Objectives, Database Preparation, Core Data Analysis, Log Normalization, Parameter Selection, Log Processing and Results, Reservoir Summation, Conclusions and Recommendations, Production Engineering, Reservoir Engineering and Simulation, Pipeline and Facilities Design, Economics).

  14. Energy market integration in South America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammons, T.J.; Franco, N. de; Sbertoli, L.V.; Khelil, C.; Rudnick, H.; Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.

    1997-08-01

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change.

  15. Geologic Water Storage in Pre-Columbian Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairley Jr., Jerry P.

    1997-07-14

    Agriculture in the arid and semi-arid regions that comprise much of present-day Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile is heavily dependent on irrigation; however, obtaining a dependable water supply in these areas is often difficult. The precolumbian peoples of Andean South America adapted to this situation by devising many strategies for transporting, storing, and retrieving water to insure consistent supply. I propose that the ''elaborated springs'' found at several Inka sites near Cuzco, Peru, are the visible expression of a simple and effective system of groundwater control and storage. I call this system ''geologic water storage'' because the water is stored in the pore spaces of sands, soils, and other near-surface geologic materials. I present two examples of sites in the Cuzco area that use this technology (Tambomachay and Tipon) and discuss the potential for identification of similar systems developed by other ancient Latin American cultures.

  16. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Lawrence W.

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

  17. Changes in maximum and minimal temperatures at high elevation stations in the central Andes of South America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quintana-Gomez, R.A.

    1997-11-01

    Temperature trends and deviations were evaluated for the central Andes portion of Bolivia. Data were collected primarily from stations located at very high altitude (3,000 m above sea level and higher) for a 73-year period from 1918 to 1990. The analysis determined maximum and minimum temperature trends and the daily temperature range (DTR) at each station. The minimum temperature series showed a rather sustained increase starting in the 1960s and continuing to the present, and a reduction of the differential rate of warming for the same interval. The high elevation, rural area data appears to reinforce evidence of a global and generalized rise of minimum temperature and decrease of the DTR. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. International energy outlook. Volume 3. North and South America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Petroleum, coal, and hydropower resources are found, in varying degrees, throughout the Americas. Struggling to maintain or achieve energy self-sufficiency, many North and South American countries are undertaking major projects to develop these, and other, energy sources. This volume, Volume 3 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the development projects and energy trends in 12 countries of North and South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the United States and Venezuela. The range and detail of country coverage varies, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations and provides some historical background, its main emphasis is on estimates of future consumption and production, and descriptions of energy programs and plans. Plans in the Americas call for exploiting oil and gas where possible, and making major efforts to develop sources such as coal and hydropower that can be alternatives to imported petroleum. 33 references, 1 figure, 73 tables.

  19. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-07

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country`s petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government`s own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country`s assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government`s strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed.

  20. Enhanced cosmic ray anisotropies and the extended solar magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinson, D.B.; Saito, T.; Mori, S.

    1981-10-01

    Saito's two-hemisphere model for the three-dimensional magnetic structure of the inner heliomagnetosphere is used to determine the orientation of the two solar magnetic hemispheres. This orientation, as viewed from the earth, varies throughout the year. The orientations during 1974 are presented and are confirmed by satellite data for the interplanetary magnetic field. These data suggest a role for the field component perpendicular to the ecliptic plane B/sub z/ in giving rise to cosmic ray anisotropies detected at the earth. It is shown that an enhanced solar diurnal variation in cosmic ray intensity at the earth can arise from the constructive interference of three cosmic ray anisotropies, two of which depend on the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field. This is demonstrated by using cosmic ray data from the Nagaya muon telescope and underground muon telescopes in Bolivia, Embudo (New Mexico), and Socorro (New Mexico).

  1. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  2. Dust around young stars. Observations of the polarization of UX Ori in deep minima

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voshchinnikov, N.V.; Grinin, V.P.; Kiselev, N.N.; Minikulov, N.K.

    1988-09-01

    Photometric and polarimetric monitoring observations of UX Ori begun in 1986 in the Crimea and Bolivia have resulted in the observation of two deep minima of the brightness during which a growth of the linear polarization (to approx. =7%) was observed, together with a tendency for the circular polarization to increase (up to approx. =1%). Analysis of the observational data shows that the main source of the polarized radiation in the deep minima is the emission of the star scattered by grains of circumstellar dust. On the basis of Mie's theory for a polydisperse graphite-silicate mixtures of particles the optical properties of ellipsoidal dust envelopes have been calculated and a model of the Algol-like minimum constructed.

  3. Price control survey, continued: Five countries: A South-South perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-24

    Among the developing countries, there are multiple strata today, from star performers to those seemingly stuck in self-deepening poverty. Domestic energy-pricing policy, as it will continue to play its key role in economic development, is scrutinized in this issue featuring five developing nations. They make up some of the world's have not and have little peoples, striving to participate in the world economy. The nations examined are Thailand, South Korea, Chile, Venezuela, and Bolivia. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Dec. 20, 1991; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, December 1991 edition.

  4. Workshop on the utilization of coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels in the Andean region. Volume 2. Contributed papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-06-28

    Since the advent of the petroleum crisis in the mid-seventies, with its escalating fuel-oil prices, coal production has shown a substantial increase. Worldwide coal reserves are large, and the technology exists to exploit these reserves. Andean countries, especially Peru, are known to have significant underutilized coal reserves, which could prove socially and economically attractive for energy policy and planning and for long-term self-sufficiency. At present, many industrial operations and electric-generating facilities in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru are dependent on fuel-oil from diminishing domestic reserves or from imports. With current prices of coal generally about half those for residual petroleum fuels (based on energy content), the potential exists for exploitation of Andean coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels. Greater use of coal resources would help meet the demand for increased energy needed to improve living standards and for increased industrialization in the area.

  5. South American oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  6. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    Petroleum exploration in the region was generally less in 1983 than in 1982. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Barbados increased crude production, whereas Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and Trinidad-Tobago reported increases in gas production. Although drilling activities remained low compared to past years, significant oil discoveries were reported in Colombia, Mexico, and Brazil. In Colombia, Cano Limon field is reported to be the largest field found in the Llanos region. In Brazil, important oil discoveries were made offshore in the Para, Potiquas, and Ampos basins. In Mexico, discoveries were reported in the Cerro Azul, Poza Rica (Chicontepec, Villahermosa, and Tabasco) areas onshore and in the Bay of Campeche offshore. In Argentina, discoveries were made in the San Jorge basin and the Noreste Tarija basin. 10 figures, 11 tables.

  7. US tda infrastructure opportunities in South America. Project profile updates, June-December 1995. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    This study, conducted by CG/LA Infrastructure, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report provides project profile updates to a study conducted for the TDA Conference on Infrastructure Opportunities held in June, 1995. The updates are organized first by sectors with specific project information including: Energy, Telecommunications, Environment, Industrial, and Transportation. The second section of the report contains an extensive profile of surface transportation projects related to Highways Tunnels and Bridges, Inland Waterways, Ports, Rail and Urban Mass Transit. Each profile provides a technical description, site information, timing, equipment and services demand, nature of demand, and a project assessment. Countries included in the study are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  8. Integrated geophysical and geomicrobial surveys, Chapare region, Sub-Andean Boliva

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widdoes, D. ); Verteuil, N. de ); Hitzman, D. )

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 4800 square kilometers of the Chapare region of Sub-Andean, Bolivia were surveyed in 1994 using combined 2-D seismic and geomicrobial surface geochemistry. The Microbial Oil Survey Technique, M.O.S.T., measures evidence of hydrocarbon microseepage by evaluating surface soils for butane associated microorganisms. Approximately 615 kilometers of seismic and over 2500 soil samples were collected for this integrated reconnaissance survey. Elevated microbial populations of these specific microorganisms indicate anomalous hydrocarbon microseepage is leaking from hydrocarbon accumulations. Integration of the geomicrobial data with geological and geophysical data was completed. Parallel seismic and microbial traverses revealed significant areas of structural targets. A portion of the frontier study area demonstrates strong hydrocarbon microseepage which aligns with geophysical targets. A fault system identified from seismic interpretation was also mapped by distinct microbial anomalies at the surface. Comparative profiles and survey maps link microbial anomalies with geological and geophysical targets.

  9. Multiple dolomitization events in Triassic latemar buildup, the dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, E.N.

    1988-02-01

    Partially dolomitized grainstones of the Middle Triassic Latemar buildup (Dolomites, northern Italy) exhibit a range of texturally distinct dolomite types. Petrographic and field observations of spatial associations and cross-cutting relationships among dolomites allow unravelling of the paragenesis of dolomitization events. Three generations of dolomite are preserved in the Latemar. Microdolomite, the earliest generation, occurs as replacement of allochems and as cement in thin (5-15 cm) exposure caps of meter-scale subtidal cycles. These dolomite crusts are texturally and chemically analogous to the Holocene supratidal crusts of Florida and the Bahamas. Saddle dolomite cements, the second generation, fill or line pores and fractures through the platform. The final generation is massive replacement of limestone by coarse, crystalline dolomite, which occupies a 2-3 km/sup 3/ mushroom-shaped zone in the center of the buildup and includes a wide array of fabrics. Here, subtidal limestones are altered to porous sucrosic dolomite, while microdolomite caps are altered to dense dolomite mosaics. Saddle dolomite cements remain as relics surrounded by replacement rhombs. Two important conclusions are (1) early dolomite is preserved as poorly ordered microdolomite (unless overprinted by a later dolomitization event) and accounts for an insignificant volume of the Latemar dolomite, and (2) saddle dolomite cements, often regarded as late-stage burial, occur before massive replacement. Standard textural classification of Latemar dolomites hindered the resolution of the timing of dolomitization events. Instead, paragenetic relationships provided a powerful tool for grouping dolomites into generations representing specific diagenetic events in specific dolomitizing environments.

  10. Bacterially induced precipitation of CaCO{sub 3}: An example from studies of cyanobacterial mats. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chafetz, H.S.

    1990-04-30

    Bacteria induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the laboratory and in nature by altering their chemical environment. Geologists are recognizing the possibility that bacterially induced precipitates may form significant mineral deposits, unfortunately, there are currently no sound criteria by which they can be recognized in recent sediments, or in the rock record. Cultures of aerobic and facultative bacteria from cyanobacterial mats on Andros Island, Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas, induced the precipitation of calcium carbonate under controlled conditions. Crusts, the largest features formed, are composed of 5--200{mu}m diameter bundles which are, in turn, composed of numerous individual crystals. The smallest observed features are 0.1--0.4{mu}m spheres and rods which comprise some individual crystals and crystal bundles. Crystal bundles resembling rhombohedra, tetragonal disphenoids, tetragonal dipyramids, and calcite dumbbells appear to be uniquely bacterial in origin, and they have all been observed in recent sediments. Swollen rods, discs, curved dumbbells, and 50--200{mu}m optically continuous crystals resembling brushes may be uniquely bacterial in origin, however, they have not been reported by other laboratories nor observed in natural settings. Presence of any of these forms in recent sediments should be taken as strong evidence for bacterial influence. Spheres and aragonite dumbbells have also been observed in natural environments, however, they are not always bacterial in origin. Precipitation of calcium carbonate occurs preferentially on dead cyanobacteria in the presence of bacteria. Lithification of algal mats to form stromatolites may take place in the zone of decaying organic matter due to bacterial activity.

  11. Bacterially induced precipitation of CaCO sub 3 : An example from studies of cyanobacterial mats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chafetz, H.S.

    1990-04-30

    Bacteria induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the laboratory and in nature by altering their chemical environment. Geologists are recognizing the possibility that bacterially induced precipitates may form significant mineral deposits, unfortunately, there are currently no sound criteria by which they can be recognized in recent sediments, or in the rock record. Cultures of aerobic and facultative bacteria from cyanobacterial mats on Andros Island, Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas, induced the precipitation of calcium carbonate under controlled conditions. Crusts, the largest features formed, are composed of 5--200{mu}m diameter bundles which are, in turn, composed of numerous individual crystals. The smallest observed features are 0.1--0.4{mu}m spheres and rods which comprise some individual crystals and crystal bundles. Crystal bundles resembling rhombohedra, tetragonal disphenoids, tetragonal dipyramids, and calcite dumbbells appear to be uniquely bacterial in origin, and they have all been observed in recent sediments. Swollen rods, discs, curved dumbbells, and 50--200{mu}m optically continuous crystals resembling brushes may be uniquely bacterial in origin, however, they have not been reported by other laboratories nor observed in natural settings. Presence of any of these forms in recent sediments should be taken as strong evidence for bacterial influence. Spheres and aragonite dumbbells have also been observed in natural environments, however, they are not always bacterial in origin. Precipitation of calcium carbonate occurs preferentially on dead cyanobacteria in the presence of bacteria. Lithification of algal mats to form stromatolites may take place in the zone of decaying organic matter due to bacterial activity.

  12. Sustainable management of the Gran Chaco of South America: Ecological promise and economic constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucher, E.H.; Huszar, P.C.

    1999-10-01

    The vast plain known as the Gran Chaco is a natural region of more than 1--3 million square kilometers, the second largest natural biome in south America, with only the Amazon region being larger. It extends over parts of Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and, marginally, Brazil. The original landscape of the region was mostly a park land with patches of hardwoods intermingled with grasslands. Increasing human encroachment, largely by poor campesinos, with associated overgrazing, excessive timber harvesting, charcoal production and over-exploitation of wildlife, is transforming the region into a dense and unproductive shrub land and is contributing to increasing rural poverty. A management system for the sustainable use of the Chaco has been developed based on a multiple-species ranching system that includes beef, timber, charcoal and wildlife production. An evaluation of the management system finds that it is capable of protecting and enhancing the resource base, while providing higher economic returns in a sustainable manner. However, high initial costs, as well as a divergence between the best interests of campersinos and society, jeopardize the feasibility of the managed system.

  13. Image Based Characterization of Formal and Informal Neighborhoods in an Urban Landscape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graesser, Jordan B; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Vatsavai, Raju; Chandola, Varun; Bright, Eddie A

    2012-01-01

    The high rate of global urbanization has resulted in a rapid increase in informal settlements, which can be de ned as unplanned, unauthorized, and/or unstructured housing. Techniques for ef ciently mapping these settlement boundaries can bene t various decision making bodies. From a remote sensing perspective, informal settlements share unique spatial characteristics that distinguish them from other types of structures (e.g., industrial, commercial, and formal residential). These spatial characteristics are often captured in high spatial resolution satellite imagery. We analyzed the role of spatial, structural, and contextual features (e.g., GLCM, Histogram of Oriented Gradients, Line Support Regions, Lacunarity) for urban neighborhood mapping, and computed several low-level image features at multiple scales to characterize local neighborhoods. The decision parameters to classify formal-, informal-, and non-settlement classes were learned under Decision Trees and a supervised classi cation framework. Experiments were conducted on high-resolution satellite imagery from the CitySphere collection, and four different cities (i.e., Caracas, Kabul, Kandahar, and La Paz) with varying spatial characteristics were represented. Overall accuracy ranged from 85% in La Paz, Bolivia, to 92% in Kandahar, Afghanistan. While the disparities between formal and informal neighborhoods varied greatly, many of the image statistics tested proved robust.

  14. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Carribbean area, and Mexico in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.S.

    1982-11-01

    Petroleum developments in 1981 continued in the pattern of recent years of increasing exploration and exploitation in response to the second catastrophic surge in crude oil prices thrust on the world economy in 1979. Production of crude oil increased in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico, whereas Venezuela, Trinidad, Peru, and Bolivia experienced declines. Exploratory surveys, exploratory drilling, and development drilling all increased in most of the countries reporting. Significant successful exploratory drilling is reported for several countries. In Argentina, the producing zone of the Austral basin has been extended farther offshore, and is reportedly productive in what is apparently the upper Malvinas basin. In Brazil, extensions to several producing areas are reported in the Campos basin. Also, the Jurua gas province of western Amazonas reportedly had an encouraging extension. Colombia had several discoveries in the Magdalena basins, but the 2 Llanos discoveries are considered much more significant. For a variety of reasons, several countries have undertaken or are undertaking changes in laws and regulations to attract foreign companies into exploration risk ventures. In some countries, exploitation ventures are also offered.

  15. Sixth special price report: world petroleum-product prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-11

    Twice annually, Energy Detente accesses its own twice-monthly supplement, the Fuel Price/Tax Series, for an overview of how prices and taxes for refined petroleum products from natural gas to asphalt for end-users are changing. In this issue, it also updates its review of individual nations' pricing as to controls or free-market practices. The front cover chart reveals that, in terms of US dollars, the world average price of regular leaded (RL) gasoline is US $1.63, and high-octane leaded is US $1.78 - a difference of about 9%. A table details RL retail prices, the taxes pertaining to them, the percentages that those taxes are of prices, plus the January 1983 prices and the price change in US dollars over the period. In terms of US dollars, most price changes since January 1983 appear negative - particularly in the cases of Bolivia, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. A view of actual market price changes in terms of national currencies is depicted in another table. The fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices are presented for January 1984 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  16. Diffuse gamma rays with energies greater than 1 x 10 to the 14th eV observed in the Southern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suga, K.; Toyoda, Y.; Kamata, K.; Murakami, K.; Lapointe, M.

    1988-03-01

    The data of extensive air showers with a low content of muons and hadrons, observed in the period 1964-1966 at Mount Chacaltaya in Bolivia, have been reanalyzed. Arrival directions of those showers selected so as to favor small initiation depths in the atmosphere (to enhance the contribution from gamma-ray-initiated showers) reveal a 3.8 sigma peak above an expected background from the region of alpha = 180-210 deg in the band of delta = 0 to -40 deg. The integral flux of diffuse gamma-rays above 1 x 10 to the 14th eV estimated from this excess is about 6.0 x 10 to the -12th/sq cm per sec per sr. In order to explain this very high flux, the possible contribution of gamma-rays from Loop 1 as well as the inverse Compton photons produced in the 2.7 K photon background as progeny of gamma-rays from Cyg X-3-like sources. 24 references.

  17. Recent rapid uplift in the Bolivian Andes: evidence from fission-track dating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin, M.T.; Johnson, N.M.; Naeser, C.W.

    1987-07-01

    Apatite and zircon fission-track cooling ages constrain the Tertiary cooling and uplift history of the eastern Cordillera and Altiplano of Bolivia. Fission-track data are from two Triassic plutons and surrounding Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks in the eastern Andes north of La Paz. Zircon cooling ages indicate that the roof of the Huayna Potosi pluton was emplaced in the zircon partial annealing zone and that the Zongo pluton was emplaced entirely in the zircon total annealing zone. Apatite cooling ages for both plutons record uplift in the past 5-15 m.y., and zircon cooling ages from the Zongo pluton reflect uplift in the past 25-45 m.y. Uplift rates calculated by these apatite and zircon cooling ages suggest that uplift rates were 0.1-0.2 mm/yr between 20 and 40 Ma and increased significantly between 10 and 15 Ma. By 3 Ma, uplift rates may have been as high as 0.7 mm/yr.

  18. The petroleum geology of the sub-Andean basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathalone, J.M.P.

    1996-08-01

    The sub-Andean trend of basins spans the entire length of South America from Venezuela in the north to Argentina in the south. All the basins produce hydrocarbons with the exception of the Argentinean Bolsones complex and the Peruvian Madro de Dios which is prospective but virtually unexplored. There have been some 119 billion barrels of oil and 190 TCF of gas discovered to date, comprising 93% of the continent`s oil reserves. The basins lie immediately east of the Andes mountain range and are mainly asymmetric Upper Tertiary, westerly dipping foreland basins that overlie a series of earlier Tertiary, Mesozoic and Paleozoic depocentres. All the basins have been compressively deformed as recently as the Upper Miocene, by the eastwards growth of the Andean Cordillera. Giant oil and gas fields sourced from shales of varying age, have been found along the whole trend of basins, with a predominance of gas in the south. The rich marine Upper Cretaceous La Luna and equivalent shales of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador have been responsible for generating 86% of the hydrocarbons discovered to date in the sub-Andean basins. Proven sources include Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic shales in the central area, comprising Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina. In southern Argentina, oils have been sourced from Uppermost Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous marine and lacustrine shales. Over 7500 wildcat wells have been drilled in basins along the trend, with a 15% success rate. Many of the basins are very lightly explored, with considerable potential for future discoveries.

  19. World pipeline construction to slip for 1994 and beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koen, A.D.; True, W.R.

    1994-02-07

    World pipeline construction planned in 1994 and beyond has fallen in the past year, reflecting uncertainties in energy markets. Still, significant expansions are under way or planned for Latin America, Asia and the Pacific regions, and Europe. Latest Oil and Gas Journal data, derived from its survey of world pipeline operators, industry sources, and published information, show more than 55,000 miles of crude oil, product, and natural gas pipeline planned for 1994 and beyond. The data include projections for pipeline construction in Russia and former republics of the Soviet Union. Western Russia and all countries west of the Ural Mountains are included under totals for Europe, eastern Russia and countries east of the Urals under totals for the Asia-Pacific region. The paper discusses the following: European gas lines; North Sea projects; Gulf of Thailand; Yacheng subsea pipeline; Australian gas lines; other Asian lines; Russian activity; Algeria-Europe gas lines; Southeast US; Gulf gathering systems; Western US; South America; Trans-Ecuadorian expansion; Chilean gas network; and Bolivia-Brazil gas line.

  20. Models of carbon flow in tropical ecosystems with emphasis on their role in the global carbon cycle. Final report, September 15, 1978-September 14, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Lugo, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The role of tropical forests on the carbon balance of the world is studied with four different approaches: (1) to quantify the area of tropical forests and the changes in forest cover; (2) to calculate the storage and production of organic carbon in tropical forests; (3) the modelling of land use changes in tropical countries using computer simulation models; and (4) the synthesis of information from many sources into conceptual schemes using Life Zone and energy use concepts. Results are not yet conclusive but indicate that tropical forests play a significant role in the global carbon cycle, and they are likely to be small sources of carbon to the atmosphere. The basis for this statement is: (1) the large area of tropical forests do not appear to be changing as fast as suggested earlier; (2) the storage of carbon in the tropics is about one half as previously suggested; (3) the turnover of carbon in the tropics is very fast with large exports to the ocean via rivers; and (4) models of land use change using data from Bolivia show only a small net addition of carbon to the atmosphere.

  1. The evaluation and restoration of a deteriorated buried gas pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dovico, R.; Montero, E.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, the Argentine gas transmission and distribution industry was owned and operated by the State. In 1992, by government decree, this entire industry was transferred to private owners and operators, and divided into two Gas Transmission Companies (TGN and TGS) and eight Gas Distribution Companies. The pipelines and related facilities had been left in an operating condition, however major capital investments were required to assure that the integrity, reliability and operability of the facilities were intact. These capital expenditures were mandatory in many areas as part of the privatization. Maintenance and rehabilitation tasks were developed for the entire transmission system, with the intent to reduce the number of unscheduled outages, optimize system maintenance costs, increase operation safety, and upgrade the pipeline to ensure compliance with the international code. Transportadora de Gas del Norte (TGN), operated by Nova Gas International of Calgary, Canada, consists of two major pipeline transmission systems. The North Line, which transports gas from Northern Argentina and Bolivia to markets south to Buenos Aires is a 24 inch, 3,000 Km system constructed in 1960. It was constructed using a field applied asphalt coating system. The Center West Line, which transports gas from central Argentina (Neuquen) to markets in the western part of the country and also the Buenos Aires area, is a 30 inch, 1,400 Km system constructed in 1981. It was constructed using a field applied polyethylene tape coating system.

  2. Holocene Paleohydrology of the tropical andes from lake records

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, M. B., LLNL

    1997-03-03

    Two century-scale time series in northern Bolivia constrain the ages of abrupt changes in the physical, geochemical, and biological characteristics of sediments obtained from lakes that formed during deglaciation from the late Pleistocene glacial maximum. The watersheds of Laguna Viscachani (16{degrees}12`S, 68{degrees}07`W, 3780m) and Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota (16{degrees}13`S, 68{degrees}21`W, 4300m), located on the eastern and western slopes of the Cordillera Real, respectively, contain small cirque glaciers. A high-resolution chronology of the lake sediments is provided by 23 AMS {sup 14}C dates of discrete macro-fossils. Late Pleistocene glaciers retreated rapidly, exposing the lake basins between 10,700 and 9700 {sup 14}C yr B.P. The sedimentary facies suggest that after 8900 {sup 14}C B.P. glaciers were absent from the watersheds and remained so during the middle Holocene. An increase in the precipitation-evaporation balance is indicated above unconformities dated to about 2300 {sup 14}C yr B.P. in both Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota and Laguna Viscachani. An abrupt increase in sediment accumulation rated after 1400 {sup 14}C yr B.P. signals the onset of Neoglaciation. A possible link exists between the observed millennial-scale shifts in the regional precipitation- evaporation balance and seasonal shifts in tropical insolation.

  3. Guide to CO{sub 2} capture, sequestration, and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B.

    2007-02-15

    The report addresses the probability of incorporating carbon sequestration (CS) as a viable market mechanism for sustainable development. The approach includes analyzing the utility of carbon sequestration projects as a mechanism for promoting sustainable forestry practices and environmental preservation, as well as addressing stakeholder interests in the implementation of these projects. The report provides an overview and conceptual framework of the issues and the problems associated with sequestration projects in general; and discusses the economic and policy constraints and the challenges associated with the implementation of these projects. It examines the methodology currently being used in this area and address the problems associated with leakages specific to forest-based carbon sequestration projects. The report gives a conceptual framework of the topic, and provides a detailed analysis of the linkages between carbon and climate change and the issues associated with the current treaties, specifically the Kyoto Protocol. The report discusses the problem of leakage, compellance versus volunteerism, and the feasibility of the market approach to carbon sequestration. The report also examines the flaws involved with the current approach and identifies some of the early success stories. The report uses the Bolivia Noelle Kempff Climate Action model as a case study of a large-scale carbon project at work in a developing country. It examines what some countries are currently doing to link the various issues pertaining to carbon sequestration and sustainable development.

  4. Lights out on federal power: A plan to privatize the PMAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, M.K.; Shadegg, J.

    1997-11-01

    Privatizing the power marketing administrations makes sense. Unless these federal administrations are sold, taxpayers will continue to subsidize power to the rich, and the PMAs will distort and hinder competition in the electric energy market. Employ this plan today and it will be possible to achieve benefits for all stakeholders. If there were a book entitled Privatization in The United States, it would be very thin indeed. It would be so partly because America did not participate as extensively as most countries in this century`s destructive experiment where governments produced goods that would be more efficiently produced by the private sector. Unfortunately, the book also would be thin because Americans have been less aggressive and imaginative than countries from Great Britain to Bolivia in withdrawing their national government from activities better suited to the private sector. One obvious target for immediate privatization is the federal electric power resources. This article proposes a politically viable plan to expand privatization in America by selling three of the federal government`s power marketing administrations. The PMAs, as they are known to the cognoscenti, market power generated by federally owned dams. Currently, the federal government is the nation`s largest producer and transmitter of electricity. While the government`s involvement in the electricity industry was once justified, these reasons no longer exist.

  5. Growing Brazilian demand to spur gas network in South America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deffarges, E.H. ); Maurer, L.I.A. )

    1993-01-18

    A recent combination in South America of economic and geopolitical factors is prompting development of a new integrated gas-pipeline network in the continent's Southern Cone. The crucial factors include privatization, regional integration, economic growth, and environmental concerns. The area, Latin America's largest regional entity, includes Brazil (population 150 million and a 1990 GNP of about $375 billion, 9th largest in the world), Argentina (population 32 million and the third largest Latin American economy after Brazil and Mexico), Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay are members of the MercoSur economic bloc whose objective is to develop free trade in the region. There are very few integrated pipeline networks in the world. Besides the giant North American system, with hundreds of producers and pipelines, there is only one other large integrated network. It connects continental European countries to their outside suppliers such as Norway, the C.I.S., and Algeria. The emergence of a new pipeline system is therefore important for the natural-gas industry worldwide and even more so if it occurs in a region now growing rapidly after a decade of economic difficulties.

  6. The new structure of the gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neto, J.A.J.

    1998-07-01

    The rapidly increasing availability of natural gas is leading to a significant increase in the importance of the gas industry in Brazil. This new era is already causing major changes in the existing gas distribution companies. Gas distribution concessions are a natural monopoly and the growth in demand for this energy source will require that these growing concessions are regulated. The south/south-east of Brazil is the center of the country's industrial base and the State of Sao Paulo is where most of the manufacturing activity is located. In addition, natural gas from Bolivia is scheduled to arrive in the State of Sao Paulo at the end of 1998. These two facts combined will mean major changes in the operations of manufacturing industry and in the gas supply business. Comparing the experience faced by other countries where a competitive environment in the gas industry has been introduced with privatization programs and the dismantlement of monopolies, this paper attempts to look into the future of the natural gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo in respect to the possible regulation that might be applicable, focusing on the new regulatory framework proposed to the gas industry sector and the perspectives for the introduction of the competition in gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo.

  7. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  8. Quaternary tectonic movements in the Argentine Puna, 24/sup 0/ to 27/sup 0/ s latitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strecker, M.R.; Alonso, R.; Rivelli, F.; Mon, R.

    1985-01-01

    The Puna of NW Argentina, one of the highest plateaus in the world, is the southern continuation of the Andean Altiplano geomorphic province of Peru and Bolivia. The region is not seismically active and reports of neotectonic movements are scarce. However, the areas of Salar de los Pastos Grandes, Salar del Hombre Muerto and Sierra Calalaste clearly have experienced Quaternary tectonic movements. At Salar de los Pastos Grandes, early Pleistocene lake sediments are offset by reverse faulting. At Salar del Hombre Muerto, Quaternary pyroclastic and debris-flow deposits are unconformable over sediments 5.86 m.y. old that were folded during the Pliocene-Pleistocene Diaguita deformation. Within the Quaternary sediments two separate deformational phases with reverse faulting and shallow thrusting are recognized. The timing of movement is well defined since the deformed strata are covered by a basalt flow 0.75 m.y. old. The flow in turn is affected by normal faulting. Similar normal faults associated with basalt flows were found at Sierra Calalaste. These observations are in accord with pronounced extensional movements and basaltic volcanism at the Calama-Olacapato-Toro Lineament (0.2 m.y. old flows) and might document the Quaternary transition from a compressive to an extensional tectonic regime in the southern Puna.

  9. Central American study: getting to know their problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-28

    Central America encompasses seven small countries with strong disagreements, relatively large populations, and much foreign debt. It must meet the challenge of global progress while trying to master alternative sources of energy to substitute for oil, of which there is very little. The region has a total of 22-million inhabitants, four times that of Bolivia, but with only half the territory. The population density of El Salvador is the highest in Latin America and one of the highest in the world: 215 inhabitants per square kilometer. According to the Latin American Organization of Energy (OLADE), the region registers a high and growing participation of hydrocarbons in its energy consumption, based on the consolidated energy balance for the area. From the consumption distribution by sectors, it can be discerned that the transportation sector is the most critical. It has the highest growth rate, and consequently the projections derived therefrom are quite significant. This issue of Energy Detente includes the fuel price/tax series and the industrial fuel prices for September 1983 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  10. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, S.; Assuncao, J.V. de

    1998-12-31

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NO{sub x}, NMTOC and carbon monoxide.

  11. Search for GeV GRBs at Chacaltaya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castellina, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Morello, C.; Trinchero, G.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Navarra, G.; Saavedra, O.; Yoshii, H.; Kaneko, T.; Kakimoto, K.; Nishi, K.; Cabrera, R.; Urzagasti, D.; Velarde, A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Butterworth, P.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Fishman, G. J.

    1998-05-16

    In this paper we present the results of a search for GeV Gamma Ray Bursts made by the INCA experiment during the first 9 months of operation. INCA, an air shower array located at Mount Chacaltaya (Bolivia) at 5200 m a.s.l., has been searching for GRBs since December 1996. Up to August, 1997, 34 GRBs detected by BATSE occurred in the field of view of the experiment. For any burst, the counting rate of the array in the 2 hours interval around the burst trigger time has been studied. No significant excess has been observed. Assuming for the bursts a power low energy spectrum extending up to 1 TeV with a slope {alpha}=-2 and a duration of 10 s, the obtained 1 GeV-1 TeV energy fluence upper limits range from 7.9 10{sup -5} erg cm{sup -2} to 3.5 10{sup -3} erg cm{sup -2} depending on the event zenith angles.

  12. Exploration in the Sub Andean thrust/fold belt of northwest Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, A.; Alarcon, M.; Aramayo, F.; Santiago, M.; Ashby, W.J.

    1996-08-01

    A significant portion of the 15,000 square kilometer Aguarague exploration permit is located with the Sub Andean zone of northwest Argentina bordering Bolivia. The Sub Andean sedimentary section is dominated by a succession of tectonostratigraphic cycles of Silurian to recent age. These cycles display a complex geological history prior to the onset of the Andean deformation of Upper Miocene age. As the structures are complex, several different exploration techniques were combined, including satellite imagery, aeromagnetics, geological mapping, geochemistry, microtectonic studies, magneto stratigraphy, seismic modeling and seismic with pre- and post-stack depth migration. The interpretation of these techniques produced three dimensional structural models, at regional and prospect scales, that demonstrated the deformation mechanism, sequence and timing of the structures; these were then linked to the timing of generation/expulsion of hydrocarbons. The physical properties of the sedimentary sequence produces three structural environs, each with distinct fold and fault mechanisms. 1. (Upper): A product of the cumulative deformation of the underlying environs; 2. (Middle): The presence of an incompetent shale, the principal source rock, within this unit produces {open_quotes}fold disharmony {close_quotes} (horizontally and vertically) between the overlying and underlying environs. 3. (Lower): Characterized by folds developed by Fault Bend Fold processes. Hydrocarbon fields and exploration prospects are present within all three environs. The work performed has permitted the successful evaluation of several structures within the Sub Andean of the UTE Aguarague.

  13. Magnetostratigraphic constraints on the development of paired fold-thrust belts/foreland basins in the Argentine Andes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.H. ); Damanti, J.F. ); Jordan, T.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Development of a paired fold thrust-thrust belt/foreland basin is correlated to the flattening of the subducting Nazca plate between 28-33{degree}S. Magnetostratigraphic studies in neogene basin-filling continental strata determine local basin subsidence rates and provide relatively precise chronostratigraphic correlation between different depositional environments. The data demonstrate that most existing lithostratigraphic units are diachronous and require new tectonic interpretations. Increases in sediment accumulation rates closely correspond to changes in provenance and indicate that the Frontal Cordillera, on the Chile-Argentina border was a positive topographic province by 18 Ma. The Precordillera evolved from {approx}16 Ma to the present as thrusting migrated from west to east. Published ages from intercalated airfall tuffs constrain some sedimentary sections in the eastern Sierras Pampeanas where the earliest uplift occurred since 10 Ma. The youngest uplifts are on the west side close to continuing thrusting in the Precordillera. Not all fold-thrust belt/foreland basin pairs are associated with flat subduction, suggesting that tectonic controls exceeding the scale of individual plate segments may be important. The hydrocarbon-producing Subandean fold-thrust belt/foreland basin, located in the area of 'steep' subduction that underlies northern Argentina and Bolivia (18-24{degree}S), is also believed to have evolved since middle Miocene time. Recently initiated magnetostratigraphic studies in the Subandean foreland basin will attempt to temporally constrain the Neogene tectonic evolution for comparison with the southern region.

  14. Gas-powered integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawrylyshyn, G.

    1993-05-01

    Popularly known as the Brazil/Bolivia Gas Deal, the project consists of a 20-year agreement to supply Bolivian natural gas to heavily industrialized southern Brazil. This is an inter-regional undertaking comparable in scope and significance to pipeline projects in Europe and the gas networks between the USA and Canada and Mexico. The Brazil/Boliviz agreement call foe a 10-month period to obtain financing and 30 months to build the 1,376 mile main pipeline, a job that will be undertaken individually by each country within its territory. The pipelines will meet at the border in Corumba. Aside from the main gasline, the 20-year agreement will also require the laying of 1,184 kilometers (736 miles) of additional feeder and distribution pipelines in Brazil, raising the total pipe mileage to 3,389 kilometers. Then there is the need to build the whole infrastructure for gas distribution facilities and to switch to gas to power the equipment in thousands of industrial plants, commercial establishments and residences. The total investment in this undertaking is estimated to surpass US$10 billion.

  15. Seismic acquisition and processing methodologies in overthrust areas: Some examples from Latin America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilander, N.G.; Mitchel, R..

    1996-08-01

    Overthrust areas represent some of the last frontiers in petroleum exploration today. Billion barrel discoveries in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and the Monagas fold-thrust belt of Venezuela during the past decade have highlighted the potential rewards for overthrust exploration. However the seismic data recorded in many overthrust areas is disappointingly poor. Challenges such as rough topography, complex subsurface structure, presence of high-velocity rocks at the surface, back-scattered energy and severe migration wavefronting continue to lower data quality and reduce interpretability. Lack of well/velocity control also reduces the reliability of depth estimations and migrated images. Failure to obtain satisfactory pre-drill structural images can easily result in costly wildcat failures. Advances in the methodologies used by Chevron for data acquisition, processing and interpretation have produced significant improvements in seismic data quality in Bolivia, Colombia and Trinidad. In this paper, seismic test results showing various swath geometries will be presented. We will also show recent examples of processing methods which have led to improved structural imaging. Rather than focusing on {open_quotes}black box{close_quotes} methodology, we will emphasize the cumulative effect of step-by-step improvements. Finally, the critical significance and interrelation of velocity measurements, modeling and depth migration will be explored. Pre-drill interpretations must ultimately encompass a variety of model solutions, and error bars should be established which realistically reflect the uncertainties in the data.

  16. Crustal structure of mountain belts and basins: Industry and academic collaboration at Cornell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allmendinger, R.; Barazangi, M.; Brown, L.

    1995-08-01

    Interdisciplinary investigations of the large-scale structure and evolution of key basins and orogenic belts around the world are the focal point of academic-industry interaction at Cornell. Ongoing and new initiatives with significant industry involvement include: Project INDEPTH (Interdisciplinary Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalayas), a multinational effort to delineate deep structure across the type example of active continent-continent collision. 300 km of deep reflection profiling was collected across the Himalaya: and southern Tibet Plateau in 1992 and 1994. CAP (Cornell Andes Project), a long-standing interdisciplinary effort to understand the structure and evolution of the Andes, with a focus on Argentina, Chile and Bolivia. A deep reflection profile is tentatively planned for 1997. Intra-plate Orogeny in the Middle East and North Africa is the focus of multidisciplinary regional syntheses of existing seismic reflection and other databases in Syria (Palmyrides)and Morocco (Atlas), with an emphasis on reactivation and inversion tectonics. Project URSEIS (Urals Reflection Seismic Experiment and Integrated Studies) is a collaboration with EUROPROBE to collect 500 km of vibroseis and dynamite deep reflection profiling across the southern Urals in 1995. Project CRATON, an element in COCORP`s systematic exploration of the continental US, is a nascent multi-disciplinary effort to understand the buried craton of the central US and the basins built upon it. Global Basins Research Network (GBRN) is a diversified observational and computational effort to image and model the movement of pore fluids in detail and on a regional scale for a producing oil structure in the Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Structural inversion: Occurrence, mechanics, and implications for petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowell, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    Structural inversion, defined as the uplift of previously extended, subsiding regions by later contraction, has been recognized on every continent that has been explored for petroleum. The process can occur at the large scale of deformation in orogenic belts, but this presentation focused on inversion affecting sedimentary basins and their associated structures. The mid-continent rift and the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah are good examples of basin inversion. Typically, rift and sag basins can be later inverted. Mainly by reactivation of older normal faults, inversion selects rift basins where, in pure shear, weakening because of necking or thinning of lithosphere has occurred, and where, in simple shear, mechanical detachment surfaces are available for subsequent movement. Sag basins can apparently be inverted in the absence of reactivated normal faults, as in the southern altiplano of Bolivia and offshore Sabah, Borneo. Basins can be inverted by dominant strike slip with some convergent component, e.g., offshore northeast Brazil, and by almost direct compression, e.g., Atlas Mountains, Morocco. Structural inversion has important implications for petroleum exploration. Areas of inversion frequently have tighter porosity for a potential reservoir and faster seismic velocity for a particular stratigraphic interval than would be expected for their present depth of burial. Burial history curves characteristically have an upward inflection at the time of inversion, which can affect the hydrocarbon maturation process. Some source rocks may be overmature for present burial depths. In some presently shallow basins, however, maturation would not have occurred had not source rocks once been buried more deeply. Inversion can cause remigration of hydrocarbons. Finally, inversion can create the trapping structures.

  18. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which exhibits a characteristic set of reservoir properties obtained from outcrop analogs, cores, and geophysical logs. The Anasazi and Runway fields were selected for geostatistical modeling and reservoir compositional simulations. Models and simulations incorporated variations in carbonate lithotypes, porosity, and permeability to accurately predict reservoir responses. History matches tied previous production and reservoir pressure histories so that future reservoir performances could be confidently predicted. The simulation studies showed that despite most of the production being from the mound-core intervals, there were no corresponding decreases in the oil in place in these intervals. This behavior indicates gravity drainage of oil from the supra-mound intervals into the lower mound-core intervals from which the producing wells' major share of production arises. The key to increasing ultimate recovery from these fields (and similar fields in the basin) is to design either waterflood or CO{sub 2}-miscible flood projects capable of forcing oil from high-storage-capacity but low-recovery supra-mound units into the high-recovery mound-core units. Simulation of Anasazi field shows that a CO{sub 2} flood is technically superior to a waterflood and economically feasible. For Anasazi field, an optimized CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total 4.21 million barrels (0.67 million m3) of oil representing in excess of 89 percent of the original oil in place. For Runway field, the best CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total of 2.4 million barrels (0.38 million m3) of oil representing 71 percent of the original oil in place. If the CO{sub 2} flood performed as predicted, it is a financially robust process for increasing the reserves in the many small fields in the Paradox Basin. The results can be applied to other fields in the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent.

  19. Geoscience Perspectives in Carbon Sequestration - Educational Training and Research Through Classroom, Field, and Laboratory Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wronkiewicz, David; Paul, Varum; Abousif, Alsedik; Ryback, Kyle

    2013-09-30

    The most effective mechanism to limit CO{sub 2} release from underground Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS) sites over multi-century time scales will be to convert the CO{sub 2} into solid carbonate minerals. This report describes the results from four independent research investigations on carbonate mineralization: 1) Colloidal calcite particles forming in Maramec Spring, Missouri, provide a natural analog to evaluate reactions that may occur in a leaking GCS site. The calcite crystals form as a result of physiochemical changes that occur as the spring water rises from a depth of more than 190'. The resultant pressure decrease induces a loss of CO{sub 2} from the water, rise in pH, lowering of the solubility of Ca{sup 2+} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and calcite precipitation. Equilibrium modelling of the spring water resulted in a calculated undersaturated state with respect to calcite. The discontinuity between the observed occurrence of calcite and the model result predicting undersaturated conditions can be explained if bicarbonate ions (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) are directly involved in precipitation process rather than just carbonate ions (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). 2) Sedimentary rocks in the Oronto Group of the Midcontinent Rift (MCR) system contain an abundance of labile Ca-, Mg-, and Fe-silicate minerals that will neutralize carbonic acid and provide alkaline earth ions for carbonate mineralization. One of the challenges in using MCR rocks for GCS results from their low porosity and permeability. Oronto Group samples were reacted with both CO{sub 2}-saturated deionized water at 90°C, and a mildly acidic leachant solution in flow-through core-flooding reactor vessels at room temperature. Resulting leachate solutions often exceeded the saturation limit for calcite. Carbonate crystals were also detected in as little as six days of reaction with Oronto Group rocks at 90oC, as well as experiments with forsterite-olivine and augite, both being common minerals this sequence. The Oronto Group samples have poor reservoir rock characteristics, none ever exceeded a permeability value of 2.0 mD even after extensive dissolution of calcite cement during the experiments. The overlying Bayfield Group – Jacobsville Formation sandstones averaged 13.4 ± 4.3% porosity and a single sample tested by core-flooding revealed a permeability of ~340 mD. The high porosity-permeability characteristics of these sandstones will allow them to be used for GCS as a continuous aquifer unit with the overlying Mt. Simon Formation. 3) Anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) can enhance the conversion rate of CO{sub 2} into solid minerals and thereby improve long-term storage. SRB accelerated carbonate mineralization reactions between pCO{sub 2} values of 0.0059 and 14.7 psi. Hydrogen, lactate and formate served as suitable electron donors for SRB metabolism. The use of a {sup 13}CO{sub 2} spiked gas source also produced carbonate minerals with ~53% of the carbon being derived from the gas phase. The sulfate reducing activity of the microbial community was limited, however, at 20 psi pCO{sub 2} and carbonate mineralization did not occur. Inhibition of bacterial metabolism may have resulted from the acidic conditions or CO{sub 2} toxicity. 4) Microbialite communities forming in the high turbidity and hypersaline water of Storrs’ Lake, San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, were investigated for their distribution, mineralogy and microbial diversity. Molecular analysis of the organic mats on the microbialites indicate only a trace amount of cyanobacteria, while anaerobic and photosynthetic non-sulfur bacteria of the phyla Chloroflexi and purple sulfur bacteria of class Gammaproteobacteria were abundant.

  20. Myth and catastrophic reality: using cosmogonic mythology to identify cosmic impacts and massive plinian eruptions in holocene South America.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masse, W. B.

    2004-01-01

    Major natural catastrophes (e.g., 'universal' floods, fire, darkness, and sky falling down) are prominently reflected in traditional South American creation myths, cosmology, religion, and worldview. We are now beginning to recognize that cosmogonic myths represent a rich and largely untapped data set concerning the most dramatic natural events and processes experienced by each cultural group during the past several thousand years. Observational details regarding specific catastrophes are encoded in myth storylines, typically cast in terms of supernatural characters and actions. Not only are the myths amenable to scientific analysis, but also some sets of myths encode multiple catastrophes in meaningful relative chronological order. The present study considers more than 4200 myths, including more than 260 'universal' catastrophe myths from cultural groups throughout South America. These myths are examined in light of available geological, paleoenvironmental, archeological, and documentary evidence. Our analysis reveals three possible ultra-plinian volcanic eruptions, two in Columbia and the other in the Gran Chaco, the latter likely associated with a poorly dated late Holocene eruption of Nuevo Mundo in central Bolivia. Our analysis also identifies a set of traditions likely linked with the well-known Campo del Cielo iron meteorite impact in northern Argentina originally hypothesized to have occurred around 4000 years ago. Intriguingly, these traditions strongly suggest that the Campo del Cielo impact triggered widespread mass fires in the Gran Chaco region and possibly in the Brazilian Highlands. Several other potential cosmic impacts, distinct from Campo del Cielo, are hinted at in the mythology of other locations in South America. The numerous catastrophe myths in the Gran Chaco region exhibit the most coherent chronological sequence of any South American region. The sequence begins with a 'Great Flood,' by far the most widespread catastrophe myth in South America, typically represented as the beginning of our modern world. The great flood is followed 'many generations' later by the 'Great Fire' (hypothesized as the Campo del Cielo impact) with the 'Great Darkness' and 'sky falling down' (hypothesized as the Nuevo Mundo eruption) being the most recent catastrophe, occurring 'many generations' after the great fire. We draw upon the physical record to suggest rough calendrical dates for these witnessed catastrophic events.

  1. DE-EE0000319 Final Technical Report [National Open-ocean Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skemp, Susan

    2013-12-29

    Under the authorization provided by Section 634 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-140), in 2009 FAU was awarded U.S. Congressionally Directed Program (CDP) funding through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate and develop technologies to harness the energy of the Florida Current as a source of clean, renewable, base-load power for Florida and the U.S. A second CDP award in 2010 provided additional funding in order to enhance and extend FAU’s activities. These two CDPs in 2009 and 2010 were combined into a single DOE grant, DE-EE0000319, and are the subject of this report. Subsequently, in July 2010 funding was made available under a separate contract, DE-EE0004200. Under that funding, DOE’s Wind and Water Power Program designated FAU’s state of Florida marine renewable energy (MRE) center as the Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center (SNMREC). This report discusses SNMREC activities funded by the DE-EE0000319 grant, but will make reference, as appropriate, to activities that require further investigation under the follow-on grant. The concept of extracting energy from the motions of the oceans has a long history. However, implementation on large scales of the technologies to effect renewable energy recovery from waves, tides, and open-ocean currents is relatively recent. DOE’s establishment of SNMREC recognizes a significant potential for ocean current energy recovery associated with the (relatively) high-speed Florida Current, the reach of the Gulf Stream System flowing through the Straits of Florida, between the Florida Peninsula and the Bahamas Archipelago. The proximity of the very large electrical load center of southeast Florida’s metropolitan area to the resource itself makes this potential all the more attractive. As attractive as this potential energy source is, it is not without its challenges. Although the technology is conceptually simple, its design and implementation in a commercially-viable fashion presents a variety of challenges. Beyond the technology itself (and, especially, the effects on the technology of the harsh oceanic environment), it is important to consider the possible environmental impacts of commercial-scale implementation of oceanic energy extraction. Further, because such implementation represents a completely new undertaking, the human resources required do not exist, so education and training programs are critical to eventual success. This project, establishing a national open-ocean energy laboratory, was designed to address each of these three challenges in a flexible framework allowing for adaptive management as the project proceeded. In particular:  the technology challenge, including resource assessment, evolved during the project to recognize and address the need for a national testing facility in the ocean for small-scale prototype MRE systems developed by industry;  the environmental challenge became formalized and expanded during the permitting process for such a testing facility; and  the human resources/societal challenges, both in terms of the need for education and training and in terms of public acceptance of MRE, stimulated a robust outreach program far beyond that originally envisioned at SNMREC. While all of these activities at SNMREC are ongoing, a number of significant milestones (in addition to the contributions listed in the appendices) were achieved under the auspices of this award. These include:  Planning and site selection for the first-phase test facility, offshore of Dania Beach, FL, including some equipment for the facility, submission of an Interim Policy Lease Application to the U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and completion of an Environmental Assessment by BOEM and a positive Consistency Determination by the State of Florida;  Measurements using acoustic profilers of the current structure and variability in the vicinity of the site under a variety of weather conditions, seasons and time durations;  Design and implementation of instrumentation for the first phase of the offshore testing facility, the wet- and top-side data acquisition systems, and shore-based analysis systems;  Implementation of a laboratory-scale dynamometer system to test generators of up to 25 kW capacity using real-world (simulated) forcing;  Completion of 24 months of (airborne) marine vertebrate surveys and associated analysis of sea turtle offshore activity, marine mammal vocalization research, and ocean current turbine hydrodynamic noise characterization;  Development of a secondary-school (nominally grade 10) curriculum about hydrokinetic MRE, “Energy from the Oceans: The New Renewable”, and training of over 200 high-school teachers in its use and in how to educate their colleagues in application of the material in the classroom;  Presentations to over 50 interested civic groups in the region on various aspects of MRE in SE Florida  A series of public lectures to over 600 residents of south Florida to provide broader education on MRE.  Development of an interactive kiosk for installation in local science museums. These, and other accomplishments detailed in this report contribute to a comprehensive ongoing program at the SNMREC to support the affordable, responsible, and achievable commercialization of MRE. Many of the tasks of this award are continued or will be verified with follow-on funding DE-EE0004200, and its goal: the installation of the world’s first offshore ocean current turbine testing and validation capability.